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In
sports league A sports league is a group of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that aims to use, maintain or improve physical ability and ...
s, promotion and relegation is a process where teams are transferred between multiple divisions based on their performance for the completed
season A season is a division of the year based on changes in weather Weather is the state of the atmosphere An atmosphere (from the greek words ἀτμός ''(atmos)'', meaning 'vapour', and σφαῖρα ''(sphaira)'', meaning 'ball' or ...
. Leagues that use promotion and relegation systems are often called open leagues. In a system of promotion and relegation, the best-ranked team(s) in the lower division are ''promoted'' to the higher division for the next season, and the worst-ranked team(s) in the higher division are ''relegated'' to the lower division for the next season. In some leagues,
playoffs The playoffs, play-offs, postseason or finals of a sports league A sports league is a group of sports team A sports team is a group of individuals who play sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activi ...
or qualifying rounds are also used to determine rankings. This process can continue through several levels of divisions, with teams being exchanged between adjacent divisions. During the season, teams that are high enough in the
league table Standings or rankings are listings which compare sports teams or individuals, institutions, nations, companies, or other entities by ranking A ranking is a relationship between a set of items such that, for any two items, the first is either ...

league table
that they would qualify for promotion are sometimes said to be in the ''promotion zone'', and those at the bottom are in the ''relegation zone'' (
colloquially Colloquialism or colloquial language is the linguistic style used for casual (informal) communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-Eur ...
the ''drop zone'' or ''facing the drop''). An alternate system of league organization, used primarily in the US, Canada, and Australia is a closed model based on licensing or
franchise Franchise may refer to: Business and law * Franchising, a business method that involves licensing of trademarks and methods of doing business to franchisees * Franchise, a privilege to operate a type of business such as a cable television pro ...
s. This maintains the same teams from year to year, with occasional admission of
expansion team An expansion team is a new team in a sports league, usually from a city that has not hosted a team in that league before, formed with the intention of satisfying the demand for a local team from a population in a new area. Sporting leagues also ...
s and relocation of existing teams, and with no team movement between the major league and
minor league Minor leagues are professional sports leagues A sports league is a group of sports teams or individual athletes that compete against each other and gain points in a specific sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive ph ...

minor league
s.


Overview

The number of teams exchanged between the divisions is almost always identical. Exceptions occur when the higher division wishes to change the size of its membership, or has lost one or more of its clubs (to financial insolvency or expulsion, for example) and wishes to restore its previous membership size, in which case fewer teams are relegated from that division, or (less often) more teams are accepted for promotion from the division below. Such variations usually cause a "knock-on" effect through the lower divisions. For example, in 1995 the
Premier League The Premier League, often referred to as the English Premier League or the EPL (legal name: The Football Association Premier League Limited), is the top level of the English football league system The English football league system, als ...
voted to reduce its numbers by two and achieved the desired change by relegating four teams instead of the usual three, whilst allowing only two promotions from
Football League Division One The Football League First Division is a former division of the Football League The English Football League (EFL) (legal name: The Football League Limited) is a league competition featuring professional association football Association ...
. Even in the absence of such extraordinary circumstances, the pyramid-like nature of most European sports league systems can still create knock-on effects at the regional level. For example, in a higher league with a large geographical footprint and multiple feeder leagues each representing smaller geographical regions, should most or all of the relegated teams in the higher division come from one particular region then the number of teams to be promoted or relegated from each of the feeder leagues may have to be adjusted, or one or more teams playing near the boundary between the feeder leagues may have to transfer from one feeder league to another to maintain numerical balance. The system is said to be the defining characteristic of the "European" form of
professional sports league organization Professional A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns a living from a specified professional activity. The term also describes the standards of education and training that prepare members of the profession with the par ...
. Promotion and relegation have the effect of allowing the maintenance of a hierarchy of leagues and divisions, according to the relative strength of their teams. They also maintain the importance of games played by many low-ranked teams near the end of the season, which may be at risk of relegation. In contrast, the final games of a low-ranked US or Canadian team serve little purpose, and in fact losing may be beneficial to such teams because they offer a better position in the next year's
draft Draft, The Draft, or Draught may refer to: Watercraft dimensions * Draft (hull), the distance from waterline to keel of a vessel * Draft (sail), degree of curvature in a sail * Air draft, distance from waterline to the highest point on a vessel ...
. Although not intrinsic to the system, problems can occur due to the differing monetary payouts and revenue-generating potential that different divisions provide to their clubs. For example, financial hardship has sometimes occurred in leagues where clubs do not reduce their wage bill once relegated. This usually occurs for one of two reasons: first, the club can't move underperforming players on, or second, the club is gambling on being promoted back straight away and is prepared to take a financial loss for one or two seasons to do so. Some leagues (most notably English football's
Premier League The Premier League, often referred to as the English Premier League or the EPL (legal name: The Football Association Premier League Limited), is the top level of the English football league system The English football league system, als ...
) offer " parachute payments" to its relegated teams for the following year(s). The payouts are higher than the prize money received by some non-relegated teams and are designed to soften the financial hit that clubs take whilst dropping out of the Premier League. However, in many cases, these parachute payments just serve to inflate the costs of competing for promotion among the lower division clubs as newly relegated teams retain a financial advantage. In some countries and at certain levels, teams in line for promotion may have to satisfy certain non-playing conditions in order to be accepted by the higher league, such as financial solvency, stadium capacity, and facilities. If these are not satisfied, a lower-ranked team may be promoted in their place, or a team in the league above may be saved from relegation. While the primary purpose of the promotion and relegation system is to maintain competitive balance, it may also be used as a disciplinary tool in special cases. On several occasions, the
Italian Football Federation The Italian Football Federation ( it, Federazione Italiana Giuoco Calcio; FIGC), known colloquially as ''Federcalcio'', is the governing body of football in Italy Association football, Football (Italian language, Italian: ''calcio'', ) is the ...
has relegated clubs found to have been involved in
match fixing In organized sport Sport pertains to any form of competitive Competition is a rivalry A rivalry is the state of two people or groups engaging in a lasting competitive relationship. Rivalry is the "against each other" spirit betwee ...
. This occurred most recently in 2006, when the season's initial champions
Juventus Juventus Football Club (from la, iuventūs, 'youth'; ), colloquially known as Juventus and Juve (), is a professional club based in , , Italy, that competes in the , the top tier of the . Founded in 1897 by a group of Torinese students, the club ...
were relegated to Serie B, and two other teams were initially relegated but then restored to Serie A after appeal (see 2006 Serie A scandal). In some Communist nations, particularly several in Europe after World War II, clubs were promoted and relegated for political reasons rather than performance; clubs in
Czechoslovakia , , yi, טשעכאסלאוואקיי, , common_name = Czechoslovakia , life_span = 1918–19391945–1992 , p1 = Austria-Hungary , image_p1 = , s1 = Czech Re ...

Czechoslovakia
,
East Germany East Germany, officially the German Democratic Republic (GDR; german: Deutsche Demokratische Republik, , DDR, ), was a state that existed from 1949 to 1990 in eastern Eastern may refer to: Transportation *China Eastern Airlines, a current ...
,
Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Central is an adjective usually referring to being in the center (disambiguation), center of some place or (mathematical) object. Central may also refer to: Directions ...
, and
Yugoslavia Yugoslavia (; sh, Jugoslavija / ; sl, Jugoslavija ; mk, Југославија ;; rup, Iugoslavia; hu, Jugoszlávia; Pannonian Rusyn Image:Novi Sad mayor office.jpg, 250px, Mayor office written in four official languages used in the ...
were given top-flight placements by the Communist authorities from their beginnings, and often held onto their places with these authorities' backing. This was made evident in the late eighties especially by teams such as Romanian Steaua București and Yugoslav
Red Star Belgrade Fudbalski klub Crvena zvezda ( sr-Cyrl, Фудбалски клуб Црвена звезда, lit=Red Star Football Club), better known simply as Crvena zvezda (, ) or, in English, as Red Star Belgrade, is a Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian ...
, both winners of the European Champions League despite the rampant level of corruption in their Communist local leagues.


International sport

Promotion and relegation may be used in international sports tournaments. In tennis, the
Davis Cup The Davis Cup is the premier international team event in men's tennis. It is run by the International Tennis Federation (ITF) and is contested annually between teams from competing countries in a Single-elimination tournament, knock-out format ...

Davis Cup
and
Fed Cup The Billie Jean King Cup is the premier international team competition in women's tennis Tennis is a racket sport that can be played individually against a single opponent (Types of tennis match#Singles, singles) or between two teams of ...
have promotion and relegation, with a 'World Group' (split into two divisions in the Fed Cup) at the top and series of regional groups at a lower level. The World Groups in both use a
knockout tournament A single-elimination, knockout, or sudden death tournament is a type of elimination tournament Elimination may refer to: Science and medicine *Elimination reaction frame, Elimination reaction of cyclohexanol to cyclohexene with sulfuric a ...
format, with the first-round losers entering play-offs with winners from regional groups to avoid relegation. In international tournaments, this format allows teams from countries in which a sport is less well established to have competitive matches, while opening up the possibility of competing against higher ranked nations as a sport grows. Other international tournaments which employ promotion and relegation include the
Ice Hockey World Championships The Ice Hockey World Championships are an annual international men's ice hockey tournament organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation (IIHF). First officially held at the 1920 Summer Olympics, it is the sport's highest profile annual i ...
,
Bandy World Championship 260px, Zinkensdamms IP, Stockholm, Sweden. Venue for the final at the XXVIth championships in 2006 The Bandy World Championship is a competition between bandy in Lappeenranta#Sports, Lappeenranta Bandy is a team sport, team winter spor ...
s, Floorball World Championships, the
UEFA Nations League The UEFA Nations League is a biennial international football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. ...
, the
CONCACAF Nations League The CONCACAF Nations League ( es, Liga de Naciones CONCACAF, french: Ligue des Nations de la CONCACAF) is an international association football competition contested by the senior list of men's national association football teams, men's nationa ...
, the
World Cricket League The ICC World Cricket League (WCL) was a series of international one-day cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket ...
and the
European Team Championships The European Team Championships, also referred to as the European Athletics Team Championships is an international athletics Athletics may refer to: Sports * Sport of athletics, a collection of sporting events that involve competitive running, j ...
in athletics.


Historical comparisons


Early baseball leagues in the United States

In baseball, the earliest American sport to develop professional leagues, the
National Association of Base Ball Players The National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP) was the first organization governing American baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) a ...
(NABBP) was established in 1857 as a national governing body for the game. In many respects, it would resemble England's
Football Association The Football Association (also known as The FA) is the governing body A governing body is a group of people that has the authority to exercise governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law ...
when founded in 1863. Both espoused strict
amateurism An amateur (; ; ) is generally considered a person who pursues a particular activity or field of study independently from their source of income. Amateurs and their pursuits are also described as popular, informal, self-taught Autodidacticism ...
in their early years and welcomed hundreds of clubs as members. Baseball's National Association was not able to survive the onset of
professionalism A professional is a member of a profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a wide ...
. It responded to the trend — clubs secretly paying or indirectly compensating players — by establishing a "professional" class for 1869. As quickly as 1871, most of those clubs broke away and formed the
National Association of Professional Base Ball Players The National Association of Professional Base Ball Players (NAPBBP), often known simply as the National Association (NA), was the first fully- professional sports league in baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may ...
(NAPBBP). That new, professional Association was open at a modest fee, but it proved to be unstable. It was replaced by the National League of Professional Base Ball Clubs in 1876, which has endured to the present day. The founders of the new League judged that in order to prosper, they must make baseball's highest level of competition a franchise based system with exclusive membership, a strict limit on the number of teams, and each member having exclusive rights to their local market. The modest National League guarantee of a place in the league year after year would permit the owners to monopolize fan bases in their exclusive territories and give them the confidence to invest in infrastructure, such as improved ballparks. In turn, those would guarantee the revenues to support traveling halfway across a continent for games. Indeed, after its first season, the new league banked on its still doubtful stability by expelling its members in New York and Philadelphia (the two largest cities), because they had breached agreements to visit the four western clubs at the end of the season. The NL's dominance of baseball was challenged several times but only by entire leagues, after its first few years. Eight clubs, the established norm for a national league, was a prohibitively high threshold for a new venture. Two challengers succeeded beyond the short-term, with the National League fighting off a challenge from the
American AssociationAmerican Association may refer to one of the following professional baseball leagues: * American Association (19th century), a major league active from 1882 to 1891 * American Association (20th century), a minor league active from 1902 to 1962 and 1 ...
after a decade (concluded 1891). In 1903 it accepted parity with the
American League The American League of Professional Baseball Clubs, or simply the American League (AL), is one of two leagues that make up Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball Professional baseball is organized bas ...
and the formation of the organization that would become
Major League Baseball Major League Baseball (MLB) is a professional baseball Professional baseball is organized baseball in which players are selected for their talents and are paid to play for a specific team or club system. It is played in baseball league, leag ...
. The peace agreement between the NL and the AL did not change the "closed shop" of top-level baseball but entrenched it by including the AL in the shop. This was further confirmed by the
Supreme Court's
Supreme Court's
1922 ruling in '' Federal Baseball Club v. National League'', giving MLB a legal monopoly over professional baseball in the US. The other
major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada The major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada are the highest professional competitions of team sport A team sport includes any sport where individuals are organized into opposing sports team, teams which compete t ...
have followed the MLB model of a franchise based system.


Early football leagues in England

In contrast to baseball's
NABBP The National Association of Base Ball Players (NABBP) was the first organization governing American baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) a ...
, the first governing body in English football survived the onset of professionalism, which it formally accepted in 1885. Perhaps the great geographical concentration of population and the corresponding short distances between urban centres was crucial. Certainly it provided the opportunity for more clubs' developing large fan bases without incurring great travel costs. Professional football did not gain acceptance until after the turn of the 20th century in most of
Southern England Southern England, or the South of England, also known as the South, is an area of England consisting of its southernmost part, with cultural, economic and political differences from the Midlands The Midlands is the central part of England ...

Southern England
. The earliest league members travelled only through the
Midlands The Midlands is a part of England England is a that is part of the . It shares land borders with to its west and to its north. The lies northwest of England and the to the southwest. England is separated from by the to the east a ...
and
North North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydro ...

North
. When The Football League (now the
English Football League The English Football League (EFL) is a league of professional football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the wo ...
) was founded in 1888, it was not intended to be a rival of
The Football Association The Football Association (also known as The FA) is the governing body A governing body is a group of people that has the authority to exercise governance Governance is all the processes of interactions be they through the laws Law ...
but rather the top competition within it. The new league was not universally accepted as England's top-calibre competition right away. To help win fans of clubs outside The Football League, its circuit was not closed; rather, a system was established in which the worst teams at the end of each season would need to win
re-election The incumbent is the current holder of an official, office or position, usually in relation to an election. For example, in an election for president, the incumbent is the person holding or acting in the office of president before the election, ...
against any clubs wishing to join. A rival league, the
Football Alliance The Football Alliance was an association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport A team sport includes any sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive ...
, was formed in 1889. When the two merged in 1892, it was not on equal terms; rather, most of the Alliance clubs were put in the new
Football League Second Division The Football League Second Division was the second level division in the English football league system between 1892–93 Football League, 1892 and 1992–93 Football League, 1992. Following the foundation of the FA Premier League, the Football ...
, whose best teams would move up to the
First Division1st Division may refer to: Military Airborne divisions *1st Parachute Division (Germany) *1st Airborne Division (United Kingdom) *1st Airmobile Division (Ukraine) Armoured divisions *1st Armoured Division (Australia) * 1st Canadian Armoured Divi ...
in place of its worst teams. Another merger, with the top division of the Southern League in 1920, helped form the
Third Division Third or 3rd may refer to: Numbers *3rd, the ordinal form of the cardinal number 3 *fraction (mathematics), , a fraction that is one of three equal parts *Second#Sexagesimal divisions of calendar time and day, ¹⁄₆₀ of a ''second'', or ¹⁄ ...
in similar fashion. Since then no new league has been formed of
non-league Non-League football describes football leagues played outside the top leagues of a country. Usually it describes leagues which are not fully professional. The term is primarily used for football in England, where it describes football played a ...
clubs to try to achieve parity with The Football League (only to play at a lower level, like independent professional leagues in American baseball today). For decades, teams finishing near the bottom of The Football League's lowest division(s) faced re-election rather than automatic relegation. But the principle of promotion and relegation had been firmly established, and it eventually expanded to the
football pyramid In sports league A sports league is a group of sports teams or individual athletes that compete against each other and gain points in a specific sport Sport pertains to any form of Competition, competitive physical activity or game that a ...
in place today. Meanwhile, The FA has remained English football's overall governing body, retaining amateur and professional clubs rather than breaking up.


Use in other competitions

Promotion and relegation has been used in several
eSports Esports (also known as electronic sports, e-sports, or eSports) is a form of competition using video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joy ...
leagues.
Blizzard Entertainment Blizzard Entertainment, Inc. is an American video game developer A video game developer is a software developer A computer programmer, sometimes called a software developer, a programmer or more recently a coder (especially in more infor ...

Blizzard Entertainment
's video game '' StarCraft II'' has a "ladder" that uses a promotion and relegation system, where individual players and pre-made teams can be promoted and relegated during the first few weeks of a league season, which generally lasts around 11 weeks, with promotion and relegation taking place based on a skill rating, which is in turn based on wins and losses. However, this form of
matchmaking Matchmaking is the process of matching two or more people together, usually for the purpose of marriage in Stockholm Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called ...
is not typically used for StarCraft II e-sports tournaments, which have various kinds of structures depending on the organizer, the most important being the ESL Pro Tour . The most professional ''
League of Legends ''League of Legends'' (''LoL''), commonly referred to as ''League'', is a 2009 multiplayer online battle arena Multiplayer online battle arena (MOBA) is a subgenre of strategy video game A strategy video game is a video game genre that ...

League of Legends
'' leagues like the
League of Legends Championship Series League or The League may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Leagues'' (band), an American rock band * ''The League ''The League'' is an American sitcom A sitcom, clipping Clipping may refer to: Words * Clipping (morphology) In lin ...

League of Legends Championship Series
and
League of Legends Champions Korea ''League of Legends'' Champions Korea (LCK) is the primary competition for ''League of Legends ''League of Legends'' (''LoL''), commonly referred to as ''League'', is a 2009 multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and published ...
use a promotion and relegation system, although the LCS moved away from this in 2018 for North America LCS and 2019 for the European LCS (which was renamed to the
League of Legends European Championship The ''League of Legends'' European Championship (LEC) is the professional ''League of Legends ''League of Legends'' (''LoL''), commonly referred to as ''League'', is a 2009 multiplayer online battle arena video game developed and publishe ...
). The ''
Counter-Strike: Global Offensive ''Counter-Strike: Global Offensive'' (''CS:GO'') is a multiplayer A multiplayer video game is a video game in which more than one person can play in the same game environment at the same time, either locally (e.g. ''New Super Mario Bros. Wii' ...
'' Majors use a similar system where in the top eight finishers of one of the bi-annual Majors are designated with the "Legends" seed and automatically qualified for the next Major tournament. The best six eliminated teams in the second stage (known as ''New Legends Stage'') of the Major must play a "qualifying" stage (known as ''New Challengers Stage'') with another ten teams from the Minors in order to compete at the ''New Legends Stage''. From 1993 until 2003, the
Eurovision Song Contest The Eurovision Song Contest (), sometimes abbreviated to ESC and often known simply as Eurovision, is an international songwriting competition organised annually by the European Broadcasting Union (EBU), featuring participants representing pri ...
used various systems of relegation to reconcile the number of countries wishing to participate (approximately 30 at the time) with the number of performances allowed considering time constraints of a live television program. The addition of a semi-final in 2004 allowed for more than 26 songs, but in 2008 automatic qualification of the previous year's top 10 to the final was removed. In Brazilian carnival's
samba school A samba school ( pt, Escola de samba) is a dancing, marching, and drumming (Samba Enredo) club. They practice and often perform in a huge square-compound Compound may refer to: Architecture and built environments * Compound (enclosure), a clus ...
contest, a similar system is adopted, with the schools from lower divisions, or "groups", the highest tier being currently called the "Special Group" (Grupo Especial). Schools parade in order of groups and ranking from last year contest, with the better ranked inside a group and the higher-tier groups having the privilege of going latter (this means the team has the opportunity of fixing issues with costumes and allegorical floats as well as more rehearsal time). The number of promoted and relegated schools, four until 1997, has been diminishing as time passes, becoming two from 1998 to 2007 and being only one nowadays. There has never been an official reason for that, but it is a fact that the relegated schools have more to lose nowadays, such as access to the Cidade do Samba ("Samba City") facilities. There have been reported several interferences on the contest's final result, especially when traditional schools are involved.


Argentinian football and the average performance system

From 1957 to 1966 and from 1983 to the present, the
Argentine First Division Argentines (also known as Argentinians or Argentineans; es, masculine Masculinity (also called manhood or manliness) is a set of attributes, behavior Behavior (American English) or behaviour (British English; American and British En ...
has used a system called ''Promedios'' based on the average performance over a number of seasons. Originally the previous two seasons, and later three or four seasons, clubs avoid relegation by having a high coefficient, which is obtained by dividing the points achieved in the last three seasons by the number of matches played in the same period. Teams with the lowest points coefficient at the end of the season are relegated to the
Primera B Nacional Primera Nacional (usually called simply Nacional B, in English "National B Division", and known as Primera B Nacional until the 2019–20 season) is the second division of the Argentine football league system. The competition is made up of 32 tea ...
. This system has both positive and negative aspects, since all of the matches played for the championship in the last seasons are included in the coefficient for the clubs. Teams have an incentive to score points in every match of the season, meaning teams that are not challenging for the title or fighting relegation in the current season want to win even in the final matches to reduce the risk of relegation in the next season; examples are Club Atlético Banfield being champion of the Torneo Apertura in 2009 and last place in the next championship, the Torneo Clausura 2010, without being relegated until the end of the Torneo Apertura 2010 with a second-to-last place finish. Similarly, River Plate finished last in the Torneo Apertura 2008 and after two bad campaigns and a regular one was relegated in the Torneo Clausura 2011 despite being in fifth place and qualifying for the 2011 Copa Sudamericana. This system forces the newly promoted teams to fight relegation from the very beginning of the season. It also allows teams with a low budget with previous good campaigns to compete in international competitions without having to prioritize the championship to avoid relegation; examples of this are
Club Atlético Lanús Club Atlético Lanús () is an Argentina, Argentine sports club from the Lanús district of Greater Buenos Aires. Founded in 1915, the club's main sports are association football, football and basketball. In both sports, Lanús plays in Argentina ...
, winner of the 2013 Copa Sudamericana, or Club Atlético Talleres, winner of the 1999 Conmebol Cup. The Uruguayan First Division adopted the same system in 2016. Also, a similar system was used only in the
1999 1999 was designated as the International Year of Older PersonsIn its Proclamation on Aging, the United Nations General Assembly decided to declare 1999 as the International Year of Older Persons. The proclamation was launched on 1 October 1 ...
edition of
Campeonato Brasileiro Série A The Campeonato Brasileiro Série A (; English: Brazilian Championship A Series), commonly referred as Brasileirão (; English: Big Brazilian), is a Brazilian professional league for men's football Football is a family of s that involve, ...
.


See also

* List of association football leagues without promotion and relegation *
List of unrelegated association football clubs Several association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport played with a sphere, spherical Ball (association football), ball between two teams of 11 football player, players. It is ...
* List of association football clubs with multiple consecutive promotions or relegations *
Yo-yo club A yo-yo club is a sporting side that is regularly promoted and relegated. The phrase is most typically used in association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a team sport played with a spher ...


Notes and references


External links


Rec.Sport.Soccer Statistics Foundation
Source for historical information on promoted and relegated football clubs. {{DEFAULTSORT:Promotion And Relegation Association football terminology Sports terminology