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Professional diving is
diving Diving usually refers to: * Diving (sport), the sport of jumping into deep water * Underwater diving, human activity underwater for recreational or occupational purposes Diving or Dive may also refer to: Sports * Dive (American football), a typ ...
where the divers are paid for their work. The
procedures Procedure may refer to: * Medical procedure * Instructions or recipes, a set of commands that show how to achieve some result, such as to prepare or make something * Procedure (business), specifying parts of a business process * Standard operatin ...
are often regulated by legislation and codes of practice as it is an inherently hazardous occupation and the diver works as a member of a
team A team is a group of individuals (human or non-human) working together to achieve their goal A goal is an idea In common usage and in philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as ...

team
. Due to the dangerous nature of some professional diving operations, specialized equipment such as an on-site
hyperbaric chamber A diving chamber is a vessel for human occupation, which may have an entrance that can be sealed to hold an internal pressure significantly higher than ambient pressure, a pressurised gas system to control the internal pressure, and a supply of ...
and diver-to-surface communication system is often required by law, and the mode of diving for some applications may be regulated. There are several branches of professional diving, the best known of which is probably
commercial diving Commercial diving may be considered an application of professional diving where the diver engages in underwater work for industrial, construction, engineering, maintenance or other commercial purposes which are similar to work done out of the wate ...
and its specialised applications,
offshore diving Commercial offshore diving, sometimes shortened to just offshore diving, generally refers to the branch of commercial diving, with divers working in support of the exploration and production sector of the upstream (oil industry), oil and gas indus ...
, inshore
civil engineering Civil engineering is a professional engineering Regulation and licensure in engineering is established by various jurisdictions of the world to encourage public welfare, safety, well-being and other interests of the general public and to defin ...
diving,
marine salvage Marine salvage is the process of recovering a ship and its cargo after a shipwreck or other maritime casualty. Salvage may encompass towing, re-floating a vessel, or effecting repairs to a ship. Today, protecting the coastal environment from s ...
diving,
hazmat diving Hazmat diving is underwater diving in a known hazardous material The pictogram for poisonous substances of the Globally Harmonized System of Classification and Labelling of Chemicals. Dangerous goods, abbreviated DG, are substances that wh ...
, and
ships husbandry Ships husbandry or ship husbandry is all aspects of maintenance, cleaning, and general upkeep of the hull, rigging Bermuda rig, Bermuda rigged sloop at Convict Bay, Bermuda, circa 1879 Rigging comprises the system of ropes, cables and chain ...
diving. There are also applications in
scientific research The scientific method is an Empirical evidence, empirical method of acquiring knowledge that has characterized the development of science since at least the 17th century. It involves careful observation, applying rigorous skepticism about what ...
,
marine archaeology Maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of Nova Scotia, New Brunswic ...
, fishing and
aquaculture Aquaculture (less commonly spelled aquiculture), also known as aquafarming, is the farming of fish Fish are , , -bearing animals that lack with . Included in this definition are the living , s, and and as well as various extinct rel ...
,
public service A public service is a service Service may refer to: Activities :''(See the Religion section for religious activities)'' * Administrative service, a required part of the workload of university faculty * Civil service The civil service is a co ...
,
law enforcement 'Law enforcement'' is the activity of some members of government who act in an organized manner to enforce the law by discovering, deterrence (legal), deterring, rehabilitation (penology), rehabilitating, or punishment, punishing people who viol ...
,
military service Military service is service by an individual or group in an army An army (from Latin ''arma'' "arms, weapons" via Old French ''armée'', "armed" eminine, ground force or land force is a fighting force that fights primarily on land. In th ...
and
diver training Diver training is the set of processes through which a person learns the necessary and desirable skills to safely dive underwater within the scope of the diver training standard relevant to the specific training programme. Most diver training f ...
. Any person wishing to become a professional diver normally requires specific training that satisfies any regulatory agencies which have regional or national authority, such as US
Occupational Safety and Health Administration The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA ) is a large regulatory agency of the United States Department of Labor The United States Department of Labor (DOL) is a cabinet-level department of the U.S. federal government, re ...
, United Kingdom
Health and Safety Executive The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is a UK government agency responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risk In simple terms, risk is the possibil ...
or South African
Department of Employment and Labour The Department of Employment and Labour is the department of the South African government responsible for matters related to employment Employment is a relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on employment contract, contr ...
. International recognition of professional diver qualifications and registration exists between some countries.


Procedural aspects

The primary procedural distinction between professional and recreational diving is that the recreational diver is responsible primarily for his/her own actions and safety but may voluntarily accept limited responsibility for dive buddies, whereas the professional diver is part of a team of people with extensive responsibilities and obligations to each other and usually to an employer or client, and these responsibilities and obligations are formally defined in contracts, legislation, regulations, operations manuals, standing orders and compulsory or voluntary codes of practice. In many cases a statutory national occupational health and safety legislation constrains their activities. The purpose of recreational diving is basically for personal entertainment, while the professional diver has a job to do, and diving is necessary to get that job done. Recreational diving instruction and dive leadership are legally considered professional diving in some jurisdictions, particularly when the diver is employed for that purpose.


Diving operations

A diving operation is a professional dive and the activity in preparation for, and in support of, the specific dive. The diving operation is controlled by the
diving supervisor The diving supervisor is the professional diving team member who is directly responsible for the diving operation's safety and the management of any incidents or accidents that may occur during the operation; the supervisor is required to be avai ...
, is expected to follow the dive plan, is conducted by the
diving team Minimal professional diving team, with standby diver, supervisor and working diver entering the water A diving team is a group of people who work together to conduct a diving operation. A characteristic of professional diving is the specification ...

diving team
, and is recorded in the
diving operations record Professional diving is Underwater diving, diving where the divers are paid for their work. The diving procedures, procedures are often regulated by legislation and codes of practice as it is an inherently occupational safety and health, hazardous ...
(though the terms may have regional variations). A diving operation is over when the last diver has completed decompression and is out of the water. A diving project is a coordinated set of diving operations for a particular purpose, often the responsibility of a diving contractor.


Diving contractor

A diving contractor is the
legal entity In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is described by ...
responsible for the execution of diving operations for a . The diving contractor is responsible for ensuring that the diving operations are safe, that a competent diving team is appointed, and the contracted work is done to specifications.


Diving team

A diving team is a group of people who conduct a diving operation. A characteristic of professional diving is the specification for minimum personnel for the diving support team. This typically specifies the minimum number of team members and their appointed responsibilities in the team based on the circumstances and mode of diving, and the minimum qualifications for specified members of the diving team. The minimum team requirements may be specified by regulation or code of practice. Specific appointments within a dive team for which competences are specified and registration may be required are listed below. Core diving team: * * * * * – On telephonic standby. Additional member for surface-supplied air diving using a low pressure compressor: * Additional member for : * * Launch and recovery system
winch A winch is a mechanical device that is used to pull in (wind up) or let out (wind out) or otherwise adjust the tension (physics), tension of a rope or wire rope (also called "cable" or "wire cable"). In its simplest form, it consists of a Bobbi ...

winch
operator Additional member for dives with a chamber on site: * Additional member for surface-supplied mixed gas diving: * Additional members for
offshore diving Commercial offshore diving, sometimes shortened to just offshore diving, generally refers to the branch of commercial diving, with divers working in support of the exploration and production sector of the upstream (oil industry), oil and gas indus ...
: * * * Additional personnel for
saturation diving Saturation diving is diving for periods long enough to bring all tissues into wikt:equilibrium, equilibrium with the partial pressures of the inert components of the breathing gas. It is a diving technique that allows divers working at great dept ...
: * - One per shift. * Additional members for
remotely operated underwater vehicle A remotely operated underwater vehicle (technically ROUV or just ROV) is a tether A tether is a cord, fixture, or flexible attachment that characteristically anchors something movable to something fixed; it also maybe used to connect two movabl ...
support: * *


Regulation of activities

Professional diving activities are generally regulated by health and safety legislation, but in some cases may be exempted from the national or state diving regulations for specific diving applications, such as scientific diving or public safety diving, when they operate under a recognised code of practice for that application.


Codes of practice

A code of practice for professional diving is a document that complements occupational health and safety laws and regulations to provide detailed practical guidance on how to comply with legal obligations, and should be followed unless another solution with the same or better health and safety standard is in place, or may be a document for the same purpose published by a self-regulating body to be followed by member organisations. Codes of practice published by governments do not replace the occupational health and safety laws and regulations, and are generally issued in terms of those laws and regulations. They are intended to help understand how to comply with the requirements of regulations. A workplace inspector can refer to a code of practice when issuing an improvement or prohibition notice, and they may be admissible in court proceedings. A court may use a code of practice to establish what is reasonably practicable action to manage a specific risk. Equivalent or better ways of achieving the required work health and safety may be possible, so compliance with codes of practice is not usually mandatory, providing that any alternative systems used provide a standard of health and safety equal to or better than those recommended by the code of practice.


Operations manual

The operations manual is the diving contractor's in-house documentation specifying the procedures authorised for diving operations conducted by the company. It will refer to relevant legislation and codes of practice and will specify the organisation of the company and the chain of responsibility. Standard operating procedures for the activities normally conducted by the company may be described in sufficient detail that all affected parties can understand how the organisation operates, or may refer to other documents such as the manufacturer's maintenance instructions for details.


Records

Professional diving operations are generally required to be documented for legal reasons related to contractual obligations and health and safety. Divers are required to keep their personal diving logbooks up to date, supervisors are required to record the specifics of a diving operation on the diving operations record. The dive plan is generally documented, and includes a description of the planned work, specification of the equipment to be used, the expected
dive profile A dive profile is a description of a diver's pressure exposure over time. It may be as simple as just a depth and time pair, as in: "sixty for twenty," (a stay of 20 minutes at a depth of 60 feet) or as complex as a second by second graphical re ...
, and the outcome of the relevant
risk assessment Broadly speaking, a risk assessment is the combined effort of: # identifying and analyzing potential (future) events that may negatively impact individuals, assets, and/or the environment (i.e. hazard analysis A hazard analysis is used as the ...

risk assessment
.


Branches of professional diving


Commercial diving

Commercial diving may be considered an application of professional diving where the diver engages in underwater work for industrial, construction, engineering, maintenance or other commercial purposes which are similar to work done out of the water, and where the diving is usually secondary to the work. In some legislation, commercial diving is defined as any diving done by an employee as part of their job, and for legal purposes this may include scientific, public safety, media, and military diving. That is similar to the definition for professional diving, but in those cases the difference is in the status of the diver within the organisation of the diving contractor. This distinction may not exist in other jurisdictions. In
South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most populous nation and covers an area of . South Africa has three capital citie ...
, any person who dives under the control and instructions of another person within the scope of the Occupational Health and Safety Act, 1993, is within the scope of the Diving Regulations, 2009. In the UK, the Diving at Work Regulations, 1997, apply. Major applications of commercial diving include: * * – Diving in support of civil engineering projects. ** **Inspection,
nondestructive testing Nondestructive testing (NDT) is any of a wide group of analysis techniques used in science and technology industry to evaluate the properties of a material, component or system without causing damage. The terms nondestructive examination (NDE), no ...
, and repair * ** ** * * *


Scientific diving

Scientific diving is the use of diving techniques by scientists to study underwater what would normally be studied by scientists. Scientific divers are normally qualified scientists first and divers second, who use diving equipment and techniques as their way to get to the location of their fieldwork. The direct observation and manipulation of marine habitats afforded to scuba-equipped scientists have transformed the marine sciences generally, and
marine biology Marine biology is the scientific study of the biology of marine life Marine life, sea life, or ocean life is the plant Plants are predominantly photosynthetic Photosynthesis is a process used by plants and other organisms to ...
and
marine chemistry Ocean chemistry, also known as marine chemistry, is influenced by plate tectonics File:Earth cutaway schematic-en.svg, upright=1.35, Diagram of the internal layering of Earth showing the lithosphere above the asthenosphere (not to scale) Pla ...
in particular. Underwater archeology and
geology Geology (from the Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek ...

geology
are other examples of sciences pursued underwater. Some scientific diving is carried out by universities in support of undergraduate or postgraduate research programs. Government bodies such as the
United States Environmental Protection Agency The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent executive agency of the United States federal government tasked with environmental protection matters. President Richard Nixon pro ...
and the UK
Environment Agency The Environment Agency (EA) is a non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Teleg ...
carry out scientific diving to recover samples of water, marine organisms and sea, lake or riverbed material to examine for signs of pollution. Equipment used varies widely in this field, but surface supplied equipment though quite uncommon in the UK is growing in popularity in the U.S. Most scientific dives are relatively short duration and shallow, and surface supplied equipment is cumbersome and relatively expensive. The safety record of scuba for scientific diving has been good, and it is considered acceptable for most scientific diving by several national and international codes of practice. Not all scientific divers are professionals; some are amateurs who assist with research or contribute observations on citizen science projects out of personal interest. Scientific diving organizations include: * The
American Academy of Underwater Sciences The American Academy of Underwater Sciences (AAUS) is a group of Scientific organizations and individual members who conduct scientific and educational activities underwater. It was organized in 1977 and incorporated in the State of California in 19 ...
* The European Scientific Diving Panel. * The German Academy of Underwater Sciences. Standard references for scientific diving operations include: * Code of Practice for Scientific Diving: Principles for the Safe Practice of Scientific Diving in Different Environments. * Joiner James T. (ed), '' NOAA Diving Manual: Diving for Science and Technology'', Fourth Edition, 2001, U.S.Department of Commerce, National Technical Information Service, () * Haddock, Steven H. D. & John N. Heine, 2005. ''Scientific Blue-water Diving'' California Sea Grant College Progra


Media diving

Media diving is the practice of
underwater photography (''Elacatinus oceanops'') swimming over a great star coral (''Montastraea cavernosa'') Underwater photography is the process of taking photographs while under water. It is usually done while scuba diving, but can be done while diving on Surfac ...
and underwater cinematography outside of normal recreational interests. Media diving is often carried out in support of television documentaries, such as the
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
series Planet Earth or movies, with feature films such as
Titanic RMS ''Titanic'' was a British passenger liner Liner or LINER may refer to: Line drawing * , a type of makeup * , a porous-tip pen with its own ink source * used in engraving * A used by coach painters Linings * , a noise-damping ...
and The Perfect Storm featuring underwater photography or footage. Media divers are normally highly skilled camera operators who use diving as a method to reach their workplace, although some underwater photographers start as recreational divers and move on to make a living from their hobby. Equipment in this field is varied with scuba and surface supplied equipment used, depending on requirements, but
rebreathers A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of o ...
are often used for wildlife related work as they are normally quiet, release few or no bubbles and allow the diver a lengthy bottom time with a reduced risk of frightening off the subject.


Military and naval diving

Military diving Underwater divers may be employed in any branch of an armed force, including the navy, army, marines, air force and coast guard. Scope of operations includes: Search and recovery, search and rescue, underwater surveys, explosive ordnance disposal ...
is diving carried out by military personnel in the course of their duties. There are a number of different specialisations in military diving; some depend on the branch of the military. Offensive activities include
underwater demolition Underwater demolition refers to the deliberate destruction or neutralization of man-made or natural underwater obstacles, both for military and civilian purposes. History HMS Royal George In 1839 Charles Pasley, a colonel of the Royal Engineers, u ...
, infiltration and sabotage, this being the type of work done by units such as the UK
Special Boat Service The Special Boat Service (SBS) is the special forces unit of the United Kingdom's Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's Navy, naval warfare force. Although warships were used by English and Scottish kings from the early m ...
or the
United States Navy SEALs The United States Navy Sea, Air, and Land (SEAL) Teams, commonly known as Navy SEALs, are the United States Navy, U.S. Navy's primary special operations force and a component of the United States Naval Special Warfare Command, Naval Special Wa ...
. Defensive activities are centered around countering the threat of enemy
special forces Special forces and special operations forces (SOF) are military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict ...

special forces
and enemy anti-shipping measures, and typically involve defusing
mines Mine, mines, miners or mining may refer to: Extraction or digging *Miner, a person engaged in mining or digging *Mining, extraction of mineral resources from the ground through a mine Grammar *Mine, a first-person English possessive pronoun Mil ...
, searching for explosive devices attached to the hulls of ships, and locating enemy
frogmen A frogman is someone who is trained in scuba diving or swimming underwater in a tactical capacity that includes police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a Stat ...

frogmen
in the water. Military divers may need equipment which does not reveal their position and avoids setting off explosives, and to this end, they may use
rebreathers A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of o ...
which produce less noise due to bubbles emitted from the equipment, and few or no bubbles on the surface, and which contain no
magnetic Magnetism is a class of physical attributes that are mediated by magnetic field A magnetic field is a vector field In vector calculus and physics, a vector field is an assignment of a vector to each point in a subset of space. For in ...

magnetic
components, and the face-mask may be fitted with anti-reflective glass. Some navies have gone further and given their divers special
contact lens One-day disposable contact lenses with blue handling tint in blister-pack packaging Contact lenses, or simply contacts, are thin lenses A lens is a transmissive optics, optical device that focuses or disperses a light beam by means of ...

contact lens
es instead of face-masks to cut down on the risk of reflection. Naval diving is the military term for what civilians would call commercial diving. Naval divers work to support maintenance and repair operations on ships and military installations. Their equipment is derived from commercially available equipment, with the US Navy using versions of the Kirby Morgan helmets and full-face masks amongst other equipment. Typical tasks include: * inspection, cleaning and maintenance of boats, ships, and underwater structures * demolition of
shipwreck A shipwreck is the wreckage of a ship A ship is a large watercraft Watercraft, also known as water vessels or waterborne vessels, are vehicles A vehicle (from la, vehiculum) is a machine A machine is any physical system ...

shipwreck
s, obstructing navigation and unexploded ordnance * ship, submarine, downed aircraft, and other military hardware
salvage Salvage may refer to: * Marine salvage, the process of rescuing a ship, its cargo and sometimes the crew from peril * Water salvage, rescuing people from floods. * Salvage tug, a type of tugboat used to rescue or salvage ships which are in distre ...
or recovery * underwater mine clearance * investigating unidentified submerged divers Some armies have their own diving personnel for inland water operations Experimental diving may be conducted by special units like the US Navy's Experimental Diving Unit (NEDU) which involves meeting military needs through the research and development of diving practices and diving equipment, testing new types of equipment and finding more effective and safer ways to perform dives and related activities. The US NEDU was responsible for much of the experimental diving work to calculate and validate
decompression tables There are several categories of decompression equipment used to help divers Decompression practice, decompress, which is the process required to allow divers to return to the surface safely after spending time underwater at higher pressures. D ...
and algorithms, and has since worked on such developments as heated diving suits powered by
radioactive isotopes A radionuclide (radioactive nuclide, radioisotope or radioactive isotope) is a nuclide A nuclide (or nucleide, from nucleus, also known as nuclear species) is a class of atoms characterized by their number of proton A proton is a subatomic par ...
and mixed gas diving equipment, while the British equivalent (The Admiralty Experimental Diving Unit) developed the Mark 10 submarine escape suits used by both the Royal Navy and the US Navy.


Police diving

Police divers are normally
police officer A police officer, also known as a policeman or policewoman, is a warranted law employee of a police force The police are a constituted body of persons empowered by a state, with the aim to enforce the law, to ensure the safety, ...

police officer
s who have been trained in the use of diving techniques to recover
evidence Evidence for a proposition In logic and linguistics, a proposition is the meaning of a declarative sentence (linguistics), sentence. In philosophy, "Meaning (philosophy), meaning" is understood to be a non-linguistic entity which is shared by a ...

evidence
and occasionally bodies from underwater. They may also be employed in searching shipping for contraband attached to the outside of
hull Hull may refer to: Structures * Chassis, of an armored fighting vehicle * Fuselage, of an aircraft * Hull (botany), the outer covering of seeds * Hull (watercraft), the body or frame of a ship * Submarine hull Mathematics * Affine hull, in affin ...
s to avoid detection by internal searches. The equipment they use depends on operational requirements, but a requirement for communications with the surface team would necessitate the use of full-face masks with voice communication equipment, either with scuba or surface-supplied equipment.


Public safety diving

Public safety diving is the underwater work conducted by law enforcement, fire rescue, and search & rescue/recovery dive teams. Public safety divers differ from recreational, scientific and commercial divers who can generally plan the date, time, and location of a dive, and dive only if the conditions are conducive to the task. Public safety divers respond to emergencies at whatever time and place they occur, and may be required to dive at times and in circumstances where conditions and regulations may exempt them from some of the health and safety requirements of other professional divers at times when it appears possible that a living person may be rescued. In the US, many public safety divers are volunteers, but career law enforcement or fire rescue personnel also often take on these additional responsibilities as part of their occupation.


Aquarium diving

Aquarium divers normally hold some form of professional qualification, either as a commercial diver or a recognised recreational certification indicating sufficient competence. The wotk is varied but is centred around the maintenance of the tank, livestock and public entertainment. This includes: *Feeding the animals *Tank cleaning and maintenance *Shows *Taking members of the public into the tank


Diving instructors

Instructors for the professional classes of diving are generally qualified and experienced as divers, diving supervisors, and adult educators operating under the auspices of a governmental agency. Standards for instruction are authorized by those agencies to ensure safety during training and competence in the workplace. Commercial diving instructors are normally required to have commercial diving qualifications. They typically teach trainee commercial divers how to operate the types of
diving equipment Diving most often refers to: * Diving (sport), the sport of jumping into deep water * Underwater diving, human activity underwater for recreational or occupational purposes Diving or Dive may also refer to: Sports * Dive (American football), a ...
and typical underwater tools they will use in the course of their work as well as the skills required for diving safely with the relevant equipment.
Recreational diving Recreational diving or sport diving is Underwater diving, diving for the purpose of leisure and enjoyment, usually when using Scuba set, scuba equipment. The term "recreational diving" may also be used in contradistinction to "technical diving" ...
instructors differ from other types of professional divers as they normally don't require registration as commercial divers, but a relevant recreational qualification from a recognised certification agency and in-date membership or registration with that agency which permits them to teach and assess the competence of recreational divers to agency standards. Recreational dive instructors teach a wide variety of skills from entry-level
diver training Diver training is the set of processes through which a person learns the necessary and desirable skills to safely dive underwater within the scope of the diver training standard relevant to the specific training programme. Most diver training f ...
for beginners, to
diver rescue Beaching a casualty while providing artificial respiration Diver rescue, following an accident, is the process of avoiding or limiting further exposure to diving hazards and bringing a diver Diver or divers may refer to: *Diving (sport), the s ...
for intermediate level divers and
technical diving Technical diving (also referred to as tec diving or tech diving) is scuba diving Scuba diving is a type of underwater diving whereby divers use breathing equipment that is completely independent of a surface air supply. The name "scuba", an ...
for divers who wish to dive in higher risk environments. They may operate from dedicated dive centres at coastal sites, or through hotels in popular holiday resorts or simply from local
swimming pool A swimming pool, swimming bath, wading pool, paddling pool, or simply pool, is a structure designed to hold water to enable Human swimming, swimming or other leisure activities. Pools can be built into the ground (in-ground pools) or built ...

swimming pool
s. Initial training is carried out mainly on conventional open circuit
scuba equipment A scuba set is any breathing apparatus that is carried entirely by an underwater diver and provides the diver with breathing gas A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for breathing, respiration. Air is t ...
but with the increasing availability of recreational
rebreather A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of o ...

rebreather
s, their use is also taught. Not all recreational diving instructors are professionals; many are amateurs with careers outside the diving industry, but they work to the same training standards as the professionals, and will have the same duty of care for their trainees.


Recreational dive leaders

Professional underwater dive leaders (also referred to as divemasters) are quite commonly employed by dive centres, and day charter boats to lead certified recreational divers and groups of divers on underwater excursions. These divemasters are generally expected to ensure that the customers are briefed on the conditions to be expected, the known hazards other than those inherent in the activity, and what the customer can reasonably expect to see during a dive. They are underwater
tour guide A tour guide (U.S.) or a tourist guide (European) is a person who provides assistance, information on cultural, historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia'', meaning "inquiry; knowledge acquired by investigation") is the study ...

tour guide
s, and as such are expected to know the level of certification and fitness needed for the planned dive, but are not generally considered responsible for ensuring that the customers are competent to the level of certification they hold, or for the personal safety of the customers during the dive. If the dive leader allocates dive buddies, they may thereby make themselves legally responsible for ensuring that the buddy pairs they allocate are appropriate. Any instruction given by the dive leader may make them liable for the reasonably foreseeable consequences of carrying out that instruction, though the customer is usually obliged to sign a waiver exonerating the dive guide for ordinary negligence. Not all recreational dive leaders are professionals; many are amateurs with careers outside the diving industry, and lead groups of friends or club members without financial reward. The internationally recognised minimum standard for a person professionally leading a group of certified recreational divers is ISO 24801-3 and the equivalent European Standard EN 14153–3. Most recreational diver training agencies have a certification meeting these standards.


Equipment

Diving equipment is equipment used by underwater divers to make diving activities possible, easier, safer and/or more comfortable. This may be equipment primarily intended for this purpose, or equipment intended for other purposes which is found to be suitable for diving use.


Diving suit

Depending on the water temperature, depth and duration of the planned dive, the diver will either use a
wetsuit A wetsuit is a garment worn to provide thermal protection while wet. It is usually made of foamed neoprene Image:Diving suit neoprene.jpg, 250px, A neck seal, wrist seal, manual vent, inflator, zip and fabric of a neoprene dry suit. The soft sea ...

wetsuit
,
dry suit A dry suit or drysuit provides the wearer with environmental protection by way of thermal insulation insulation, 1600 dpi scan Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that c ...

dry suit
or hot water suit. A wetsuit provides
thermal insulation Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that concerns the generation, use, conversion, and exchange of thermal energy (heat) between physical systems. Heat transfer is classif ...

thermal insulation
by layers of foam
neoprene Neoprene (also polychloroprene) is a family of synthetic rubber A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer. They are polymers synthesized from petroleum byproducts. About 32-million metric tons of rubbers are produced annually in the United ...
but the diver gets wet. Hot water diving suits are similar to a wetsuit but are flooded with warm water from a surface water heater that is then pumped to the diver via an umbilical. A
dry suit A dry suit or drysuit provides the wearer with environmental protection by way of thermal insulation insulation, 1600 dpi scan Thermal insulation is the reduction of heat transfer Heat transfer is a discipline of thermal engineering that c ...

dry suit
is another method of insulation, operating by keeping the diver dry under the suit, and relies on either the suit material or the air trapped in thermal undergarments to insulate the diver, and also provides better isolation from environmental contamination. Certain applications require a specific type of dive suit; long dives into deep, cold water normally require a hot water suit or dry suit, whilst diving into potentially contaminated environments requires a dry suit, dry hood, and dry gloves at a minimum, thereby keeping the diver completely isolated from the diving environment.


Breathing apparatus

A number of factors dictate the type of breathing apparatus used by the diver. Typical considerations include the length of the dive, water contamination, space constraints and vehicle access for support vehicles. Some disciplines will very rarely use
surface supplied diving Surface-supplied diving is diving Diving usually refers to: * Diving (sport), the sport of jumping into deep water * Underwater diving, human activity underwater for recreational or occupational purposes Diving or Dive may also refer to: Sp ...
, such as scientific divers or military clearance divers, whilst commercial divers will rarely use
scuba equipment A scuba set is any breathing apparatus that is carried entirely by an underwater diver and provides the diver with breathing gas A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for breathing, respiration. Air is t ...
.


Scuba diving

equipment is not commonly used in civilian commercial diving, but is often employed by scientific, media and military divers, sometimes as specialized equipment such as
rebreather A rebreather is a breathing apparatus that absorbs the carbon dioxide Carbon dioxide (chemical formula A chemical formula is a way of presenting information about the chemical proportions of atom An atom is the smallest unit of o ...

rebreather
s, which are closed circuit scuba equipment that recycles exhaled breathing gas instead of releasing it into the water. The recycling of gas makes rebreathers advantageous for long duration dives, more efficient decompression is possible when the gas mix is adjustable, and observation of animals in the wild is facilitated due to the lack of noisy exhaust bubbles. These characteristics also make rebreathers ideal for military use, such as when military divers are engaged in covert action where bubbles would alert the opposition to their presence, or when performing mine clearance where bubble noise could potentially trigger an explosion.
Open circuit scuba A scuba set is any breathing apparatus that is carried entirely by an underwater diver and provides the diver with breathing gas A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for breathing, respiration. Air is ...
equipment is occasionally used by commercial divers working on sites where surface supplied equipment is unsuitable, such as around raised structures like a
water tower A water tower is an elevated structure supporting a water tank A water tank is a container for storing water. Water tanks are used to provide storage of water for use in many applications, drinking water, irrigation agriculture, fire suppre ...

water tower
, or in remote locations where it is necessary to carry equipment to the dive site. Normally, for comfort and for practicality, a
full face mask A full-face diving mask is a type of diving mask that seals the whole of the underwater diving, diver's face from the water and contains a mouthpiece (scuba), mouthpiece, demand valve or constant flow gas supply that provides the diver with ...
such as those manufactured by Kirby Morgan will be used to allow dive lights and video cameras to be mounted on the mask. The benefit of full-face masks is that they can normally also be used with surface supplied equipment, removing the need for the diver or the company to have two sets of expensive equipment.


Surface-supplied diving

This is, perhaps, the most common type of equipment used in professional diving, and the one most recognised by the public. Surface-supplied equipment can be used with
full face mask A full-face diving mask is a type of diving mask that seals the whole of the underwater diving, diver's face from the water and contains a mouthpiece (scuba), mouthpiece, demand valve or constant flow gas supply that provides the diver with ...
s or
diving helmet A diving helmet is a rigid head enclosure with a breathing gas supply used in underwater diving. They are worn mainly by professional divers A professional is a member of a profession or any person who earns their living from a specified profe ...

diving helmet
s. Helmets are normally fitted with diver to surface communication equipment, and often with light sources and video equipment. The decision between wearing a full-face mask or a full diving helmet comes down to job requirements and personal preference, however the impact protection and warmth offered by a full diving helmet makes it popular for underwater construction sites and cold water work.
Breathing gas A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for breathing, respiration. Air is the most common, and only natural, breathing gas. But other mixtures of gases, or pure oxygen, are also used in breathing equipment ...
for the diver is piped down from the surface, through a long, flexible hose, bundled with other services and called an
diver's umbilical Surface-supplied diving is diving using equipment supplied with breathing gas A breathing gas is a mixture of gaseous chemical elements and compounds used for breathing, respiration. Air is the most common, and only natural, breathing gas. ...
. In addition to breathing gas, the umbilical will have additional hoses and cables for such things as communications equipment, a pneumofathometer for measuring depth, or hot water should the diver be using a hot water suit. The umbilical must be strong enough to support the diver's weight, with a significant safety margin, because it may be used by surface personnel to pull the diver out of the water. The diver's breathing gas is pumped down from either high pressure tanks or through a
gas compressor A compressor is a mechanical device that increases the pressure Pressure (symbol: ''p'' or ''P'') is the force In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, ...
.


Saturation diving

If the diver is to work at fairly constant depths for periods which would require long periods for decompression, the diver may live in a special
underwater habitat Underwater habitats are underwater The underwater environment refers to the region below the surface of, and immersed in, liquid water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteles ...
or a pressurised surface habitat called a saturation system. This type of diving is known as
saturation diving Saturation diving is diving for periods long enough to bring all tissues into wikt:equilibrium, equilibrium with the partial pressures of the inert components of the breathing gas. It is a diving technique that allows divers working at great dept ...
. The same technique for supplying breathing gas as regular surface supplied diving is used, with the diving bell receiving breathing gas and other essential services from a
diving support vessel A diving support vessel is a ship A ship is a large watercraft that travels the world's oceans and other sufficiently deep Sea lane, waterways, carrying goods or passengers, or in support of specialized missions, such as defense, research, an ...
on the surface. If diving at extreme depths,
helium Helium (from el, ἥλιος, helios Helios; Homeric Greek: ), Latinized as Helius; Hyperion and Phaethon are also the names of his father and son respectively. often given the epithets Hyperion ("the one above") and Phaethon ("the shining" ...

helium
-based breathing gas mixtures are used to prevent
nitrogen narcosis Narcosis while diving (also known as nitrogen narcosis, inert gas narcosis, raptures of the deep, Martini effect) is a reversible alteration in consciousness Consciousness, at its simplest, is or of internal and external existence. Despi ...
and
oxygen toxicity Oxygen toxicity is a condition resulting from the harmful effects of breathing molecular oxygen Oxygen is the chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical ele ...
which would otherwise occur due to the high ambient pressure. The diver is decompressed only once, at the end of the job, which saves time and reduces risk of decompression injury.


Training and registration

Diver training is the set of processes through which a person learns the necessary and desirable skills to safely dive underwater within the scope of the
diver training standard A diver training standard is a document issued by a certification, registration regulation or quality assurance agency, that describes the prerequisites for participation, the aim of the training programme, the specific minimum competences that a ca ...
relevant to the specific training programme. Most diver training follows procedures and schedules laid down in the associated training standard, in a formal training programme, and includes relevant
foundational knowledge Foundationalism concerns epistemology, philosophical theories of knowledge resting upon knowledge, justified belief, or some secure foundation of certainty such as a conclusion inferred from a basis of sound premises.Simon Blackburn, ''The Oxford ...
of the underlying theory, including some basic
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...

physics
,
physiology Physiology (; ) is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that builds and organizes knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is an occurrence in the real world. ...
and environmental information, practical skills training in the selection and safe use of the associated
equipmentEquipment most commonly refers to a set of tool A tool is an object that can extend an individual's ability to modify features of the surrounding environment. Although many animals use simple tools, only human beings, whose use of stone tool ...
in the specified underwater environment, and
assessment Assessment may refer to: Healthcare *Health assessment, identifies needs of the patient and how those needs will be addressed *Nursing assessment, gathering information about a patient's physiological, psychological, sociological, and spiritual st ...
of the required skills and knowledge deemed necessary by the certification agency to allow the newly certified diver to dive within the specified range of conditions at an acceptable level of
risk In simple terms, risk is the possibility of something bad happening. Risk involves uncertainty Uncertainty refers to Epistemology, epistemic situations involving imperfect or unknown information. It applies to predictions of future events, to ...

risk
.
Recognition of prior learning#REDIRECT Recognition of prior learning Recognition of prior learning (RPL), prior learning assessment (PLA), or prior learning assessment and recognition (PLAR), describes a process used by regulatory bodies, adult learning centres, career develop ...
is allowed in some training standards. Professional diver certification is generally in terms of a diver training standard published by a national government organisation or department, or an international organisation of which such national bodies are members. Training standards specify the mode of diving, equipment and scope of operations for divers registered in terms of that standard. International recognition of professional diver certification may require registration through a national government agency or an agency appointed by a national government for this purpose. Diver training is closely associated with diver certification or registration, the process of application for and issue of formal recognition of competence by a certification agency or registration authority. Work skills specific to the underwater environment may be included in diver trailing programmes, but are also often provided independently, either as job training for a specific operation, or as generic training by specialists in the fields.


Regional requirements


Australia

The Australian Diver Accreditation Scheme (ADAS) is an international commercial and occupational diver certification scheme administered on a cost-recovery basis by the ADAS Board under the direction of the Australian Department of Resources, Energy and Tourism. It has mutual recognition arrangements with other equivalent national schemes. The original
Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the island of Tasmania, and numerous List of islands of Australia, sma ...

Australia
n and
New Zealand New Zealand ( mi, Aotearoa ''Aotearoa'' (; commonly pronounced by English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon Engl ...

New Zealand
(NZ) national occupational diver certification scheme was developed by the
Australian government The Australian Government, also known as the Commonwealth Government, is the national government of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the ...
as a not-for-profit accreditation and certification scheme. Training is provided by Accredited Training Establishments (ATEs) which are required to operate at the level of international best practice as defined by ADAS. The scheme provides certification of divers and accreditation of training establishments, develops training courses to meet industry needs, and promotes the mobility of ADAS licence holders around the world. Australian commercial divers are trained in accordance with Australian Standard AS 2815.


Canada

The Diver Certification Board of Canada certifies occupational divers, accredits schools which train occupational divers. The DCBC is a federally incorporated not-for-profit body which was originally set up to replace the offshore diver certification regime of the National Energy Board and the offshore petroleum boards. DCBC is the only national body which certifies offshore and inshore commercial divers in Canada. The DCBC offers certification to commercial divers and supervisors who can demonstrate that they have sufficient training and experience to enable them to meet the competency requirements of the appropriate section of the Canadian Standards Association (CSA) Competency Standard for Diving Operations (CSA Standard Z275.4). Certificates issued by the DCBC are recognized by Australia (ADAS), France, Norway, South Africa (DoL), the United Kingdom (HSE) and the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA). The Diver Certification Board of Canada accredits commercial diver training organizations which train to the competency levels described in CSA Standard Z275.4. Accredited commercial diver training organizations can also assess the competency of experienced commercial divers who were not trained at an accredited school, a form of recognition of prior learning.


South Africa

In South Africa the
Department of Employment and Labour The Department of Employment and Labour is the department of the South African government responsible for matters related to employment Employment is a relationship between two party (law), parties, usually based on employment contract, contr ...
regulates the activities of people who dive as part of their employment, except for those involved in diving connected to minerals and energy, who are nominally controlled by the Department of Minerals and Energy. Military diving is also officially within the jurisdiction of the Department of Employment and Labour, but provided the diving is conducted within the requirements of SA Naval Operations Publication 96 it is deemed to comply with the Diving Regulations of the Occupational Health and Safety Act 1993. All commercial diver training is within the scope of the Diving Regulations, but recreational diver training and dive leading (divemasters) are specifically excluded from the regulations, though still subject to general provisions of the Occupational Health and Safety Act. Commercial divers are registered with the Department of Employment and Labour after completing their training and assessment at registered commercial diving schools. The standard of training is officially specified in the Commercial Diver Training Standards for each class of diver, but the precise definitions for many of the specified items is unclear. However this is not unlike the standards for training in several other countries, as the SA standards are similar to the standards published by the International Diving Regulators and Certifiers Forum (IDRCF) of which the SA Department of Employment and Labour is a member.


United Kingdom

In the UK, any person diving at work is required to hold a relevant qualification approved by the
Health and Safety Executive The Health and Safety Executive (HSE) is a UK government agency responsible for the encouragement, regulation and enforcement of workplace health, safety and welfare, and for research into occupational risk In simple terms, risk is the possibil ...
(HSE). Diving schools in the UK work towards a standard HSE approved qualification, whilst divers who have trained in other countries may find their existing qualifications meet the HSE standards, if not, additional training may be required. HSE approved qualifications are well known around the world and several diving qualifications from around the world are aligned with HSE standards, allowing any diver certified to a standard recognised by the HSE to work in the UK, an important location due to the
North Sea oil North Sea oil is a mixture of hydrocarbon In organic chemistry Organic chemistry is a branch of chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s ...
industry. HSE commercial diver qualifications are recognized by Australia (ADAS), Canada (DCBC), France, Norway, South Africa (DoEL) and in part by the International Marine Contractors Association (IMCA). There are several HSE qualifications, each focusing on a different type of equipment or type of diving activity, for instance the HSE Scuba qualification only recognises the holder's competence to dive using scuba equipment. Training usually takes place at a residential school, with courses taking anything between 9 and 13 weeks although divers with existing qualifications, such as former military divers can take courses which build on their existing knowledge and experience. During training, divers will be taught how to use common types of diving equipment (nearly every school trains divers to use the Kirby Morgan equipment) and how to carry out underwater
construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford English Dictionary'' Second Edition on CD-ROM (v. 4.0) Oxford University Press 2009 and comes from ''constructio'' (from ''com-' ...

construction
techniques such as
welding Welding is a process that joins materials, usually s or s, by using high to melt the parts together and allowing them to cool, causing . Welding is distinct from lower temperature metal-joining techniques such as and , which do not the base ...

welding
and cutting. In addition to practical skills training, there is classroom work, with divers learning subjects such as basic
physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion and behavior through Spacetime, space and time, and the related entities of energy and force. "Physical scie ...
and physiology of diving and the use of
decompression tables There are several categories of decompression equipment used to help divers Decompression practice, decompress, which is the process required to allow divers to return to the surface safely after spending time underwater at higher pressures. D ...
.
First Aid First aid is the first and immediate assistance given to any person suffering from either a minor or serious illness A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement ...

First Aid
courses are normally also a requirement for trainee divers, with the emphasis placed on dealing with decompression and other diving related injuries.


United States


Others

Other countries known to have nationally regulated training and registration systems: *France *Norway


Engineer diver

A Master's degree titled ''Engineer Diver'', for a
professional A professional is a member of a profession A Profession is a disciplined group of individuals who adhere to ethical standards and who hold themselves out as, and are accepted by the public as possessing special knowledge and skills in a wid ...
who has the capacities,
skill A skill is the learned ability to perform an action with determined results with good execution often within a given amount of time, energy, or both. Skills can often be divided into Departmentalization, domain-general and domain-specific skills. ...
s and
knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or something, such as facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a statement of fact is verifiability—that is whether it can be demonstrated to correspond to e ...
needed to plan, manage and successfully execute an
underwater The underwater environment refers to the region below the surface of, and immersed in, liquid water Water is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, Transparency and translucency, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly ...

underwater
operation concerning
engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bridges, tunnels, roads, vehicles, and buildings. The discipline of engineering encompasses a broad range of more speciali ...

engineering
practice, was proposed in 2007. The proposal does not appear to have been taken up. Examples of
business Business is the activity of making one's living or making money by producing or buying and selling products (such as goods and services). Simply put, it is "any activity or enterprise entered into for profit." Having a business name A trad ...

business
es that might benefit from the proposed qualification are
civil infrastructure Infrastructure is the set of fundamental facilities and systems that support the sustainable functionality of households and firms. Serving a country, city, or other area, including the services and facilities necessary for its economy to function. ...
s
contractors A general contractor, main contractor or prime contractor is responsible for the day-to-day oversight of a construction Construction is a general term meaning the and to form , , or ,"Construction" def. 1.a. 1.b. and 1.c. ''Oxford Englis ...
(above and below water) where
inspection An inspection is, most generally, an organized examination Examination may refer to: * Physical examination, a medical procedure * Questioning and more specific forms thereof, for example in law: ** Cross-examination ** Direct examination * Tes ...
s, and
maintenance Maintenance may refer to: Biological science * Maintenance of an organism * Maintenance respiration Non-technical maintenance * Alimony, also called ''maintenance'' in British English * Champerty and maintenance, two related legal doctrines ...
projects are carried out periodically. That is the case of underwater inspections of
port A port is a maritime Maritime may refer to: Geography * Maritime Alps, a mountain range in the southwestern part of the Alps * Maritime Region, a region in Togo * Maritime Southeast Asia * The Maritimes, the Canadian provinces of ...

port
s,
offshore platform An oil platform, offshore platform, or offshore drilling rig is a large structure with facilities for well drilling to explore, extract, store, and process petroleum and natural gas that lies in rock formations beneath the seabed. Many oil pl ...

offshore platform
s, vessels,
bridge A bridge is a structure A structure is an arrangement and organization of interrelated elements in a material object or system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules t ...

bridge
s and
dams A dam is a barrier that stops or restricts the flow of surface water or underground streams. Reservoirs created by dams not only suppress floods but also provide water for activities such as irrigation, tap water, human consumption, Indus ...
.


References


External links


USA Government Regulations for Commercial Diving (federal code)



Australia Diver Accreditation Scheme Website (Australian Government)
*
Diving Diseases Research Centre

Sea Research Society





History of Diving Museum
Home of the Association of Diving Contractors, International (ADCI) Commercial Diving Hall of Fame Monument


Nuclear diving articles


"Swimming on the Hot Side", ''Popular Science'', March 27, 2012


Scientific diving articles



over 50 archived webcasts of symposium, May 24–25, 2010, Smithsonian Institution, National Research Council of the National Academies, National Science Foundation. * {{Underwater diving, prodiv