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A proclamation (Lat. ''proclamare'', to make public by announcement) is an official declaration issued by a person of authority to make certain announcements known. Proclamations are currently used within the governing framework of some nations and are usually issued in the name of the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
. A proclamation is (usually) a non-binding notice. A general distinction is made between official proclamations from states or state organs with a binding character and proclamations from political-social groups or organizations, both of which try to win over the mood of those addressed. In addition, the procedure of proclaiming the beginning of a rule over a certain ruling territory is called a proclamation. For example, on July 26, 1581 the Proclamation of Dutch Independence was signed which led to the creation of the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
in 1588, formally recognized in 1648 by the
Peace of Münster The Peace of Münster was a treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, a ...
. The announcement of the intention to marry two people, the bidding, was referred to as a "proclamation" because it was done by reading out a corresponding text during the service. In the cities, laws, ordinances, etc. were “proclaimed” up to modern times so that they would become known and effective.


United States

The President of the United States communicates information on holidays, commemorations, special observances, trade, and policy through Proclamations. After the President signs a Proclamation, the White House sends it to the Office of the Federal Register (OFR). The OFR numbers each proclamation consecutively as part of a series and publishes it in the daily Federal Register shortly after receipt.


United Kingdom

In
English law English law is the common law List of national legal systems, legal system of England and Wales, comprising mainly English criminal law, criminal law and Civil law (common law), civil law, each branch having its own Courts of England and Wales, ...
, a proclamation is a formal announcement ("royal proclamation"), made under the
great seal A great seal is a seal Seal may refer to any of the following: Common uses * Pinniped Pinnipeds (pronounced ), commonly known as seals, are a widely range (biology), distributed and diverse clade of carnivorous, fin-footed, List of semi ...
, of some matter which the King-in-Council or Queen-in-Council desires to make known to his or her subjects: e.g., the
declaration of war A declaration of war is a formal act by which one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (ne ...
, or
state of emergency A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of its citizens. A government can declare such a state duri ...
, the statement of
neutrality
neutrality
, the summoning or dissolution of
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
, or the bringing into operation of the provisions of some statute the enforcement of which the
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
has left to the discretion of the king or queen in the announcement. Proclamations are also used for declaring bank holidays and the issuance of coinage. Royal proclamations of this character, made in furtherance of the executive power of
the Crown The Crown is the state (polity), state in all its aspects within the jurisprudence of the Commonwealth realms and their subdivisions (such as the Crown Dependencies, British Overseas Territories, overseas territories, Provinces and territorie ...

the Crown
, are binding on the subject, "where they do not either contradict the old laws or tend to establish new ones, but only confine the execution of such laws as are already in being in such matter as the sovereign shall judge necessary" (
Blackstone
Blackstone
's ''Commentaries'', ed. Stephen, ii. 528;
Stephen Stephen or Steven is a common English given name, first name. It is particularly significant to Christianity, Christians, as it belonged to Saint Stephen ( grc-gre, Στέφανος ), an early disciple and deacon who, according to the Book of Act ...
's ''Commentaries'', 14th ed. 1903, ii. 506, 507; Dicey, ''Law of the Constitution'', 6th ed., 51). Royal proclamations, which, although not made in pursuance of the executive powers of the Crown, either call upon the subject to fulfil some duty which they are by law bound to perform, or to abstain from any acts or conduct already prohibited by law, are lawful and right, and disobedience to them (while not of itself a misdemeanour) is an aggravation of the offence (see charge of Chief Justice Cockburn to the grand jury in ''R v. Eyre'' (1867) and ''
Case of Proclamations The ''Case of Proclamations'' English constitutional law case during the reign of King James I">UK constitutional law">English constitutional law case during the reign of King James I (1603–1625) which defined some limitations on the Royal Prero ...
'' 1610, 12 Co. Rep. 74England and Wales High Court (King's Bench Division) Decisions
/ref>). The Crown has from time to time legislated by proclamation; and the
Statute of Proclamations 1539A statute reffers to the body of law that are made by legislature of the nation with instrument which govern the state, country or any nation. it includes laws, rules and the reulation whichhas to be followed by each citizen in the county. A statute ...
provided that proclamations made by the king with the assent of the council should have the force of statute law if they were not prejudicial to "any person's inheritance, offices, liberties, goods, chattels or life". But this enactment was repealed by an act of 1547; and it is certain that a proclamation purporting to be made in the exercise of legislative power by which the sovereign imposes a duty to which the subject is not by law liable, or prohibits under penalties what is not an offence at law, or adds fresh penalties to any offence, is of no effect unless itself issued in virtue of statutory authority (see also
Order in Council An Order in Council is a type of legislation in many countries, especially the Commonwealth realm A Commonwealth realm is a sovereign state that has Elizabeth II as its monarch and head of state. Each realm functions as an independent state, ...
). The Crown has power to legislate by proclamation for a newly conquered country (Jenkyns, ''British Rule and Jurisdiction beyond the Seas''); and this power was freely exercised in
North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical regions are commonly regarded as continen ...

North America
following the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
by the
Royal Proclamation of 1763 The Royal Proclamation of 1763 was issued by King George III on 7 October 1763. It followed the Treaty of Paris (1763), which formally ended the Seven Years' War and transferred French territory in North America to Great Britain Grea ...

Royal Proclamation of 1763
and in the
Transvaal Colony The Transvaal Colony () was the name used to refer to the Transvaal region during the period of direct British rule and military occupation between the end of the Second Boer War The Second Boer War (11 October 189931 May 1902), also know ...
during the
Second Boer War The Second Boer War ( af, Tweede Vryheidsoorlog, lit. "Second Freedom War", 11 October 189931 May 1902), also known as the Boer War, the Anglo–Boer War, or the South African War, was a conflict fought between the British Empire and the two B ...
1899–1902. In the British colonies, ordinances were frequently brought into force by proclamation; certain imperial acts did not take effect in a colony until they were proclaimed (e.g. the
Foreign Enlistment Act 1870 The Foreign Enlistment Act 1870 (33 & 34 Vict c 90) is an Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom The Parliament of the United Kingdom is the supreme legislative body A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority to mak ...
); and proclamations were constantly issued in furtherance of executive acts. In many British protectorates the high commissioner or administrator was empowered to legislate by proclamation. In the old system of real property law in England, fines, levied with "proclamations", i.e., with successive public announcements of the transaction in open court, barred the rights of strangers, as well as parties, in case they had not made claim to the property conveyed within five years thereafter (acts 1483–1484 and 1488–1489). These proclamations were originally made sixteen times: four times in the term in which the fine was levied, and four times in each of the three succeeding terms. Afterwards the number of proclamations was reduced to one in each of the four terms. The proclamations were endorsed on the back of the record. The system was abolished by the
Fines and Recoveries Act 1833The Fines and Recoveries Act 1833The act was assigned this name by the Short Titles Act 1896 The Short Titles Act 1896 (59 & 60 Vict c 14) is an Acts of Parliament in the United Kingdom, Act of the Parliament of the United Kingdom. It replaces the S ...
. On certain rare occasions, the
herald A herald, or a herald of arms, is an officer of arms An officer of arms is a person appointed by a sovereign or Sovereign state, state with authority to perform one or more of the following functions: * to control and initiate coat of ...

herald
s of the
College of Arms The College of Arms, or Heralds' College, is a royal corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and publi ...
and the
Lyon Court The Court of the Lord Lyon (the Lyon Court) is a standing court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out ...
(or somebody else assigned to) still publicly read out certain proclamations such as the proclamation regarding the dissolution of parliament or proclamations regarding the monarch's coronation, where they are read at the steps of the
Royal ExchangeRoyal Exchange may refer to: *North East Quarter, Belfast, a planned city centre development formerly known as Royal Exchange. *Royal Exchange, Dublin, now City Hall, Dublin *Royal Exchange, Edinburgh, now the Edinburgh City Chambers *Royal Exchange ...

Royal Exchange
in London and at the in Edinburgh.


See also

*
Proclamation of accession of Elizabeth II Elizabeth II was proclaimed queen throughout the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth after her father, King George VI, died in the early hours of 6 February 1952, while Elizabeth was in Kenya Colony, Kenya. Proclamations were made in different C ...
*
Proclamation of the People's Republic of China The founding of the People's Republic of China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a population ...
*
Proclamation Day Proclamation Day is the name of official or unofficial holiday A holiday is a day set aside by Norm (social), custom or by law on which normal activities, especially business or work including school, are suspended or reduced. Generally, holidays ...
* Proclamation For the Encouragement of Piety and Virtue *
Proclamation of the Irish Republic The Proclamation of the Republic ( ga, Forógra na Poblachta), also known as the 1916 Proclamation or the Easter Proclamation, was a document issued by the Irish Volunteers and the Irish Citizen Army during the Easter Rising in Ireland, whi ...
*
Ukase Example of a modern ''ukaz'': the ambassadorial appointment of Sergey Kislyak to the United States in 2008. In Imperial Russia The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia ...

Ukase
*
Edict An edict is a decree or announcement of a law, often associated with monarchy, monarchism, but it can be under any official authority. Synonyms include "dictum" and "pronouncement". ''Edict'' derives from the Latin wikt:edictum#Latin, edictum. N ...
*
Decree A decree is a rule of law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, ...

Decree
*
Presidential proclamation The text of presidential proclamation 9552 of December 9, 2016 regarding the lowering of flags because of the death of John Glenn, as published in the Federal Register.">Federal_Register.html" ;"title="John Glenn, as published in the Federal Regi ...
*
Letters patent Letters patent ( la, litterae patentes) ( always in the plural) are a type of legal instrument ''Legal instrument'' is a legal Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act acco ...
*
Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam The Proclamation of Independence of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam ( vi, Tuyên ngôn độc lập Việt Nam Dân chủ Cộng hòa) was written by Hồ Chí Minh, and announced in public at the Ba Đình flower garden (now the Ba Đì ...
*
Proclamation of Indonesian Independence The Proclamation of Indonesian Independence ( id, Proklamasi Kemerdekaan Indonesia, or simply ''Proklamasi'') was read at 10:00 am on Friday, 17 August 1945. The declaration marked the start of the diplomatic and armed resistance of the Indone ...

Proclamation of Indonesian Independence
* Royal Proclamation of 2003


References


External links


Introduction, ''Proclamations of Accession of English and British Sovereigns (1547–1952)''
Heraldica, 2007 (accessed 2 November 2013) {{Authority control
Legal terminology {{CatAutoTOC Terms Jargon Terminology Terms Terminology Terminology is a general word for the group of specialized words or meanings relating to a particular field, and also the study of such terms and their use. This is also known as termino ...