HOME

TheInfoList




ProQuest LLC was an
Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County, Michigan, Washtenaw County. The 2010 United States Census, 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934. In 2019, its population was recorded at 120 ...

Ann Arbor, Michigan
-based global information-content and technology company, founded in 1938 as University Microfilms by Eugene B. Power. ProQuest was known for its applications and information services for libraries, providing access to dissertations, theses, ebooks, newspapers, periodicals, historical collections, governmental archives, cultural archives,"Jisc and ProQuest Enable Access to Essential Digital Content"
retrieved May 21, 2014
and other aggregated databases. This content was estimated to be around 125 billion digital pages,
retrieved May 21, 2014
and had commonly been accessed through library Internet gateways. This included tools for discovery and citation management, and platforms that allow library users to search, manage, use, and share research. The company began operations as a producer of
microfilm Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art used to simulate experiences that communicate ideas, stories, perception ...
products, subsequently shifting to
electronic publishing Electronic publishing (also referred to as publishing, digital publishing, or online publishing) includes the digital publication of e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a publication made availabl ...
, and later grew through acquisitions. On December 1, 2021,
Clarivate Clarivate is a company formed in 2016, following the acquisition of Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canada-based multinational media conglomerate. The company was founded in Toronto, Ontario Toronto is the cap ...
bought ProQuest from
Cambridge Information Group Cambridge Information Group (CIG) is a Privately held company, privately held global investment firm focusing on information services, education and technology. It began as a firm providing services to Academic publishing, academic publishers. It ...
for $5.3 billion in what was described as "huge deal in the library and information publishing world". Clarivate said that the operational concept behind the acquisition was integrating ProQuest's products and applications with
Web of Science Web of Science (WoS; previously known as Web of Knowledge) is a website that provides subscription-based access to multiple databases that provide comprehensive citation data for many different academic discipline An academic discipline or aca ...
.


Businesses

ProQuest was founded as a microfilm publisher. It began publishing doctoral dissertations in 1939, has published more than 3 million searchable dissertations and theses, and is designated as an offsite digital archive for the United States Library of Congress. The company's scholarly content includes dissertations and theses, primary source material, ebooks, scholarly journals, historical and current newspapers and periodicals, data sources, and other content of interest to researchers. ProQuest Video Preservation and Discovery Service, allows libraries to preserve and provide access to their proprietary audio and video collections. In May 2014, ProQuest LLC also operated businesses under the following names: * Bowker provides bibliographic information management solutions to publishers, libraries and booksellers, and is the ISBN Agency for the United States. *
DialogDialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United St ...
is an online information service with more than 1.4 billion unique records curated for corporate, business and government researchers, with a focus on pharmaceutical, engineering and patent research. *EBL (Ebook Library), an ebook aggregator with a catalog of titles from academic publishers, serves academic, corporate and research libraries while supporting emerging
collection development Library collection development is the process of systematically building the collection of a particular library to meet the information needs of the library users (a service population) in a timely and economical manner using information resources ...
models such as
patron-driven acquisitionPatron-driven acquisition (PDA), also referred to as demand-driven acquisition (DDA), is a model of library collection development in which a library only purchases materials when it is clear that a patron wants them. In an ideal transaction, librar ...
. *
ebrary ebrary (the "e" is lower case) was an online digital library which held over 100,000 scholarly e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book A book is a medium for recording information In ...
offers access to ebook collections, by subscription or a perpetual archive model, in subject packages tailored for academic, corporate, government, public and high school libraries.


History

Eugene PowerEugene B. Power (1905-1993) was a pioneering entrepreneur in the use of microfilm Microforms are scaled-down reproductions of documents, typically either films A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of vi ...
, a 1930 MBA graduate of the
University of Michigan The University of Michigan (Michigan, or UMich) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817 by an act of the old Michigan Territory, as the History of the University of Michigan#The Catholepistemiad ( ...
, founded the company as University Microfilms in 1938, preserving works from the
British Museum The British Museum, in the Bloomsbury Bloomsbury is a district in the West End of London The West End of London (commonly referred to as the West End) is a district of Central London Central London is the innermost part of Lond ...

British Museum
on microfilm. By June 1938, Power worked in two rented rooms from a downtown Ann Arbor funeral parlor, specializing in microphotography to preserve library collections. In his autobiography ''Edition of One'', Power details the development of the company, including how University Microfilms assisted the
OSS Oss () is a and a in the southern , in the province of . Population centres Topography ''Dutch Topographic map of Oss (municipality), June 2015'' City center of Oss Oss has a shopping center with many squares, however, the only rea ...

OSS
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. This work mainly involved filming maps and European newspapers so they could be shipped back and forth overseas more cheaply and discreetly. Power also noticed a
niche market A niche market is the subset of the market on which a specific product is focused. The market niche defines the product features aimed at satisfying specific market needs, as well as the price A price is the (usually not negative) quantit ...
in dissertations publishing. Students were often forced to publish their own works in order to finish their
doctoral degree The cover of the thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine">Claude_Bernard.html" ;"title="thesis presented by Claude Bernard">thesis presented by Claude Bernard to obtain his Doctor of Medicine degree (1843) A doctorat ...
. Dissertations could be published more cheaply as microfilm than as books. ProQuest still publishes so many dissertations that its Dissertations and Theses collection (formerly called Digital Dissertations) has been declared the official U.S. off-site repository of the
Library of Congress The Library of Congress (LC) is the research library A library is a collection of materials, books or media that are easily accessible for use and not just for display purposes. It is responsible for housing updated information in order ...

Library of Congress
. The idea of universal adoption of microfilm publication of doctoral dissertations was furthered considerably by two articles researched and written by a then recent recipient of the doctorate in History at Stanford University. Vaughn Davis Bornet seized on the idea and published "Doctoral Dissertations and the Stream of Scholarship" and "Microfilm Publication of Doctoral Dissertations". As the dissertations market grew, the company expanded into filming newspapers and
periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of serial Serial may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media The presentation of works in sequential segments * Serial (literature), serialised ...
s. The company's main newspaper database is ProQuest Newsstand. In 1962,
Xerox Xerox Holdings Corporation (; also known simply as Xerox) is an American corporation that sells print and digital document An electronic document is any electronic media content (other than computer program A computer program is a collection ...
acquired the company for 51,750 shares of Xerox common stock, worth about $7.9 million. Under Xerox's ownership, the name of the company changed several times, from University Microfilms to Xerox University Microfilms, to University Microfilms International, then shortened to UMI. In 1985 it was purchased from Xerox by
Bell & Howell Bell and Howell is a United States, U.S.-based services organization and former manufacturer of cameras, lenses, and motion picture machinery, founded in 1907 by two projectionists, and was originally headquartered in Wheeling, Illinois. The ...
. In 1986, UMI acquired Data Courier, owner of ABI/INFORM, from the Bingham family. In the 1980s, UMI began producing
CD-ROM A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital ...

CD-ROM
s that stored
databases A database is an organized collection of data Data are units of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answers the question of "What an entity is" and thus defines both its essence and the nature ...
of periodicals abstracts and indexes. At a time when modem connections were slow and expensive, it was more efficient to mail database CD-ROMs regularly to subscribing libraries, who installed the discs on dedicated PCs. The ProQuest brand name was first used for databases on CD-ROM. An online service called ProQuest Direct was launched in 1995; its name was later shortened to just ProQuest. The bibliographic databases are mainly sold to schools, universities and libraries. In 1998, the company announced the " Digital Vault Initiative", purported to include 5.5 billion images digitized from UMI microfilm, including some of the best existing copies of major newspapers dating back 100 to 150 years, and Early English books dating back to the 15th century. While work continues to digitize the contents of the microfilm vault, ProQuest is already providing navigation of 125 billion digital pages, including nearly 20 million pages of newspaper content dating from pre-Revolutionary War America. In 1999, the company name changed to Bell & Howell Information and Learning, and then in 2001 to ProQuest Information and Learning; Bell & Howell renamed itself the ProQuest Company. Also in 1999, the company acquired Chadwyck-Healey, a one-time microfilm publishing company that was one of the first to produce full-text CD-ROM databases. This acquisition gave Proquest ownership of a 100+ person publishing operation based in Cambridge, England and became the basis for a substantial overseas expansion. During the 2000–2004 fiscal years, as well as the first three quarters of the 2005 fiscal year, ProQuest systematically overstated its net income. Cumulatively, pre-tax profits were overstated by 129.9 million dollars (or about 31 percent). In 2008, Voyager Learning Company and ProQuest's CFO (from the time of the earnings overstatements) settled SEC "charges without admitting or denying the allegations of the SEC's complaint". In 2001 ProQuest acquired Norman Ross Publishing, a small New York based microfilm publisher. In 2002 ProQuest acquired bigchalk.com, a company founded in 1999 with the combined assets of ProQuest's K-12 division and Infonautics Inc.'s K-12 business.. In 2004, ProQuest Information and Learning acquired Seattle start-up
Serials Solutions Serials Solutions was a division of ProQuest that provided e-resource access and management services (ERAMS) to libraries. These products enabled librarians to more easily manage electronic resources that serve the needs of their users. Serials Solu ...
, a venture providing access management and search services for content hosted by other companies. Also in 2004, the company acquired Copley Publishing Group. In 2006, ProQuest Company, then the parent company of ProQuest Information and Learning, sold it to
Cambridge Information Group Cambridge Information Group (CIG) is a Privately held company, privately held global investment firm focusing on information services, education and technology. It began as a firm providing services to Academic publishing, academic publishers. It ...
, owner of R. R. Bowker. From the time of this sale, this article follows the history of ProQuest Information and Learning, not ProQuest Company. (ProQuest Company subsequently renamed itself to Voyager Learning Company, and later became part of
Cambium Learning Group Cambium Learning Group is an American technology company which creates computer software Software is a collection of Instruction (computer science), instructions and data (computing), data that tell a computer how to work. This is in contr ...
.) In 2007, ProQuest Information and Learning was merged with CSA to form ProQuest CSA. Later that year it was renamed ProQuest LLC. In 2008, ProQuest LLC acquired complete ownership of
RefWorks RefWorks is a web-based commercial reference management software package. It is produced by Ex Libris, a ProQuest company. RefWorks LLC was founded in 2001 and the software was marketed by Cambridge Scientific Abstracts CSA (formerly ''Cambrid ...
, a web-based citation manager of which it had been part owner since 2001. RefWorks was merged with ProQuest's existing COS business to form RefWorks/COS. Also in 2008, ProQuest acquired
DialogDialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United St ...
, a major online database firm, from
Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canadian-American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple co ...
. In 2010, ProQuest acquired two properties from LexisNexis, Congressional Information Service (CIS) and University Publications of America (UPA). CIS produced one of the world's most exhaustive online collections of legislative content and highly respected statistical works, while UPA included deep historical content sets. The acquisition included digital products and an expansive microfilm vault that would leverage ProQuest's strength in conversion from film to searchable electronic formats. In 2011, ProQuest acquired
Ebrary ebrary (the "e" is lower case) was an online digital library which held over 100,000 scholarly e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book A book is a medium for recording information In ...
, an online digital library of full texts of over 170,000 scholarly
e-book An ebook (short for electronic book), also known as an e-book or eBook, is a book A book is a medium for recording information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts, statistics, ...

e-book
s. In 2013, ProQuest acquired Ebook Library (EBL), with plans to combine ebrary and EBL into a single e-book platform. In 2014, ProQuest acquired Pi2 Solutions, a privately owned company specializing in Drug Safety Triager (DST) & Product Literature Database (PLD) systems for the biopharmaceutical industry. The company aligned Pi2 Solutions with its ProQuest Dialog corporate information service. In 2015, ProQuest acquired SiPX and Coutts Information Services, including the MyiLibrary platform and the Online Acquisitions and Selection Information System (OASIS). In October 2015, ProQuest acquired
Ex Libris Ex Libris may refer to: *A bookplate, also known as an ''ex libris or exlibrys'' *Ex Libris (band), a Dutch metal band *Ex Libris (bookshop), a Swiss retail company *Ex Libris (Charmed), "Ex Libris" (''Charmed''), a 2000 episode of the television se ...
. It was to merge the Workflow Solutions division of ProQuest, which included the former Serials Solutions, into Ex Libris, with the enlarged entity to be named "Ex Libris, a ProQuest Company". In June 2016, ProQuest acquired
Alexander Street Press Alexander Street is an electronic academic database publisher. It was founded in May 2000 in Alexandria ) , name = Alexandria ( or ; ar, الإسكندرية ; arz, اسكندرية ; Coptic language, Coptic ...
, a provider of streaming videos and ebooks. In January 2020, ProQuest acquired Innovative Interfaces, Inc., a provider of technology solutions to academic and public libraries. On 17 May 2021, it was announced that Clarivate would acquire ProQuest. On July 28, 2021, Clarivate announced that the acquisition was delayed due to a Federal Trade Commission antitrust probe. On December 1, 2021,
Clarivate Clarivate is a company formed in 2016, following the acquisition of Thomson Reuters Thomson Reuters Corporation () is a Canada-based multinational media conglomerate. The company was founded in Toronto, Ontario Toronto is the cap ...
successfully completed the acquisition of
ProQuest ProQuest LLC was an Ann Arbor, Michigan Ann Arbor is a city in the U.S. state of Michigan and the county seat of Washtenaw County, Michigan, Washtenaw County. The 2010 United States Census, 2010 census recorded its population to be 113,934 ...
.


Products

Among the products the company sells to clients such as public and research libraries are:


See also


References


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:ProQuest Educational publishing companies of the United States Publishing companies based in Michigan 1938 establishments in Michigan Bibliographic database providers Companies based in Ann Arbor, Michigan Publishing companies established in 1938 Xerox 2006 mergers and acquisitions 2021 mergers and acquisitions