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A private is a soldier of the lowest military rank (equivalent to NATO Rank Grades OR-1 to OR-3 depending on the force served in). In modern military writing, "private" is abridged to "Pte" in the United Kingdom and other
Commonwealth of Nations The Commonwealth of Nations, generally known simply as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 54 member states, almost all of which are former territorial evolution of the British Empire, territories of the British Empire. The chief ins ...

Commonwealth of Nations
countries, and in the Irish Army; and to "Pvt" in the United States.


Etymology

The term derives from the
medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
term "private soldiers" (a term still used in the British Army), denoting individuals who were either hired,
conscripted Conscription, sometimes called the draft in the United States, is the mandatory enlistment of people in a national service, most often a military service. Conscription dates back to Ancient history, antiquity and it continues in some countries to ...

conscripted
, or mustered into service by a
feudal Feudalism, also known as the feudal system, was the combination of the legal, economic, military, and cultural customs that flourished in Medieval Europe In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discov ...
nobleman commanding a battle group of an army. The usage of "private" dates from the 18th century.


Asia


Indonesia

In
Indonesia Indonesia ( ), officially the Republic of Indonesia ( id, Republik Indonesia, links=yes ), is a country in Southeast Asia and Oceania between the Indian Ocean, Indian and Pacific Ocean, Pacific oceans. It consists of over List of islands of I ...

Indonesia
, this rank is referred to as '' Tamtama'' (specifically ''Prajurit'' which means soldier), which is the lowest rank in the
Indonesian National Armed Forces , march = " March of the Indonesian National Armed Forces" , branches = , headquarters = Cilangkap, Jakarta Jakarta (; ), officially the Special Capital Region of Jakarta ( id, Daerah Khusus Ibukota Jakarta), is the Capital of I ...
and
special Police ForceSpecial Police, also known as Special Jurisdiction Law Enforcement; usually describes a police force or unit within a police force whose duties and responsibilities are significantly different from other forces in the same country or from other poli ...
. In the
Indonesian Army , lit: "Kartika's Fight Day") , decorations = , battle_honours = , website = , commander1 = President of Indonesia, President Joko Widodo , commander1_label ...

Indonesian Army
,
Indonesian Marine Corps '' ("Glorious on the Land and Sea") , colors= , colors_label=Beret color , march= , mascot= , equipment= , equipment_label= , battles=* Indonesian National Revolution * Operation Trikora *Operation Gunung Gede *Operation Indra *Indonesia-Malay ...
, and
Indonesian Air Force '' "Wings of the Motherland" , colours = , colours_label = , march = ''Mars Swa Bhuwana Paksa'' , mascot = , anniversaries = 9 April (fo ...
, "Private" has three levels, which are: Private (''Prajurit Dua''), Private First Class (''Prajurit Satu''), and Master Private (''Prajurit Kepala''). After this rank, the next promotion is to
Corporal Corporal is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, ...

Corporal
. File:prada pdh ad.png, Private (''Prajurit Dua'') File:pratu pdh ad.png, Private First Class (''Prajurit Satu'') File:praka pdh ad.png, Master Private (''Prajurit Kepala'')


Israel

In the
Israel Defense Forces The Israel Defense Forces (IDF; he, צְבָא הַהֲגָנָה לְיִשְׂרָאֵל ; ), commonly referred to by the Hebrew-language acronym ''Tzahal'' (), are the combined military forces of the Israel, State of Israel, consisting of t ...
, ("private") refers to the lowest enlisted rank. After 7–10 months of service (7 for combatants, 8 for combat support and 10 for non-combatants) soldiers are promoted from private to
corporal Corporal is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, ...

corporal
( or ), if they performed their duties appropriately during this time. Soldiers who take a commander's course, are prisoner instructors or practical engineers become corporals earlier. An IDF private wears no uniform insignia and is sometimes described as having a "slick sleeve" for this reason.


Korea

The equivalent ranks to privates within the North and South Korean armies are ''ilbyeong'' (private first class) and ''ibyeong'' (private second class). The symbol for this rank is 1 line ( , ) or 2 lines ( , , ). Private second class is known by 1 line, while private first class is 2 lines.


Philippines

In the
Armed Forces of the Philippines The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) ( fil, Sandatahang Lakas ng Pilipinas) are the military forces of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republik ...
, the rank of Private is the lowest enlisted personnel rank. It is currently being used by the
Philippine Army The Philippine Army (PA) (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * ...
and the
Philippine Marine Corps The Philippine Marine Corps (PMC) ( fil, Hukbong Kawal Pandagat ng Pilipinas) is the marine corps of the Philippines, a naval infantry force under the command of the Philippine Navy. The PMC conducts Amphibious warfare, amphibious, expeditionary ...
. It stands below the rank of
Private first class Private first class (PFC) is a military rank held by junior enlisted personnel in some countries' armed forces. France 65px, ''Soldat de première classe'' France has the rank of ''Soldat de première classe'' indicated with a single red chev ...
. It is equivalent to the
Airman An airman is a member of an air force or air arm of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized and ...
of the Air Force and the Apprentice Seaman of the Navy and Coast Guard. File:PHIL ARMY PVT WOODLAND.svg,
Private insignia
Philippine Army
File:PMC PVT Slv.svg,
Private insignia
Philippine Marine Corps


Singapore

Once recruits complete their
Basic Military Training (BMT)
Basic Military Training (BMT)
or Basic Rescue Training (BRT), they attain the rank of private (PTE). Privates do not wear ranks on their rank holder. PTEs who performed well are promoted to the rank of
Lance Corporal Lance corporal is a military rank, used by many armed forces worldwide, and also by some police The police are a Law enforcement organization, constituted body of Law enforcement officer, persons empowered by a State (polity), state, with the ...

Lance Corporal
(LCP). The PFC rank is rarely awarded today by the Singapore Armed Forces. All private enlistees can be promoted directly to lance corporal should they meet the minimum qualifying requirements, conduct appraisal and work performance. Recruits who did not complete BMT but completed two years of
National Service National service is a system of either compulsory or voluntary government service, usually military service. Conscription is mandatory national service. The term ''national service'' comes from the United Kingdom's National Service (Armed Forces) ...
will be promoted to private.


Commonwealth


Australia

In the
Australian Army The Australian Army is the military land force of Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, the isla ...
, a soldier of private rank wears no insignia. Like its British Army counterpart, the Australian Army rank of private (PTE) has other titles, depending on the corps and specification of that service member. The following alternative ranks are available for privates in the Australian Army: * Craftsman (CFN) –
Royal Australian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers The Royal Corps of Australian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (RAEME; pronounced Raymee) is a corps of the Australian Army that has responsibility for the maintenance and recovery of all Army electrical and mechanical equipment. RAEME has memb ...
*
Gunner Gunner, the Gunner, Gunners or the Gunners may refer to: Places * Gunner Bay, Bermuda * Gunner River, New Zealand * Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges, a nature reserve in Essex, England * Gunners Pond, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada * Mount Gunn ...
(GNR) –
Royal Australian Artillery and la, Quo Fas et Gloria Ducunt''Everywhere'' and ''Where right and glory lead'' , colors = , march = Quick: ''Royal Artillery Quick March''Slow: ''Royal Artillery Slow March'' , mascot = , ...
*
Sapper A sapper, also called pioneer Pioneer commonly refers to a settler who migrates to previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land. In the United States pioneer commonly refers to an American pioneer, a person in American history who migrated ...
(SPR) –
Royal Australian Engineers The Royal Australian Engineers (RAE) is the military engineering Military engineering is loosely defined as the art, science, and practice of designing and building military works and maintaining lines of military transport Military supply-cha ...
; * Musician (MUSN) –
Australian Army Band Corps The Australian Army Band Corps (AABC) is the Australian Army's musical branch. It is roughly the equivalent of the Music Branch (Canadian Forces) and the Royal Corps of Army Music of the British Army. The Corps was formed on 2 August 1968 and ...
* Signalman (SIG) –
Royal Australian Corps of Signals Royal may refer to: People * Royal (name)Royal can be a surname or a given name. Bearers include: Surname * Billy Joe Royal (1942–2015), American country music and pop singer * Calvin Royal III, American ballet dancer * Darrell Royal (1924 ...
* Trooper (TPR) –
Royal Australian Armoured Corps The Royal Australian Armoured Corps (RAAC) is a corps Corps (; plural ''corps'' ; from French language, French ''corps'', from the Latin ''corpus'' "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organisation. A military innovation by N ...
,
Australian Army Aviation Australian Army Aviation (AAAvn) is a corps of the Australian Army. It was formed on 1 July 1968, although it has a history dating back to 1911, when the Minister of Defence at the time, Senator George Pearce, decided there should be a flying sc ...
and the
Australian Special Air Service Regiment The Special Air Service Regiment, officially abbreviated SASR though commonly known as the SAS, is a special forces Special forces and special operations forces (SOF) are military units trained to conduct special operations. NATO has d ...
*Patrolman - Regional Force Surveillance Units


Bangladesh


''sainik'' (সৈনিক)
Bangladesh Army
In the
Bangladesh Army The Bangladesh Army ( bn, বাংলাদেশ সেনাবাহিনী, ''Bangladesh Senabahini'') is the land warfare Ground warfare or land warfare is the process of military operations eventuating in combat that takes place pre ...

Bangladesh Army
the lowest enlisted rank is ''sainik'' (সৈনিক), literally meaning "soldier".


Canada

In the Canadian Armed Forces (CAF), ''Private'' is the lowest rank for members who wear the army uniform. It is equivalent to an aggregate of NATO codes OR-1 to OR-3, as opposed to any one specific NATO code. Canadian Forces policy dictates three types of promotions in this rank: ''promotion'' (substantive), ''advancement'', and ''granting of acting rank''. There are three rank advancements (fr: ''échelons'') (not to be confused with substantive promotion, though advancement is under the umbrella terminology of ''promotion'') of the Private rank: ''Private (Recruit)'', ''Private (Basic)'', and ''Private (Trained)'', which could arguably unofficially be considered equivalent to NATO codes OR-1, OR-2, and OR-3, respectively. The two main subtypes of acting promotions are ''acting/lacking (AL/) qualification'' and ''provisional status'' (A/ (P)) (rare). Acting lacking qualification has pay "promotion" (or, bonus) and seniority reasons only (once promoted substantively, seniority in the new rank of Corporal is the date of promotion to substantive rank, with simultaneous adjustment to the date of granting of (or "promotion to") the acting rank). As long as all other administrative prerequisites are met and the member has 48 months of qualifying service, one gains acting lacking qualification (literally, lacking the prerequisite QL5 qualification to be considered and respected as a substantive Corporal). Once the last prerequisite has been met, substantive promotion occurs (usually, only on paper, without a second ceremony to commemorate the promotion). While still an Acting Lacking Corporal Private (Trained) (AL/Cpl Pte(T)) (or, simply, ''Acting Lacking Corporal'' ''(AL/Cpl)'', or, informally, ''Corporal (Cpl)''), the Private does not hold any authoritative or legal powers of Corporal rank. Newly granted Acting Lacking Corporals may often erroneously, by virtue of this grant, demand a Private of the same rank to necessarily obey his/her orders. In practice, ''chain of command (CoC)'' determines practical seniority by appointed charge. It is not uncommon for a Private (Trained) to be appointed ''in charge (IC)'' of his peers, including Acting Lacking Corporals, for a particular task/shift/event/exercise. Therefore, a Private (Recruit) with 5 or more years of seniority, for example (which often occurs, e.g., having entered through a
NCM-SEP
completes college before attending basic training, then becomes permanently injured during basic training, works out his/her obligatory service (OS) and is considered for release and, subsequently, waits for said release), holds higher seniority than an Acting Lacking Corporal with 4 years seniority. In this case, the Private (Recruit), without appointment from the chain would theoretically become IC by default, over an Acting Lacking Corporal. A Private (Recruit) who has served for 2 years receives the same pay as a Private (Trained) and a Private (Basic) who has served for 2 years, as pay increments are maxed out after 2 years, ever since the CAF eliminated the Basic and Recruit pay columns for the Private rank from fiscal year 1992 to 1998. Because of the complicated and outdated organizational rank structure of the CAF, the majority of members across the ranks are not aware of the rules and, consequently, do not follow them. No published discussion has been made on separating the rank advancements into independent hierarchical ranks. All persons holding the rank of Private, without holding a simultaneous granting of acting rank, are referred to as such and the qualifier shown in parentheses is used on all official records. Contemporary practice for medical and other administrative records write Acting Lacking ranks as if they were substantive, for shorthand purposes. ''Granting of acting rank'' ''while so employed (AWSE or A/WSE)'' is the last of the subtypes of acting promotions. They are known as ''theatre promotions'', as they can necessarily only occur in-theatre, as they are "limited to designated commanders of operational theatres". However, AWSE promotions are unheard of in the regular junior ranks, as these exclusively exist in the realm of higher officers (usually Major and above) using the grieving process in order to be granted higher pay on top of what they are already making, as well as the realm of precedence after precedence of grievance decisions without ratification into official military policy. Contemporary grievance matters have shifted away from theatre-only matters, as outlined in the career policy, and towards attempting to secure an AWSE temporary rank where the commissioned officer's work period in question, during which there was claimed higher-rank duties, did not occur in-theatre. The Chief of the Defence Staff (CDS), in acting as the Final Authority (FA), quotes the incorrect policy, directing that the Queen's Regulations & Orders (QR&Os) be followed, even though QR&Os have long been superseded/amplified by Canadian Forces Administrative Orders (CFAOs) (in the areas by which they are superseded) (which, in turn, has claimed to have been in the process of being superseded by the Defence Administrative Orders and Directives (DAODs) going on three decades now but have not yet made any new policy on rank structural organization, which make the CFAOs the current de facto ratified policy on promotion). The QR&Os mention a former type of rank labelled ''acting'', which refers to a granting of rank: (''a'') for an indefinite period; or (''b'') for the period during which the member is filling a position on an establishment for which a rank higher than the member's substantive or temporary rank is authorized. However, this QR&O ''acting'' rank has been superseded by CFAO's ''provisional'' ''status'', i.e., A/Cpl (P) and not the separate ''acting while so employed'' rank, i.e., AWSE Cpl or Cpl (AWSE) or A/Cpl (WSE), mentioned in the CFAO and never mentioned in the QR&O. Going by CFAO policy, none of the grievers were eligible to be granted AWSE status or pay. In contrast to higher officers, it is quite common for lower ranks to perform duties of ranks one or two ranks above their rank. However, they do not make complaints nor seek compensation for their time in service. They understand and accept that there are already set limits to the number of members in each rank (and trade). AWSE is a mechanism the leaders of the CAF organization take advantage of to secure pay they would otherwise not have been able to receive. It is an increasing contentious issue among the lower ranks that the leader of a professional force continues to approve AWSE promotions, as the CDS admitted himself. He claimed that a "new global CF promotion policy" would be in place "soon". This was stated in 2009. The air force rank of Aviator (Avr) was formerly called "Private", but this changed in the fiscal year of 2015, when the traditional air force rank insignia and title were replaced in favour of a new rank title the Minister of National Defence introduced back in September 2014, as part of the Government of Canada's efforts in delineating "distinctive service cultures". Up to 2020, the navy equivalent for Private (Recruit) was Ordinary Seaman (Recruit) (OS (R)); for Private (Basic), Ordinary Seaman (Basic) (OS (B)); and, for Private (Trained), Able Seaman (AB). On 4 September 2020, Commander, Royal Canadian Navy (RCN) announced new English rank designations for its junior ranks, claiming that the English rank titles "DO NOT REFLECT A MODERN AND INCLUSIVE SERVICE" 'sic'' The rank equivalent for Private (Recruit) and Private (Basic) is now Sailor Third Class (S3); and, for Private (Trained), Sailor Second Class (S2). The French equivalent for "Sailor" is ''matelot''. The French-language equivalent for private is . The French-language equivalent for Aviator is ''aviateur''. The rank advancements are useful, as they allow comparability with other militaries and are associated with DAOD 5031-8, Canadian Forces Professional Development's Developmental Periods (DPs), an approximate measure for blocks of career timeframe. * Private (Recruit) (Pte(R)) / soldat (recrue) (sdt (R)) – a recruit holds this rank advancement from enrolment through to the 14-week recruit training, the Basic Military Qualification (BMQ) Course. This advancement is associated with Developmental Period 1 (DP 1) and QL0. * Private (Basic) (Pte(B)) / soldat (confirmé) (sdt (C)) – after successful completion of BMQ, a soldier becomes a Private (Basic). This advancement is held through basic environmental training (Basic Military Qualification - Land portion (BMQ-Land) course; Naval Environmental Training Program (NETP); or Basic Air Environmental Qualification (BAEQ) Course), a.k.a. Qualification Level 2 (QL2), and basic occupational training (trade-specific Qualification Level 3 (QL3)). A Private (Basic) is the first advancement to wear the standard rank slip-on (or velcro slip); there is no insignia for this rank. This advancement is associated with Developmental Period 1 (DP 1) and QL3. * Private (Trained) (Pte(T)) / soldat (formé) (sdt (F)) – A Private (Basic) becomes a Private (Trained) upon attaining QL3 and 30 months of qualifying service, normally before On-the-Job-Training (OJT), a.k.a., Qualification Level 4 (QL4), is attained. If there is a book/package included in the curriculum, the book is also known as "QL3B", usually lasting up to 18 months. A minimum length of post-QL3B training, normally at least a year, is required to complete OJT, before making it onto the training waiting list for QL5, a.k.a. QL5A. However, advancement to Private (Trained) often occurs around the time the member completes his/her OJT or QL3B, depending on trade and service reasons, creating the myth that OJT/QL4 is th
MOSID
prerequisite for the rank advancement. A Private (Trained) is the only private to wear rank insignia on their rank slip-on (or velcro slip) - a single
chevron Chevron (often relating to V-shaped patterns) may refer to: Science and technology * Chevron (aerospace), sawtooth patterns on some jet engines * Chevron (anatomy), a bone * ''Eulithis testata'', a moth * Chevron (geology), a fold in rock laye ...
. The RCAF equivalent rank insignia is a propeller. Private (Trained) and the next rank of Corporal are associated with Developmental Period 2 within the Canadian Forces Professional Development System. Private (Trained) is associated with QL4. *Acting Lacking Corporal Private (Trained) (AL/Cpl Pte (T)) / caporal intérimaire (qualification insuffisante) soldat (formé) (cpl(Int)(QI) sdt (F)) – a private may be granted an acting lacking qualification, once 48 months of qualifying service is met, if the member has not yet attained QL5 by then. Canadian Army Privates (Trained) may be known by other titles, depending on their personnel branch and their regiment’s tradition: * Trooper – armoured crewmen in the
Royal Canadian Armoured Corps The Royal Canadian Armoured Corps (RCAC; french: links=no, Corps blindé royal canadien) is the armoured corps within the Canadian Army ) , colors = Rifle Green and Gold , colors_label = Colors , march ...
*
Gunner Gunner, the Gunner, Gunners or the Gunners may refer to: Places * Gunner Bay, Bermuda * Gunner River, New Zealand * Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges, a nature reserve in Essex, England * Gunners Pond, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada * Mount Gunn ...
– artillerymen in the
Royal Regiment of Canadian Artillery , colors = The guns of the RCA themselves , colors_label = Colours , march = * Slow march: "Royal Artillery Slow March" * Quick march (dismounted parades): "British Grenadiers "T ...
*
Sapper A sapper, also called pioneer Pioneer commonly refers to a settler who migrates to previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land. In the United States pioneer commonly refers to an American pioneer, a person in American history who migrated ...
– combat engineers in the Corps of Royal Canadian Engineers *
Signaller A signaller, signalman, colloquially referred to as a radioman in the armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized a ...

Signaller
(not usually observed) – communicator research, cyber, and signal operators, and information systems, line, and signal technicians in the
Royal Canadian Corps of Signals , colors= Scarlet with black facings (mess dress) , march= "Begone, Dull Care" (until 1968, 2014–present)"The Mercury March" (2013–14) , mascot= , battles= , anniversaries= 24 October (corps birthday) , notable_commanders= , current_commander= , ...
* Craftsman (not usually observed) – electronic-optronic, materials, vehicle, and weapons technicians in the
Corps of Royal Canadian Electrical and Mechanical Engineers , colours = Blue, yellow, red, light blue , march = , mascot = Sadie , battles = , notable_commanders = , anniversaries = , identification_symbol = Dark blue beret , identification_symbol_label = Headdress The Corps of Royal Canadian ...
*
Guardsman Guardsman is a rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking, such as: Level or position in a hierarchical organization * Academic rank * Diplomatic ...
Royal Canadian Infantry Corps (RCIC) members of foot guard regiments *
Fusilier Fusilier is a name given to various kinds of soldier A soldier is one who fights as part of a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
RCIC members of fusilier regiments *
Rifleman A rifleman is an infantry soldier armed with a rifling, rifled long gun. Although the rifleman role had its origin with 16th century hand cannoneers and 17th century musketeers, the term originated in the 18th century with the introduction o ...

Rifleman
RCIC members of rifle regiments Other, according to QR&Os, updated 28 Jun, 2019: *Voltigeur * Musician *Piper *Drummer *Ranger


India and Pakistan

In the
Indian Army The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organi ...

Indian Army
and
Pakistan Army The Pakistan Army (; ) is the land Land is the solid surface of Earth that is not permanently submerged in water. Most but not all land is situated at elevations above sea level (variable over geologic time frames) and consists mainly of ...
, the lowest enlisted rank is
sepoy ''Sepoy'' () was originally the designation given to a professional Indian infantryman, usually armed with a musket s aboard the frigate A frigate () is a type of warship, having various sizes and roles over time. In the 17th century, ...

sepoy
(/ˈsiːpɔɪ/), literally meaning "soldier" derived from
Persian Persian may refer to: * People and things from Iran, historically called ''Persia'' in the English language ** Persians, Persian people, the majority ethnic group in Iran, not to be conflated with the Iranian peoples ** Persian language, an Iranian ...
. A sepoy does not wear any rank insignia on their uniform. They are commonly referred to as ''jawans''.


South Africa

In the
South African Army The South African Army is the ground warfare branch of South African National Defence Force. Its roots can be traced to its formation after the Union of South Africa was created in 1910. The South African military evolved within the tradition ...

South African Army
the lowest enlisted rank is Private. Privates don't wear insignia on their uniforms. In the different corps it is known with different titles. *
Rifleman A rifleman is an infantry soldier armed with a rifling, rifled long gun. Although the rifleman role had its origin with 16th century hand cannoneers and 17th century musketeers, the term originated in the 18th century with the introduction o ...

Rifleman
(Rfn) -
South African Infantry Corps The South African Army Infantry Formation supervises all infantry within the South African Army. History Origins: Union Defence Force South African Infantry originated as the ''Infantry Branch'' of the Union Defence Force (South Africa), Union ...
* (Sgn) - South African Signal Corps *
Gunner Gunner, the Gunner, Gunners or the Gunners may refer to: Places * Gunner Bay, Bermuda * Gunner River, New Zealand * Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges, a nature reserve in Essex, England * Gunners Pond, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada * Mount Gunn ...
(Gnr) - South African Armour Corps *
Gunner Gunner, the Gunner, Gunners or the Gunners may refer to: Places * Gunner Bay, Bermuda * Gunner River, New Zealand * Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges, a nature reserve in Essex, England * Gunners Pond, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada * Mount Gunn ...
(Gnr) - South African Artillery Corps *
Sapper A sapper, also called pioneer Pioneer commonly refers to a settler who migrates to previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land. In the United States pioneer commonly refers to an American pioneer, a person in American history who migrated ...
(Spr) - South African Engineer Corps


United Kingdom

In the
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
, a private (Pte) equates to both OR-1 and OR-2 on the NATO scale, although there is no difference in rank. Privates wear no insignia. Many regiments and
corps Corps (; plural ''corps'' ; from French , from the Latin "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organization. A military innovation by Napoleon, the formation was first named as such in 1805. The size of a corps varies greatly ...

corps
use other distinctive and descriptive names instead of private, some of these ranks have been used for centuries; others are less than 100 years old. In the contemporary
British Armed Forces The British Armed Forces, also known as Her Majesty's Armed Forces, are the military, military services responsible for the defence of the United Kingdom, its British Overseas Territories, overseas territories and the Crown dependencies. They a ...
, the army rank of private is broadly equivalent to able seaman in the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
,
aircraftman Aircraftman (AC) or aircraftwoman (ACW) is the lowest rank in the British Royal Air Force "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Royal Air Fo ...
,
leading aircraftman Leading aircraftman (LAC) or leading aircraftwoman (LACW) is a junior rank in some air forces. It sits between aircraftman and senior aircraftman, and has a NATO rank code of OR-2. The rank badge is a horizontal two-bladed Propeller (aircraft) ...
and senior aircraftman in the
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for th ...
, and marine (Mne) or bandsman, as appropriate equivalent rank in the
Royal Marines The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is an amphibious Amphibious means able to use either land or water. In particular it may refer to: * ''Amphibious'' (film), a 2010 film * Amphibious aircraft An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an air ...
. In the
Boys' Brigade :''For the 1980s Canadian new wave band, see Boys Brigade (band). Not to be confused with the Church Lads' and Church Girls' Brigade The Church Lads' and Church Girls' Brigade is an Anglican Anglicanism is a Western Christianity, Wester ...
the rank of private is used when a boy moves from the junior section to the company section. Distinctive equivalents for private include: *
Airtrooper {{Use British English, date=February 2018 The rank of airtrooper (abbreviated AirTpr) is a private (rank), private rank, the first rank awarded to a soldier of the British Army Air Corps. Army Air Corps The Army Air Corps (United Kingdom), Army ...
(AirTpr) –
Army Air CorpsArmy Air Corps may refer to the following army aviation corps: * Army Air Corps (United Kingdom), the army aviation element of the British Army * Philippine Army Air Corps (1935–1941) * United States Army Air Corps (1926–1942), or its pr ...
* Bugler (Bgr) – buglers in
The Rifles The Rifles is an infantry Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in military combat on foot, distinguished from cavalry, artillery, and armored warfare, armored forces. Also known as foot soldier ...
and formerly also in other Rifle regiments * Craftsman (Cfn) –
Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers The Corps of Royal Electrical and Mechanical Engineers (REME ) is a corps Corps (; plural ''corps'' ; from French , from the Latin "body") is a term used for several different kinds of organization. A military innovation by Napoleon, th ...
(women as well as men use this rank) *
Drummer A drummer is a percussionist who creates music using drums. Most contemporary western music ensemble, bands that play Rock music, rock, Pop music, pop, jazz, or R&B music include a drummer for purposes including timekeeping and embellishing ...
(Dmr) – drummers in infantry regiments *
Fusilier Fusilier is a name given to various kinds of soldier A soldier is one who fights as part of a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
(Fus) – Fusilier regiments *
Gunner Gunner, the Gunner, Gunners or the Gunners may refer to: Places * Gunner Bay, Bermuda * Gunner River, New Zealand * Gunners Park and Shoebury Ranges, a nature reserve in Essex, England * Gunners Pond, Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada * Mount Gunn ...
(Gnr) –
Royal Artillery The Royal Regiment of Artillery, commonly referred to as the Royal Artillery (RA) and colloquially known as "The Gunners", is the artillery Artillery is a class of heavy military ranged weapons built to launch Ammunition, munitions far be ...
*
Guardsman Guardsman is a rank Rank is the relative position, value, worth, complexity, power, importance, authority, level, etc. of a person or object within a ranking, such as: Level or position in a hierarchical organization * Academic rank * Diplomatic ...
(Gdsm) – Foot Guards * Highlander (Hldr) – The Highlanders * Kingsman (Kgn) –
Duke of Lancaster's Regiment The Duke of Lancaster's Regiment (King's, Lancashire and Border) (LANCS) is an infantry at the Battle of the Somme (July–November 1916) during the First World War Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel eng ...
* Musician (Musn) – military bands (formerly if a military band had a Bandmaster, they would be known as Bandsman (Bdsm)) * Piper (Ppr) – bagpipers in Scottish and Irish regiments * Ranger (Rgr) – Royal Irish Regiment (also previously
Royal Irish Rangers The Royal Irish Rangers (27th (Inniskilling), 83rd and 87th) was a regular infantry at the Battle of the Somme (July–November 1916) during the First World War Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engag ...
) *
Rifleman A rifleman is an infantry soldier armed with a rifling, rifled long gun. Although the rifleman role had its origin with 16th century hand cannoneers and 17th century musketeers, the term originated in the 18th century with the introduction o ...
(Rfn) – Rifle regiments *
Sapper A sapper, also called pioneer Pioneer commonly refers to a settler who migrates to previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land. In the United States pioneer commonly refers to an American pioneer, a person in American history who migrated ...
(Spr) –
Royal Engineers The Corps of Royal Engineers, usually just called the Royal Engineers (RE), and commonly known as the ''Sapper A sapper, also called pioneer Pioneer commonly refers to a settler who migrates to previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited ...
*
Signaller A signaller, signalman, colloquially referred to as a radioman in the armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically authorized a ...

Signaller
(Sig) –
Royal Corps of Signals The Royal Corps of Signals (often simply known as the Royal Signals – abbreviated to R SIGNALS) is one of the combat support arms of the British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom ...
(formerly called signalman) * Trooper (Tpr) – cavalry (
Household Cavalry The Household Cavalry (HCav) is made up of the two most senior regiments of the British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, com ...

Household Cavalry
,
Royal Armoured Corps The Royal Armoured Corps is the component of the British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdo ...
,
Special Air Service The Special Air Service (SAS) is a special forces Special forces and special operations forces (SOF) are military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intende ...
and
Honourable Artillery Company The Honourable Artillery Company (HAC) was incorporated by royal charter in 1537 by King Henry VIII Henry VIII (28 June 149128 January 1547) was King of England This list of kings and queens of the Kingdom of England The King ...
) *
Trumpeter The trumpet is a brass instrument A brass instrument is a that produces sound by of air in a tubular in sympathy with the vibration of the player's lips. Brass instruments are also called labrosones or labrophones, from Latin and Greek ...
(Tptr) – trumpeters in the Household Cavalry (and formerly in all cavalry regiments)


Royal Marines

In the
Corps of Royal Marines The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is an amphibious light infantry Light infantry is a designation applied to certain types of foot soldiers (infantry) throughout history, typically having lighter equipment or Weapon, armament or a more mobi ...
, the rank structure follows that of British infantry regiments with the exception that the Royal Marines equivalent of private is Marine (Mne). During the course of the First World War, some
Royal Marines The Corps of Royal Marines (RM) is an amphibious Amphibious means able to use either land or water. In particular it may refer to: * ''Amphibious'' (film), a 2010 film * Amphibious aircraft An amphibious aircraft or amphibian is an air ...
also took the rank of
Sapper A sapper, also called pioneer Pioneer commonly refers to a settler who migrates to previously uninhabited or sparsely inhabited land. In the United States pioneer commonly refers to an American pioneer, a person in American history who migrated ...
, this was usually found as part of the Royal Marine Divisional Engineers of the
Royal Naval Division The 63rd (Royal Naval) Division was a United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for ...
.


Europe and Latin America


Austria

The lowest rank in the
Austrian Armed Forces The Austrian Armed Forces (german: Bundesheer, ) are the combined military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an inten ...
is the ''
Rekrut ''Rekrut'' (en: recruit, fr:recrue, it:recluta) is the designation of a military appointment, position or status in German-speaking countries that characterizes newly recruited or sought personnel during the initial period of the basic military ...
'' (literally ''Recruit''). For recruits in training to become non-commissioned or commissioned officers the rank bears an additional silver crossbar. Up until 1998, the rank was called ''Wehrmann''. In 2017 the silver crossbar was removed, as the system of the 'officers career' changed.


Argentina, Chile, Colombia, Dominican Republic, Mexico, Peru and Spain

The equivalent rank to private in the Spanish, Mexican, Colombian, Dominican and Argentinian army is the ''soldado raso'' meaning "rankless soldier" or simply ''soldado''.


Belgium

Upon enlistment to the Belgian army, one is given the rank of (Dutch) or (French), whether one wishes to be a volunteer, non-commissioned officer or officer. Subsequent rank depends on the branch of the service: for example, at the Royal Military Academy (Belgium), Royal Military Academy (for officer training) one is soon promoted to the rank of (Dutch) or (French) i.e. "corporal". The insignia is a simple black mark or the simplified version of the Royal Military Academy's coat of arms for candidate officers.


Brazil and Portugal

''Soldado'' is the rank equivalent to private in the Brazilian Armed Forces, Brazilian and Portuguese Armed Forces. ''Soldado'' means "soldier" in Portuguese language, Portuguese.


Finland

The Finnish equivalent rank is ''sotamies'' (literally "war man"), although since 1973 this has been purely a paper term as all infantry troopers were renamed as ''jääkäri'' troops, previously reserved only to mobile light infantry. As in the British army, the various branches use different names: * Infantry – ''jääkäri'' ("jaeger") * Military engineers – ''pioneeri'' ("pioneer") * Military communications, Signal corps – ''viestimies'' ("signaller") * Cavalry – ''rakuuna'' ("dragoon") * Artillery – ''tykkimies'' ("artilleryman") * Tank corps – ''panssarimies'' ("tankman") In the Finnish Air Force, the basic rank is ''lentosotamies'' ("airman"). In the Finnish Navy, the basic rank is ''matruusi'' ("seaman") or ''tykkimies'' ("artilleryman") in the marine infantry. Special corps troopers may be referred by their function or unit, such as ''kaartinjääkäri'' (Guards jaeger), ''panssarijääkäri'' (armored jaeger), ''laskuvarjojääkäri'' (paratroop jaeger), ''rajajääkäri'' (border jaeger) or ''rannikkojääkäri'' (coastal jaeger).


France

In the French army, ''soldat de seconde classe'' is the lowest military rank. This rank is also referred to as ''recrue'' ("recruit").


Germany

The German ''Bundeswehr'' modern-day equivalent of the private rank (NATO-standard code OR-2) is Gefreiter. The equivalent of the lowest rank (NATO-standard code OR-1) is either ''Schütze'' (rifleman), ''Kanonier'' (gunner) or ''Jäger'' (light-infantryman otherwise ranger), and sometimes in general simply ''Soldat'' (soldier), as well as other unit-specific distinctions. Up until 1918 it was ''Gemeine'' (Ordinary [soldier]) as well as unit-specific distinctions such as ''Musketier'' (musketeer), ''Infanterist'' (infantryman), ''Kürassier'' (cuirassier), ''Jäger'' (light-infantryman otherwise ranger), ''Füsilier'' (fusilier) etc., until 1945 ''Soldat'' (soldier) and unit-specific distinctions such as ''Schütze'' (rifleman), ''Grenadier'' (grenadier) etc. The navy equivalent of the OR-1 rank is known as ''German Navy#Petty officers and enlisted seamen, Matrose'' (sailor or seaman), and the German Air Force equivalent is ''Flieger'' (aviator or airman) which is also used by army aviators. File:DH001-Soldat.svg, ''Schütze, Kanonier, Jäger'' rank
shoulder epaulette
Army (''Heer'') uniform jacket File:001-Soldat.png, ''Schütze, Kanonier, Jäger'' rank
Army (''Heer'') combat uniform File:Luftwaffe-001-Flieger.png, ''Flieger'' rank
Air Force (''Luftwaffe'') combat uniform File:002-Soldat-UA.png, ''Schütze, Kanonier, Jäger Unteroffizieranwärter (UA)'' NCO-candidate rank
Army (''Heer'') combat uniform File:1 - matr.GIF, ''Matrose'' rank
Navy service uniform


Hungary

The name of the lowest rank in the Hungarian army (''Magyar Honvédség'') is the ''honvéd'' which means "homeland defender". The word is also used informally for a soldier in general of any rank (i.e. "our ''honvéds''" or an officer referred as a ''honvédtiszt'', ''honvéd'' officer). This is because Hungarian military traditions are strictly defensive, despite the Hungarian army participating in offensives on foreign soil in both world wars. The word ''honvéd'' has been in use since the Hungarian Revolution of 1848. The term is not used for soldiers of foreign armies: a foreign soldier with no rank is called ''közlegény'', literally "common lad" or "common man".


Ireland

Private (Pte) (''saighdiúr singil'' in Irish), is the lowest enlisted rank in the Irish Army. Soldiers enlist as recruits then undergo a basic course of instruction. There are three grades of private in the army. After basic training the soldier is upgraded (rather than promoted) from recruit to private 2 star (Pte 2*) (''saighdiúr singil, 2 réalta''). After more corps-specific training (usually lasting eight weeks) the soldier is upgraded to private 3 star (Pte 3*) (''saighdiúr singil, 3 réalta''). All are usually just addressed as "private", although before being upgraded, recruits may be addressed as "recruit". In corps units, the rank designation changes. In the artillery, the rank is known as Gunner (rank), gunner (Gnr), but usually only after the completion of a gunners' course, and in the cavalry it is known as Trooper (rank), trooper (Tpr). Communications and Information Services privates are known as Signalman (rank), signalman or Signalman (rank), signalwoman. Medical orderlies are sometimes referred to as medic, although this can apply to privates and
corporal Corporal is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, ...

corporal
s.


Italy

In the Italian Army is the lowest military rank. This rank is also referred to as (meaning recruit (disambiguation), recruit). is the generic term for private. But in many specialized corps this term is never used, as a more specific, corp related, term is preferred. For instance the lowest rank in Alpine troops is , and the lowest rank in the artillery is . In the air force this is ranked as and in the navy as .


Netherlands

In the Royal Netherlands Army, the ''Landmacht'', the equivalent ranks are ''soldaat'' (soldier), similar to the original French, with different classes: * ''Soldaat der derde klasse'' (soldier/private 3rd class), for soldiers in Algemene Militaire Opleiding or AMO (General Military Training), with insignia. * ''Soldaat der tweede klasse'' (soldier/private 2nd class), the basic infantry rank, an insignia single striped red band, obtained after AMO but before completion of ''Initiële Functie Opleiding'' or IFO (initial job training). * ''Soldaat der eerste klasse'' (soldier/private 1st class), comparable to private first class, with an insignia with two neighbouring striped red bands, obtained automatically a year after completion of IFO. Depending on where the ''soldaat'' serves, he may be deemed a ''kanonnier'' (gunner in the artillery), ''huzaar'' (hussar in the cavalry) or ''fuselier'' (rifleman in the rifles) as well as ''commando'', ''jager'' or ''rijder''. There is less differentiation than in other countries between different armed forces. A ''soldaat'' can be promoted to ''korporaal'' (corporal).


Sweden

In the Swedish Armed Forces a recruit is given the rank of in the army and in the navy. After basic training which is roughly 3 months other terms can be used such as ’’soldat’’ (soldier), ’’jägare’’, etc.


Switzerland

In the Swiss Armed Forces a recruit is given the rank of (equivalent to NATO OR-2), usually after completion of the first 12 weeks of basic training, also referred to as recruit school.


Turkey

In the Turkish Land Forces, Turkish Air Force and Turkish Naval Forces; ''Er'' (Private) is the lowest rank possible. This rank does not have any insignia.


Venezuela

The rank is used by the National Bolivarian Armed Forces of Venezuela and has no insignia.


United States


United States Army

In the United States Army, private is used for the two lowest U.S. Army enlisted rank insignia, enlisted ranks, just below Private_first_class#United_States_Army, private first class (E-3) or PFC. The lowest rank is "Private (E-1)" or PV1, sometimes referred to as Army recruit, "recruit", but this rank can also be held by some soldiers after Non-judicial punishment, punishment through the Uniform Code of Military Justice, or by soldiers punished under the UCMJ as a demotion until they are Military discharge#Punitive, discharged. A PV1 wears no uniform rank insignia; since the advent of the Army Combat Uniform (ACU), the slang term "fuzzy" has come into vogue, referring to the blank velcro patch area on the ACU where the rank would normally be placed. The second rank, "Private (E-2)" or PV2, wears a single chevron, known colloquially as "mosquito wings". Advancement to PV2 is automatic after six months' time in service, but may be shortened to four months by a waiver. A person who earned the Eagle Scout (Boy Scouts of America), Eagle Scout award, the Gold Award (Girl Scouts of the USA), Gold Award, or completed at least two years of Junior Reserve Officers' Training Corps, JROTC may enlist at any time at the rank of PV2. The term of address "private" may be properly applied to any Army soldier E-1 (PV1) to E-3 (Private first class#United States Army, PFC). The abbreviation "Pvt" may be used whenever the specific grade of private is immaterial (such as in Table_of_organization_and_equipment#United_States_Army, tables of organization and equipment).


United States Marine Corps

In the United States Marine Corps, ''private'' (Pvt) refers only to the lowest U.S. Marine Corps enlisted rank insignia, enlisted rank, just below Private First Class#United States Marine Corps, private first class. A Marine Corps private wears no uniform insignia and is sometimes described as having a "slick sleeve" for this reason. Most new, non-officer Marines begin their military career as a private. In the Marine Corps, privates first class are not referred to as "private"; it is more appropriate to use either "private first class" or "PFC".


See also

* List of comparative military ranks


References


External links


U.S. Army Enlisted Rank Insignia – Criteria, Background, and Images
{{DEFAULTSORT:Private (Rank) Military ranks Military ranks of Australia Military ranks of Canada Military ranks of Ireland Military ranks of Singapore Military ranks of the British Army Military ranks of the United States Army United States military enlisted ranks Military ranks of the United States Marine Corps Military ranks of the Royal Marines