HOME

TheInfoList




The Lordship of Piombino (''Signoria di Piombino''), and after 1594 the Principality of Piombino (''Principato di Piombino''), was a small state on the
Italian peninsula The Italian Peninsula (Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Reg ...
centred on the city of
Piombino Piombino is an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italia ...
and including part of the island of
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
. It existed from 1399 to 1805, when it was merged into the
Principality of Lucca and Piombino A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political l ...
. In 1815 it was absorbed into the
Grand Duchy of Tuscany The Grand Duchy of Tuscany ( it, Granducato di Toscana; la, Magnus Ducatus Etruriae) was an Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of t ...
.


History

On February 19, 1399
Gherardo AppianiGherardo Appiani (c. 1370 – May 1405) was the Principality of Piombino, lord of Piombino from 1398 until his death.Mauro Carrara, Signori e principi di Piombino, Bandecchi & Vivaldi, Pontedera 1996. He was a member of the Appiani family. He was bo ...
ceded
Pisa Pisa ( , or ) is a city and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a Administrative division, local administrative division of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides essential public ser ...

Pisa
, which his family had owned since 1392, to the
Visconti of Milan The Visconti of Milan are a noble Italian family. They rose to power in Milan during the Middle Ages where they ruled from 1277 to 1447, initially as lords then as dukes, and several collateral branches still exist. The effective founder of the ...
for 200,000
florins The Florentine Florentine most commonly refers to: * a person or thing from Florence, a city in Italy * the Florentine dialect Florentine may also refer to: Places * Florentin, Tel Aviv, a neighborhood in the southern part of Tel Aviv, Is ...
, reserving Piombino for himself and his successors, becoming its lord; moreover he also took possession of
Populonia Populonia or Populonia Alta (Etruscan__NOTOC__ Etruscan may refer to: Ancient civilisation *The Etruscan language, an extinct language in ancient Italy *Something derived from or related to the Etruscan civilization **Etruscan architecture **Etr ...

Populonia
,
Suvereto Suvereto is a ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality. Importance and function The provides many of the basic civil functions: Civil reg ...
,
Scarlino Scarlino is a ''comune'' (municipality) in the Province of Grosseto in the Italy, Italian region Tuscany, located about southwest of Florence and about northwest of Grosseto. Scarlino borders the following municipalities: Castiglione della Pescai ...
, Buriano, Abbey of San Pancrazio al Fango and the islands of
Pianosa Pianosa () is an island in the Tuscan Archipelago The Tuscan Archipelago is a chain of islands between the Ligurian Sea Image:Ligurian Sea map.png, 300px, The Ligurian Sea The Ligurian Sea ( it, Mar Ligure; french: Mer Ligurienne; lij, Mâ ...

Pianosa
,
Montecristo Montecristo, also Monte Cristo (, ) and formerly Oglasa ( grc, Ὠγλάσσα, Ōglássa), is an island in the Tyrrhenian Sea and part of the Tuscan Archipelago. Administratively it belongs to the comune, municipality of Portoferraio in the pro ...

Montecristo
, and
Elba Elba ( it, isola d'Elba, ; la, Ilva; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into ...

Elba
; making Piombino the capital of this newly created state. Gherardo had his residence built in Piombino in the small square (now Piazza Bovio) and on his death, in 1405, he left the state to his son Iacopo II. The latter, born in 1400, for the first years was under the tutelage of his mother, Donna
Paola ColonnaPaola Colonna (c. 1378 – 3 November 1450) was the lady of Piombino from 1441 until 1445. She was born in Genazzano Genazzano is a town and ''comune The (; plural: ) is a basic Administrative division, constituent entity of Italy, roughl ...
. During the years of regency and afterwards, the politics of the
Appiani family file:Coa_fam_ITA_appiani2.jpg, 220px, Coat of arms of the House of Appiani. The Appiani (also Appiano or d'Appiano) is an Italian nobility, Italian noble family, originally from Al Piano or Appiano, a now disappeared toponym identified with the ...
were oriented first towards an alliance (obtaining protection with a deed of pardon) with the
Republic of Florence The Republic of Florence, officially the Florentine Republic ( it, Repubblica Fiorentina, , or ), was a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organizati ...
, then that of
Siena Siena ( , ; in English sometimes spelled Sienna; lat, Sena Iulia) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The S ...
, and finally again with Florence. When Paola Colonna Appiano died in 1445, the power instead of
Emanuele Emanuele is the Italian form of Manuel (name), Manuel. It may refer to: * Carlo Emanuele Buscaglia (1915–1944), Italian aviator * Emanuele Basile (1949–1980), captain of Carabinieri * Emanuele Belardi (born 1977), Italian football player * Em ...
, son of Gherardo, passed to his sister
Caterina Caterina is a feminine given name which is an Italian language, Italian and Catalan language, Catalan form of the name ''Katherine (given name), Katherine''. Notable people with the name include: In music: * Caterina Assandra, Italian composer an ...
, who counted on the support of her husband Rinaldo Orsini, a mercenary leader. In 1447 Orsini had the ravelin erected as a better defense of the ground gate characterized by a tower, in anticipation of the attack of his brother-in-law Emanuele, who in fact allied himself with Alfonso V of Aragon, Alfonso V, King of Aragon and King of Naples, Naples, who the following year besieged Piombino, also with Sienese and Florentine help: after four months of useless attempts, the king abandoned the invasion, retreating to his own territories and Rinaldo Orsini ruled the lordship until his death from the plague in 1450, a year before his wife. When Caterina died, the Council of Elders of the city proclaimed Emanuele as lord who, like his descendants, held the fiefdom with a valid alliance with the Kingdom of Naples and provided for the well-being of his subjects by encouraging industry and the construction of new buildings. On behalf of Iacopo III Appiani, Iacopo III, new lord of Piombino, Andrea Guardi, Florentine architect and sculptor, between 1465 and 1470 carried out many works that changed the appearance of the city: the citadel, with the Villanova residential palace inside it replacing the old Appiani palace, the chapel and the cistern, he also built the cloister and the baptismal font in the cathedral of the city. Iacopo III was succeeded by his son Iacopo IV Appiani, Iacopo IV who, between 1501 and 1503, lost the lordship to the work of Cesare Borgia, who occupied Piombino: in 1502 his father, Pope Alexander VI, visited the city and the territory staying for some days. With the death of Pope Alexander VI, Cesare Borgia was deprived of the conquered power, and Piombino returned to Iacopo IV: the latter, advised by the Florentines, hosted Niccolò Machiavelli as a strategic consultant, who invited Leonardo da Vinci to study the city defenses in an optimal way. Iacopo IV was succeeded by Iacopo V Appiani, Iacopo V, who welcomed famous artists into his court, such as Il Sodoma and Rosso Fiorentino. On his death he was succeeded by Iacopo IV Appiani, Iacopo IV, under the tutelage of his mother Elena Salviati. In 1548 the lord left Piombino, which from then on started to be a possession of the House of Medici. In 1557 Cosimo I de' Medici, Grand Duke of Tuscany, gave up Piombino, in exchange for Siena and Portoferraio. Iacopo VI, at odds with his subjects for lack of loyalty, left his natural son Alessandro Appiani govern the Piombino state. Alessandro, a dissolute man, attracted the disapproval of the most influential families of the island, who conspired against him, and killed him in an ambush in via Malpertugio in 1590, and entrusted Piombino to the Spanish Felix d'Aragona, commander of the garrison. The minor age of Alessandro's successor, Iacopo VII, caused fear of a Spanish Empire, Spanish annexation, a danger that was repeated on the death of the young prince in 1603: thus began an extremely agitated and confused thirty-year period in which the influence of the Spaniards became more marked, up to the military occupation of Piombino and the island of Elba. After an Appiani family member of a collateral branch had in vain claimed the lordship, it was the sister of Iacopo VII, Isabella Appiani, married to an Iberian noble, who ruled the state, until a revolt fueled by both Spain and the Medici deposed her in 1628.


Decline

After a few years of Spanish rule, in 1634, despite the protests of the Appiani cadet line, Piombino was assigned to Prince Niccolò Ludovisi, son-in-law of Isabella Appiani: these and his heirs, politically linked to Philip IV of Spain, paid little attention to the principality which, from 1646 to 1650, was even occupied by the Kingdom of France, French by order of Cardinal Mazarin. Due to the extinction of the Ludovisi (family), Ludovisi family, the government of Piombino was assumed by the Boncompagni, Boncompagni family: it was the period of the Boncompagni-Ludovisi, who neglected the state, leaving it to be conquered, in the years of the wars of succession, by the French, Spaniards and Neapolitans. The princes, who were also Duchy of Sora, Dukes of Sora and Arce, Lazio, Arce and Grandee, Grandee of Spain, resided in Rome or in Isola del Liri and rarely visited the principality. After the Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle (1748), Treaty of Aix-la-Chapelle, the situation calmed down and the princes, given their remoteness, left the local magistrates, primarily the Council of the Elders, to administer the state in their name. From 1796 the French invasions resumed (which formed a short republic), but the English and the Neapolitans kept the island of Elba. After the Battle of Marengo, the Napoleon, Napoleonic troops annexed Piombino to France. At the behest of Napoleon I, on June 23, 1805, the
Principality of Lucca and Piombino A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the monarch, is head of state for life or until abdication. The legitimacy (political)#monarchy, political l ...
was created, assigned to her sister Elisa Bonaparte and her husband Felice Pasquale Baciocchi.


List of rulers

*Iacopo I Appiani, Iacopo I *Gherardo Appiani, Gherardo 1399–1404 * Iacopo II 1404–41 *Paola Appiani Colonna, Paola 1441–45 *Rinaldo Orsini, Rinaldo 1445–50 *
Caterina Caterina is a feminine given name which is an Italian language, Italian and Catalan language, Catalan form of the name ''Katherine (given name), Katherine''. Notable people with the name include: In music: * Caterina Assandra, Italian composer an ...
1445–51 *
Emanuele Emanuele is the Italian form of Manuel (name), Manuel. It may refer to: * Carlo Emanuele Buscaglia (1915–1944), Italian aviator * Emanuele Basile (1949–1980), captain of Carabinieri * Emanuele Belardi (born 1977), Italian football player * Em ...
1451–57 *Iacopo III Appiani, Iacopo III 1457–74 *Iacopo IV Appiani, Iacopo IV 1474–1511 *Iacopo V Appiani, Iacopo V 1511–45 *Iacopo VI Appiani, Iacopo VI 1545–85 *Alessandro Appiani, Alessandro 1585–89 *Iacopo VII Appiani, Iacopo VII 1589–1603 (prince after 1594) *Rudolf II, Holy Roman Emperor, Rudolf 1603–11 *Isabella Appiani, Isabella 1611–28 *Philip IV of Spain, Philip 1628–34 *Niccolò I Ludovisi, Niccolò I 1634–64 *Giovan Battista Ludovisi, Giovan Battista 1664–99 *Niccolò II Ludovisi, Niccolò II 1699–1700, under the regency of his mother Anna Maria Arduino *Olimpia Ludovisi, Olimpia 1700 *Ippolita Ludovisi, Ippolita 1701–33, with Gregorio II Boncompagni, Gregorio as co-regent (1701–07) *Maria Eleonora I Boncompagni, Eleonora 1734–45 *Gaetano Boncompagni-Ludovisi, Gaetano 1745–77 *Antonio Boncompagni-Ludovisi, Antonio 1778–1805, deposed by French troops in 1799 and 1801


References

* * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Piombino Principality of Piombino, Piombino, Principality Lists of princes History of Tuscany 1805 disestablishments in Italy Italian states