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Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, (William Arthur Philip Louis; born 21 June 1982) is a member of the
British royal family The British royal family comprises and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition of who is or is not a member of the British . Many members support the Queen in undertaking public engagements and often pursue charit ...
. He is the elder son of
Charles, Prince of Wales Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of ind ...

Charles, Prince of Wales
, and
Diana, Princess of Wales Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997), was a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict lega ...

Diana, Princess of Wales
. Since birth, he has been second in the
line of succession to the British throne Succession to the British throne is determined by descent, sex (males born before 28 October 2011 precede their elder sisters in the line of succession), legitimacy, and religion. Under common law, the Crown is inherited by a sovereign's child ...
. Born in
St Mary's Hospital, London St Mary's Hospital is an NHS hospital A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which typic ...
, William was educated at
Wetherby School Wetherby School is a boys' independent school File:Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level, OWID.svg, Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level (2015) An independent school is indep ...
,
Ludgrove School Ludgrove School is an independent school, independent Preparatory school (UK), preparatory boarding school for 200 boys, aged eight years to thirteen. It is situated in the civil parish of Wokingham Without, adjoining the town of Wokingham in th ...
and
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
. He spent parts of his
gap year A gap year, also known as a sabbatical year, is typically a year-long break before or after college/university during which students engage in various educational and developmental activities, such as travel or some type of regular work. Students ...
in
Belize Belize () is a Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole, Kawayib; nl, Caraïben; Papiamento: ) is a region of the Americas that comprises the Caribbean Sea, its surroundi ...

Belize
and
Chile Chile, officially the Republic of Chile, is a country in the western part of South America South America is a entirely in the and mostly in the , with a relatively small portion in the . It can also be described as the southern ...

Chile
before earning a Scottish Master of Arts degree in
geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10. ...

geography
at the
University of St Andrews (Aien aristeuein) , motto_lang = grc , mottoeng = Ever to ExcelorEver to be the Best , established = , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indi ...
. William then trained at
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS or RMA Sandhurst), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academy, military academies of the United Kingdom and is the British Army's initial Commissioned officer, officer trai ...
prior to serving with the
Blues and Royals The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) (RHG/D) is a cavalry regiment Cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldier A soldier is one who fights as part of a ...
. In April 2008, William graduated from
Royal Air Force College Cranwell , colors = , colors_label = , march = The Lincolnshire Poacher , mascot = , battles = , notable_commanders = , identification_symbol = , identification_symbol_label = , anniversaries = The Royal Air Force College (RAFC) is the ...
, joining RAF Search and Rescue Force in early 2009. He served as a full-time pilot with the
East Anglian Air Ambulance The East Anglian Air Ambulance (EAAA) is an air ambulance providing Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) across the English counties of Norfolk Norfolk () is a Counties of England, county in East Anglia in England. It borders Linc ...

East Anglian Air Ambulance
from July 2015 for two years. The Duke performs official duties and engagements on behalf of
the Queen
the Queen
. He holds patronage with over 30 charitable and military organisations, including the
Tusk Trust Tusk Trust is a British non-profit organisation set up in 1990 to advance wildlife conservation across Africa. The charity is influential in the protection of African elephant, African rhinoceros  and African lion, along with many othe ...
, Centrepoint, and
London's Air Ambulance Charity London's Air Ambulance Charity is a registered charity A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. educational, Religion, religious or other activities serving ...
. He undertakes projects through
The Royal Foundation The Royal Foundation of The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge is a charity which supports the work of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. Their projects revolve around conservation, the early years, mental health Mental health, defined by the World ...
, with his charity work revolving around mental health, conservation, and emergency workers. In December 2014, he founded the "United for Wildlife" initiative, which aims to reduce worldwide illegal wildlife trade. In April 2016, the Cambridges and
Prince Harry Prince Harry, Duke of Sussex, (Henry Charles Albert David; born 15 September 1984), is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition ...

Prince Harry
initiated the mental health awareness campaign "Heads Together" to encourage people to open up about their
mental health Mental health is "a state of well-being in which the individual realizes his or her own abilities, can cope with the normal stresses of life, can work productively and fruitfully, and is able to make a contribution to his or her community", accor ...

mental health
issues. In October 2020, William launched the Earthshot Prize, a £50 million initiative to incentivise environmental solutions over the next decade. In 2011, William was made
Duke of Cambridge Duke of Cambridge, one of the eight current royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom , is a hereditary title of specific rank of nobility in the British royal family. The title (named after the city of Cambridge in England) is heritable by agnatic ...
preceding his
marriage Marriage, also called matrimony or wedlock is a culturally and often legally recognized union between people called spouse A religious marriage. A spouse is a significant other Significant other (SO) is colloquially used as a term ...
to
Catherine Middleton Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (born Catherine Elizabeth Middleton; 9 January 1982), is a member of the British royal family. Her husband, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is second in the line of succession to the British throne, making ...

Catherine Middleton
. The couple have three children:
Prince George
Prince George
, Princess Charlotte, and
Prince Louis of Cambridge Prince Louis of Cambridge ( ; Louis Arthur Charles; born 23 April 2018) is a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict legal or formal definition ...
.


Early life

Prince William was born at St Mary's Hospital, London on 21 June 1982 as the first child of
Charles, Prince of Wales Charles, Prince of Wales (Charles Philip Arthur George; born 14 November 1948) is the heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of ind ...

Charles, Prince of Wales
(
heir apparent An heir apparent is a person who is first in an order of succession An order of succession or right of succession is the line of individuals entitled to hold a high office when it becomes vacated such as head of state A head of state ...
to
Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexandra Mary; born 21 April 1926) is Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A constitutional mo ...

Queen Elizabeth II
) and
Diana, Princess of Wales Diana, Princess of Wales (born Diana Frances Spencer; 1 July 1961 – 31 August 1997), was a member of the British royal family The British royal family comprises Queen Elizabeth II and her close relations. There is no strict lega ...

Diana, Princess of Wales
. His names, William Arthur Philip Louis, were announced by Buckingham Palace on 28 June. He was
baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian rite of initiation, admission and Adoption (theology), adoption, almost invariably with the use of water, into Christianity. It may be pe ...

baptised
by the
Archbishop of Canterbury The Archbishop of Canterbury is the senior bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Cat ...
,
Robert Runcie Robert Alexander Kennedy Runcie, Baron Runcie, (2 October 1921 – 11 July 2000) was an English Anglican bishop. He was the Archbishop of Canterbury from 1980 to 1991, having previously been Bishop of St Albans. He travelled the world widely to ...
, in the Music Room of
Buckingham Palace Buckingham Palace () is the London London is the and of and the . It stands on the in south-east England at the head of a down to the , and has been a major settlement for two millennia. The , its ancient core and financial ce ...

Buckingham Palace
on 4 August, the 82nd birthday of his paternal great-grandmother
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A consti ...

Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
. William had six godparents: former King
Constantine II of Greece Constantine II ( el, Κωνσταντίνος Βʹ, ''Konstantínos II'', ; born 2 June 1940) is the former King of the Hellenes who reigned from 6 March 1964 until the abolition of the monarchy on 1 June 1973. He acceded as king following the ...

Constantine II of Greece
(his paternal second cousin once removed); Princess Alexandra, The Honourable Mrs Ogilvy (his paternal first cousin twice removed); the Duchess of Westminster;
Lady Susan Hussey Susan Katharine Hussey, Baroness Hussey of North Bradley, (née Waldegrave; born 1 May 1939), still commonly known as Lady Susan Hussey (her style before her husband was raised to peerage in 1996), is a British noblewoman who serves as a Woman of ...
; Lord Romsey (his paternal second cousin once removed); and Sir
Laurens van der Post Sir Laurens Jan van der Post, (13 December 1906 – 16 December 1996) was a 20th-century South African Afrikaner Afrikaners () are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on th ...
. He was the first child born to a Prince and Princess of Wales since Prince John in 1905. William accompanied his parents on their 1983 tour of Australia and New Zealand, when he was nine months old, as his first trip overseas. He travelled with his family to
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
in 1991 and 1998. Prince William and his younger brother,
Harry Harry may refer to: TV shows *Harry (American TV series), ''Harry'' (American TV series), a 1987 American comedy series starring Alan Arkin *Harry (British TV series), ''Harry'' (British TV series), a 1993 BBC drama that ran for two seasons *Harr ...
, were raised at
Kensington Palace Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British royal family since the 17th century, and is currently the official Lond ...

Kensington Palace
in London, and
Highgrove House Highgrove House is the family residence of the Prince of Wales Prince of Wales ( cy, Tywysog Cymru, ) is a title traditionally and ceremonially granted to the heir apparent of the British throne as a personal honour or dignity, and is not heri ...
in
Gloucestershire Gloucestershire ( abbreviated Glos) is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chamber ...

Gloucestershire
. Known informally as "Wills" within the family, William was nicknamed "Wombat" by his mother, who wished him and his brother to obtain broader life experiences than those usually available to royal children. She took them to
Walt Disney World The Walt Disney World Resort, also called Walt Disney World or Disney World, is an entertainment resort complex in Bay Lake, Florida, Bay Lake and Lake Buena Vista, Florida, Lake Buena Vista, Florida, United States, near the cities of Orlando ...
and
McDonald's McDonald's is an American fast food Fast food is a type of Mass production, mass-produced food designed for commercial resale and with a strong priority placed on "speed of service" versus other relevant factors involved in food scie ...

McDonald's
,
AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus infection and acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) is a spectrum of conditions caused by infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of ...
clinics, shelters for the homeless, and bought them items typically owned by teenagers, such as video games. His parents divorced in 1996. Diana died in a car accident in the early hours of 31 August 1997. William, then aged 15, together with his 12-year-old brother and their father, were staying at
Balmoral Castle Balmoral Castle () is a large estate house Historically, an estate comprises the houses, outbuildings, supporting farmland, and woods that surround the gardens and grounds of a very large property, such as a country house or mansion. It is ...

Balmoral Castle
at the time. The Prince of Wales waited until his sons awoke the following morning to tell them about their mother's death. William accompanied his father, brother, paternal grandfather
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,Multiple sources: * * * * later Philip Mountbatten; 10 June 1921 – 9 April 2021), was the husband of Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexand ...
, and his maternal uncle
Charles Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer Charles Edward Maurice Spencer, 9th Earl Spencer, (born 20 May 1964), styled Viscount Althorp between 1975 and 1992, is a British peerage of the United Kingdom, peer, author, journalist, and broadcaster. He is the younger brother of Diana, Princ ...
, at his mother's funeral. William and Harry walked behind the funeral cortège from Kensington Palace to
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
.


Education

William was educated at
independent schools An independent school is independent in its finances and governance. Also known as private schools, non-governmental, privately funded, or non-state schools, they are not administered by local, state or national governments. In British Engli ...
, starting at Jane Mynors' nursery school and the pre-preparatory
Wetherby School Wetherby School is a boys' independent school File:Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level, OWID.svg, Share enrolled in private institutions at the tertiary education level (2015) An independent school is indep ...
, both in London. Following this, he attended
Ludgrove School Ludgrove School is an independent school, independent Preparatory school (UK), preparatory boarding school for 200 boys, aged eight years to thirteen. It is situated in the civil parish of Wokingham Without, adjoining the town of Wokingham in th ...
near
Wokingham Wokingham is a market town A market town is a European Human settlement, settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages, the right to host market (place), markets (market right), which distinguished it from a vi ...
, Berkshire, and was privately tutored during summers by
Rory Stewart Roderick James Nugent Stewart (born 3 January 1973), known as Rory Stewart, is a British diplomat, author, explorer, academic and politician, who is a senior fellow at Yale University Yale University is a private Ivy League The ...

Rory Stewart
. At Ludgrove, he participated in
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
, swimming, basketball,
clay pigeon shooting Clay pigeon shooting, also known as clay target shooting, is a shooting sport Shooting sports is a group of competitive Competition arises whenever two or more parties strive for a common goal A goal is an idea of the future or de ...
, and
cross country running Cross country running is a sport in which teams and individuals run a race on open-air courses over natural terrain such as dirt or grass. The course, typically long, may include surfaces of grass and soil, earth, pass through woodlands and ope ...
. He sat the entrance exam to
Eton College Eton College () is a public school (private sector) for boys in Eton, Berkshire Eton ( ) is a town in Berkshire, England, on the opposite bank of the River Thames to Windsor, connected to it by Windsor Bridge. The civil parish In ...

Eton College
and was admitted. There, he studied Geography, Biology, and History of Art at
A-Level#REDIRECT A-Level The A Level (Advanced Level) is a subject-based qualification conferred as part of the General Certificate of Education, as well as a school leaving qualification offered by the educational bodies in the United Kingdom and the ...
, obtaining an 'A' in Geography, a 'C' in Biology, and a 'B' in History of Art. At Eton, he took up
water polo Water polo is a competitive sport, competitive team sport played in water between two teams of seven players each. The game consists of four quarters in which the two teams attempt to score goals by throwing the water polo ball, ball into the ...
and continued to play football, captaining his house team. The decision to place William in Eton went against the family tradition of sending royal children to
Gordonstoun Gordonstoun School is a co-educational Independent school (United Kingdom), independent school for boarding and day pupils in Moray, Scotland. It is named after the estate owned by Sir Robert Gordon, 1st Baronet, Sir Robert Gordon in the 17th ce ...
, which his grandfather, father, two uncles, and two cousins all attended. Diana's father and brother both attended Eton. The royal family and the tabloid press agreed William would be allowed to study free from intrusion in exchange for regular updates about his life.
John Wakeham John Wakeham, Baron Wakeham, PC, DL (born 22 June 1932), is a British businessman and Conservative Party politician. Between 1998 and 2012, he was chancellor of Brunel University, and since then has been its chancellor emeritus. He was a direc ...
, chairman of the
Press Complaints Commission 280px, Press Complaints Commission in Salisbury Square The Press Complaints Commission (PCC) was a voluntary regulatory body for British printed newspapers and magazines, consisting of representatives of the major publishers. The PCC closed on ...
, said of the arrangement, "Prince William is not an institution; nor a soap star; nor a football hero. He is a boy: in the next few years, perhaps the most important and sometimes painful part of his life, he will grow up and become a man." After completing his studies at Eton, William took a gap year, during which he took part in
British Army The British Army is the principal land warfare force of the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' us ...
training exercises in
Belize Belize () is a Caribbean The Caribbean (, ; es, Caribe; french: Caraïbes; ht, Karayib; also gcf, label=Antillean Creole, Kawayib; nl, Caraïben; Papiamento: ) is a region of the Americas that comprises the Caribbean Sea, its surroundi ...

Belize
, worked on English dairy farms, visited Africa, and for ten weeks taught children in southern Chile. As part of the
Raleigh International Raleigh International is a sustainable development charity. They work in remote, rural areas to improve access to safe water and sanitation, build community resilience, to sustainably manage natural resources and to protect vulnerable environments ...
programme in the town of
Tortel Tortel is a Chilean Communes of Chile, commune located at the outflow of the Baker River, Chile, Baker River and Pascua River to the Pacific Ocean. It lies between the Northern Patagonian Ice Field, Northern and Southern Patagonian Ice Field in t ...

Tortel
, William lived with other young volunteers, sharing in the common household chores—including cleaning the toilet—and also volunteered as a guest disc jockey at a local radio station. His interest in African culture prompted him to teach himself
Swahili Swahili may refer to: * Swahili language, a Bantu language official in Kenya, Tanzania and Uganda and widely spoken in the African Great Lakes * Swahili people, an ethnic group in East Africa * Swahili culture, the culture of the Swahili people * Sw ...
. By 2001, William was back in the United Kingdom and had enrolled at the
University of St Andrews (Aien aristeuein) , motto_lang = grc , mottoeng = Ever to ExcelorEver to be the Best , established = , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indi ...
. The extra attention did not deter him; he embarked on a degree course in Art History, later changing his main subject to Geography. William wrote his dissertation on the coral reefs of
Rodrigues Rodrigues (french: Île Rodrigues, link=yes ; Creole: ) is a autonomous The federal subject The federal subjects of Russia, also referred to as the subjects of the Russian Federation (russian: субъекты Российской ...

Rodrigues
in the
Indian Ocean The Indian Ocean is the third-largest of the world's five ocean The ocean (also the or the world ocean) is the body of that covers approximately 70.8% of the surface of and contains 97% of . Another definition is "any of the large ...

Indian Ocean
and graduated with Scottish Master of Arts degree with upper second class honours in 2005. While at university, he represented the Scottish national universities water polo team at the Celtic Nations tournament in 2004. He was known as "Steve" by other students to avoid any journalists overhearing and realising his identity. William returned to St Andrews alongside his wife in February 2011 as patron of the university's 600th Anniversary Appeal. Upon graduation from university, William
interned Internment is the imprisonment of people, commonly in large groups, without charges or intent to file charges. The term is especially used for the confinement "of enemy citizens in war War is an intense armed conflict between states ...
in
land management Land management is the process of managing Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonwealth of Nations, Commonwealth English; American and British English s ...
at
Chatsworth House Chatsworth House is a stately home in the Derbyshire Dales, north-east of Bakewell and west of Chesterfield, Derbyshire, Chesterfield, England. The seat of the Duke of Devonshire, it has belonged to the House of Cavendish, Cavendish family sin ...

Chatsworth House
and in banking at
HSBC HSBC Holdings plc is a British multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...

HSBC
. To prepare for his eventual management of the
Duchy of Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall ( kw, Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England Currently, there are two duchies in England; the royal Duchy of Lancaster and the royal Duchy of Cornwall. Unlike historic duchy, duchies in England, these are no ...

Duchy of Cornwall
, in 2014, he enrolled in a vocational agricultural management course at Cambridge, which was organised by the Cambridge Programme for Sustainability Leadership (CPSL), of which his father is patron. According to a
CNN The Cable News Network (CNN) is a multinational news-based pay television Pay television, also known as subscription television, premium television or, when referring to an individual service, a premium channel, refers to subscription The ...

CNN
report in 2014, the duchy is "a £760 million (about
US$ The United States dollar (symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, ...
1.25 billion) entity established in 1337 to provide a private income for use by the reigning monarch's eldest son", which William will inherit when his father becomes king.


Military and air ambulance service


Military training and secondments

Having decided to follow a military career, he was admitted to the
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS or RMA Sandhurst), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academy, military academies of the United Kingdom and is the British Army's initial Commissioned officer, officer trai ...
in January 2006. William officially received his commission as a
lieutenant A lieutenant ( or abbreviated Lt., Lt, LT, Lieut and similar) is a commissioned officer An officer is a person who holds a position of authority as a member of an armed force A military, also known collectively as armed forces, i ...
at midnight. As "Lieutenant Wales"—a name based on his father's title Prince of Wales—he followed his younger brother into the
Blues and Royals The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) (RHG/D) is a cavalry regiment Cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldier A soldier is one who fights as part of a ...
as a troop commander in an armoured reconnaissance unit, after which he spent five months training for the post at
Bovington Camp Bovington Camp () is a British Army military base in Dorset, England. Together with Lulworth Camp it forms part of Bovington Garrison. The garrison is home to The Armour Centre and contains two barracks complexes and two forest and heathland trai ...
, Dorset. William's position as second-in-line to the throne and the convention of ministers advising against placing that person into dangerous situations cast doubts on his chances of seeing combat, which increased after Prince Harry's deployment was cancelled in 2007 due to "specific threats". William, instead, went on to train in the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
and
Royal Air Force The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegraph' use Britain as a synonym for th ...
, obtaining his commission as a
sub-lieutenant Sub-lieutenant is a junior military officer rank. In many navies, a sub-lieutenant is a naval commissioned Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for servi ...
in the former and
flying officer Flying officer (Fg Off in the RAF and IAF; in the RAAF; in the RNZAF; formerly F/O in all services and still frequently in the RAF) is a junior commissioned Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (re ...
in the latter—both broadly equivalent to the army rank of lieutenant. After completing his training, William undertook an attachment with the Royal Air Force at
RAF Cranwell Royal Air Force Cranwell or more simply RAF Cranwell is a Royal Air Force station in Lincolnshire, England, close to the village of Cranwell, near Sleaford. Among other functions, it is home to the RAF College Cranwell, Royal Air Force College ...
. Upon completing the course he was presented with his RAF wings by his father, who had received his own wings after training at Cranwell. During this secondment, William flew to Afghanistan in a
C-17 Globemaster The McDonnell Douglas/Boeing C-17 Globemaster III is a large military transport aircraft that was developed for the United States Air Force (USAF) from the 1980s to the early 1990s by McDonnell Douglas. The C-17 carries forward the name of two ...

C-17 Globemaster
that repatriated the body of Trooper Robert Pearson. William was then seconded to train with the
Royal Navy The Royal Navy (RN) is the United Kingdom's naval warfare Naval warfare is combat Combat ( French for ''fight'') is a purposeful violent conflict meant to physically harm or kill the opposition. Combat may be armed (using weapon A ...
. He completed an accelerated Naval Officer training course at the
Britannia Royal Naval College Britannia Royal Naval College (BRNC), commonly known as Dartmouth, is the naval academy A naval academy is a national institution that provides undergraduate-level education for prospective naval officers. Naval training commonly took place only ...

Britannia Royal Naval College
. Whilst serving on HMS ''Iron Duke'' in June 2008, William participated in a £40m drug bust in the Atlantic, north-east of
Barbados Barbados is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individual's birth, residence or c ...

Barbados
. He was a part of the crew on the Lynx helicopter which helped seize 900 kg of cocaine from a speedboat.


Royal Air Force service

In January 2009, William transferred his commission to the RAF and was promoted to
Flight Lieutenant Flight lieutenant is a junior commissioned Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the creation o ...
. He trained to become a helicopter pilot with the RAF's Search and Rescue Force. In January 2010, he graduated from the
Defence Helicopter Flying School The Defence Helicopter Flying School (DHFS) was a military flying school based at RAF Shawbury in Shropshire, England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with W ...
at
RAF Shawbury Royal Air Force Shawbury, otherwise known as RAF Shawbury, is a Royal Air Force station near the village of Shawbury in Shropshire in the West Midlands (region), West Midlands of England. History The First World War The station at Shawbury was fi ...
. On 26 January 2010, he transferred to the Search and Rescue Training Unit at
RAF Valley Royal Air Force Valley or more simply RAF Valley ( cy, Llu Awyr Brenhinol Y Fali) is a Royal Air Force station This list of RAF Stations is a list of all current Royal Air Force stations (military air bases), aerodrome, airfields, and adm ...
,
Anglesey Anglesey (; cy, Ynys Môn ), an island off the north-west coast of Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individua ...
, to receive training on the Sea King search and rescue helicopter; he graduated in September 2010. This made him the first member of the British royal family since
Henry VIIHenry VII may refer to: * Henry VII of England (1457–1509), King of England and Lord of Ireland from 1485 until his death in 1509; the founder of the House of Tudor * Henry VII, Duke of Bavaria (died 1047), count of Luxembourg (as Henry II) from 1 ...
to live in Wales. William's first rescue mission as co-pilot of an RAF Sea King was a response to an emergency call from Liverpool Coastguard on 2 October 2010. In November 2011, he participated in a search-and-rescue mission involving a cargo ship that was sinking in the Irish Sea; William, as a co-pilot, helped rescue two sailors. William was deployed to the
Falkland Islands The Falkland Islands (; es, Islas Malvinas, ) are an archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece ...

Falkland Islands
for a six-week tour with No. 1564 Flight from February to March 2012. The Argentine government condemned the Duke's deployment to the islands close to the 30th anniversary of the beginning of the
Falklands War The Falklands War ( es , link=no, Guerra de las Malvinas) was a ten-week undeclared war An undeclared war is military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or par ...
as a "provocative act". In June 2012, Prince William gained a qualification to be captain or
pilot in command The pilot in command (PIC) of an aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that is able to flight, fly by gaining support from the Atmosphere of Earth, air. It counters the force of gravity by using either Buoyancy, static lift or by using the L ...
of a Sea King rather than a co-pilot. His active service as an RAF search-and-rescue pilot ended in September 2013. He later became patron to the
Battle of Britain Memorial Flight The Battle of Britain Memorial Flight (BBMF) is a Royal Air Force "Through Adversity to the Stars" , colours = , colours_label = , march = Royal Air Force March Past , masc ...
.


Air ambulance pilot

In 2014, it was announced that William would accept a full-time role as a pilot with the
East Anglian Air Ambulance The East Anglian Air Ambulance (EAAA) is an air ambulance providing Helicopter Emergency Medical Services (HEMS) across the English counties of Norfolk Norfolk () is a Counties of England, county in East Anglia in England. It borders Linc ...

East Anglian Air Ambulance
(EAAA) based at
Cambridge Airport Cambridge City Airport , previously Marshall Airport Cambridge UK, is a regional airport in Cambridgeshire Cambridgeshire (abbreviated Cambs.) is a Counties of England, county in the East of England, bordering Lincolnshire to the north, ...

Cambridge Airport
. Despite his qualifications as a military helicopter pilot, William needed a civil pilot's licence and further training before being permitted to take command of the Air Ambulance. Although his position was paid, Kensington Palace announced that William would donate his full salary to the EAAA charity. He underwent part of his training as an EAAA pilot at
Norwich Airport Norwich Airport is a small international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilities to park and maintain aircra ...
. On 13 July 2015, William started his new job, which he felt was a natural progression from his previous role as an RAF search-and-rescue pilot. The Duke described working irregular shifts and dealing mostly with critical care cases. He also publicly discussed the consequences, witnessing intensive trauma and bereavement as an emergency worker, stating that it impacted his mental health and personal life. ''
BBC The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a public service broadcaster, headquartered at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London. It is the world's oldest national broadcaster, and the largest broadcasting, broadcaster in the world by ...

BBC
'' has written that the Duke was "exposed to the
National Health Service The National Health Service (NHS) is the umbrella term for the publicly funded healthcare systems of the United Kingdom (UK). Since 1948, they have been funded out of general taxation. There are three systems which are referred to using the " ...
in a way that no other senior royal has been or possibly ever will be." William left his position with EAAA in July 2017 to assume full-time royal duties on behalf of his grandmother. After supporting an anniversary campaign for
London's Air Ambulance Charity London's Air Ambulance Charity is a registered charity A charitable organization or charity is an organization whose primary objectives are philanthropy and social well-being (e.g. educational, Religion, religious or other activities serving ...
in 2019, the Duke became the charity's official patron in March 2020. In May 2020, he granted permission to the charity to use Kensington Palace's private lawn to refuel during the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. To mark Air Ambulance Week 2020, he wrote a letter thanking air ambulance workers, stating his "profound respect" for the community, particularly during the "immeasurably difficult" outbreak, and stated that "the country owes you an enormous debt of gratitude."


Personal life


Bachelorhood

In 2001, William met
Catherine Middleton Catherine, Duchess of Cambridge (born Catherine Elizabeth Middleton; 9 January 1982), is a member of the British royal family. Her husband, Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, is second in the line of succession to the British throne, making ...

Catherine Middleton
while they were students in residence at
St Salvator's Hall St Salvator's Hall (affectionately known as ''Sallies'') is a student Hall of residence at the University of St Andrews. It lies close to the quadrangle of the United College, St Andrews and St Salvator's Chapel, a foundation which was endowe ...

St Salvator's Hall
at the
University of St Andrews (Aien aristeuein) , motto_lang = grc , mottoeng = Ever to ExcelorEver to be the Best , established = , type = Public In public relations Public relations (PR) is the practice of managing and disseminating information from an indi ...
. She reportedly caught William's attention at a charity fashion show on campus. The couple began dating in 2003. During their second year, William shared a flat with Middleton and two other friends. From 2003 to 2005, they both resided at Balgove House on the
Strathtyrum Strathtyrum is a country estate in the north-western outskirts of St Andrews, Fife, Scotland. It is accessed via the A91 road, A91. Etymology The name ''Strathtyrum'' was recorded as ''Trestirum'' in 1190, and may rooted in either a Scottish Ga ...
estate with two roommates. Their relationship was followed so closely by the tabloid press that bookmakers took bets on the possibility of marriage, and the retail chain
Woolworths Woolworth, Woolworth's, or Woolworths may refer to: Businesses * F. W. Woolworth Company, the original US-based chain of "five and dime" (5¢ and 10¢) stores * Woolworths Group, former operator of the Woolworths chain of shops in the UK, ceased ...
produced memorabilia bearing their likenesses. Media attention became so intense that William formally asked the press to keep their distance from Middleton. On 15 December 2006, Middleton attended Prince William's Passing Out Parade at the
Royal Military Academy Sandhurst The Royal Military Academy Sandhurst (RMAS or RMA Sandhurst), commonly known simply as Sandhurst, is one of several military academy, military academies of the United Kingdom and is the British Army's initial Commissioned officer, officer trai ...
. In April 2007, William and Middleton ended their relationship. Middleton and her family attended the
Concert for Diana Concert for Diana was a benefit concert held at the newly built Wembley Stadium in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands o ...
in July 2007 at
Wembley Stadium Wembley Stadium (branded as Wembley Stadium connected by EE for sponsorship reasons) is a football stadium in Wembley, London. It opened in 2007 on the site of the Wembley Stadium (1923), original Wembley Stadium, which was demolished from 2002 ...

Wembley Stadium
, where she and Prince William sat two rows apart. The couple were subsequently seen together in public on a number of occasions and news sources stated that they had "rekindled their relationship". Middleton was in attendance during the
Order of the Garter (Shame on him who thinks evil of it) , eligibility = , criteria = At Her Majesty's pleasure , status = Currently constituted , founder = Edward III Edward III (13 November 131221 June 1377), also known as Edward ...
procession ceremony at
Windsor Castle Windsor Castle is a at in the English county of . It is strongly associated with the and succeeding , and embodies almost a millennium of . The original castle was built in the 11th century after the by . Since the time of (who re ...

Windsor Castle
in June 2008, where Prince William was made a Royal Knight of the Garter. In June 2010, the couple moved into a cottage on the Bodorgan Estate in
Anglesey Anglesey (; cy, Ynys Môn ), an island off the north-west coast of Wales Wales ( cy, Cymru ) is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an individua ...
, Wales, where William resided during his RAF search-and-rescue training and subsequent career.


Marriage and children

On 16 November 2010, Clarence House announced that William and Catherine were to marry; the couple had become engaged in Kenya in October. The engagement ring given by William to Catherine Diana, Princess of Wales's jewels#Engagement ring, had belonged to his mother. Wedding of Prince William and Catherine Middleton, The wedding took place on 29 April 2011 in
Westminster Abbey Westminster Abbey, formally titled the Collegiate Church of Saint Peter at Westminster, is a large, mainly Gothic Gothic or Gothics may refer to: People and languages *Goths or Gothic people, the ethnonym of a group of East Germanic tribes ...

Westminster Abbey
, London. A few hours before the ceremony, William's new titles
Duke of Cambridge Duke of Cambridge, one of the eight current royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom , is a hereditary title of specific rank of nobility in the British royal family. The title (named after the city of Cambridge in England) is heritable by agnatic ...
, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced. Estimates of the global audience for the wedding ranged around 300 million or more, whilst 26 million watched the event live in Britain alone. The couple were given the country home, Anmer Hall, on the Sandringham Estate, as a wedding gift from the Queen. The Duke and Duchess owned an English Cocker Spaniel, Lupo (dog), Lupo, from December 2011 to November 2020. Catherine's first pregnancy was announced on 3 December 2012. She was admitted on 22 July 2013 to the Lindo Wing of
St Mary's Hospital, London St Mary's Hospital is an NHS hospital A hospital is a health care institution providing patient treatment with specialized medical and nursing staff and medical equipment. The best-known type of hospital is the general hospital, which typic ...
, where Prince William had been delivered. Later that day, she gave birth to . On 8 September 2014, it was announced that the Duchess of Cambridge was pregnant with her second child. She was admitted on 2 May 2015 to the same hospital and gave birth to Princess Charlotte. The Duchess's third pregnancy was announced on 4 September 2017; Prince Louis of Cambridge, Prince Louis was born on 23 April 2018. The family officially reside at
Kensington Palace Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British royal family since the 17th century, and is currently the official Lond ...

Kensington Palace
. William is the godfather of Prince Constantine Alexios of Greece and Denmark (b. 1998), a distant relation though his grandfather, the Duke of Edinburgh, and Mia Tindall (b. 2014), the eldest child of his paternal cousin, Zara Tindall.


Wealth and inheritance

William and his brother Harry inherited the "bulk" of the £12.9 million left by their mother on their respective 30th birthdays, a figure that had grown since her 1997 death to £10 million each in 2014. In 2002 ''The Times'' reported that William would also share with his brother a payment of £4.9 million from trust funds established by their great-grandmother,
Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother Elizabeth Angela Marguerite Bowes-Lyon (4 August 1900 – 30 March 2002) was Queen of the United Kingdom The monarchy of the United Kingdom, commonly referred to as the British monarchy, is the constitutional monarchy A consti ...

Queen Elizabeth The Queen Mother
, on their respective 21st birthdays and would share a payment of £8 million upon their respective 40th birthdays. As the eldest son of the heir-apparent, William is expected to inherit the
Duchy of Cornwall The Duchy of Cornwall ( kw, Duketh Kernow) is one of two royal duchies in England Currently, there are two duchies in England; the royal Duchy of Lancaster and the royal Duchy of Cornwall. Unlike historic duchy, duchies in England, these are no ...

Duchy of Cornwall
, which would bring him an additional income. In 2014, the brothers inherited their Wedding dress of Lady Diana Spencer, mother's wedding dress along with many other of her personal possessions including dresses, diamond tiaras, jewels, letters, and paintings. The brothers also received the original lyrics and score of "Candle in the Wind 1997, Candle in the Wind" by Bernie Taupin and Elton John as performed by John at Diana's funeral.


Health

On 3 June 1991, William was admitted to Royal Berkshire Hospital after being accidentally hit on the forehead by a fellow pupil wielding a golf club. He suffered a depressed fracture of the skull and was operated on at Great Ormond Street Hospital, resulting in a permanent scar. In a 2009 interview, he dubbed this scar a "Harry Potter (character), Harry Potter scar" and said, "I call it that because it glows sometimes and some people notice it—other times they don't notice it at all". On 1 November 2020, it was reported that William had tested positive for Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2, coronavirus in April but decided not to alert the media to 'avoid alarming the nation'. ''The Daily Telegraph'' reported he had been "very ill" and had isolated away from his family; other sources say that he had not been seriously ill, not bed-ridden and working for most of the time.


Public life

At the age of 21, William was appointed a Counsellor of State; he first served in that capacity when the Queen attended the Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting 2003, Commonwealth Heads of Government Meeting in 2003. On his 21st birthday, William accompanied his father on a visit to Wales, visiting the Anglesey Food Festival and opening a centre for the homeless in Newport, Wales, Newport. Upon graduating from university, William began royal duties in support of, and on behalf of, the Queen at official events, public engagements, and overseas tours. In July 2005, he embarked on his first solo overseas tour, travelling to New Zealand to participate in World War II commemorations. For the 30th anniversary of his father's charity The Prince's Trust, William and his brother were jointly interviewed for the first time by television personalities Ant & Dec. According to author Tina Brown, he had, like his father, expressed a desire to become Governor-General of Australia. Prime Minister of Australia John Howard expressed his wish for the position to be held by an Australian citizen. In 2009, the Queen set up a Private office (official), private office for William with David Manning as his adviser. Manning accompanied him in January 2010 as he toured Auckland and Wellington; William opened the new building of the Supreme Court of New Zealand and was welcomed by a Māori people, Māori chief. In June 2010, William and his brother visited Botswana, Lesotho, and South Africa, visiting projects relating to wildlife, sport, and young children. In November 2010, he attended a memorial service held on Remembrance Day at Camp Bastion, Afghanistan. In March 2011, William visited Christchurch, New Zealand, shortly after the 2011 Christchurch earthquake, earthquake, and spoke at the memorial service at Hagley Park, Christchurch, Hagley Park on behalf of his grandmother. He also travelled to Australia to visit areas affected by flooding in Queensland and Victoria (Australia), Victoria. In April 2011, ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine selected him as one of the 100 Most Influential People in the World. In May 2011, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge met with U.S President Barack Obama and First Lady Michelle Obama at Buckingham Palace. The couple 2011 royal tour of Canada, toured Canada in summer 2011, attending Canada Day celebrations on Parliament Hill. On 2 November, the Duke and Duchess visited the UNICEF Supply Division for malnourished children in Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark. William and Catherine served as ambassadors for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London, during multiple sporting events throughout the games. In September 2012, they toured Singapore, Malaysia, Tuvalu, and the Solomon Islands as part of Diamond Jubilee of Elizabeth II, the Queen's Diamond Jubilee celebrations. The Duke and Duchess attended further commemorations of the Jubilee throughout the year, including the Thames Diamond Jubilee Pageant in July. The Duke hosted his first investiture ceremony at Buckingham Palace in October 2013. In April 2014, William and Catherine undertook a royal tour to New Zealand and Australia with their son, . The itinerary included visiting the Plunket Society for children and visiting fire-damaged areas in New South Wales. In June 2014, the couple visited France to attend the commemoration of the 70th anniversary of the Normandy landings at Gold Beach. In September 2014, the Duke visited Malta to commemorate its 50th independence anniversary, substituting for his wife after the announcement of her second pregnancy. On 21 October, the Duke and Duchess met the President of Singapore, Tony Tan, during his state visit to the UK. In December 2014, the William met with President Obama in the Oval Office, and made a speech at the World Bank in Washington, D. C., condemning the illegal trade in wildlife. In December 2014, the couple visited New York City, New York and attended a charity dinner at the Metropolitan Museum of Art. In February 2015, the Duke visited Japan, meeting with Emperor Akihito and Empress Michiko at the Tokyo Imperial Palace, Imperial Palace and visiting survivors devastated by the 2011 Tōhoku earthquake and tsunami, 2011 tsunami. From 1 to 4 March, the Duke visited the Chinese cities Beijing, Shanghai, and Yunnan and met with President Xi Jinping. It was the first royal visit to mainland China in almost three decades. In April 2016, the William and his wife undertook a tour to India and Bhutan. Activities included visiting children's charities such as Childline India, as well as a visit to Lingkana Palace. Later that month, the couple met again with the Obamas at
Kensington Palace Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British royal family since the 17th century, and is currently the official Lond ...

Kensington Palace
. In April 2016, William and Catherine toured to India and Bhutan. The couple toured Canada once again in September 2016. In November 2016, he visited Vietnam, meeting with Prime Minister of Vietnam, Prime Minister Nguyen Xuan Phuc and touring local primary schools. Countries visited by the couple in 2017 include France, Poland, Germany, and Belgium. In January 2018, the couple visited Sweden and Norway. The visits, which were, like others, requested by the Foreign Office, were interpreted to benefit European Union–United Kingdom relations, UK-European relations post Brexit. In June 2018, the Duke toured Jordan, Israel and Palestine. In February 2019, William and Catherine carried out a two-day visit of Northern Ireland, visiting Belfast, Fermanagh, and Ballymena. In March and April 2019, William spent three weeks working for MI6, MI5 and GCHQ. The Duke and Duchess toured Pakistan in October 2019, which was the royal family's first visit to the country in 13 years. In December 2019, William visited Kuwait and Oman, commemorating the 120th anniversary of the Anglo-Kuwaiti Agreement of 1899. In March 2020, the couple carried out a three-day tour of Ireland, visiting County Meath, Kildare, and Galway. In October 2020, the Duke and Duchess met Volodymyr Zelensky, the President of Ukraine, and First Lady Olena Zelenska, at Buckingham Palace, the first royal engagement held at the residence since the start of the COVID-19 pandemic. In December, the couple embarked on a three-day tour of England, Scotland, and Wales via the British royal train "to pay tribute to the inspiring work of individuals, organisations and initiatives across the country" in 2020. Prime Minister Boris Johnson expressed his support for the initiative, while First Minister of Scotland Nicola Sturgeon criticised the tour, citing travel restrictions; UK, Scottish and Welsh governments were consulted before planning the tour. In William's capacity as Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland, the couple toured Edinburgh, Fife and Orkney in May 2021. In Cornwall on 11 June 2021, William and Catherine attended the 47th G7 summit, G7 summit for the first time. They also attended a reception, where the Duke and his father discussed governmental and corporate solutions to environmental problems.


Charity work and interests


Humanitarian and environmental patronages

William became aware of HIV/AIDS in the mid-1990s when he accompanied his mother and brother on visits to shelters and clinics for patients. In January 2005, William and his brother volunteered at a British Red Cross aid distribution centre to pack emergency supplies for countries affected by the 2004 Indian Ocean earthquake and tsunami, 2004 Boxing Day tsunami. In September that year, William granted his patronage to Centrepoint, a charity that assists the homeless. In December 2009, he, as part of a Centrepoint-organised event, spent the night sleeping bag near the Blackfriars Bridge to raise awareness of the experiences of homeless youth. The Duke opened their new facility, Apprenticeship House, in November 2019 to mark their 50-year anniversary. In 2005, William worked in the children's unit at The Royal Marsden NHS Foundation Trust, The Royal Marsden Hospital, his mother's former patronage, for two days of work experience; he also assisted in the medical research, catering, and fundraising departments. In May that year, he spent two weeks in North Wales with Mountain Rescue England and Wales. In May 2007, William became patron of both organisations. In October 2020, the Duke laid the foundation stone of the hospital's Oak Cancer Centre, 30 years after his mother did the same for their Chelsea Wing in 1990. Prince William became a patron of the
Tusk Trust Tusk Trust is a British non-profit organisation set up in 1990 to advance wildlife conservation across Africa. The charity is influential in the protection of African elephant, African rhinoceros  and African lion, along with many othe ...
in December 2005, a charity that works towards conserving wildlife and initiating community development, including providing education, across Africa. He became associated with the organisation after he witnessed its work first hand in Africa. Stating that "rural African initiatives that foster education, responsibility and participation in the local community light the way to conservation", he carried out his first official duty with the trust in launching a bike ride across the African continent in 2008. Later, William helped with launching the Tusk Conservation Awards, which have been presented to selected environmental activists annually since 2013. William has occasionally commented on the effects of overpopulation on the wildlife of Africa, but his remarks have been criticised for not taking resource consumption and population density into consideration, both of which affect wildlife in rich and developed countries. In 2007, William and Harry organised the
Concert for Diana Concert for Diana was a benefit concert held at the newly built Wembley Stadium in London London is the capital city, capital and List of urban areas in the United Kingdom, largest city of England and the United Kingdom. The city stands o ...
, in memory of their mother, which benefitted the charities and patronages of Diana, William, and Harry. In 2010, he also became a patron of 100 Women in Hedge Funds Philanthropic Initiatives. William succeeded Richard Attenborough, Lord Attenborough in 2010 as the fifth president of the British Academy of Film and Television Arts. In March 2011, the Duke and Duchess set up a gift fund held by The Foundation of Prince William and Prince Harry to allow well-wishers who wanted to give them a wedding gift to donate money to charities instead. The gift fund supported 26 charities of the couple's choice, incorporating the armed forces, children, the elderly, art, sport and conservation. The charity has since been renamed The Royal Foundation, The Royal Foundation of the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge. In December 2014, the Duke founded the United for Wildlife Transport Taskforce, which aims to reduce worldwide illegal wildlife trade. The Duke has spoken out for LGBT rights as part of his work against cyberbullying, stating the importance of being "proud of the person you are" and discussing the effects of online abuse and discrimination. In 2016, he appeared in the July issue of ''Attitude (magazine), Attitude'' and became the first member of the royal family to be featured on the cover of a gay magazine. He was recognised at the British LGBT Awards in May 2017. In 2016, the Royal Foundation launched multiple mental health initiatives, including Heads Together, a campaign led by the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry to de-stigmatise mental health. Legacy programmes include Heads Up, launched in May 2019 in partnership with the Football Association, utilising football to affect the conversation surrounding mental health in adults. Later that month, the Duke and Duchess together with William's brother and sister-in-law launched Shout, the UK's first 24/7 text messaging service for those who suffer from mental issues. In October 2019, the Duke of Cambridge, together with other members of the royal family, voiced a PSA video for Public Health England "as part of its Every Mind Matters program". William has cited his interest in mental health to his experiences as an air ambulance pilot, as well as his work with homelessness, veterans welfare, and his wife's advocacy on addiction. William has been patron of homelessness charity The Passage since 2019 after first visiting the center in 1992 with his mother. In October 2020, he wrote the introduction to the organisation's 40th-anniversary fundraising cookbook, discussing the importance of helping victims of homelessness during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, COVID-19 pandemic. In December 2020, the Duke volunteered at the charity to help prepare donation bags for homeless residents in emergency hotel accommodations and spoke with residents about their experiences. In March 2020, the Duke appeared in a video for the National Emergencies Trust, launching a fundraising appeal to help charities during the pandemic. The appeal raised £11 million in its first week, eventually totalling to £90 million, with the money going out to "front line charities" and to the UK Community Foundations to be distributed among "local community foundations". In April 2020, he officially became the patron of the organisation. In late March 2020, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge began supporting a new mental health initiative by the Public Health England amidst the coronavirus pandemic. He made a surprise appearance in ''The Big Night In'', a 20 April 2020 telethon held during the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from , , "all" and , , "local people" the 'crowd') is an of an that has spread across a large region, for instance multiple or worldwide, affecting a substantial numbe ...

COVID-19 pandemic
, in a skit which he held a video call with Stephen Fry, who revised his role as (a descendant of) List of Blackadder characters#Melchett, Lord Melchett, from the ''Blackadder'' series. Later that month, the Duke and Duchess announced Our Frontline, an initiative providing mental health support to emergency medical workers. In May 2020, the Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's recorded radio message for Mental Health Awareness Week was broadcast across all the stations in the UK. In May and June 2020, the couple, alongside their children, delivered food parcels made on the Sandringham Estate to local isolated pensioners during the COVID-19 pandemic in the United Kingdom, COVID-19 pandemic. In June 2020, the Duke of Cambridge stated that he had been serving as a volunteer on the Shout hotline during the pandemic. In September 2020, the Duke established the Emergency Responders Senior Leaders Board, commissioned by the foundation to research the mental health and wellbeing of emergency responders. The project is in partnership with King's College London and the Open University. After two years of research, the Duke launched the Earthshot Prize in October 2020, designed to provide funding and incentive for environmental solutions over the next decade. The Prize is slated to be given every year from 2021 until 2030 to five winners each year, in accordance with five categories detailing the restoration of nature, air cleanliness, ocean conservation, waste-free living, and climate change. The selection process will be performed by the Duke, alongside a council of judges from six continents, overseen by a panel of experts. The first awards ceremony is slated to take place in London in autumn 2021. Following the launch, William gave a TED Talk on environmental protection and conservation as part of the TED Countdown climate change initiative. Later that month, the Duke took over the patronages of Flora and Fauna International and the British Trust for Ornithology, passed on from the Queen and Prince Philip. In the same month, he appeared in an ITV Documentary titled ''Prince William: A Planet For Us All'' to discuss environmental issues. In December 2020, the Duke and Duchess became joint patrons of NHS Charities Together. In February 2021, William visited a vaccination centre in King's Lynn and later encouraged use of the vaccine, denouncing COVID-19 misinformation#Vaccine, false information that could cause vaccine hesitancy. In May 2021, he got his first dose of COVID-19 vaccine by NHS staff at the Science Museum in London. In September 2021, it was reported that William had helped an Afghan officer who was a graduate of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst and an assistant to the British troops be evacuated from the Kabul airport along with more than 10 members of his family amid the 2021 Taliban offensive.


Sport

William often plays polo to raise money for charity. He is a fan of
football Football is a family of s that involve, to varying degrees, a to score a . Unqualified, normally means the form of football that is the most popular where the word is used. Sports commonly called ''football'' include (known as ''soccer'' ...
, and supports the English club Aston Villa F.C., Aston Villa. He became President of The Football Association, England's Football Association in May 2006 and vice-royal patron of the Welsh Rugby Union (WRU) in February 2007, supporting the Queen as patron. The same year, the WRU's decision to name a new cup for test matches between Wales and South Africa the Prince William Cup caused controversy; some believed it would have been more appropriate to name it after Ray Gravell. In December 2010, William and Prime Minister David Cameron attended a meeting with FIFA vice-president Chung Mong-joon at which Chung suggested a vote-trading deal for the right to host the 2018 World Cup in England. The English delegation reported the suggestion to FIFA's ethics investigator because they considered vote-swapping to be a violation of anti-collusion rules. In 2011, William as President of the English FA, voted against Australia 2022 FIFA World Cup bid, Australia's 2022 FIFA bid and instead voted for South Korea; despite being the Monarchy of Australia, country's future heir. In 2020, again as President of the English FA, he voted against the joint Australia–New Zealand 2023 FIFA Women's World Cup bid and instead voted for Colombia 2023 FIFA Women's World Cup bid, Colombia. In February 2021, following an investigation into racism directed at Marcus Rashford, the Duke released a statement as president of the FA, denouncing the "racist abuse... whether on the pitch, in the stands, or on social media" as "despicable" and stating that "we all have a responsibility" to create an environment of tolerance and accountability. In April 2021, William criticised the planned breakaway competition European Super League, The Super League, adding that he "share[d] the concerns of fans about the proposed Super League and the damage it risks causing to the game we love." In July 2021, he condemned racist attacks against England football players following their loss at the UEFA Euro 2020 finale. In 2006, William, along with other Sandhurst officers, took part in a run to support the charity Sport Relief, as he had done in 2004 with a team from Clarence House. In May 2007, William became patron of the English Schools' Swimming Association. In 2012, together with the Duchess of Cambridge and Prince Harry, William launched Coach Core. The program was set up following the 2012 Olympics and provides apprenticeship opportunities for people who desire to pursue a career as a professional coach. In 2013, he succeeded his grandfather
Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh Prince Philip, Duke of Edinburgh (born Prince Philip of Greece and Denmark,Multiple sources: * * * * later Philip Mountbatten; 10 June 1921 – 9 April 2021), was the husband of Queen Elizabeth II Elizabeth II (Elizabeth Alexand ...
, as president of the UK charity Fields in Trust. In 2014 he and the Duchess were awarded Honorary Life Membership of the Marylebone Cricket Club. In May 2020, the Duke of Cambridge appeared in a BBC One Documentary titled ''Football, Prince William and Our Mental Health'' as a part of a campaign to promote men to discuss their mental issues using football as a common medium. Both William and his brother are enthusiastic motorcyclists; William owns a Ducati 1198, Ducati 1198 S Corse. In May 2014, William, like his father and paternal grandfather, became president of the British Sub-Aqua Club (BSAC). He enthusiastically took part in a bandy event in Stockholm in January 2018.


Privacy and the media

The death of Diana, Princess of Wales, in Paris while being chased by paparazzi in 1997, influenced the Duke's attitude towards the media. The Duke and his wife have asked that, when off-duty, their privacy should be respected. On 13 November 2005, an article appeared in the ''News of the World'' written by royal editor Clive Goodman, that claimed that Prince William was in the process of borrowing a portable editing suite from ITV Network, ITV royal correspondent Tom Bradby. Prince William noted that another equally improbable leak had recently taken place regarding an appointment he had made with a knee surgeon. After some discussion, the Prince and Bradby concluded it was likely that their voicemails were being accessed. An investigation under Deputy Assistant Commissioner Peter Clarke (police officer), Peter Clarke concluded that the compromised voice mail accounts belonged to Prince William's aides, including Jamie Lowther-Pinkerton, and not the Prince himself. However, Clive Goodman later stated that he had News of the World royal phone hacking scandal, hacked William's phone on 35 occasions. In September 2012, the French edition of ''Closer (magazine), Closer'' and Italian gossip magazine ''Chi (magazine), Chi'' published photographs of the Duchess of Cambridge sun-bathing topless while on holiday at the Château d'Autet (a private château on a 260-ha estate 71 km north of Aix-en-Provence). Analysts from ''The Times'' believed the photographs were taken from the D22 (Vaucluse) road half a kilometre from the pool—a distance that would require an 800-mm or a 1000-mm lens. On 17 September 2012, the Duke and Duchess filed a criminal complaint with the French prosecution department and launched a claim for civil damages at the ''Tribunal d'instance, Tribunal de Grande Instance de Nanterre''. The following day the courts granted an injunction against ''Closer'' prohibiting further publication of the photographs and announced a criminal investigation would be initiated. Under French law, punitive damages cannot be awarded but intrusions of privacy are a criminal offence carrying a maximum jail sentence of one year and a fine of up to €45,000 for individuals and €225,000 for companies. In September 2017, ''Closer'' was fined €100,000 and its editor Laurence Pieau and owner Ernesto Mauri were each fined €45,000. In October 2014, William and Catherine sent a legal letter to a freelance photographer who had put their son George and his nanny "under surveillance", asking the individual to stop "harassing and following" them. In August 2015,
Kensington Palace Kensington Palace is a royal residence set in Kensington Gardens, in the Royal Borough of Kensington and Chelsea in London, England. It has been a residence of the British royal family since the 17th century, and is currently the official Lond ...

Kensington Palace
published a letter detailing what it stated were the "dangerous" and invasive efforts of the media to get paparazzi pictures of Prince George and Princess Charlotte. Jason Knauf, communications secretary to the Cambridges, wrote the letter to media standards organisations in various countries. In March 2017, a video of William "dad dancing" at a nightclub in Verbier, Switzerland surfaced in tabloid media. At the time, he was on a skiing holiday, and was reportedly observed partying alongside friends and models. The incident garnered commentary and criticism as it took place on Commonwealth Day service at Westminster Abbey, which was attended by other senior members of the royal family. The following month, when asked a music-related question during a BBC1 interview for the Heads Together campaign, he commented, referring to the reports: "I've got into enough trouble with my dancing recently. So it's probably best to stay away from that one". In July 2021, ITV (TV network), ITV aired a documentary entitled ''Harry and William: What Went Wrong?'', centering on the princes' relationship. Before the film aired, footage of journalist Omid Scobie claiming that a senior aide from the Duke of Cambridge's household had briefed journalists about "concerns regarding Prince Harry's mental health" was partially cut from the documentary after Kensington Palace informed the broadcaster that the claim was "potentially defamatory".


Titles, styles, honours, and arms


Titles and styles

* 1982–2011: ''His Royal Highness'' Prince William of Wales * 2011–present: ''His Royal Highness'' The
Duke of Cambridge Duke of Cambridge, one of the eight current royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom , is a hereditary title of specific rank of nobility in the British royal family. The title (named after the city of Cambridge in England) is heritable by agnatic ...
The hereditary titles of
Duke of Cambridge Duke of Cambridge, one of the eight current royal dukedoms in the United Kingdom , is a hereditary title of specific rank of nobility in the British royal family. The title (named after the city of Cambridge in England) is heritable by agnatic ...
, Earl of Strathearn, and Baron Carrickfergus were announced on 29 April 2011 and formally Letters Patent (United Kingdom), patented on 26 May that year. William uses the earldom in Scotland and the barony in Northern Ireland. He is a Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG), a Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT), a member of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom (PC), and a Personal Aide-de-Camp (ADC) to the Queen. As a British prince, William does not use a surname for everyday purposes. For formal and ceremonial purposes, children of the Prince of Wales use the title "prince" or "princess" before their forename and follow it with their father's territorial designation. Thus, before becoming a duke when he married, Prince William was styled "Prince William of Wales". Such territorial designations are discarded by women when they marry and by men if they become Peerage, peers in their own right, such as when Prince William was made a duke. Although the name of the Royal House is House of Windsor, Windsor, the surname ''Mountbatten-Windsor'' belongs to all the children and male-line descendants of Queen Elizabeth II and Prince Philip, and is used, if needed, by those who do not have the style of Royal Highness and the title Prince or Princess; when a female descendant marries, she traditionally takes her husband's surname from that point onward, and their children take their father's. Both Princes William and Harry used ''Wales'' as their surname for military purposes; this continues to be the case for William since his creation as Duke of Cambridge.


Military ranks

; * ** 8 January 2006: Officer cadet ** 16 December 2006: Cornet (military rank), Cornet (Second Lieutenant), The
Blues and Royals The Blues and Royals (Royal Horse Guards and 1st Dragoons) (RHG/D) is a cavalry regiment Cavalry (from the French word ''cavalerie'', itself derived from "cheval" meaning "horse") are soldier A soldier is one who fights as part of a ...
(short service commission) ** 16 December 2006: Lieutenant (British Army and Royal Marines), Lieutenant, The Blues and Royals ** 1 January 2009: Captain (British Army and Royal Marines), Captain, The Blues and Royals (and transferred to a full regular commission) ** 1 January 2016: Major (British Army and Royal Marines), Major * ** 1 January 2008: Sub-lieutenant ** 1 January 2009: Lieutenant (navy), Lieutenant ** 1 January 2016: Lieutenant commander (Royal Navy), Lieutenant Commander * ** 1 January 2008: Flying Officer ** 1 January 2009:
Flight Lieutenant Flight lieutenant is a junior commissioned Commission or commissioning may refer to: Business and contracting * Commission (remuneration), a form of payment to an agent for services rendered ** Commission (art), the purchase or the creation o ...
** 1 January 2016: Squadron Leader


Honours

Prince William is the 1,000th member of the register of the Order of the Garter, and was officially invested by the Queen on 16 June 2008 at a service at St George's Chapel, Windsor Castle. The last time a monarch appointed a grandchild into the Order of the Garter was in 1894, when Queen Victoria invested Alfred, Hereditary Prince of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha. * 23 April 2008: Order of the Garter, Royal Knight Companion of the Most Noble Order of the Garter (KG) * 25 May 2012: Order of the Thistle, Extra Knight of the Most Ancient and Most Noble Order of the Thistle (KT)


Medals

* 6 February 2002: Queen Elizabeth II Golden Jubilee Medal * 6 February 2012: Queen Elizabeth II Diamond Jubilee Medal


Commonwealth honours

* 30 October 2017: Tuvalu Order of Merit


Appointments

* Since 6 July 2009: Bencher, Honorary Bencher of the Honourable Society of the Middle Temple. * Since 23 June 2010: Royal Fellow of the Royal Society (FRS) * 17 March 2013: Personal Aide-de-Camp, Personal Aide-de-Camp to Her Majesty The Queen (ADC) * 9 June 2016: Privy Council of the United Kingdom, Member of Her Majesty's Most Honourable Privy Council (PC) * Since 1 March 2017: Royal Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh (HonFRSE) * Since 17 January 2018: Honorary Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine (FRSM) * 25 January 2020, 22 March 2021: Lord High Commissioner to the General Assembly of the Church of Scotland


Honorary military appointments

; Canada * 10 November 2009: Canadian Rangers, Canadian Ranger ; United Kingdom * Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of the Royal Navy Submarine Service * Since 8 August 2006: Commodore-in-Chief of Scotland * Since 3 October 2008: Honorary Air Commandant of RAF Coningsby * Since 10 February 2011: Colonel of the Irish Guards


Eponyms

* Their Royal Highnesses The Duke and Duchess of Cambridge Award, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario * Duke and Duchess of Cambridge's Parks Canada Youth Ambassadors Program * Duke of Cambridge Public School, Bowmanville, Ontario


Arms


Ancestry

William is a member of the House of Windsor. Patrilineally, he descends from the House of Oldenburg, one of Europe's oldest royal houses; and more specifically the cadet branch known as the House of Glücksburg.Huberty, Michel (1994). ''L'Allemagne dynastique''. Volume 7 ("Oldenbourg"). Le Perreux-sur-Marne: Giraud (publishers), Giraud. , . Through his mother, William descends from the Earl Spencer (peerage), Earls Spencer—a cadet branch of the Spencer family descended from the Earl of Sunderland, Earls of Sunderland; the senior branch are now also Duke of Marlborough (title), Dukes of Marlborough; the Baron Fermoy, Barons Fermoy; and more anciently from Henry FitzRoy, 1st Duke of Grafton, and Charles Lennox, 1st Duke of Richmond—two illegitimate sons of King Charles II of England, Charles II. As king, William would be the first monarch since Anne, Queen of Great Britain, Anne to descend from Charles I of England, Charles I and the first to descend from Charles II. William descends matrilineally from Eliza Kewark, a housekeeper for his eighteenth-century ancestor Theodore Forbes—a Scottish merchant who worked for the East India Company in Surat. She is variously described in contemporary documents as "a dark-skinned native woman", "an Armenians, Armenian woman from Bombay", and "Mrs. Forbesian".Williamson, D (1981) "The Ancestry of Lady Diana Spencer". ''Genealogist's Magazine'' 20(6): 192–199; 20(8): 281–282 Genealogist William Addams Reitwiesner assumed Kewark was Armenian. In June 2013, BritainsDNA announced that genealogical DNA tests on two of William's distant matrilineal cousins confirm Kewark was matrilineally of Indian descent.


Bibliography


Books

* HRH Prince William, "Introduction", in: * HRH The Duke of Cambridge, "Foreword", in:


Authored letters and articles

* *


See also

* Rosa Royal William, Royal William, a German red rose named after Prince William shortly after his birth


Notes


References


Further reading

* *


External links


The Duke of Cambridge
at the official website of the British royal family * * * , - , - , - , - , - , - , - {{DEFAULTSORT:William, Cambridge, Duke of, Prince Prince William, Duke of Cambridge, 1982 births Living people 20th-century British people 21st-century British Army personnel 21st-century Royal Air Force personnel 21st-century Royal Navy personnel Alumni of the University of St Andrews Blues and Royals officers British Anglicans British environmentalists British humanitarians British male water polo players British people of Indian descent British people of American descent British polo players Dukes of Cambridge, W Earls or mormaers of Strathearn, W Graduates of the Royal Military Academy Sandhurst Helicopter pilots House of Windsor Knights of the Garter Knights of the Thistle Members of the Privy Council of the United Kingdom Mountbatten-Windsor family People educated at Eton College People educated at Ludgrove School People educated at Wetherby School Presidents of the Football Association Princes of the United Kingdom, W Peers created by Elizabeth II, Cambridge, William Royal Air Force squadron leaders Royal Navy officers Time 100