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A prince-bishop is a
bishop A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and oversight. Within the Catholic, Eastern Orthodox, Oriental Orthodox, Moravian Chu ...

bishop
who is also the civil ruler of some
secular Secularity, also the secular or secularness (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through t ...
principality and
sovereignty Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty is assigned to the person, body, or institution that has the ultimate a ...
. Thus the principality or
prince-bishopric A prince-bishop is a bishop who is also the civil ruler of some Secularity, secular principality and sovereignty. Thus the principality or Hochstift, prince-bishopric ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his ...

prince-bishopric
ruled politically by a prince-bishop could wholly or largely overlap with his diocesan jurisdiction, but some parts of his
diocese In Ecclesiastical polity, church governance, a diocese or bishopric is the ecclesiastical district under the jurisdiction of a bishop. History In the later organization of the Roman Empire, the increasingly subdivided Roman province, prov ...
, even the city of his residence, could be exempt from his civil rule, obtaining the status of
free imperial city In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
. If the
episcopal see The seat or ''cathedra'' of the Bishop of Rome in the Archbasilica of Saint John Lateran An episcopal see is, in the usual meaning of the phrase, the area of a bishop's ecclesiastical jurisdiction. Phrases concerning actions occurring within o ...
is an
archbishop In many Christian Denominations Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' an ...
, the correct term is prince-archbishop; the equivalent in the regular (monastic) clergy is
prince-abbot A Prince-abbot (german: Fürstabt) is a title for a cleric Clergy are formal leaders within established religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, morality, ...
. A prince-bishop is usually considered an elected monarch. In the West, with the decline of
imperial power
imperial power
from the 4th century onwards in the face of the
barbarian A barbarian is a human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioc ...

barbarian
invasions, sometimes
Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), Christ'' and ''Christian'' derive from the Koi ...

Christian
bishops of
cities A city is a large human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people live. The complexity of a settlement can range from a small number of dwellings grouped to ...

cities
took the place of the Roman commander, made secular decisions for the city and led their own troops when necessary. Later relations between a prince-bishop and the
burghers
burghers
were invariably not cordial. As cities demanded charters from emperors, kings, or their prince-bishops and declared themselves independent of the secular territorial magnates, friction intensified between burghers and bishops. In the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
, the still
autocratic Autocracy is a system of government in which supreme power over a State (polity), state is concentrated in the hands of one person, whose decisions are subject to neither external legal restraints nor regularized mechanisms of popular control (exc ...
Emperors passed general legal measures assigning all bishops certain rights and duties in the secular administration of their dioceses, possibly as part of a development to put the
Eastern Church Eastern Christianity comprises Christian Christians () are people who follow or adhere to Christianity, a monotheistic Abrahamic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus in Christianity, Jesus Christ. The words ''Christ (title), ...
in the service of the Empire, with its
Ecumenical Patriarch The ecumenical patriarch ( el, Οἰκουμενικός Πατριάρχης, translit=Oikoumenikós Patriárchis; tr, Konstantinopolis ekümenik patriği) is the archbishop of Constantinople la, Constantinopolis , alternate_name = Byzant ...
almost reduced to the Emperor's minister of religious affairs.


Holy Roman Empire

Bishops had been involved in the government of the Frankish realm and subsequent
Carolingian Empire The Carolingian Empire (800–888) was a large Frankish Frankish may refer to: * Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani) are a category of ancient nort ...
frequently as the clerical member of a duo of envoys styled , but that was an individual mandate, not attached to the see. Prince-bishoprics were most common in the feudally fragmented
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, where many were formally awarded the rank of an
Imperial Prince Prince of the Holy Roman Empire ( la, princeps imperii, german: Reichsfürst, cf. ''Fürst ' (, female form ', plural '; from Old High German ', "the first", a translation of the Latin ') is a German language, German word for a ruler and i ...
, granting them the immediate power over a certain territory and a representation in the
Imperial DietImperial Diet means the highest representative assembly in an empire, notably: * Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) * Diet of Japan, Has been going on since 1889 (1889 ...
(). The
stem duchies A stem duchy (german: Stammesherzogtum, from '' Stamm'', meaning "tribe", in reference to the Germanic tribes of the Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples The historical Germanic peoples (from lat, Germani ...
of the
German kingdom The Kingdom of Germany or German Kingdom ( la, regnum Teutonicorum "kingdom of the Germans", "German kingdom", "kingdom of Germany") was the mostly Germanic-speaking East Frankish kingdom, which was formed by the Treaty of Verdun The Treaty ...
inside the Empire had strong and powerful
duke Duke is a male title either of a monarch ruling over a , or of a member of , or . As rulers, dukes are ranked below s, s, s, s, and sovereign s. As royalty or nobility, they are ranked below princes of nobility and grand dukes. The title comes ...

duke
s (originally, war-rulers), always looking out more for their
duchy A duchy, also called a dukedom, is a medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affair ...
's "
national interest National Interest is a rationality of governing referring to a sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity that is represented by one centralized government that has sovereignty over a geographic area. International law defines sover ...
" than for the Empire's. In turn the first
Ottonian The Ottonian dynasty (german: Ottonen) was a Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguist ...
(
Saxon The Saxons ( la, Saxones, german: Sachsen, ang, Seaxan, osx, Sahson, nds, Sassen, nl, Saksen) were a group of early Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their use of the Germanic langua ...
) king
Henry the Fowler Henry the Fowler (german: Heinrich der Vogler or '; la, Henricus Auceps) (c. 876 – 2 July 936) was the Duke of Saxony This article lists dukes, electors, and kings ruling over different territories named Saxony from the beginning of the ...

Henry the Fowler
and more so his son, Emperor
Otto I Otto I (23 November 912 – 7 May 973), traditionally known as Otto the Great (german: Otto der Große, it, Ottone il Grande), was East Francian king from 936 and Holy Roman Emperor from 962 until his death in 973. He was the oldest son of Henr ...

Otto I
, intended to weaken the power of the dukes by granting loyal bishops Imperial lands and vest them with privileges. Unlike dukes they could not pass hereditary titles and lands to any descendants. Instead the Emperors reserved the implementation of the bishops of their
proprietary church Opening page of the ''Lorsch Codex'', detailing the Lorsch land holdings of the proprietary Lorsch AbbeyDuring the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It be ...
for themselves, defying the fact that according to
canon law Canon law (from grc, κανών, , a 'straight measuring rod, ruler A ruler, sometimes called a rule or line gauge, is a device used in geometry and technical drawing, as well as the engineering and construction industries, to measure dis ...
they were part of the transnational
Catholic Church The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic Church
. This met with increasing opposition by the
Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of state o ...

Pope
s, culminating in the fierce
Investiture Controversy#REDIRECT Investiture Controversy The Investiture Controversy, also called Investiture Contest, was a conflict between church and state in medieval Europe over the ability to choose and install bishops ( investiture) and abbots of monasteries a ...
of 1076. Nevertheless, the Emperors continued to grant major territories to the most important (arch)bishops. The immediate territory attached to the episcopal see then became a prince-diocese or bishopric (). The German term was often used to denote the form of secular authority held by bishops ruling a prince-bishopric with being used for prince-archbishoprics. Emperor
Charles IVCharles IV may refer to: * Charles IV of France (1294–1328), "the Fair" * Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378) * Charles IV of Navarre (1421–1461) * Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481) * Charles IV, Duke of Alençon (1489–1525) * C ...

Charles IV
by the
Golden Bull of 1356 The Golden Bull of 1356 (, , , ) was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz Metz ( , , ; lat, Divodurum Mediomatricorum, then ) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle (river), Moselle and t ...

Golden Bull of 1356
confirmed the privileged status of the Prince-Archbishoprics of
Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine ...
,
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...
and
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river A river i ...
as members of the
electoral An election is a formal group decision-makingGroup decision-making (also known as collaborative decision-making or collective decision-making) is a situation faced when individuals collectively make a choice from the alternatives before them. ...
college. At the eve of the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
, the
Imperial state An Imperial State or Imperial Estate ( la, Status Imperii; german: Reichsstand, plural: ') was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet ('). Rulers of thes ...
s comprised 53 ecclesiastical principalities. They were finally secularized in the 1803
German Mediatization German mediatisation (; german: deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatisation and secularisation of a large number ...
upon the territorial losses to
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
in the
Treaty of Lunéville The Treaty of Lunéville was signed in the Treaty House of Lunéville on 9 February 1801. The signatory parties were the French First Republic, French Republic and Francis II, Holy Roman Emperor, Holy Roman Emperor Francis II. The latter was negot ...
, except for the Mainz prince-archbishop and German archchancellor
Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg Karl Theodor Anton Maria von Dalberg (8 February 1744 – 10 February 1817) was Prince A prince is a Monarch, male ruler (ranked below a king, grand prince, and grand duke) or a male member of a monarch's or former monarch's family. ''Prince' ...
, who continued to rule as Prince of Aschaffenburg and
Regensburg Regensburg or is a city in eastern Bavaria, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River, Regen rivers. It is capital of the Upper Palatinate subregion of the state in the south of Germany. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regens ...
. With the dissolution of the Holy Roman Empire in 1806, the title finally became defunct. However, in some countries outside of French control, such as in the
Austrian Empire The Austrian Empire (german: Kaiserthum Oesterreich, modern spelling ') was a Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It compr ...
(
Salzburg Salzburg (, ; literally "Salt Castle"; bar, Soizbuag, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian) is the List of cities and towns in Austria, fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872. The town is on the site of the ...
,
Seckau Seckau ( sl, Sekava ) is a Marktgemeinde in the state of Styria, Austria. It is situated near Knittelfeld. It is known for the Benedictine Order, Benedictine Seckau Abbey, once the seat of the Diocese, bishopric Graz-Seckau. See also *Diocese of Gr ...
, and
Olomouc Olomouc (, , ; locallyIn mathematics, a mathematical object is said to satisfy a property locally, if the property is satisfied on some limited, immediate portions of the object (e.g., on some ''sufficiently small'' or ''arbitrarily small'' neigh ...
) and the
Kingdom of Prussia The Kingdom of Prussia (german: Königreich Preußen) was a German kingdom Kingdom may refer to: Monarchy * A type of monarchy * A realm ruled by: **A king, during the reign of a male monarch **A queen regnant, during the reign of a female ...
( Breslau), the institution nominally continued, and in some cases was revived; a new, titular type arose. No less than three of the (originally only seven)
prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
s, the highest order of (comparable in rank with the French pairs), were prince-archbishops, each holding the title of
Archchancellor An archchancellor ( la, archicancellarius, german: Erzkanzler) or chief chancellor was a title given to the highest dignitary of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) w ...
(the only arch-office amongst them) for a part of the Empire; given the higher importance of an electorate, their principalities were known as ("electoral principality") rather than prince-archbishoprics: } , 953–1803 , Electoral Rhenish , ,
Prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
and Arch-Chancellor of
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
.
Duke of Westphalia The Duchy of Westphalia (german: Herzogtum Westfalen) was a historic territory in the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in West ...
since 1180.
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
became a
Free Imperial City In the Holy Roman Empire, the collective term free and imperial cities (german: Freie und Reichsstädte), briefly worded free imperial city (', la, urbs imperialis libera), was used from the fifteenth century to denote a self-ruling city that h ...
in 1288. , - ! ,
Mainz Mainz (; ) is the capital and largest city of Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine ...
, Archbishopric Electorate , german: Erzbistum Mainz, Kurmainz , –1803 , Electoral Rhenish , ,
Prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
and Arch-Chancellor of
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
. , - ! ,
Trier Trier ( , ; lb, Tréier ), formerly known in English as Trèves ( ;) and Triers (see also names in other languages), is a city on the banks of the Moselle The Moselle ( , ; german: Mosel ; lb, Musel ) is a river A river i ...
, Archbishopric Electorate , german: Erzbistum Trier, Kurtrier
french: Archevêque Trèves , 772–1803 , Electoral Rhenish , ,
Prince-elector The prince-electors (german: Kurfürst pl. , cz, Kurfiřt, la, Princeps Elector), or electors for short, were the members of the that elected the of the . From the 13th century onwards, the prince-electors had the privilege of who would ...
and Arch-Chancellor of
Burgundy Burgundy (; french: link=no, Bourgogne ) is a historical territory and a former administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organizati ...

Burgundy
. , - ! ,
Augsburg Augsburg ( , , ; bar, Augschburg, links=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swabian_German, label=Swabian German) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, ...

Augsburg
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Augsburg , –1803 , Swabian , ,
Augsburg Augsburg ( , , ; bar, Augschburg, links=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swabian_German, label=Swabian German) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, ...

Augsburg
became a Free imperial City in 1276. , - ! ,
Bamberg Bamberg (, , ) is a town in Upper Franconia Upper Franconia (german: Oberfranken) is a ''Regierungsbezirk A ' () means "governmental district" and is a type of administrative division in Germany. Four of sixteen ' (states of Germany) are s ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Bamberg , 1245–1802 ,
Franconian
Franconian
, , , - ! ,
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...
, Bishopric , french: Principauté de Bâle
german: Fürstbistum Basel , 1032–1803 , Upper Rhenish ,

,
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...

Basel
joined the
Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely spoke ...
as the
Canton of Basel Canton may refer to: Administrative division terminology * Canton (administrative division), territorial/administrative division in some countries, notably Switzerland * Township (Canada), known as ''canton'' in Canadian French Arts and ente ...
in 1501. A tiny fraction of the bishopric is not now in Switzerland:
Schliengen Schliengen is a town in southwestern Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg, in the ''Districts of Germany, Kreis'' (district) of Lörrach (district), Lörrach. Schliengen's claim to international fame is the Battle of Schliengen (24 October 1 ...
and
Istein
Istein
are both now in Germany; a very small part of the Vogtei of St Ursanne is now in France. , - ! ,
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Brandenburg , –1598 ,
Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German languages, High German. Present ...
, , Founded in 948, annihilated 983, re-established , continued by Lutheran administrators after Reformation in 1520, secularized and incorporated to the
Margraviate of Brandenburg The Margraviate of Brandenburg (german: link=no, Markgrafschaft Brandenburg) was a major principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form of government in which a person, the ...
in 1571. , - ! ,
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by t ...
, Archbishopric , german: Erzstift Bremen , 1180–1648 , Lower Saxon , , Continued by Lutheran administrators after Reformation in 1566 until 1645/1648.
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by t ...
itself became autonomous in 1186, and was confirmed as a Free Imperial City in 1646. , - ! , Breslau , Bishopric , german: Fürstbistum Breslau
pl, Biskupie Księstwo Wrocławskie
sli, Brassel , , None , , In 1344 Bishop Przecław of Breslau (present-day
Wrocław Wrocław (; german: Breslau ; sli, Brassel; cs, Vratislav), ''Wratislavia''. is a city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia. It lies on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Centra ...

Wrocław
) bought the town of Grottkau ( Grodków) from the Silesian duke Bolesław III the Generous and added it to the episcopal Duchy of Neisse (
Nysa Nysa may refer to: Greek Mythology * Nysa (mythology) or Nyseion, the mountainous region or mount (various traditional locations), where nymphs raised the young god Dionysus * Nysiads, nymphs of Mount Nysa who cared for and taught the infant Di ...

Nysa
), becoming Prince of Neisse and Duke of Grottkau as a vassal to the
Bohemian Crown The Lands of the Bohemian Crown were a number of incorporated states in Central Europe during the Middle Ages, medieval and early modern periods connected by feudalism, feudal relations under the List of Bohemian monarchs, Bohemian kings. The crow ...
. , - ! ,
Brixen Brixen (; it, Bressanone ; lld, Porsenù or ) is a town in South Tyrol in northern Italy, located about north of Bolzano. Geography First mentioned in 901, Brixen is the third largest city and oldest town in the province, and the artistic and ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Brixen
it, Principato vescovile di Bressanone , 1027–1803 ,
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
, ,
secularized In sociology Sociology is the study of society, human social behaviour, patterns of social relationships, social interaction, and culture that surrounds everyday life. It is a social science that uses various methods of Empirical method, empi ...
to
Tyrol Tyrol (; historically the Tyrole; german: Tirol ; it, Tirolo) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Gre ...
, - ! ,
Cambrai Cambrai (, ; pcd, Kimbré; nl, Kamerijk), formerly Cambray and historically in English Camerick or Camericke, is a Communes of France, commune in the Nord (French department), Nord Departments of France, department and in the Hauts-de-France R ...
, Bishopric, then Archbishopric , french: Principauté de Cambrai
german: Hochstift Kammerich , 1007–1678 , Lower Rhenish / Westphalian , , To
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
by 1678
Peace of Nijmegen The Treaties of Peace of Nijmegen ('; german: Friede von Nimwegen) were a series of treaty, treaties signed in the Dutch city of Nijmegen between August 1678 and October 1679. The treaties ended various interconnected wars among France, the Dutch ...
, - ! , Cammin , Bishopric , german: Bistum Kammin
pl, Biskupie Księstwo Kamieńskie , 1248–1650 ,
Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part of High German languages, High German. Present ...
, , Lost to
Duchy of Pomerania The Duchy of Pomerania (german: Herzogtum Pommern, pl, Księstwo Pomorskie, 12th century – 1637) was a duchy in Pomerania on the southern coast of the Baltic Sea The Baltic Sea is an arm of the Atlantic Ocean, enclosed by Denmark De ...
in 1544, secularized in 1650, to Brandenburg
Province of PomeraniaPomerania Province may refer to one of several provinces established in Pomerania, a region of Europe: *Swedish Pomerania (1630–1815), a historical province of Sweden *Province of Pomerania (1653–1815), a historical province of Brandenburg, late ...
, - ! ,
Chur , neighboring_municipalities= Arosa , neighboring_municipalities= Alvaneu Alvaneu (''Romansh language, Romansh: Alvagni'') is a former municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Albula (district), Albula in the Cantons of S ...
, Bishopric , german: Bistum Chur
rm, Chapitel catedral da Cuira
it, Principato vescovile di Coira , 831/1170–1526 ,
Austrian Austrian may refer to: * Austrians, someone from Austria or of Austrian descent ** Someone who is considered an Austrian citizen, see Austrian nationality law * Something associated with the country Austria, for example: ** Austria-Hungary ** Austr ...
, , , - ! ,
Constance Constance may refer to: Places *Konstanz Konstanz (, , locally: ; also written as Constance in English) is a with approximately 83,000 inhabitants located at the western end of in the south of . The city houses the and was the residence o ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Konstanz , 1155–1803 , Swabian ,

, Greatly reduced during the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in Vatican City Vatican City (), officially the Vatican City State ( it, Stato della Cit ...

Reformation
, when significant parts of Swabia and Switzerland became Protestant. , - ! ,
Eichstätt Eichstätt () is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Or ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Eichstätt , 1305–1802 ,
Franconian
Franconian
, , , - ! ,
Freising Freising () is a Town#Germany, town in Bavaria, Germany, and the capital of the Freising (district), Freising Districts of Germany, ''Landkreis'' (district), with a population of about 50,000. Location Freising is the oldest town between Rege ...

Freising
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Freising , 1294–1802 , Bavarian ,
, , - ! ,
Fulda Fulda () (historically in English called Fuld) is a town in Hesse Hesse (, , ) or Hessia (, ; german: Hessen ), officially the State of Hessen (german: links=no, Land Hessen), is a German states, state in Germany. Its capital city is Wiesbaden, ...
, Abbey, then Bishopric , german: Reichskloster Fulda, Reichsbistum Fulda , 1220–1802 , Upper Rhenish , ,
Imperial Abbey Weissenau abbey, circa 1625 Princely abbeys (german: Fürstabtei, ''Fürststift'') and Imperial abbeys (german: Reichsabtei, ''Reichskloster'', ''Reichsstift'', ''Reichsgotthaus'') were religious establishments within the Holy Roman Empire T ...
until 5 October 1752, when it was raised to a bishopric. Secularized in 1802 in the
German Mediatization German mediatisation (; german: deutsche Mediatisierung) was the major territorial restructuring that took place between 1802 and 1814 in Germany and the surrounding region by means of the mass mediatisation and secularisation of a large number ...
, - ! ,
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...
, Bishopric , french: Évêché de Genève
german: Fürstbistum Genf , 1154-1526 , Upper Rhenish ,
, since 1154, dominated by their guardians, the counts of
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...
(until 1400) and
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps it, Alpi occidentaligerman: Westalpen , photo=Mont Blanc from Punta Helbronner, 2010 July.JPG , photo_caption=Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont ...
(since 1401).
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
joined the
Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely spoke ...
in 1526. , - ! ,
Halberstadt Halberstadt is a town A town is a . Towns are generally larger than s and smaller than , though the criteria to distinguish between them vary considerably in different parts of the world. Origin and use The word "town" shares an origin w ...
, Bishopric , german: Bistum Halberstadt , 1180–1648 , Lower Saxon , , , - ! ,
Havelberg Havelberg () is a town in the district of Stendal, in Saxony-Anhalt Saxony-Anhalt (german: Sachsen-Anhalt (; Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northe ...
, Bishopric , german: Bistum Havelberg , 1151–1598 , Lower Saxon , , Founded in 948, annihilated 983, re-established 1130, continued by Lutheran administrators after Reformation in 1548 until 1598 , - ! ,
Hildesheim Hildesheim is a city in Lower Saxony Lower Saxony (german: Niedersachsen ; nds, Neddersassen; stq, Läichsaksen) is a German state The Federal Republic of Germany, as a federal state, consists of sixteen partly sovereign federated sta ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Hildesheim , 1235–1803 , Lower Saxon , , , - ! ,
Lausanne , neighboring_municipalities= Bottens Bottens is a municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Gros-de-Vaud District, Gros-de-Vaud in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud in Switzerland. History Bottens is first me ...
, Bishopric , french: Principauté épiscopale de Lausanne
german: Bistum Lausanne , 1270–1536 , None , , Conquered by the
Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial ...
city canton of
Bern ,german: Berner(in),french: Bernois(e), it, Bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern Bremgarten bei Bern is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corpor ...
in 1536. , - ! ,
Lebus Lebus ( pl, Lubusz) is a historic town in the Märkisch-Oderland Märkisch-Oderland is a ''Landkreis'' (district) in the eastern part of Brandenburg, Germany. Neighboring are (from the north clockwise) the district Barnim, the country Poland, the ...
, Bishopric , german: Fürstbistum Lebus
pl, Diecezja lubuska , 1248–1598 , None ,
, Seated in since 1385; challenged by
Brandenburg Brandenburg (, also , ; nds, Brannenborg; dsb, Bramborska) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
, continued by Hohenzollern Lutheran administrators after Protestant Reformation in 1555 until secularization in 1598. , - ! ,
Liège Liège ( , , ; wa, Lidje ; nl, Luik ; german: Lüttich ; lat, Leodium) is a major City status in Belgium, city and Municipalities in Belgium, municipality of Wallonia and the capital of the Belgium, Belgian Liège Province, province of Liège ...
, Bishopric , french: Principauté de Liége
german: Fürstbistum Lüttich
wa, Principåté d' Lidje , 980–1789/1795 , Lower Rhenish / Westphalian ,
, , - ! ,
Lübeck Lübeck (; Low German Low German or Low Saxon (in the language itself: , and other names; german: Plattdeutsch, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language variety spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Lübeck , 1180–1803 , Lower Saxon , , Seated in
Eutin Eutin () is the district capital of Eastern Holstein county located in the northern German state of Schleswig-Holstein Schleswig-Holstein () is the northernmost of the 16 states of Germany The Federal Republic of Germany ) , ...

Eutin
since the 1270s; Reformation started in 1535, continued by Lutheran administrators since 1586 until secularization in 1803.
Lübeck Lübeck (; Low German Low German or Low Saxon (in the language itself: , and other names; german: Plattdeutsch, ) is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language variety spoken mainly in Northern Germany and the northeastern part of the ...

Lübeck
became a Free Imperial City in 1226. , - ! ,
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...
, Archbishopric , french: Archevêque de Lyon
frp, Arch·evèque de Liyon , 1157-1312 , None , , Seated in
Lyon Lyon or Lyons (, , ; frp, Liyon, ) is the third-largest city and second-largest urban area of France. It is located at the confluence of the rivers Rhône The Rhône ( , ; german: Rhone ; wae, Rotten ; it, Rodano ; frp, Rôno ; oc, ...

Lyon
; ''Reichsfrei'' confirmed by
Frederick Barbarossa Frederick Barbarossa (1122 – 10 June 1190), also known as Frederick I (german: Friedrich I, it, Federico I), was the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator The La ...

Frederick Barbarossa
in 1157. Annexed by the
Kingdom of France The Kingdom of France ( fro, Reaume de France; frm, Royaulme de France; french: link=yes, Royaume de France) is the historiographical name or Hyponymy and hypernymy, umbrella term given to various political entities of France in the Middle Ages ...
in 1312. , - ! ,
Magdeburg Magdeburg (; nds, label=Low German, Low Saxon, Meideborg ) is the capital and second-largest city of the Germany, German States of Germany, state of Saxony-Anhalt, after Halle (Saale). It is situated on the Elbe River. Otto I, Holy Roman Emp ...
, Archbishopric , german: Erzstift Magdeburg , 1180–1680 , Lower Saxon , , Continued by Lutheran administrators between 1566 and 1631, and again since 1638 until 1680. , - ! ,
Merseburg Merseburg () is a town in central Germany located in the southern part of Saxony-Anhalt on the river Saale, approx. 14 km south of Halle (Saale) and 30 km west of Leipzig. It is the capital of the Saalekreis district. It had a diocese f ...
, Bishopric , german: Bistum Merseburg , 1004–1565 , None , , Administered by the Lutheran
Electorate of Saxony The Electorate of Saxony (german: Kurfürstentum Sachsen, also ') was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (news ...
between 1544 until 1565. , - ! ,
Metz Metz ( , , lat, Divodurum Mediomatricorum, then ) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle (river), Moselle and the Seille (Moselle), Seille rivers. Metz is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Moselle (de ...
, Bishopric , french: Évêché de Metz
german: Hochstift Metz , 10th century–1552 , Upper Rhenish , , One of the
Three Bishoprics The Three Bishoprics (french: les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a Provinces of France, government of the Kingdom of France consisting of the dioceses of Bishopric of Metz, Metz, Bishopric of Verdun, Verdun, and Bishopric of Toul, Toul within the ...
ceded to France by the 1552
Treaty of Chambord The Treaty of Chambord was an agreement signed on 15 January 1552 at the Château de Chambord between the Catholic King Henry II of France and three Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reform ...
. , - ! ,
Minden Minden () is a town of about 81 thousands inhabitants in the north-east of North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany. The town extends along both sides of the River Weser. It is the capital of the district (''Kreis'') of Minden-Lübbecke, which is part ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Minden , 1180–1648 , Lower Rhenish / Westphalian , , , - ! ,
Münster Münster ( , ; nds, Mönster) is an independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the H ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Münster , 1180–1802 , Lower Rhenish / Westphalian , , , - ! ,
Naumburg Naumburg () is a town in (and the administrative capital of) the district Burgenlandkreis, in the state of Saxony-Anhalt, Central Germany. It has a population of around 33,000. The Naumburg Cathedral became a UNESCO World Heritage site A ...
, Bishopric , german: Bistum Naumburg-Zeitz , , , , Under guardianship of
Meissen Meissen (in German orthography German orthography is the orthography An orthography is a set of conventions for writing Writing is a medium of human communication that involves the representation of a language with written symbols. ...
from 1259, administrated by
Saxony Saxony (german: Sachsen ; Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German East Central German (german: Ostmitteldeutsch) is the eastern, non-Franconian languages, Franconian Central German language, part o ...
from 1564. , - ! ,
Olomouc Olomouc (, , ; locallyIn mathematics, a mathematical object is said to satisfy a property locally, if the property is satisfied on some limited, immediate portions of the object (e.g., on some ''sufficiently small'' or ''arbitrarily small'' neigh ...
, Bishopric , cs, Biskupství olomoucké
german: Bistum Olmütz , , None , , The Czech bishopric (later Metropolitan) of
Olomouc Olomouc (, , ; locallyIn mathematics, a mathematical object is said to satisfy a property locally, if the property is satisfied on some limited, immediate portions of the object (e.g., on some ''sufficiently small'' or ''arbitrarily small'' neigh ...

Olomouc
, as a vassal principality of the Bohemian crown, was the peer of the
margraviate of Moravia The Margraviate of Moravia ( cs, Markrabství moravské; german: Markgrafschaft Mähren) was one of the Lands of the Bohemian Crown existing from 1182 to 1918. It was officially administrated by a margrave in cooperation with a provincial diet. ...
, and from 1365 its prince-bishop was 'Count of the Bohemian Chapel', i.e., first court chaplain, who was to accompany the monarch on his frequent travels. , - ! ,
Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Osnabrück , 1225/1236–1802 , Lower Rhenish / Westphalian , , Alternated between Catholic and Protestant incumbents after the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, secularized in 1802/1803 , - ! ,
Paderborn Paderborn () is a city in eastern North Rhine-Westphalia, Germany, capital of the Paderborn (district), Paderborn district. The name of the city derives from the river Pader (river), Pader and "born", an old German term for the source of a river. ...
, Bishopric , german: Fürstbistum Paderborn , 1281–1802 , Lower Rhenish / Westphalian , , , - ! ,
Passau Passau (; bar, label=Central Bavarian, Båssa) is a city in Lower Bavaria, Germany, also known as the Dreiflüssestadt ("City of Three Rivers") as the river Danube is joined by the Inn (river), Inn from the south and the Ilz from the north. P ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Passau , 999–1803 , Bavarian ,
, Princely title was confirmed at Nuremberg in 1217. , - ! ,
Ratzeburg Ratzeburg (; Low German , , (in a stricter sense) nl, Nedersaksisch da, Plattysk, , , (rarely) , states = Northern Germany, Northern and Western Germany, western GermanyEastern NetherlandsSouthern Denmark , ethnicity = Dutc ...
, Bishopric , german: Bistum Ratzeburg , 1236–1648 , Lower Saxon , , Ruled by Lutheran administrators between 1554 and 1648. , - ! ,
Regensburg Regensburg or is a city in eastern Bavaria, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River, Regen rivers. It is capital of the Upper Palatinate subregion of the state in the south of Germany. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regens ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Regensburg , 1132?–1803 , Bavarian , ,
Regensburg Regensburg or is a city in eastern Bavaria, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River, Regen rivers. It is capital of the Upper Palatinate subregion of the state in the south of Germany. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regens ...

Regensburg
became a Free Imperial City in 1245. , - ! , ,
Salzburg Salzburg (, ; literally "Salt Castle"; bar, Soizbuag, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian) is the List of cities and towns in Austria, fourth-largest city in Austria. In 2020, it had a population of 156,872. The town is on the site of the ...
, Archbishopric , german: Fürsterzbistum Salzburg , 1278–1803 , Bavarian , , Raised to an electorate in 1803, but simultaneously secularized; ''see
Electorate of Salzburg The Electorate of Salzburg (german: Kurfürstentum Salzburg or ), occasionally known as the Grand Duchy of Salzburg, was an electoral principality of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges ...
''. Since 1648, the archbishop has also borne the title , First ishopof Germania. The powers of this title – non-jurisdictional – are limited to being the Pope's first correspondent in the German-speaking world, but used to include the right to preside over the
Princes of the Holy Roman Empire Prince of the Holy Roman Empire ( la, princeps imperii, german: Reichsfürst, cf. ''Fürst'') was a title attributed to a hereditary ruler, nobleman or prelate recognised as such by the Holy Roman Emperor. Definition Originally, possessors o ...
. , - ! ,
Schwerin Schwerin (, , ; Mecklenburgian Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic languages, Germanic , fam3 = West Germanic languages, West ...
, Bishopric , german: Bistum Schwerin , 1180–1648 , Lower Saxon , , Ruled by an administrator between 1516 and 1648. , - ! ,
Speyer Speyer (, older spelling ''Speier'', known as ''Spire'' in French and formerly as ''Spires'' in English) is a city in Rhineland-Palatinate Rhineland-Palatinate (german: Rheinland-Pfalz, ) is a western state State may refer to: Arts, ent ...
, Bishopric , german: Hochstift Speyer , 888–1803 , Upper Rhenish , , Territories to the east of the Rhine were annexed by France in 1681, confirmed in 1697. Speyer became a Free Imperial City in 1294. , - ! ,
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, divi ...
, Bishopric , gsw, Bistum Strossburi
french: Évêché de Strasbourg
german: Fürstbistum Straßburg , 982–1803 , Upper Rhenish ,
, Territories to the east of the Rhine were annexed by France in 1681, confirmed in 1697. Speyer became a Free Imperial City in 1262. , - ! , Tarentaise , Archbishopric , french: Prince-évêque de Tarentaise
frp, Prince Evèque de Tarentèsa
it, Principato vescovile di Tarantasia , 1186-1769 , Upper Rhenish , , Made Count of Tarentaise since 996, ''Reichsfrei'' since 1186, ''de facto'' dominated by their guardians
Savoy Savoy (; frp, Savouè ; french: Savoie is a cultural-historical region in the Western Alps it, Alpi occidentaligerman: Westalpen , photo=Mont Blanc from Punta Helbronner, 2010 July.JPG , photo_caption=Mont Blanc Mont Blanc (french: Mont ...
(since 1271). Secularized and annexed by the Kingdom of Sardinia 1769. , - ! , Bishopric of Toul, Toul , Bishopric , french: Principauté de Toul
german: Bistum Tull , 10th century – 1552 , Upper Rhenish , , One of the
Three Bishoprics The Three Bishoprics (french: les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a Provinces of France, government of the Kingdom of France consisting of the dioceses of Bishopric of Metz, Metz, Bishopric of Verdun, Verdun, and Bishopric of Toul, Toul within the ...
ceded to France by the 1552
Treaty of Chambord The Treaty of Chambord was an agreement signed on 15 January 1552 at the Château de Chambord between the Catholic King Henry II of France and three Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reform ...
, confirmed in 1648. , - ! , Bishopric of Trent, Trent , Bishopric , it, Principato vescovile di Trento
german: Fürstbistum Trient , 1027–1803 , Austrian Circle , , German Mediatisation, Secularized to
Tyrol Tyrol (; historically the Tyrole; german: Tirol ; it, Tirolo) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Gre ...
in 1803. , - ! , Bishopric of Utrecht, Utrecht , Bishopric , nl, Sticht Utrecht , 1024–1528 , Lower Rhenish / Westphalian , , Sold to Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in 1528, after which it was moved to the Burgundian Circle. Founding member of the Dutch Republic in 1579/1581, confirmed in 1648. , - ! , Bishopric of Verden, Verden , Bishopric , german: Hochstift Verden , 1180–1648 , Lower Rhenish / Westphalian , , Continued by Lutheran administrators after Reformation until 1645/1648, when it was continued as a secular and independent principality until its disestablishment in 1807. It became a part of the Kingdom of Hanover in 1815. , - ! , Bishopric of Verdun, Verdun , Bishopric , french: Principauté de Verdun
german: Bistum Wirten , 10th century – 1552 , Upper Rhenish , , One of the
Three Bishoprics The Three Bishoprics (french: les Trois-Évêchés ) constituted a Provinces of France, government of the Kingdom of France consisting of the dioceses of Bishopric of Metz, Metz, Bishopric of Verdun, Verdun, and Bishopric of Toul, Toul within the ...
ceded to France by the 1552
Treaty of Chambord The Treaty of Chambord was an agreement signed on 15 January 1552 at the Château de Chambord between the Catholic King Henry II of France and three Protestant Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Reform ...
, confirmed in 1648. , - ! , Bishopric of Worms, Worms , Bishopric , german: Bistum Worms , 861–1801 , Upper Rhenish , , Worms, Germany, Worms city rule established by Bishop Burchard of Worms, Burchard (1000–25), episcopal residence at Ladenburg from 1400, held large estates in the former region, territories left of the Rhine lost by the 1797 Treaty of Campo Formio, secularized at first to First French Empire, French Empire, finally Electorate of Baden, Baden and Landgraviate of Hesse-Darmstadt, Hesse-Darmstadt in 1815. , - ! , Bishopric of Würzburg, Würzburg , Bishopric , german: Hochstift Würzburg , 1168–1803 ,
Franconian
Franconian
, , Duke of Franconia The suffragan-bishoprics of Roman Catholic Diocese of Gurk, Gurk (established 1070), (1216), (1218), and Roman Catholic Diocese of Lavant, Lavant (1225) sometimes used the title, but never held any territory. The bishops of Bishopric of Vienna, Vienna (established 1469) and (1469–1785) didn't control any territory, nor did they claim a princely title. The Patriarchate of Aquileia (state), Patriarchate of Aquileia (1077–1433) was conquered by Republic of Venice, Venice in 1420 and officially incorporated after the 1445 Council of Florence.
In Bishopric of Brescia, Brescia Bishop Notingus was made count of Brescia in 844.
The Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Besançon, archbishops of Besançon had been rulers in the Middle Ages over Besançon, an Free imperial city, Imperial city from 1307, which in 1512 joined the Burgundian Circle. In the Roman Catholic Diocese of Belley-Ars, Bishopric of Belley, Saint Anthelm of Belley was granted ''Reichsfrei'' by Emperor Frederick I, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick I, but submitted temporal authorities to the Duchy of Savoy in 1401.
The Bishopric of Sion (french: Principauté épiscopale de Sion, german: Bistum Sitten) was from 999 a classic example of unified secular and diocesan authority. It progressively lost its powers since the Renaissance, and was finally replaced by the Republic of the Seven Tithings in 1634.


State of the Teutonic Order

Upon the incorporation of the Livonian Brothers of the Sword in 1237, the territory of the State of the Teutonic Order, Order's State largely corresponded with the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Riga, Diocese of Riga. Bishop Albert of Riga in 1207 had received the lands of Livonia as an Imperial fief from the hands of German king Philip of Swabia, he however had to come to terms with the Brothers of the Sword. At the behest of Pope Innocent III the ''Terra Mariana'' confederation was established, whereby Albert had to cede large parts of the episcopal territory to the Livonian Order. Albert proceeded tactically in the conflict between the Papacy and Emperor Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II: in 1225 he reached the acknowledgement of his status as a Prince-Bishop of the Empire, though the Roman Curia insisted on the fact that the Christianized Baltic region, Baltic territories were solely under the suzerainty of the Holy See. By the 1234 Bull of Rieti, Pope Gregory IX stated that all lands acquired by the Teutonic Knights were no subject of any conveyancing by the Emperor. Within this larger conflict, the continued dualism of the autonomous Riga prince-bishop and the Teutonic Knights led to a lengthy friction. Around 1245 the Papal legate William of Modena reached a compromise: though incorporated into the Order's State, the archdiocese and its suffragan bishoprics were acknowledged with their autonomous ecclesiastical territories by the Teutonic Knights. The bishops pursued the conferment of the princely title by the Holy Roman Emperor to stress their sovereignty. In the original Prussia (region), Prussian lands of the Teutonic Order, Willam of Modena established the suffragan bishoprics of Bishopric of Culm (Chełmno), Culm, Bishopric of Pomesania, Pomesania, Bishopric of Samland, Samland and Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, Warmia. From the late 13th century onwards, the appointed Warmia bishops were no longer members of the Teutonic Knights, a special status confirmed by the bestowal of the princely title by Emperor
Charles IVCharles IV may refer to: * Charles IV of France (1294–1328), "the Fair" * Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378) * Charles IV of Navarre (1421–1461) * Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481) * Charles IV, Duke of Alençon (1489–1525) * C ...

Charles IV
in 1356. }
lv, Kurzemes bīskapija
nds, Bisdom Curland , Terra Mariana , , Established about 1234, the smallest of the Livonian dioceses. Secularization, Secularized in 1559 and occupied by Prince Magnus, Duke of Holstein, Magnus of Denmark. From 1585 under the suzerainty of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, part of the Duchy of Livonia. To Russian Empire, Russia in the 1795 Third Partition of Poland. , - ! , Bishopric of Dorpat, Dorpat , Bishopric , et, Tartu piiskopkond
german: Hochstift Dorpat
nds, Bisdom Dorpat , Terra Mariana , , Bishop Hermann of Dorpat, Hermann, appointed by his brother Bishop Albert of Riga, received the title of a prince-bishop by King Henry (VII) of Germany, Henry VII of Germany in 1225. Dorpat ( et, Tartu) remained a suffragan diocese of Archbishopric of Riga, Riga. Dissolved in the course of the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
in 1558. , - ! , Bishopric of Ösel-Wiek, Ösel-Wiek , Bishopric , et, Saare-Lääne piiskopkond
german: Bistum Ösel-Wiek
nds, Bisdom Ösel-Wiek , Terra Mariana , , Established on Saaremaa island in 1228 under Bishop Gottfried, appointed by Bishop Albert of Riga, vested with the title of a prince-bishop by King Henry (VII) of Germany, Henry VII of Germany. It remained a suffragan diocese of Archbishopric of Riga, Riga. Dissolved in the course of the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
in 1559. , - ! , Archbishopric of Riga, Riga , Archbishopric , german: Erzbistum Riga
lv, Rīgas arhibīskapija
nds, Erzbisdom Riga , Terra Mariana , , Episcopal see at Ikšķile, Üxküll 1186–1202. In 1225 Albert of Riga received the title of a Prince-bishop of Livonia by Emperor Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, Frederick II. Last Archbishop William of Brandenburg resigned in 1561 during the Livonian War, territory fell to the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, to Swedish Empire, Sweden in 1621. , - ! , Prince-Bishopric of Warmia, Warmia , Bishopric , german: Hochstift Ermland
pl, Biskupie Księstwo Warmińskie , Prussia (region), Prussia , , Established by Papal legate William of Modena in 1243, princely title documented in the
Golden Bull of 1356 The Golden Bull of 1356 (, , , ) was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet at Nuremberg and Metz Metz ( , , ; lat, Divodurum Mediomatricorum, then ) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle (river), Moselle and t ...

Golden Bull of 1356
. Incorporated into the Poland during the Jagiellon dynasty, Jagiellon kingdom of Poland in 1466 and re-established as an autonomous prince-bishopric under the Crown of the Kingdom of Poland, Polish crown in 1479. Abolished in the course of the Kingdom of Prussia, Prussian annexation in 1772 during the First Partition of Poland.


Elsewhere


England

The Bishop of Durham, Bishops of Durham were also territorial prince-bishops, with the extraordinary secular rank of County palatine, Earl palatine, for it was their duty not only to be head of the large diocese, but also to help protect the Kingdom against the Scotland, Scottish threat from the north. The title survived the union of England and Scotland into the Kingdom of Great Britain in 1707 until 1836. The first Prince-bishop was William Walcher who purchased the earldom and constructed additional buildings of Durham Castle. Except for a brief period of suppression during the English Civil War, the bishopric retained this temporal power until it was abolished by the Durham (County Palatine) Act 1836 with the powers returned to the Crown.


France

From the tenth century civil wars on, many bishops took over the powers of the local count, as authorised by the king. For example, at Chalons-sur-Marne the bishop ruled the lands 20 km around the town, while the Archbishop of Rheims demarcated his territory with five fortresses of Courville, Cormicy, Betheneville, Sept-Saulx and Chaumuzy. A number of French bishops did hold a noble title, with a tiny territory usually about their seat; it was often a princely title, especially Count. Indeed, six of the twelve original Pairies (the royal vassals awarded with the highest precedence at Court) were episcopal: the Archbishop of Reims, the Bishop of Langres, and the Bishop of Laon held a Duke, ducal title, the bishops of Bishop of Beauvais, Beauvais, Bishop of Châlons-sur-Marne, Chalôns, and Bishop of Noyon, Noyon had Count, comital status. They were later joined by the Archbishop of Paris, who was awarded a ducal title, but with precedence over the others. France included a number of prince-bishops formerly within the Holy Roman Empire such those of Besançon, Cambrai, Strasbourg, Metz, Toul, Verdun, and Belley. The bishops of Arles, Embrun, and Grenoble also qualify as princes of episcopal cities. The bishop of Viviers was Count of Viviers and Prince de Donzère. The bishop of Sisteron was also Prince de Lurs, the title of count was held by the Archbishop of Lyons, and the bishop of Gap, Saint-Paul-Trois-Châteaux, Vienne and Die were Seigneurs of their cities. Never part of the empire were Lisieux, Cahors, Chalon-sur-Saône, Léon, Dol and Vabres whose bishops were also counts. Ajaccio was Count of Frasso. The bishops of Sarlat, Saint-Malo (Baron de Beignon) and of Luçon were Barons and Tulle was Viscount of the city. The bishop of Mende was governor and count, Puy held the title Count of Velay, Quimper was Seigneur of the city and Comte de Cornouailles, Valence was Seigneur and Count of the city. Montpellier's bishop was Count of Mauguio and Montferrand, Marquis of Marquerose and Baron of Sauve, Durfort, Salevoise, and Brissac. The bishop of Saint-Claude was Seigneur of all the lands of Saint-Claude. The bishops of Digne (Seigneur and Baron), Pamiers (co-Seigneur), Albi, Lectoure, Saint-Brieuc, Saint-Papoul, Saint-Pons, and Uzès were Seigneurs of the cities.


Montenegro

The eparchy of Cetinje, bishops of Cetinje, Montenegro, who took the place of the earlier secular (Grand) Voivodes in 1516 had a unique position of Slavic peoples, Slavonic, Eastern Orthodoxy, Orthodox prince-bishops of History of Ottoman Montenegro, Montenegro under Ottoman Empire, Ottoman suzerainty. They actually became the secularized, hereditary princes and ultimately King of Montenegro, Kings of Montenegro in 1852, as reflected in their styles: * first ("Bishop and Ruler of Montenegro and the Highlands") * from 13 March 1852 (New Style): ("By the grace of God Prince and Sovereign of Montenegro and the Highlands") * from 28 August 1910 (New Style): ("By the grace of God, King and Sovereign of Montenegro")


Portugal

From 1472 to 1967, the bishop of Coimbra held the Count, comital title of Count of Arganil Municipality, Arganil, being thus called "bishop-count" ( pt, Bispo-Conde). The count, comital title is still held ''de jure'', but since Portugal is a republic and nobility privileges are abolished, its use declined during the 20th century.


Special cases

The Bishop of Urgell, Catalonia, who no longer has any secular rights in Spain, remains one of two co-princes of Andorra, along with the French head of state (currently its President of the French Republic, President)


Modern informal usage

The term has been used by Episcopalians in North America to describe modern bishops with commanding personalities usually of previous generations. One such individual was Bishop Horace W. B. Donegan of whom Episcopal suffragan bishop Robert E. Terwilliger said "We often say that Bishop Donegan is the last prince bishop of the church because in his graciousness, in his presence, in his total lack of any crisis of identity, we have seen what a bishop is; and we know that it is a kind of royalty in Christ." Anglican Archbishop Robert Duncan (bishop), Robert Duncan expressed his view that the pastoral changes "in the 1970s was a revolution in reaction to those prince bishops - they had all this authority, they had all this power." So systems such as the Commission on Ministry system in the Episcopal Church "was to replace an individual's authority with a committee's authority."


See also

* Crown-cardinal * Lord Bishop * Political Catholicism * Prince-abbot * Prince-Provost * Prince of the Church * Temporal power (papal), Temporal power


References


Sources and external links

* Catholic Encyclopaedia passim
The Prince-Bishop of Münster

Albert of Buxhoeveden, Prince-Bishop of Livonia


* Westermann, (in German)
WorldStatesmen
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