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The president of the Government of Spain ( es, link=no, Presidente del Gobierno de España), commonly referred to in Spain as ''Presidente del Gobierno'', and known in English as the prime minister of Spain, is the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrat ...
of Spain. The office was established in its current form by the Constitution of 1978 and it was first regulated in 1823 as a chairmanship of the extant
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
, although it is not possible to determine when it actually originated. Upon a vacancy, the
Spanish monarch , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms of the King of Spain , image = (Felipe de Borbón) Inauguración de FITUR 2018 (39840659951) (cropped).jpg , incumbent = Feli ...
nominates a presidency candidate for a vote of confidence by the
Congress of Deputies of Spain
Congress of Deputies of Spain
, the lower house of the
Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit=General Courts) are the s of , consisting of the (the ), and the (the ). The Congress of Deputies meets in the . The Senate meets in the . Both are in . The Cortes are elected through univ ...
(parliament). The process is a parliamentarian
investiture Investiture (from the Latin preposition ''in'' and verb ''vestire'', "dress" from ''vestis'' "robe"), is the formal installation or ceremony in which a person is given the authority and regalia of a high office. Investiture can include formal dre ...
by which the head of government is
indirectly elected An election with electoral delegates is an election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office.
by the elected Congress of Deputies. In practice, the prime minister is almost always the leader of the largest party in the Congress. Since current constitutional practice in Spain calls for the king to act on the advice of his ministers, the prime minister is the country's ''de facto'' chief executive. Pedro Sánchez of the
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party ( es, Partido Socialista Obrero Español ; PSOE ) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources: * * * * political party A political party is an organi ...
(PSOE) has been Prime Minister since 2 June 2018, after a successful
motion of no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote about whether a person in a position of responsibility (government, manage ...
against former prime minister
Mariano Rajoy Mariano Rajoy Brey (; born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a 2018 vote of no confidence in the government of Mariano Rajoy, vote of no confidence ousted his government. On 5 Ju ...

Mariano Rajoy
. The Sánchez government technically ceased on 29 April 2019 after the 2019 Spanish general election, but was
acting Acting is an activity in which a story is told by means of its Enactment (psychology), enactment by an actor or actress who adopts a Character (arts), character—in theatre, television, film, radio, or any other medium that makes use of the ...
afterwards. However, following the November 2019 general election, Sánchez earned a second mandate as Prime Minister after receiving a plurality of votes in the second round vote of his investiture at the Congress of Deputies on 7 January 2020. He then resumed being the official prime minister after he was sworn in by
King Felipe Felipe is the Spanish language, Spanish variant of the name Philip (name), Philip, which derives from the Greek adjective ''Philippos'' "friend of horses". Felipe is also widely used in Portuguese language, Portuguese-speaking Brazil alongside Filip ...

King Felipe
on 8 January 2020. His new government was then sworn in by King Felipe on 13 January 2020.


Official title

The Spanish head of government has, since 1938, been known in Spanish as the – literally ''"President of the Government"'', but the term 'president' is far older. Spain was not unique in this regard: it was one of several European parliamentary systems including
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses ...
,
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...
and
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
that styled the head of government as 'presidents' of the government rather than the Westminster term of 'prime minister' (see President of the Council for the full list of corresponding terms); similarly, the president of the Congress or Senate referred to the parliamentary speakers. This system of multiple distinct offices all labelled 'president' causes confusion among English-speakers: both President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Un ...

George W. Bush
and his brother, Florida governor
Jeb Bush John Ellis "Jeb" Bush (born February 11, 1953) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd Governor of Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of th ...

Jeb Bush
, referred to
José María Aznar José María Alfredo Aznar López (; born 25 February 1953) is a Spanish politician who was the Prime Minister of Spain from 1996 to 2004. He led the People's Party (PP), the dominant centre-right Centre-right politics (British English ...
as "president" on separate occasions, and
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
referred to
Mariano Rajoy Mariano Rajoy Brey (; born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a 2018 vote of no confidence in the government of Mariano Rajoy, vote of no confidence ousted his government. On 5 Ju ...

Mariano Rajoy
both as "President" and "Mr. President" during Rajoy's 2017 White House visit. While this term of address was not incorrect, it could be culturally misleading to or for English-speakers, so that "prime minister" is often used as an inexact but culturally equivalent term to ensure clarity. The custom to name the head of government as "president" dates back to the reign of
Isabella II Isabella II ( es, Isabel II; 10 October 1830 – 9 April 1904), also known as the Queen of Sad Mischance and the Traditional Queen, was Queen of Spain This is a list of Spanish monarchs, that is, rulers of the country of Spain in the mode ...
, specifically to 1834 and the regency of
Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies ( it, Maria Cristina Ferdinanda di Borbone, Principessa delle Due Sicilie, es, link=no, María Cristina de Borbón, Princesa de las Dos Sicilias; 27 April 1806 – 22 August 1878) was queen consort of Spain f ...
when, styled after the
head of government The head of government is either the highest or second-highest official in the executive Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administrat ...
of the French July Monarchy (1830), the official title was the ("President of the Council of Ministers"). This remained until 1939, when the
Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly known as the Second Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, Segunda República Española), was the form of government in Spain from 1931 to 1939. The Republic was proclaimed on 14 April ...
ended. Before 1834 the figure was known as ("Secretary of State"), a denomination used today for
junior minister A minister is a politician A politician is a person active in party politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such ...
s.


Origin

Since the 15th century, the Spanish monarch has delegated his executive powers in relevant personalities. Two are the most important: the validos and the secretaries of state. The ''validos'', which existed since early 15th century to the late 17th century were people of the highest confidence of the kings and they exercised the Crown's power in the King's name. Since the 18th century, the ''validos'' disappeared and the secretaries of state were introduced. Both positions were a ''de facto'' prime ministers, although they can not be completely compared. On 19 November 1823, after a brief liberal democratic period called the
Liberal Triennium The ''Trienio Liberal'' (, "Liberal Triennium") is a period of three years in the modern history of Spain between 1820 and 1823, when a liberal government ruled Spain after a military uprising in January 1820 by the lieutenant-colonel Rafael de ...
between 1820 and 1823,
King Ferdinand VII , house = Bourbon , father = Charles IV of Spain , mother = Maria Luisa of Parma , birth_date = 14 October 1784 , birth_place = El Escorial, Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_fla ...
re-established the absolute monarchy and created the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
that continues to exist today. This Council was chaired by the Secretary of State, who acted as Prime Minister. The
Spanish Royal Statute of 1834The Royal Statute of 1834 ( es, Estatuto Real), was a royal charter of the History of Spain (1814–1873), Kingdom of Spain under the rule of Maria Christina of the Two Sicilies, Maria Christina, wife of the deceased King Ferdinand VII of Spain, who ...
replaced the chair with a President of the Council of Ministers invested with executive powers. During the nineteenth century, the position changed names frequently. After the Glorious Revolution of 1868, it was renamed ''President of the Provisional Revolutionary Joint'' and later ''President of the Provisional Government''. In 1869, the office resumed the name of ''President of the Council of Ministers''. Following the abdication of King Amadeus I, during the First Republic the office was the ''President of the Executive Power'' and was
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
. In 1874, the office name reverted to ''President of the Council of Ministers''. Since its inception, the Prime Minister has been appointed and dismissed by the will of the monarch. Successive constitutions have confirmed this royal prerogative of the monarch in the Constitution of 1837 (article 47), article 46 of the Constitution of 1845, the Constitution of 1869 (article 68), and the Constitution of 1876 (article 54). With the fall of the republic and the restoration of the
Bourbon Dynasty The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n.''" Oxford University Press Oxford University Press (OUP) is the unive ...
on
King Alfonso XII Alfonso XII of Spain (Alfonso Francisco de Asís Fernando Pío Juan María de la Concepción Gregorio Pelayo; 28 November 185725 November 1885), also known as El Pacificador or the Peacemaker, was King of Spain, reigning from 1874 to 1885. After ...

King Alfonso XII
, the office maintained its original name until the
dictatorship of Primo de Rivera The dictatorship of Primo de Rivera was the historical subperiod of the Restoration (Spain), Bourbon Restoration in Spain comprising the dictatorial government of General Miguel Primo de Rivera extending from 1923 to 1930, during the wider reign of ...
, when it was renamed to ''President of the Military Directory''. In 1925, the original name was restored again. During the Second Republic the title was the same but when the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...

Civil War
started, the head of government among the
Nationalists Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
was called ''Chief of the Government of the State'' and since January 1938 the office acquired the current name, ''President of the Government,'' but between that date and 1973 the office was held by
Francisco Franco Francisco Franco Bahamonde (; 4 December 1892 – 20 November 1975) was a Spanish general who led the Nationalist forces in overthrowing the Second Spanish Republic The Spanish Republic ( es, link=no, República Española), commonly ...

Francisco Franco
as dictator of Spain. The Republican Constitution of 1931 provided for the Prime Minister and the rest of the government to be appointed and dismissed by the President of the Republic but they were responsible before the Parliament and the Parliament could vote to dismiss the Prime Minister or a minister even against the will of the President of the Republic. In 1973, Franco separated the Head of the State from the Head of the Government and that division still exists today, with the Prime Minister democratically elected by a
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
which is itself elected by universal suffrage, free and equal.


Royal nomination and congressional confirmation

Once a
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
has been announced by the king, political parties designate their candidates to stand for Prime Minister —usually the party leader. A Prime Minister is dismissed from office the day after the election, but remains in office as a caretaker until his/her successor is sworn in. Following every general election to the
Cortes Generales The Cortes Generales (; en, Spanish Parliament, lit=General Courts) are the s of , consisting of the (the ), and the (the ). The Congress of Deputies meets in the . The Senate meets in the . Both are in . The Cortes are elected through univ ...
(''Cortes''), and other circumstances provided for in the constitution, the king meets with and interviews the leaders of the
parties Image:'Hip, Hip, Hurrah! Artist Festival at Skagen', by Peder Severin Krøyer (1888) Demisted with DXO PhotoLab Clearview; cropped away black border edge.jpg, 300px, ''Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an ...
represented in the Congress of Deputies, and then consults with the Speaker of the Congress of Deputies (officially, ''Presidente de Congreso de los Diputados de España'', who, in this instance, represents the ''whole'' of the Cortes Generales and was himself elected from within the Congress to be the Speaker) before nominating a candidate for the presidency. This process is spelled out in Section 99 of Title IV.Part IV Government and Administration
/ref> Often minor parties form part of a larger major party, and through that membership it can be said that the king fulfills his constitutional mandate of consulting with party representatives with Congressional representation.
Title IV Government and Administration Section 99(1) & (2) *(1) After each renewal of the Congress and the other cases provided for under the Constitution, the King shall, after consultation with the representatives appointed by the political groups with parliamentary representation, and through the Speaker of the Congress, nominate for the Presidency of the Government. *(2) The candidate nominated in accordance with the provisions of the foregoing subsection shall submit to the Congress the political program of the Government he or she intends to form and shall seek the confidence of the House.
Under the
Spanish Constitution of 1978 The Spanish Constitution (Spanish language, Spanish, Asturleonese language, Asturleonese, and gl, Constitución Española; eu, Espainiako Konstituzioa; ca, Constitució Espanyola; oc, Constitucion espanhòla) is the Democracy, democratic la ...
, the Prime Minister and the cabinet are responsible to the Congress of Deputies. Due to the need for the Prime Minister to command the confidence of the Congress, the monarch must nominate a candidate for the office after consulting the political groups with parliamentary representation. For this reason, the Prime Minister is usually the leader of the largest party in the Congress. For the Crown to nominate the political leader whose party controls the Congress can be seen as a royal endorsement of the democratic process— a fundamental concept enshrined in the 1978 Constitution. By political custom established by
Juan Carlos I Juan Carlos I (;, * ca, Joan Carles I, * gl, Xoán Carlos I, Juan Carlos Alfonso Víctor María de Borbón y Borbón, born 5 January 1938) is a member of the Spanish royal family who reigned as King of Spain from November 1975 until his a ...
since the ratification of the 1978 Constitution, the king's nominees have usually been from parties who maintain a plurality of seats in the Congress. However, there is no legal requirement for this. The largest party can end up not ruling if rival parties gather into a majority, forming a
coalition The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a co ...
—as happened in 2018 with the election of PSOE leader Sanchez. As political activity in Spain has effectively coalesced into a
two-party system A two-party system is a Politics, political party system in which two major party, major political parties consistently dominate the political landscape. At any point in time, one of the two parties typically holds a majority in the legislature ...
between the
Spanish Socialist Workers' Party The Spanish Socialist Workers' Party ( es, Partido Socialista Obrero Español ; PSOE ) is a social-democraticThe PSOE is described as a social-democratic party by numerous sources: * * * * political party A political party is an organi ...
and the People's Party, the two major parties usually adopt some aspects of the minor party platforms in an effort to attract them into parliamentary pacts to edge out their rival party if no party is able to command an absolute majority of the Congress by themselves. The monarch is normally able to announce his nominee on the day following a general election. The monarch's order nominating a Prime Ministerial candidate is countersigned by the Speaker of the Congress, who then presents the nominee before the Congress of Deputies in a process known as a '' Congressional Investiture'' (''Investidura parlamentaria''). During the Investiture proceedings the nominee presents his
political agenda In politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social sci ...

political agenda
in an ''Investiture Speech'' to be debated and submitted for a
Vote of Confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes in the reverse as a motion of confidence or vote of confidence, is a statement or vote Voting is a method for a group, such as a meeting or an electorate E ...

Vote of Confidence
(''Cuestión de confianza'') by the Congress, effecting an
indirect election An election with electoral delegates is an election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple individuals to hold Public administration, public office. Elections have bee ...
of the head of government.Speech by Zapatero at the session for his investiture as Prime Minister
/ref> A simple majority confirms the nominee and his program. At the moment of the vote, the confidence is awarded if the candidate receives a majority of votes in the first poll (currently 176 out of 350 MPs), but if the confidence is not awarded, a second vote is scheduled two days later in which a simple majority of votes cast (i.e., more "yes" than "no" votes) is required.


Oath of office

After the nominee is confirmed, the Speaker of the Congress formally reports to the king of the congressional confirmation. The king then appoints the candidate as the new Prime Minister. The king's order of appointment is countersigned by the Speaker. During the swearing-in ceremony presided over by the king, customarily at the ''Salón de Audiencias'' in the Zarzuela Palace, the Prime Minister-elect of the Government takes an
oath of office An oath of office is an oath Traditionally an oath (from Anglo-Saxon The Anglo-Saxons were a cultural group Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior Social behavior is behavior Behavior (American En ...
over an open Constitution and – at choice – next to a Bible and a
crucifix A crucifix (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the R ...

crucifix
. The prime minister must take the oath or affirmation placing the right hand on the Constitution. Currently, only one Spanish Prime Minister has refused to take the oath of office next to the Bible: Pedro Sánchez, along with most of his Cabinet members. His predecessor
Mariano Rajoy Mariano Rajoy Brey (; born 27 March 1955) is a Spanish politician who served as Prime Minister of Spain from 2011 to 2018, when a 2018 vote of no confidence in the government of Mariano Rajoy, vote of no confidence ousted his government. On 5 Ju ...

Mariano Rajoy
, catholic, put his right hand on the Constitution and, at the same time, his left hand on the Bible. As per tradition, if the members of the government choose not to take the oath along with any religious symbols, they use the word "prometo" ("I promise"), whereas if the take the oath with the Bible, they use the word "juro" ("I swear"). The oath as taken by Prime Minister Zapatero on his first term in office on 17 April 2004 was: In 2008, from the time the king nominated for a second term as Prime Minister immediately following the 2008 general election, almost a month passed before Zapatero was able to present his Investiture Speech before the Congress and stand for a Vote of Confidence. If no overall majority was obtained on the first Vote of the Confidence, then the same nominee and program is resubmitted for a second vote within forty-eight hours. Following the second vote, if confidence by the Congress is still not reached, then the monarch again meets with political leaders and the Speaker, and submits a new nominee for a vote of confidence. If, within two months, no candidate has won the confidence of the Congress then the King dissolves the Cortes and calls for a new general election. The King's royal decree is countersigned by the Speaker of the Congress. Once appointed, the Prime Minister forms his government whose ministers are appointed and removed by the King on the Prime Minister's advice. In the political life of Spain, the king would already be familiar with the various political leaders in a professional capacity, and perhaps less formally in a more social capacity, facilitating their meeting following a general election. Conversely, nominating the party leader whose party maintains a plurality and who are already familiar with their party
manifesto A manifesto is a published declaration of the intentions, motives, or views of the issuer, be it an individual, group, political party or government. A manifesto usually accepts a previously published opinion or public consensus or promotes a ...

manifesto
facilitates a smoother nomination process. In the event of
coalitions The term "coalition" is the denotation for a group formed when two or more people, factions, states, political parties, militaries etc. agree to work together temporarily in a partnership to achieve a common goal. The word coalition connotes a co ...
, the political leaders would customarily have met beforehand to hammer out a coalition agreement before their meeting with the King. Government and the Cortes sit for a term no longer than four years when the Prime Minister tenders his resignation to the king and advises the king to dissolve the Cortes, prompting a general election. It remains within the king's prerogative to dissolve the Cortes if, at the conclusion of the four years, the Prime Minister has not asked for its dissolution, according to Title II Section 56. The king may call for earlier elections on the advice of the Prime Minister, known as a
snap election Snap or SNAP may refer to: Arts and entertainment * ''Snap'' (film), the original release title for the 2013 film ''Enter the Dangerous Mind'' *''Snap'' (TV series), a CITV programme * ''Stanly News and Press'', a newspaper in Albemarle, North C ...
, but no sooner than a year after the prior general election.Snap elections have been used only threes since the 1978 Constitution was ratified, ex-PM
Felipe González Felipe González Márquez (, born 5 March 1942) is a Spanish lawyer, professor, and politician, who was the Secretary-General of the Spanish Socialist Workers' Party (PSOE) from 1974 to 1997, and the List of Prime Ministers of Spain, 3rd Prim ...
invoked his constitutional right to dissolve the Cortes three times in 1989, 1993, and 1996
Additionally, if the Government loses the confidence of the Cortes, then it must resign. If a Prime Minister resigns without advising the monarch to call for new elections, dies or becomes incapacitated while in office, then the government as a whole resigns and the process of royal nomination and appointment takes place. The deputy Prime Minister, or in the absence of such office the first minister by precedence, would then take over the day-to-day operations in the meantime as acting-prime minister, even while the deputy Prime Minister themselves may be nominated by the King and stand for a vote of confidence. The Prime Minister's position is strengthened by constitutional limits on the Congress' right to withdraw confidence from the government. Following the German model, a Prime Minister can only be removed by a
constructive vote of no confidenceThe constructive vote of no confidence (german: konstruktives Misstrauensvotum, es, moción de censura constructiva) is a variation on the motion of no confidence A motion of no confidence, vote of no confidence, or no confidence motion, sometimes ...
. While the Congress can censure the government at any time, the censure motion must also include the name of a prospective replacement for the incumbent Prime Minister. If the censure motion is successful, the replacement candidate is automatically deemed to have the confidence of the Congress, and the monarch is required to appoint him as the new Prime Minister.


Constitutional authority

Title IV of the Constitution defines the government and its responsibilities. The government consists of the President of the Government and ministers of state. The government conducts domestic and
foreign policy ''Foreign Policy'' is an American news publication, founded in 1970 and focused on global affairs, current events, and domestic and international policy. It produces content daily on its website, and in six print issues annually. ''Foreign Poli ...
, civil and military administration, and the defense of the nation all in the name of the king on behalf of the people. Additionally, the government exercises executive authority and statutory regulations. There is no provision in the Spanish Constitution for explicitly granting any
emergency powers A state of emergency or emergency powers is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of their citizens. A government can decla ...
to the government, which could be understood as exorcising the ghost of the recent dictatorship in Spain. However, Title II, Sections 56 of the constitution vests the monarch as the "arbitrator and moderator of the institutions" of government, ''
he King He or HE may refer to: Language * He (pronoun), an English pronoun * He (kana), the romanization of the Japanese kana へ and ヘ * He (letter), the fifth letter of many Semitic alphabets * He (Cyrillic), a letter of the Cyrillic script called '' ...
arbitrates and moderates the regular functioning of the institutions'' (''arbitra y modera el funcionamiento regular de las instituciones'').Título II. De la Corona, Wikisource
/ref>
/ref> This provision could be understood as allowing the king or his government ministers to exercise emergency authority in times of national crisis, such as when the king used his authority to back the government of the day and call for the military to abandon the 23-F coup attempt in 1981.


Return of democracy

Adolfo Suárez was the first democratically elected Prime Minister of the post-Franco government, the 149th Spanish Prime Minister since 1834. He was appointed by King Juan Carlos on 3 July 1976. In the 1977 Spanish general election his position as Prime Minister was confirmed by a vote.


Peerages

Peerages in Spain are created by the Grace of the King, according to the Spanish Ministry of Justice, and are the highest marks of distinction that he may bestow in his capacity as the ''
fons honorumThe fount of honour ( la, fons honorum) refers to a person, who, by virtue of his or her official position, has the exclusive right of conferring legitimate titles of nobility and orders of chivalry on other persons. Origin During the High Midd ...
'' in Spain. Conventionally, the ''Title of Concession'' creating the dignity must be countersigned by a government minister. When a title is created for a former president, the succeeding president customarily countersigns the royal decree. As a reward for national service, the king awarded peerages to two of his former presidents who have since retired from active politics:
Adolfo Suárez Adolfo Suárez González, 1st Duke of Suárez (; 25 September 1932 – 23 March 2014) was a Spanish lawyer and politician. Suárez was Spain's first democratically elected Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister since the Second Spanish Republic ...
was created 1st Duke of Suárez; and
Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo Leopoldo Ramón Pedro Calvo-Sotelo y Bustelo, 1st Marquess of Ría de Ribadeo (; 14 April 1926 – 3 May 2008), usually known as Leopoldo Calvo-Sotelo, was Prime Minister of Spain between 1981 and 1982. Early life and career Calvo-Sotelo was b ...
was created 1st . Additional titles of nobility have been created by the king for other government ministers, usually at the advice of the president of the government. As of 2005, the king has created forty hereditary titles of nobility.


Recent prime ministers


Living former prime ministers

As of , there are four living former Spanish prime ministers: The most recent Prime Minister to die was
Adolfo Suárez Adolfo Suárez González, 1st Duke of Suárez (; 25 September 1932 – 23 March 2014) was a Spanish lawyer and politician. Suárez was Spain's first democratically elected Prime Minister of Spain, Prime Minister since the Second Spanish Republic ...
(served 1976–1981) on 23 March 2014, aged 81.


Timeline


See also

*
Elections in Spain There are four types of elections in Spain: general elections, elections to the legislatures of the autonomous communities (regional elections), local elections and elections to the European Parliament The European Parliament (EP) is one of t ...
*
List of prime ministers of Spain The prime minister of Spain is the head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or o ...
*
Politics of Spain The politics of Spain takes place under the framework established by the Spanish Constitution of 1978, Constitution of 1978. Spain is established as a social and democracy, democratic sovereign countryFirst article. wherein the Popular sovereign ...
* Cabinet Office (Spain)


References

{{Prime Minister Government of Spain Politics of Spain Spanish Prime Minister's Office