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The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic of India is the
head Head Sport GmbH is an American-Austrian headquartered in . It owns the American tennis racket brand Head. Head GmbH is a group that includes several previously independent companies, including the original "Head Ski Company" (founded in the in ...
of the executive branch of the
government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Aliment ...
. The prime minister is the presiding member of the
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
of the central government and heads the federal cabinet. They can be a member of any of the two houses of the
Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha Th ...
—the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
(House of the People) and the
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Huma ...

Rajya Sabha
(Council of the States); but has to be a member of the political party or coalition, having a majority in the Lok Sabha. The prime minister is the senior-most member of the cabinet in the executive branch of the federal government in the
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
. The prime minister selects and can dismiss members of the cabinet; allocates posts to members within the government; and is the presiding member and chairperson of the cabinet. The
Union Cabinet The Union Council of Ministers exercises executive authority in the Republic of India. Wikisource:Constitution of India/Part V#Article 74 .7BCouncil of Ministers to aid and advise President.7D It consists of senior ministers, called 'cabinet ...
headed by the prime minister is appointed by the President of India to assist the latter in the administration of the affairs of the executive. Union cabinet is collectively responsible to the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
as per Article 75(3) of the
Constitution of India The Constitution of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the sci ...

Constitution of India
. The prime minister has to enjoy the confidence of a majority in the Lok Sabha and shall resign if they are unable to prove majority when instructed by the president. The
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, even though they are not officially recognized by laws. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with ''de jure'' ("by law"), which refers to th ...
commander-in-chief A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Command and control is a "set of organizational and technical attributes and processes ... hat A collection of 18th and 19th century men' ...
of the
Armed Forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, Society, societies, or pa ...
, the prime minister is usually the most powerful person in India and one of so in the world. Because they are the
Leader of the Lok Sabha Leader of the House in Lok Sabha (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic ...
by default and India is a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
, the prime minister is the largest influencer over the legislature. Their advice to the President regarding top-level appointments carries the largest weightage.
Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi (; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the List of Prime Ministers of India, 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the List of chief ministers of Gujarat, chief minist ...

Narendra Modi
is the 14th and current prime minister of India, having assumed office on 26 May, 2014.


Origins and history

India follows a
parliamentary system A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democratic Democrat, Democrats, or Democratic may refer to: *A proponent of democracy Democracy ( gr, δημοκρατία, ''dēmokratiā'', from ''dēmos'' 'people' an ...
in which the prime minister is the presiding
head of the government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous region, or other government who often presides over a cabinet (gover ...
and chief of the executive of the government. In such systems, the
head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public image of one's personality, or the social role that one adopts, or a fictional ch ...
, or, the head of state's official representative (i.e., the monarch, president, or governor-general) usually holds a purely ceremonial position and acts—on most matters—only on the advice of the prime minister. The prime minister—if they are not already—shall become a
member of parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
within six months of beginning his/her tenure. A prime minister is expected to work with other central ministers to ensure the passage of bills by the parliament.


History


1947–1984

Since 1947, there have been 14 different prime ministers. The first few decades after 1947 saw the
Indian National Congress The Indian National Congress (often called the Congress Party or simply Congress, INC) is a political party in India with widespread roots. Founded in 1885, it was the first modern nationalist movement to emerge in the British Empire ...
' (INC) almost complete domination over the political map of India. India's first prime minister—
Jawaharlal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru (; ; ; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was an Indian Anti-colonial nationalism, anti-colonial nationalist, secular humanist, social democrat, and author who was a central figure in India during the middle third o ...

Jawaharlal Nehru
—took oath on 15 August 1947. Nehru went on to serve as prime minister for 17 consecutive years, winning four
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
s in the process. His tenure ended in May 1964, on his death. After the death of Nehru,
Lal Bahadur Shastri Lal Bahadur Shastri (, 2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was an Indian statesman who served as the second Prime Minister of India. He promoted the Operation Flood, White Revolution – a national campaign to increase the production and ...
—a former
home minister The Minister of Home Affairs (or simply, the Home Minister, short form HM) is the head of the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India. One of the senior-most officers in the Union Cabinet, the chief responsibility of the Home Mini ...
and a leader of the Congress party—ascended to the position of Prime Minister. Shastri's tenure saw the
Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 The Indo-Pakistani War of 1965 or the Second Kashmir War was a culmination of skirmishes that took place between April 1965 and September 1965 between Pakistan and India. The conflict began following Pakistan's Operation Gibraltar, which was d ...
. Shashtri subsequently died of a reported heart attack in
Tashkent russian: Ташкент , other_name = , settlement_type = Capital city, Capital , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top: Skyline of Tashkent, Hilton ...
, after signing the
Tashkent Declaration The Tashkent Declaration was a peace agreement between India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-largest country by area, the List ...
. After Shastri,
Indira Gandhi Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (; ''née'' Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress The Indian National Congress (often called the Congress Party or ...

Indira Gandhi
—Nehru's daughter—was elected as the country's first woman prime minister. Indira's first term in office lasted 11 years, in which she took steps such as nationalisation of banks; end of allowances and political posts, which were received by members of the royal families of the erstwhile
princely state A princely state, also called a native state, feudatory state or Indian state (for those states on the subcontinent), was a vassal state under a local or indigenous or regional ruler in a subsidiary alliance with the East India Company and af ...
s of
British India The Provinces of India, earlier Presidencies of British India and still earlier, Presidency towns, were the administrative divisions of British governance in the Indian subcontinent. Collectively, they have been called British India. In one ...
. In addition, events such as the
Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 The Indo-Pakistani War of 1971 was a military confrontation between India and Pakistan that occurred during the Bangladesh Liberation War in East Pakistan from 3 December 1971 to the Pakistani Instrument of Surrender, fall of Dacca ( ...
; the establishment of a sovereign
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...

Bangladesh
; accession of
Sikkim Sikkim (; ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...

Sikkim
to India, through a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...
in 1975; and India's first nuclear test in
Pokhran Pokhran is a village and a municipality located in the Jaisalmer district of the States and territories of India, Indian state of Rajasthan. It is a remote location in the Thar Desert region and served as the test site for India's first undergro ...
occurred during Indira's first term. In 1975, President
Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed Fakhruddin Ali Ahmed (13 May 1905 – 11 February 1977) was an Indian lawyer and politician who served as the fifth President of India from 1974 to 1977. He was also the second President of India to die in office.state of emergency A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of its citizens. A government can declare such a state duri ...
, therefore, bestowing the government with the power to
rule by decree Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions In psychology, decision-making (also spelled decision making and decisionma ...
, the period is known for human right violations. After widespread protests, the emergency was lifted in 1977, and a
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
was to be held. All of the political parties of the opposition—after the conclusion of the emergency—fought together against the Congress, under the umbrella of the
Janata Party The Janata Party ( JP, lit. ''People's Party'') was a political party that was founded as an amalgam of Indian political parties opposed to the Emergency that was imposed between 1975 to 1977 by Prime Minister Indira Gandhi Indira Priyadar ...
, in the general election of 1977, and were successful in defeating the Congress. Subsequently,
Morarji Desai Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (29 February 1896 – 10 April 1995) was an Indian independence activist and served between 1977 and 1979 as the 4th Prime Minister of India The Prime Minister of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Trans ...

Morarji Desai
—a former deputy prime minister—became the first non-Congress prime minister of the country. The government of Prime Minister Desai was composed of groups with opposite ideologies, in which unity and co-ordination were difficult to maintain. Ultimately, after two and a half years as PM; on 28 July 1979, Morarji tendered his resignation to the president; and his government fell. Thereafter,
Charan Singh Chaudhary Charan Singh (23 December 1902 – 29 May 1987) served as the 5th Prime Minister of India The Prime Minister of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ), officially the Prime Minister of the Republ ...

Charan Singh
—a deputy prime minister in Desai's cabinet—with outside, conditional support from Congress, proved a majority in
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
and took oath as prime minister. However, Congress pulled its support shortly after, and Singh had to resign; he had a tenure of 5 months, the shortest in the history of the office. In
1980 Events January * January 4 – U.S. President Jimmy Carter proclaims a United States grain embargo against the Soviet Union, grain embargo against the USSR with the support of the European Commission. * January 6 – Global Positioning Syst ...
, after a three-year absence, the Congress returned to power with an absolute majority. Indira Gandhi was elected prime minister a second time. During her second tenure,
Operation Blue Star Operation Blue Star was the code name of an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the Lis ...
—an
Indian Army The Indian Army is the land-based branch and the largest component of the Indian Armed Forces The Indian Armed Forces are the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organi ...

Indian Army
operation inside the
Golden Temple The Golden Temple (also known as the Harmandir Sahib, , , or the Darbār Sahib, 'exalted court', ) is a gurdwara A gurdwara (; meaning "door to the Sikh gurus, guru") is a place of assembly and place of worship, worship for Sikhs. Sikhs also r ...

Golden Temple
, the most sacred site in
Sikhism Sikhism () or Sikhi ( pa, ਸਿੱਖੀ ', , from pa, ਸਿੱਖ, lit=disciple', 'seeker', or 'learner, translit=Sikh, label=none)''Sikhism'' (indigenously known as ''Sikhī'') originated from the word ''Sikh'', which comes from the Sanskr ...
—was conducted, resulting in reportedly thousands of deaths. Subsequently, on 31 October 1984, Gandhi was shot dead by Satwant Singh and Beant Singh—two of her bodyguards—in the garden of her residence at 1,
Safdarjung Road Safdarjung Road ( hi, सफ़दरजंग मार्ग) is a main road in New Delhi, India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by area, seventh-l ...
, New Delhi.


1984–1999

After Indira,
Rajiv
Rajiv
—her eldest son and 40 years old at the time—was sworn in on the evening of 31 October 1984, becoming the youngest person ever to hold the office of prime minister. Rajiv immediately called for a general election. In the subsequent
general election A general election is a political voting election where generally all or most members of a given political body are chosen. These are usually held for a nation, state, or territory's primary legislative body, and are different from by-election ...
, the Congress secured an
absolute majority A supermajority, supra-majority, qualified majority, or special majority is a requirement for a proposal to gain a specified level of support which is greater than the threshold of more than one-half used for a majority. Supermajority rules in ...
, winning 401 of 552 seats in the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
, the maximum number received by any party in the history of India.
Vishwanath Pratap Singh Vishwanath Pratap Singh () (25 June 1931 – 27 November 2008), also known as V. P. Singh, was an Indian politician who was the List of prime ministers of India, 8th Prime Minister of India from 1989 to 1990 and the 41st Raja Bahadur of Manda ( ...
—first
finance minister A finance minister is an executive or cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass she ...
and then later
defence minister A defence minister or minister of defence is a cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent ...
in Gandhi's cabinet—uncovered irregularities, in what became known as the Bofors scandal, during his stint at the
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
; Singh was subsequently expelled from Congress and formed the
Janata Dal Janata Dal (“People’s Party”) was an Indian political party which was formed through the merger of Janata Party The Janata Party ( JP, lit. ''People's Party'') was a political party that was founded as an amalgam of Indian political par ...
and—with the help of several anti-Congress parties—also formed the
National FrontNational Front or Front National can refer to the following political parties and coalitions: Africa * Botswana National Front * National Front for the Salvation of Libya * Namibia National Front * Front National (South Africa) , a Boer-Afrikaner po ...
, a coalition of many political parties. In the general election of 1989, the National Front—with outside support from the
Bharatiya Janata Party The Bharatiya Janata Party (; ; BJP) is one of two major List of political parties in India, political parties in India, along with the Indian National Congress. It is the current List of ruling political parties by country, ruling politic ...
(BJP) and the Left Front—came to power.
V. P. Singh Vishwanath Pratap Singh () (25 June 1931 – 27 November 2008), also known as V. P. Singh, was an Indian politician who was the 8th Prime Minister of India The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic ...
was elected prime minister. During a tenure of less than a year, Singh and his government accepted the
Mandal Commission The Mandal Commission, or the Socially and Educationally Backward Classes Commission (SEBC), was established in India on 1 January 1979 by the Janata Party government under Prime Minister Morarji Desai with a mandate to "identify the socially or ...
's recommendations. Singh's tenure came to an end after he ordered the arrest of BJP member
Lal Krishna Advani Lal Krishna Advani (born 8 November 1927) is an Indian politician who served as the 7th Deputy Prime Minister of India from 2002 to 2004 under Atal Bihari Vajpayee Atal Bihari Vajpayee (; 25 December 1924 – 16 August 201 ...
, as a result, BJP withdrew its outside support to the government, V. P. Singh lost the subsequent vote-of-no-confidence 146–320 and had to resign. After V. P. Singh's resignation,
Chandra Shekhar Chandra Shekhar Singh (1 July 1927 – 8 July 2007) was an Indian politician who served as the List of Prime Ministers of India, 8th Prime Minister of India, between 10 November 1990 and 21 June 1991. He headed a minority government of a breaka ...
along with 64
members of parliament A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
(MPs) floated the
Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) Samajwadi Janata Party (Rashtriya) (SJP(R)) is an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, the Lis ...
, and proved a majority in the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
with support from Congress. But Shekhar's premiership did not last long, Congress proceeded to withdraw its support; Shekhar's government fell as a result, and new elections were announced. In the general election of 1991, Congress—under the leadership of
P. V. Narasimha Rao Pamulaparthi Venkata Narasimha Rao (28 June 1921 – 23 December 2004) was an Indian lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate, attorney at lawAttorney at law or attorney-at-law, usually abbreviated in eve ...
—formed a
minority government A minority government, minority cabinet, minority administration, or a minority parliament is a government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Art ...
; Rao became the first PM of
South India South India is a region consisting of the southern part of India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous ...

South India
n origin. After the
dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=Razvál Sovétskovo Sojúza, ''Ruining of the Soviet Union''. (1988–1991) was the process of internal political, ...
, India was on the brink of
bankruptcy Bankruptcy is a legal process through which people or other entities who cannot repay debts to creditor A creditor or lender is a party 300px, '' Hip, Hip, Hurrah!'' (1888) by Peder Severin Krøyer, a painting portraying an artists' par ...
, so, Rao took steps to liberalise the economy, and appointed
Manmohan Singh Manmohan Singh (; born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist, academic, and politician who served as the 13th Prime Minister of India The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic of India is the ...

Manmohan Singh
—an economist and a former
governor of the Reserve Bank of India The Governor of the Reserve Bank of India is the chief executive, chief executive officer of India's central bank and the ''ex-officio'' chair of its Central Board of Directors. Indian Rupee currency notes, issued by the Reserve Bank of India, ...
—as finance minister. Rao and Singh then took various steps to liberalise the economy, these resulted in an unprecedented economic growth in India. His premiership, however, was also a witness to the
demolition of the Babri Masjid The demolition of the Babri Masjid was illegally carried out on 6 December 1992 by a large group of activists of the Vishva Hindu Parishad and allied organisations. The 16th-century Babri Mosque in the city of Ayodhya Ayodhya (; IAS ...
, which resulted in the death of about 2,000 people. Rao, however, did complete five continuous years in office, becoming the first prime minister outside of the Nehru—Gandhi family to do so. After the end of Rao's tenure in May 1996, the nation saw four prime ministers in a span of three years, ', two tenures of
Atal Bihari Vajpayee Atal Bihari Vajpayee (; 25 December 1924 – 16 August 2018) was an Indian statesman who served three terms as the Prime Minister of India, first for a term of 13 days in 1996, then for a period of 13 months from 199 ...

Atal Bihari Vajpayee
; one tenure of from 1 June 1996 to 21 April 1997; and one tenure of
I. K. Gujral Inder Kumar Gujral (4 December 1919 – 30 November 2012) was an Indian diplomat, politician and freedom activist who served as the 12th Prime Minister of India from April 1997 to March 1998. Born in Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; S ...
from 21 April 1997 to 19 March 1998. The government of Prime Minister Vajpayee—elected in
1998 1998 was designated as the ''International Year of the Ocean''. Events January * January 2 – Russia begins to Monetary reform in Russia, 1998, circulate new rubles to stem inflation and promote confidence. * January 4 – Wilaya of Reliza ...
—took some concrete steps. In May 1998—after a month in power—the government announced the conduct of five underground nuclear explosions in
Pokhran Pokhran is a village and a municipality located in the Jaisalmer district of the States and territories of India, Indian state of Rajasthan. It is a remote location in the Thar Desert region and served as the test site for India's first undergro ...
. In response to these tests, many
western countries The Western world, also known as the West, refers to various region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study of the lands, features, inhabita ...

western countries
, including the United States, imposed
economic sanctions Economic sanctions are commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Television advertisement * (adjective for:) commerce, a system of ...
on India, but, due to the support received from Russia, France, the Gulf countries and some other nations, the sanctions—were largely—not considered successful. A few months later in response to the Indian nuclear tests, Pakistan also conducted nuclear tests. Given the deteriorating situation between the two countries, the governments tried to improve bilateral relations. In February 1999, the India and Pakistan signed the
Lahore Declaration The Lahore Declaration was a bilateral agreement and governance treaty between India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, seco ...
, in which the two countries announced their intention to annul mutual enmity, increase trade and use their nuclear capabilities for peaceful purposes. In May 1999,
All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam The All India Anna Dravida Munnetra Kazhagam (transl. All India Anna Dravidian Progressive Federation; AIADMK) is an India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of count ...
withdrew from the ruling
National Democratic Alliance National Democratic Alliance (NDA) () is an Indian big tent political alliance led by the right-wing Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP). It was founded in 1998 and currently controls the government of India as well as the government of 17 States an ...
(NDA) coalition; Vajpayee's government, hence, became a caretaker one after losing a motion-of-no-confidence 269–270, this coincided with the
Kargil War The Kargil War, also known as the Kargil conflict, was an war, armed conflict fought between India and Pakistan from May to July 1999 in the Kargil district of Jammu and Kashmir (state), Jammu and Kashmir and elsewhere along the Line of Contr ...

Kargil War
with Pakistan. In the subsequent October 1999 general election, the BJP-led NDA and its affiliated parties secured a comfortable majority in the Lok Sabha, winning 299 of 543 seats in the
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
.


2000–present

Vajpayee continued the process of economic liberalisation during his reign, resulting in economic growth. In addition to the development of infrastructure and basic facilities, the government took several steps to improve the infrastructure of the country, such as, the
National Highways Development Project The National Highways Development Project (NHDP) is a project to upgrade, rehabilitate and widen major highways in India to a higher standard. The project was started in 1998 under the leadership of Prime Minister of India, Prime Minister, Atal B ...
(NHDP) and the '' Pradhan Mantri Gram Sadak Yojana'' (PMGSY;
IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It ...
: ; Prime Minister Rural Road Scheme), for the development of roads. But during his reign, the 2002 Gujarat communal riots in the state of Gujarat took place; resulting in about 2,000 deaths. Vajpayee's tenure as prime minister came to an end in May 2004, making him the first non-Congress PM to complete a full five-year tenure. In the 2004 election, the Congress emerged as the largest party in a
hung parliament A hung parliament is a term used in legislatures under the Westminster system to describe a situation in which no particular political party or pre-existing coalition (also known as an alliance or bloc) has an absolute majority of legislators (c ...
; Congress-led
United Progressive Alliance United Progressive Alliance (UPA) is a big tent Big tent or catch-all party is used in reference to a political party's policy of permitting or encouraging a broad spectrum of views among its members. This is in contrast to other parties ...

United Progressive Alliance
(UPA)—with outside support from the Left Front, the
Samajwadi Party Samajwadi Party ( SP; translation Translation is the communication of the meaning Meaning most commonly refers to: * Meaning (linguistics), meaning which is communicated through the use of language * Meaning (philosophy), definition, e ...
(SP) and
Bahujan Samaj Party The Bahujan Samaj Party (BSP) is a national level political party in India that was formed to represent Bahujans (literally means "people in majority"), referring to Scheduled Castes 360px, Scheduled Tribes distribution map in India by sta ...
(BSP) among others—proved a majority in the Lok Sabha, and Manmohan Singh was elected prime minister; becoming the first Sikh prime minister of the nation. During his tenure, the country retained the economic momentum gained during Prime Minister Vajpayee's tenure. Apart from this, the government succeeded in getting the ''
National Rural Employment Guarantee Act, 2005 National Rural Employment Guarantee Act 2005 (or, NREGA''No 42 later renamed as the "Mahatma Gandhi National Rural Employment Guarantee Act" or MGNREGA), is an Indian labour law and social security measure that aims to guarantee the 'right to wo ...
'', and the ''
Right to Information Act, 2005 The Right to Information (RTI) is an act of the Parliament of India which sets out the rules and procedures regarding citizens' right to information. It replaced the former Freedom of information act of 2002 (India), Freedom of Information Act, ...
'' passed in the parliament. Further, the government strengthened India's relations with nations like
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
; Russia; the Gulf states; and the United States, culminating with the ratification of
India–United States Civil Nuclear Agreement The Section 123 Agreement, 123 Agreement signed between the United States of America and the Republic of India is known as the U.S.–India Civil Nuclear Agreement or Indo-US nuclear deal. The framework for this agreement was a July 18, 2005, ...
near the end of Singh's first term. At the same time, the also happened during Singh's first term in office. In the general election of 2009, the mandate of UPA increased. Prime Minister Singh's second term, however, was surrounded by accusations of high-level scandals and corruption. Singh resigned as prime minister on 17 May 2014, after Congress' defeat in the 2014 general election. In the general election of 2014, the BJP-led NDA got an absolute majority, winning 336 out of 543 Lok Sabha seats; the BJP itself became the first party since 1984 to get a majority in the Lok Sabha.
Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi (; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the List of Prime Ministers of India, 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the List of chief ministers of Gujarat, chief minist ...

Narendra Modi
—the
Chief Minister of Gujarat The Chief Minister of Gujarat is the chief executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives in charge of managing an organization especially an indepen ...
—was elected prime minister, becoming the first prime minister to have been born in an independent India.
Narendra Modi Narendra Damodardas Modi (; born 17 September 1950) is an Indian politician serving as the List of Prime Ministers of India, 14th and current prime minister of India since 2014. Modi was the List of chief ministers of Gujarat, chief minist ...

Narendra Modi
was re-elected as prime minister in 2019 with a bigger mandate than that of 2014. The BJP-led NDA winning 354 seats out of which
BJP The Bharatiya Janata Party (; ; BJP) is one of two major political parties in India India has a multi-party system with recognition accorded to national, state and district level parties. The status is reviewed periodically by the Electi ...

BJP
secured 303 seats.


Constitutional framework and position of prime minister

The
Constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

Constitution
envisions a scheme of affairs in which the
president of India The president of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scienc ...
is the head of state; in terms of Article 53 with office of the prime minister being the head of
Council of MinistersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
to assist and advise the president in the discharge of his/her constitutional functions. To quote, Article 53, 74 and 75 provide as under; Like most
parliamentary democracies A parliamentary system or parliamentary democracy is a system of democracy, democratic government, governance of a sovereign state, state (or subordinate entity) where the Executive (government), executive derives its democratic legitimacy fro ...
, the
president President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...
's duties are mostly
ceremonial A ceremony (, ) is a unified ritual A ritual is a sequence of activities involving gestures, words, actions, or objects, performed according to a set sequence. Rituals may be prescribed by the traditions of a community, including a religious ...
as long as the
constitution A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Human activity * The exercise of political ...

constitution
and the
rule of law The rule of law is defined in the ''Oxford English Dictionary The ''Oxford English Dictionary'' (''OED'') is the principal of the , published by (OUP). It traces the historical development of the English language, providing a compreh ...

rule of law
is obeyed by the cabinet and the legislature. The prime minister of India is the head of government and has the responsibility for executive power. The president's constitutional duty is to preserve, protect and defend the Constitution and the law per article 60. In the constitution of India, the prime minister is mentioned in only four of its articles (articles 74, 75, 78 and 366), however he/she plays a crucial role in the
government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Aliment ...
by enjoying majority in the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
.


Appointment, tenure and removal


Eligibility

According to Article 84 of the Constitution of India, which sets the principle qualification for member of Parliament, and Article 75 of the Constitution of India, which sets the qualifications for the minister in the Union Council of Ministers, and the argument that the position of prime minister has been described as ''
primus inter pares ''Primus inter pares'' is a Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power ...
'' (the first among equals), A prime minister must: * be a
citizen of India The conferment of a person as a citizen Citizenship is the status of a person recognized under the law of a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or political entity. It is often referred to as the land of an ...
. * be a member of the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
or the
Rajya Sabha The Rajya Sabha, constitutionally A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles A principle is a proposition or value that is a guide for behavior or evaluation. In law, it is a rule Rule or ruling may refer to: Huma ...

Rajya Sabha
. If the person chosen as the prime minister is neither a member of the Lok Sabha nor the Rajya Sabha at the time of selection, they must become a member of either of the houses within six months. * be above 25 years of age if they are a member of the Lok Sabha, or, above 30 years of age if they are a member of the Rajya Sabha. * not hold any office of profit under the government of India or the government of any state or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said governments. If however a candidate is elected as the prime minister they must vacate their post from any private or government company and may take up the post only on completion of their term.


Oaths of office and secrecy

The prime minister is required to make and subscribe in the presence of the
President of India The president of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scienc ...
before entering office, the oath of office and secrecy, as per the Third Schedule of the Constitution of India. Oath of office: Oath of secrecy:


Tenure and removal from office

The prime minister serves on 'the pleasure of the president', hence, a prime minister may remain in office indefinitely, so long as the president has confidence in him/her. However, a prime minister must have the confidence of Lok Sabha, the lower house of the
Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India and the two houses: the Rajya Sabha (Council of States) and the Lok Sabha Th ...
. However, the term of a prime minister can end before the end of a Lok Sabha's term, if a simple majority of its members no longer have confidence in him/her, this is called a vote-of-no-confidence. Three prime ministers,
I. K. Gujral Inder Kumar Gujral (4 December 1919 – 30 November 2012) was an Indian diplomat, politician and freedom activist who served as the 12th Prime Minister of India from April 1997 to March 1998. Born in Punjab Punjab ( Gurmukhi: ; S ...
, and
Atal Bihari Vajpayee Atal Bihari Vajpayee (; 25 December 1924 – 16 August 2018) was an Indian statesman who served three terms as the Prime Minister of India, first for a term of 13 days in 1996, then for a period of 13 months from 199 ...

Atal Bihari Vajpayee
have been voted out from office this way. In addition, a prime minister can also resign from office;
Morarji Desai Morarji Ranchhodji Desai (29 February 1896 – 10 April 1995) was an Indian independence activist and served between 1977 and 1979 as the 4th Prime Minister of India The Prime Minister of India (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Trans ...

Morarji Desai
was the first prime minister to resign while in office. Upon ceasing to possess the requisite qualifications to be a member of Parliament subject to the ''
Representation of the People Act, 1951 The Representation of the People Act, 1951 is an act of Parliament of India The Parliament of India ( IAST: ) is the supreme legislative body of the Republic of India. It is a bicameral legislature composed of the President of India a ...
''.


Role and power of the prime minister


Executive powers

The prime minister leads the functioning and exercise of authority of the government of India. The president of India—subject to eligibility—invites a person who is commanding support of majority members of Lok Sabha to form the
government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Aliment ...
—also known as the central government or Union government—at the national level and exercise its powers. In practice the prime minister nominates the members of their
council of ministersThe Council of Ministers is a traditional name given to the supreme executive organ in some governments. The term is usually equivalent to the word " cabinet" ( Council of State is a similar term that also may refer to a Cabinet. However, the terms ...
to the president. They also work upon to decide a core group of ministers (known as the cabinet), as in charge of the important functions and ministries of the
government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Aliment ...
. The prime minister is responsible for aiding and advising the president in distribution of work of the government to various ministries and offices and in terms of the ''Government of India (Allocation of Business) Rules, 1961''. The co-ordinating work is generally allocated to the Cabinet Secretariat. While the work of the government is generally divided into various Ministries, the prime minister may retain certain portfolios if they are not allocated to any member of the cabinet. The prime minister—in consultation with the cabinet—schedules and attends the sessions of the houses of parliament and is required to answer the question from the Members of Parliament to them as the in-charge of the portfolios in the capacity as prime minister of India. Some specific ministries/department are not allocated to anyone in the cabinet but the prime minister themself. The prime minister is usually always in charge/head of: *
Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions The Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions is a ministry of the Government of India in personnel matters specially issues concerning recruitment, training, career development, staff welfare as well as the post-retirement dispensa ...
(as
Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions The Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is the Union Council of Ministers, cabinet minister in charge of Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. The positi ...
) * Cabinet Secretariat * Appointments Committee of the Cabinet *Cabinet Committee on Security *Cabinet Committee on Economic Affairs * NITI Aayog * Department of Atomic Energy * Department of Space * Nuclear Command Authority (India), Nuclear Command Authority The prime minister represents the country in various delegations, high level meetings and international organisations that require the attendance of the highest government office, and also addresses to the nation on various issues of national or other importance. Per wikisource:Constitution of India/Part V, Article 78 of the constitution, the official communication between the union cabinet and the president are through the prime minister. Other wise constitution recognises the prime minister as a member of the union cabinet only outside the sphere of union cabinet.


Administrative and appointment powers

The prime minister recommends to the president—among others—names for the appointment of: * Chief Election Commissioner of India (CEC) and other Election Commissioners of India (ECs) * Comptroller and Auditor General of India (C&AG) * Chairperson and members of the Union Public Service Commission (UPSC) * Chief Information Commissioner of India (CIC) and Information Commissioner of India, Information Commissioners of India * Chairperson and members of the finance commission (FC) * Attorney General of India (AG) and Solicitor General of India (SG) As the chairperson of Appointments Committee of the Cabinet (ACC), the prime minister—on the non-binding advice of the Cabinet Secretary of India led-Senior Selection Board (SSB)—decides the postings of top civil servants, such as, Secretary to Government of India, secretaries, Additional secretary to Government of India, additional secretaries and Joint secretary to Government of India, joint secretaries in the government of India. Further, in the same capacity, the PM decides the assignments of top military personnel such as the Chief of the Army Staff (India), Chief of the Army Staff, Chief of the Air Staff (India), Chief of the Air Staff, Chief of the Naval Staff (India), Chief of the Naval Staff and commanders of operational and training commands. In addition, the ACC also decides the posting of Indian Police Service officers—the All India Services, All India Service for policing, which staffs most of the higher level law enforcement positions at federal and state level—in the
government of India The Government of India (ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards developed by international organizations (intergovernmental organizations), such as Codex Aliment ...
. Also, as the
Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions The Minister of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions (International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration, IAST: ) is the Union Council of Ministers, cabinet minister in charge of Ministry of Personnel, Public Grievances and Pensions. The positi ...
, the PM also exercises control over the Indian Administrative Service (IAS), the country's premier civil service, which staffs most of the senior civil service positions; the Public Enterprises Selection Board (PESB); and the Central Bureau of Investigation (CBI), except for the selection of its director, who is chosen by a committee of: (a) the prime minister, as chairperson; (b) the Leader of the Opposition (India), leader of the opposition in Lok Sabha; and (c) the Chief Justice of India, chief justice. Unlike most other countries, the prime minister does not have much influence over the selection of judges, that is done by a collegium of judges consisting of the Chief Justice of India, four senior most List of sitting judges of the Supreme Court of India, judges of the Supreme Court of India and the List of current Indian chief justices, chief justice—or the senior-most judge—of the concerned List of high courts in India, state high court. The executive as a whole, however, has the right to send back a recommended name to the collegium for reconsideration, this, however, is not a full Veto power, and the collegium can still put forward rejected name.


Legislative powers

The prime minister acts as the leader of the house of the chamber of parliament—generally the
Lok Sabha The Lok Sabha, wikisource:Constitution_of_India/Part_V#Article_93, constitutionally the House of the People, is the lower house of India's Bicameralism, bicameral Parliament of India, Parliament, with the upper house being the Rajya Sabha. M ...

Lok Sabha
—he/she belongs to. In this role, the prime minister is tasked with representing the executive in the legislature, he/she is also expected to announce important legislation, and is further expected to respond to the Official Opposition (India), opposition's concerns. Article 85 of the Constitution of India, Indian constitution confers the president with the power to convene and end extraordinary sessions of the parliament, this power, however, is exercised only on the advise of the prime minister and his/her council, so, in practice, the prime minister does exercise some control over affairs of the parliament.


Compensation and benefits

Article 75 of the Constitution of India confers the parliament with the power to decide the remuneration and other benefits of the prime minister and other ministers are to be decided by the Parliament. and is renewed from time to time. The original remuneration for the prime minister and other ministers were specified in the Part B of the second schedule of the constitution, which was later removed by an amendment. In 2010, the prime minister's office reported that he/she does not receive a formal salary, but was only entitled to monthly allowances. That same year ''The Economist'' reported that, on a purchasing power parity basis, the prime minister received an equivalent of $4106 per year. As a percentage of the country's per-capita GDP (gross domestic product), this is the lowest of all countries ''The Economist'' surveyed.


Residence

The 7, Lok Kalyan Marg—previously called the 7, Race Course Road—in New Delhi, currently serves as the official place of residence for the prime minister of India. The first residence of the Indian prime minister was Teen Murti Bhavan. His successor
Lal Bahadur Shastri Lal Bahadur Shastri (, 2 October 1904 – 11 January 1966) was an Indian statesman who served as the second Prime Minister of India. He promoted the Operation Flood, White Revolution – a national campaign to increase the production and ...
chose 10, Janpath as an official residence.
Indira Gandhi Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (; ''née'' Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress The Indian National Congress (often called the Congress Party or ...

Indira Gandhi
resided at Safdarjung Road, 1, Safdarjung Road. Rajiv Gandhi became the first prime minister to use 7, Race Course Road as his residence, which was used by his successors.


Travel

For ground travel, the prime minister uses a highly modified, armoured version of a Range Rover. The prime minister's motorcade comprises a fleet of vehicles, the core of which consists of at least three armoured BMW 7 Series sedans, two armoured Range Rover (L405), Range Rovers, at least 8-10 BMW X5s, six Toyota Fortuners/Toyota Land Cruiser, Land Cruisers and at least two Mercedes-Benz Sprinter ambulances. For air travel, Boeing 777-300ERs—designated by the call sign Air India One (AI-1 or AIC001), and maintained by the Indian Air Force—are used. Apart from aircraft, there are several helicopters used such as Mi-8 for carrying the prime minister for travelling a short distance. These aircraft and helicopters are operated by the Indian Air Force.


Protection

The Special Protection Group (SPG) is charged with protecting the sitting prime minister and his/her family. The security is aided by the Central Reserve Police Force (CRPF), Border Security Force (BSF) and the Delhi Police to provide three-rung security for the estate.


Office

The Prime Minister's Office (India), prime minister's Office (PMO) acts as the principal workplace of the prime minister. The office is located at South Block, and is a 20-room complex, and has the Cabinet Secretariat, the
Ministry of DefenceMinistry of Defence or Ministry of Defense may refer to: * Ministry of defence, a type of government department responsible for matters of defence Current ministries * Ministry of Defense (Afghanistan) * Ministry of Defence (Albania) * Ministry ...
and the Ministry of External Affairs (India), Ministry of External Affairs adjacent to it. The office is headed by the Principal Secretary to the Prime Minister of India, generally a former civil servant, mostly from the Indian Administrative Service (IAS) and rarely from the Indian Foreign Service (IFS).


Family

The prime minister's spouse sometimes accompany him/her on foreign visits. The prime minister's family is also assigned protection by the Special Protection Group, though it was removed after Special Protection Group (Amendment) Act, 2019, Special Protection Group Act in 2019. The most prominent of the family of prime-minister is Nehru–Gandhi family, which has given 3 prime minister, J. L. Nehru,
Indira Gandhi Indira Priyadarshini Gandhi (; ''née'' Nehru; 19 November 1917 – 31 October 1984) was an Indian politician and a central figure of the Indian National Congress The Indian National Congress (often called the Congress Party or ...

Indira Gandhi
and Rajiv Gandhi. Many of the family members of the former prime ministers are politicians.


Post-premiership

Former prime ministers are entitled to a bungalow, former prime ministers are also entitled the same facilities as those given to a serving cabinet minister, this includes a fourteen-member secretarial staff, for a period of five years; reimbursement of office expenses; six domestic Business class, executive-class air tickets each year; and security cover from the Special Protection Group. In addition, former prime ministers rank seventh on the Indian order of precedence, equivalent to Chief Minister (India), chief ministers of states (within their respective states) and cabinet ministers. As a former Member of Parliament (India), member of the parliament, the prime minister also receives pension after they leave office. In 2015, a former MP receives a minimum pension of per month, plus—if he/she served as an MP for more than five years— for every year served. Some prime ministers have had significant careers after their tenure, including , who remained a Member of parliament, Lok Sabha, Member of the Lok Sabha until 2019, and
Manmohan Singh Manmohan Singh (; born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist, academic, and politician who served as the 13th Prime Minister of India The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic of India is the ...

Manmohan Singh
continues to be a Member of Parliament, Rajya Sabha, Member of the Rajya Sabha.


Party wise


Death

Prime ministers are accorded a state funeral. It is customary for states and union territories to declare a National day of mourning, day of mourning on the occasion of death of any former prime minister.


Commemoration

Several institutions are named after prime ministers of India. The birth date of
Jawaharlal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru (; ; ; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was an Indian Anti-colonial nationalism, anti-colonial nationalist, secular humanist, social democrat, and author who was a central figure in India during the middle third o ...

Jawaharlal Nehru
is celebrated as Children's Day (India), children's day in India. Prime ministers are also commemorated on postage stamps of several countries.


Living former prime ministers

As of , there are two living former prime ministers of India: File:H. D. Deve Gowda.jpg, (1996–1997)
Official Portrait of the Prime Minister Dr. Manmohan Singh.jpg,
Manmohan Singh Manmohan Singh (; born 26 September 1932) is an Indian economist, academic, and politician who served as the 13th Prime Minister of India The prime minister of India (), officially the prime minister of the Republic of India is the ...

Manmohan Singh

(2004–2014)


Prime ministerial funds

The prime minister presides over various funds.


National Defence Fund

The National Defence Fund (NDF) was set up the Indian government in 1962, in the aftermath of Sino-Indian War, 1962 Sino-Indian War. The prime minister acts as chairperson of the fund's executive committee, while, the ministers of defence, finance and home act as the members of the executive committee, the finance minister also acts the treasurer of the committee. The secretary of the fund's executive committee is a Joint secretary to Government of India, joint secretary in the prime minister's office, dealing with the subject of NDF. The fund—according to its website—is "entirely dependent on voluntary contributions from the public and does not get any budgetary support.". Donations to the fund are 100% tax-deductible under section 80G of the ''Income Tax Act, 1961''.


Prime Minister's National Relief Fund

The Prime Minister's National Relief Fund (PMNRF) was set up by the first prime minister of India—
Jawaharlal Nehru Jawaharlal Nehru (; ; ; 14 November 1889 – 27 May 1964) was an Indian Anti-colonial nationalism, anti-colonial nationalist, secular humanist, social democrat, and author who was a central figure in India during the middle third o ...

Jawaharlal Nehru
—in 1948, to assist displaced people from Pakistan. The fund, now, is primarily used to assist the families of those who are killed during natural disasters such as earthquakes, cyclones and flood and secondarily to reimburse medical expenses of people with chronic and deadly diseases. Donations to the PMNRF are 100% tax-deductible under section 80G of the ''Income Tax Act, 1961''.


Deputy Prime Minister

The post of Deputy Prime Minister of India is not technically a constitutional post, nor is there any mention of it in an Act of the parliament. But historically, on various occasions, different governments have assigned one of their senior ministers as the deputy prime minister. There is neither constitutional requirement for filling the post of deputy PM, nor does the post provide any kind of special powers. Typically, senior cabinet ministers like the
finance minister A finance minister is an executive or cabinet Cabinet or The Cabinet may refer to: Furniture * Cabinetry, a box-shaped piece of furniture with doors and/or drawers * Display cabinet, a piece of furniture with one or more transparent glass she ...
or the
home minister The Minister of Home Affairs (or simply, the Home Minister, short form HM) is the head of the Ministry of Home Affairs of the Government of India. One of the senior-most officers in the Union Cabinet, the chief responsibility of the Home Mini ...
are appointed as Deputy Prime Minister. The post is considered to be the senior most in the cabinet after the prime minister and represents the government in his/her absence. Generally, deputy prime ministers have been appointed to strengthen the coalition governments. The first holder of this post was Vallabhbhai Patel, who was also the home minister in Jawaharlal Nehru's cabinet.


See also

* List of prime ministers of India *
President of India The president of India (IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scienc ...
* List of presidents of India * Deputy Prime Minister of India * Air transports of heads of state and government#India, Air transports of heads of state and government * Official state car#India, Official state car


Notes


References


External links

* * {{Authority control Prime Ministers of India, Constitution of India 1947 establishments in India Premierships