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sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the scie ...
, the post-industrial society is the stage of society's development when the
service sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic sector Image:Economic sectors and income.JPG, 250px, Percentages of a country's economy made up by different sectors. Countries with h ...
generates more wealth than the
manufacturing sector In macroeconomics Macroeconomics (from the Greek prefix ''makro-'' meaning "large" + ''economics'') is a branch of economics Economics () is a social science Social science is the branch A branch ( or , ) or tree bran ...
of the economy. The term was originated by
Alain Touraine Alain Touraine (; born 3 August 1925) is a France, French sociology, sociologist. He is research director at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, where he founded the ''Centre d'étude des mouvements sociaux''. Touraine was an imp ...

Alain Touraine
and is closely related to similar sociological theoretical concepts such as
post-Fordism Post-Fordism is the dominant system of economic production Production is the process of combining various material inputs and immaterial inputs (plans, know-how) in order to make something for consumption (output). It is the act of creating an outp ...
,
information society Internet design and usage influence other areas, and there are discussions about how big the influence of specific media or specific modes of production really is. Frank Webster notes five major types of information that can be used to define inform ...
,
knowledge economy The knowledge economy (or the knowledge-based economy) is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...
,
post-industrial economy A post-industrial economy is a period of growth within an industrialized economy An economy (from Greek language, Greek οίκος – "household" and νέμoμαι – "manage") is an area of the Production (economics), production, Distribut ...
,
liquid modernity A liquid is a nearly Compressibility, incompressible fluid that conforms to the shape of its container but retains a (nearly) constant volume independent of pressure. As such, it is one of State of matter#Four fundamental states, the four fund ...
, and
network society Network society is the expression coined in 1991 related to the social, political, economic and cultural changes caused by the spread of networked, digital information and communications technologies. The intellectual origins of the idea can be trac ...
. They all can be used in economics or social science disciplines as a general theoretical backdrop in
research design Research design refers to the overall strategy utilized to carry out research that defines a succinct and logical plan to tackle established research question(s) through the collection, interpretation, analysis, and discussion of data. The Method ...
. As the term has been used, a few common themes, including the ones below have begun to emerge. # The economy undergoes a transition from the production of goods to the provision of services. # Knowledge becomes a valued form of capital; see
Human capital Human capital is a concept used by human resource professionals to designate personal attributes considered useful in the production process. It encompasses employee knowledge Knowledge is a familiarity or awareness, of someone or somet ...

Human capital
. # Producing ideas is the main way to grow the economy. # Through processes of
globalization Globalization, or globalisation (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a of the , originally spoken by the inhabitants of . It is named after the , one of the ancient that migrated from , a peninsu ...

globalization
and
automation Automation describes a wide range of technologies that reduce human intervention in processes. Human intervention is reduced by predetermining decision criteria, subprocess relationships, and related actions — and embodying those predeterm ...
, the value and importance to the economy of
blue-collar A blue-collar worker is a working class The working class (or labouring class) comprises those engaged in manual-labour occupations or industrial work, who are remunerated via waged or salaried contracts. Working-class occupations (see a ...
, unionized work, including manual labor (e.g., assembly-line work) decline, and those of professional workers (e.g., scientists, creative-industry professionals, and IT professionals) grow in value and prevalence. # Behavioral and information sciences and technologies are developed and implemented. (e.g.,
behavioral economics Behavioral economics (also, behavioural economics) studies the effects of psychological Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Te ...
,
information architecture Information architecture (IA) is the structural design of shared information Information is processed, organised and structured data Data (; ) are individual facts A fact is something that is truth, true. The usual test for a st ...

information architecture
,
cybernetics Cybernetics is a wide-ranging field concerned with regulatory and purposive systems A system is a group of interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influen ...

cybernetics
,
game theory Game theory is the study of mathematical model A mathematical model is a description of a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. ...
and
information theory Information theory is the scientific study of the quantification (science), quantification, computer data storage, storage, and telecommunication, communication of Digital data, digital information. The field was fundamentally established by the ...
.)


Origins

Daniel Bell Daniel Bell (May 10, 1919 – January 25, 2011) was an American sociologist, writer, editor, and professor at Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was t ...

Daniel Bell
popularized the term through his 1974 work ''The Coming of Post-Industrial Society''.Bell, Daniel. The Coming of Post-Industrial Society. New York: Harper Colophon Books, 1974. Although some have credited Bell with coining the term, French sociologist
Alain Touraine Alain Touraine (; born 3 August 1925) is a France, French sociology, sociologist. He is research director at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, where he founded the ''Centre d'étude des mouvements sociaux''. Touraine was an imp ...

Alain Touraine
published in 1969 the first major work on the post-industrial society. The term was also used extensively by social philosopher
Ivan Illich Ivan Dominic Illich (; 4 September 1926 – 2 December 2002) was a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , im ...
in his 1973 paper ''
Tools for Conviviality ''Tools for Conviviality'' is a 1973 book by Ivan Illich Ivan Dominic Illich (; 4 September 1926 – 2 December 2002) was a Roman Catholic priest, Theology, theologian, philosopher, and social critic. His 1971 book ''Deschooling Society'' c ...
'' and appears occasionally in Leftist texts throughout the mid-to-late 1960s. The term has grown and changed as it became mainstream. The term is now used by marketers such as
Seth Godin Seth W. Godin is an American author and former dot com business executive. Background After leaving Spinnaker A spinnaker is a sail A sail is a tensile structure by Vladimir Shukhov (during construction), Nizhny Novgorod, 1895 in K ...
, public policy PhDs such as Keith Boeckelman, and sociologists such as
Neil Fligstein Neil Fligstein (born May 23, 1951) is an American sociologist, and a professor at the University of California, Berkeley The University of California, Berkeley (UC Berkeley, Berkeley, Cal, or California) is a public In public relations ...
and Ofer Sharone. Former U.S. President Bill Clinton even used the term to describe Chinese growth in a round-table discussion in Shanghai in 1998.


Valuation of knowledge

The post-industrialized society is marked by an increased valuation of knowledge. This itself is unsurprising, having been foreshadowed in
Daniel Bell Daniel Bell (May 10, 1919 – January 25, 2011) was an American sociologist, writer, editor, and professor at Harvard University Harvard University is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was t ...

Daniel Bell
's presumption as to how economic employment patterns will evolve in such societies. He asserts employment will grow faster in the tertiary (and quaternary) sector relative to employment in the primary and secondary sector and that the tertiary (and quaternary) sectors will take precedence in the economy. This will continue to occur such that the “impact of the expert” will expand and power will be monopolized by knowledge.Targ, Harry R. "Global Dominance and Dependence, Post-Industrialism, and International Relations Theory: A Review." International Studies Quarterly. 20. 3 (1976): 461-482. As tertiary and quaternary sector positions are essentially knowledge-oriented, this will result in a restructuring of education, at least in its nuances. The “new power… of the expert” consequently gives rise to the growing role of universities and research institutes in post-industrial societies. Post-industrial societies themselves become oriented around these places of knowledge production and production of experts as their new foci. Consequently, the greatest beneficiaries in the post-industrial society are young urban professionals. As a new, educated, and politicized generation more impassioned by liberalism, social justice, and environmentalism the shift of power into their hands, as a result of their knowledge endowments, is often cited as a good thing.Wright, James D.“The Political Consciousness of Post-Industrialism.” Contemporary Sociology. 7. 3 (1978): 270-273.Banks, Alan and Jim Foster.“The Mystifications of Post-Industrialism. Appalachian Journal . 10. 4 (1983): 372-378. The increasing importance of knowledge in post-industrial societies results in a general increase in expertise through the economy and throughout society. In this manner, it eliminates what Alan Banks and Jim Foster identify as “undesirable work as well as the grosser forms of poverty and inequality.” This effect is supplemented by the aforementioned movement of power into the hands of young educated people concerned with social justice. Economists at Berkeley have studied the value of knowledge as a form of
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case is the distinction between the letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol ...

capital
, adding value to material capital, such as a factory or a truck. Speaking along the same lines of their argument, the addition or 'production' of knowledge, could become the basis of what would undoubtedly be considered 'post-industrial' policies meant to deliver economic growth. The valuation of specifically scientific knowledge and technology can paradoxically be devalued by individuals in a post-industrial society as they still expect its benefits but are more sensitized to moral trade-offs and risks.


Creativity culture

Similarly, post-industrial society has serviced the creative culture. Many of those most well-equipped to thrive in an increasingly technological society are young adults with tertiary education. As education itself becomes more and more oriented towards producing people capable of answering the need for self-actualization, creativity, and self-expression, successive generations become more endowed with the ability to contribute to and perpetuate such industries. This change in education, as well among the emerging class of young professionals, is initiated by what James D Wright identifies as an “unprecedented economic affluence and the satiation of basic material needs.”
Ellen Dunham-Jones Ellen Dunham-Jones (born January 27, 1959) is an architectural educator and urbanist best known for her work on re-educating the public how to interact with their environment. She is also an authority on suburban redevelopment. Education Ellen ...
as well observes this feature of post-industrial society where “abundant goods equitably distributed n order thatlaborless leisure and self-determination” can be consumed.Dunham-Jones, Ellen. “New Urbanism as a Counter-Project to Post-Industrialism he Promise of New Urbanism” Places. 13. 2 (2000): 26-31. The post-industrial society is stressed to be one where knowledge is power and technology is the instrument. Naturally, where one is creatively inclined, they are advantaged by such a society. The doctrine of “speed, mobility, and malleability” is well suited to a dynamic creative industry and as industries of good production decrease in precedence, the way is paved for artists, musicians, and other such types, whose skills are better utilized by the tertiary and quaternary sector. Urban geographer Trevor Barnes, in his work outlining the Vancouver experience in post-war development, evokes the post-industrial condition, citing the emergence and consolidation of a significant video games industry as a constituent of the elite service sector.Barnes, T et al. “Vancouver: Restructuring narratives in the transnational metropolis.” Canadian urban regions: trajectories of growth and change. Eds. L Bourne et al. (2011): 291-327. This increased faculty of the post-industrialist society with respects to the creative industry is reflected by the economic history of post-industrial societies. As economic activities shift from primarily primary and secondary sector-based to tertiary, and later quaternary, sector-based, cities in which this shift occurs become more open to exchanges of information.Golden, Miriam & Michael Wallerstein. “Domestic and International Causes for the Rise of Pay Inequality: Post-Industrialism, Globalization, and Labor Market Institutions.” The Institute for Research on Labor and Employment, UCLA (2006). This is necessitated by the demands of a tertiary and quaternary sector: in order to better service an industry focused on finance, education, communication, management, training, engineering, and aesthetic design, the city must become points of exchange capable of providing the most updated information from across the globe. Conversely, as cities become a convergence of international ideas, the tertiary and quaternary sector can be expected to grow. A virtual cult of 'creatives' have sprung up embodying and often describing and defending the post-industrial ethos. They argue that businesses that create intangibles have taken a more prominent role in the wake of manufacturing's decline. Actor and then-artistic director of the
Old Vic Theatre The Old Vic is a 1,000-seat, not-for-profit A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public o ...

Old Vic Theatre
,
Kevin Spacey Kevin Spacey Fowler (born July 26, 1959) is an American actor, producer, and singer. He began his career as a stage actor during the 1980s, obtaining supporting roles in film and television. Spacey's first roles in film were in Mike Nichols ...

Kevin Spacey
, has argued the economic case for the arts in terms of providing jobs and being of greater importance in exports than manufacturing (as well as an educational role) in a guest column he wrote for ''
The Times ''The Times'' is a British Newspaper#Daily, daily Newspaper#National, national newspaper based in London. It began in 1785 under the title ''The Daily Universal Register'', adopting its current name on 1 January 1788. ''The Times'' and its s ...
''.


Critics

Post-industrialism is criticized for the amount of real fundamental change it produces in society, if any at all. A mild view held by Alan Banks and Jim Foster contends that representations of post-industrial society by advocates assume professional, educated
elite In Political philosophy, political and sociology, sociological theory, the elite (French ''élite'', from Latin ''eligere'', to select or to sort out) are a small group of powerful people who hold a economic inequality, disproportionate amount o ...

elite
s were previously less relevant than they have become in the new
social order The term social order can be used in two senses: In the first sense, it refers to a particular system of social structure In the social sciences, social structure is the patterned social arrangements in society that are both emergence, emergen ...
, and that changes that have occurred are minor but greatly embellished. More critical views see the entire process as the highest evolution of
capitalism Capitalism is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of interacting Interaction is a kind of action that occurs as two or more objects have an effect upon one another. The idea o ...

capitalism
, wherein the system produces
commodities In economics, a commodity is an economic goods, good, usually a resource, that has full or substantial fungibility: that is, the Market (economics), market treats instances of the good as equivalent or nearly so with no regard to who Production ...
as opposed to practical goods and is determined privately instead of socially. This view is complemented by the assertion that “the characteristic feature of a modern hat is, post-industrialsociety is that it is a
technocracy Technocracy is a system of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of its broad associative definition, government normally consists ...
.” Such societies then become notable for their ability to subvert
social consciousness Social consciousness is consciousness shared by individuals within a society.manipulation Manipulation may refer to: As underhand influence *Psychological manipulation **Crowd manipulation *Data manipulation *Media manipulation *Internet manipulation *Market manipulation In a physical context *Card manipulation *Coin manipulation *Hat ...
rather than powers of
coercion Coercion () is compelling a party to act in an involuntary manner by use of threat A threat is a communication of intent to inflict harm or loss on another person. IntimidationIntimidation (also called cowing) is intentional behavior that " ...
, reflective of the “ideology of the ruling class … predominantly managerial.” In line with the view that nothing fundamental has changed in the transition from industrial societies to post-industrial societies is the insistence of lingering problems from past development periods.
Neo-Malthusian Malthusianism is the idea that Malthusian growth model, population growth is potentially exponential while the growth of the food supply or other resources is linear growth, linear, which eventually reduces living standards to the point of triggeri ...
in essence, this outlook focuses on post-industrial society's continuing struggle with issues of resource
scarcity Scarcity as an economic concept "refers to the basic fact of life that there exists only a finite amount of human and nonhuman resources which the best technical knowledge is capable of using to produce only limited maximum amounts of each econo ...
,
overpopulation Overpopulation or overabundance is a phenomenon that occurs when a species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A speci ...

overpopulation
, and
environmental degradation Environmental degradation is the deterioration of the environment Environment most often refers to: __NOTOC__ * Natural environment, all living and non-living things occurring naturally * Biophysical environment, the physical and biological facto ...
, all of which are remnants from its industrial history.Gibson, Donald E. “Post-Industrialism: Prosperity or Decline?” Sociological Focus. 26. 2 (1993): 147-163. This is exacerbated by a “ corporate liberalism” that seeks to continue
economic growth Economic growth can be defined as the increase or improvement in the inflation-adjusted market value of the goods and services produced by an economics, economy over time. Statisticians conventionally measure such growth as the percent rate of i ...

economic growth
through “the creation and satisfaction of false needs,” or as
Christopher Lasch Robert Christopher Lasch (June 1, 1932 – February 14, 1994) was an American historian A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, method ...
more derisively refers to it, “subsidized waste.”
Urban development Urban means "related to a city". In that sense, the term may refer to: * Urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. Urban areas are created throu ...
in the context of post-industrialism is also a point of contention. In opposition to the view that the new leaders of post-industrial society are increasingly environmentally aware, this critique asserts that it rather leads to environmental degradation, this being rooted in the patterns of development.
Urban sprawl Urban sprawl (also known as suburban sprawl or urban encroachment) is the unrestricted growth in many urban area An urban area, or built-up area, is a human settlement with a high population density and infrastructure of built environment. ...
, characterised behaviourally by cities “expanding at the periphery in even lower densities” and physically by “
office park A business park or office park is an area of land in which many office buildings are grouped together. The first office park opened in Mountain Brook, Alabama, in the early 1950s to avoid racial tension in city centers. Business parks are often ...
s, , strips, condo clusters, corporate campuses, and gated communities,” is singled out as the main issue. Resulting from a post-industrialist culture of “ mobile capital, the
service economy Service economy can refer to one or both of two recent economic developments: * The increased importance of the service sector The tertiary sector of the economy, generally known as the service sector, is the third of the three economic secto ...
, post-Fordist disposable
consumerism Consumerism is a social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/involuntary. Etymology ...
and banking deregulation,” urban sprawl has caused post-industrialism to become environmentally and socially regressive. Of the former, environmental degradation results from encroachment as cities meet demands on low-density habitation; the wider spread of population consumes more of the environment while necessitating more energy consumption in order to facilitate travel within the ever-growing city, incurring greater pollution. This process evokes the neo-Malthusian concerns of overpopulation and resource scarcity that inevitably lead to environmental deterioration. Of the latter, “post-industrialism’s doctrine of … mobility and malleability” encourage a disconnect between communities where social belonging falls into the category of things considered by the “post-Fordist disposable consumer attitude as interchangeable, expendable, and replaceable. Post-industrialism as a concept is highly
Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town in the US *Western Creek, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western Junction, Tasmania, a locality in Australia *Western world, countries that id ...
-centric. Theoretically and effectively, it is only possible in the Global West, which its proponents assume to be solely capable of fully realizing industrialization and then post-industrialization.
Herman Kahn Herman Kahn (February 15, 1922 – July 7, 1983) was a founder of the Hudson Institute The Hudson Institute is a Conservatism in the United States, conservative United States of America, American think tank based in Washington, D.C. It was fou ...
optimistically predicted the “economic growth, expanded production and growing efficiency” of post-industrial societies and the resultant “material abundance and… high
quality of life Quality of life (QOL) is defined by the World Health Organization The World Health Organization (WHO) is a specialized agency of the United Nations United Nations Specialized Agencies are autonomous organizations working with the United N ...

quality of life
” to extend to “almost all people in Western societies” and only “some in Eastern societies.” This prediction is treated elsewhere by contentions that the post-industrial society merely perpetuates capitalism. Recalling the critical assertion that all modern societies are technocracies, T. Roszak completes the analysis by stating that “all societies are moving in the direction of technocracies.” From this, the foremost “suave technocracies” reside in the West, whereas all others are successively graded in descending order: “vulgar technocracies,” “ teratoid technocracies,” and finally “comic opera technocracies.” This view importantly presumes one transition and furthermore one path of transition for societies to undergo, i.e. the one that Western societies are slated to complete. Much like the
demographic transition In demography Demography (from prefix ''demo-'' from Ancient Greek δῆμος (''dēmos'') meaning 'the people', and ''-graphy'' from γράφω (''graphō'') meaning 'writing, description or measurement') is the statistics, statistical s ...
model, this prediction does not entertain the idea of an Eastern or other alternative models of transitional development.


Neologism

When historians and sociologists considered the revolution that followed the agricultural society they did not call it a "post-agricultural society". "Post-industrial society" signifies only a departure, not a positive description.Veneris, Yannis. Modeling the transition from the Industrial to the Informational Revolution, Environment and Planning A 22(3):399-416, 1990

/ref> One of the word's early users,
Ivan Illich Ivan Dominic Illich (; 4 September 1926 – 2 December 2002) was a Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , im ...
, prefigured this criticism and invented the term Conviviality, or the Convivial Society, to stand as a positive description of his version of a post-industrial society.


Social critique

A group of scholars (including Allen Scott and
Edward Soja Edward William Soja (; 1940–2015) was a self-described Urbanism, urbanist, a noted postmodern political geography, political geographer and urban theorist on the planning faculty at UCLA, where he was Distinguished Professor of Urban Planning, ...
) argue that industry remains at the center of the whole process of capitalist accumulation, with services not only becoming increasingly industrialized and automated but also remaining highly dependent on industrial growth. Some observers, including Soja (building on the theories of the French philosopher of urbanism
Henri Lefebvre Henri Lefebvre ( , ; 16 June 1901 – 29 June 1991) was a French Marxist Marxism is a method of socioeconomic Socioeconomics (also known as social economics) is the social science that studies how economic activity affects and is sh ...
), suggest that although industry may be based outside of a "post-industrial" nation, that nation cannot ignore industry's necessary sociological importance. Further concerns can be raised regarding the difference in mindset and objectives between those in an industrial society, and those in a post-industrial one. For instance, if the industrial society (producing the raw materials and goods consumed by its peer) were for some reason to cut off supply to the post-industrial nation, there would be little recourse for the latter to ensure that supply chains were not disrupted. Since the society based on ideas would have diminished real product output, the industrial society would be in a position to dictate terms to its counterpart. The response from the "more advanced" nation might be eventually effective or damaging, however it would be hard pressed to bridge the gap until domestic industry could makeup for the lack of imported manufactured goods.


See also

*
Deindustrialization De-industrialization is a process of social Social organisms, including humans, live collectively in interacting populations. This interaction is considered social whether they are aware of it or not, and whether the exchange is voluntary/invo ...
*
Late modernity Late modernity (or liquid modernity) is the characterization of today's highly developed global societies A society is a group of individuals involved in persistent social interaction In social science, a social relation or social in ...
*
Late capitalism Late capitalism, or late-stage capitalism, is a term first used in print by German economist Werner Sombart Werner Sombart (; ; 19 January 1863 – 18 May 1941) was a German economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, s ...
*
Industrial society In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytol ...
*
Information society Internet design and usage influence other areas, and there are discussions about how big the influence of specific media or specific modes of production really is. Frank Webster notes five major types of information that can be used to define inform ...
*
Information revolution The term information revolution describes current economic An economy (; ) is an area of the production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in the out ...
*
Knowledge economy The knowledge economy (or the knowledge-based economy) is an economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of ru ...
*
Network society Network society is the expression coined in 1991 related to the social, political, economic and cultural changes caused by the spread of networked, digital information and communications technologies. The intellectual origins of the idea can be trac ...
*
Post-capitalism Post-capitalism is a state in which the economic system An economic system, or economic order, is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified w ...
*
Post-democracyThe term ''post-democracy'' was used by Warwick University Political science, political scientist Colin Crouch in 2000 in his book ''Coping with Post-Democracy''. It designates State (polity), states that operate by Democracy, democratic systems (ele ...
*
Post-Marxism Post-Marxism is a trend in political philosophy Political philosophy or political theory is the philosophical Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about existence Existence is the abi ...
*
Post-modernity Postmodernity (post-modernity or the postmodern condition) is the economic or cultural state or condition of society which is said to exist ''after'' modernity. Some schools of thought hold that modernity ended in the late 20th century – in the ...
* Sleepers, Wake! *
Sociocultural evolution Sociocultural evolution, sociocultural evolutionism or cultural evolution are theories of sociobiology Sociobiology is a field of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
*
Technological unemployment Technological unemployment is the loss of jobs caused by technological change. It is a key type of structural unemployment. Technological change typically includes the introduction of labour-saving "mechanical-muscle" machines or more efficient ...
*
Urban decay Urban decay (also known as urban rot, urban death and urban blight) is the sociological process by which a previously functioning city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Londo ...
*
Future Shock ''Future Shock'' is a 1970 book by American futurist Futurists (also known as futurologists, prospectivists, foresight practitioners and horizon scanners) are people whose specialty or interest is futurology 280px, Moore's law is an ...

Future Shock
;People *
Heinz von Foerster Heinz von Foerster (German language, German spelling: Heinz von Förster; November 13, 1911 – October 2, 2002) was an Austrian Americans, Austrian American scientist combining physics and philosophy, and widely attributed as the originator of Se ...
*
Alvin Toffler Alvin Toffler (October 4, 1928 – June 27, 2016) was an American writer, futurist Futurists (also known as futurologists, prospectivists, foresight practitioners and horizon scanners) are people whose specialty or interest is futurology ...

Alvin Toffler
*
Alain Touraine Alain Touraine (; born 3 August 1925) is a France, French sociology, sociologist. He is research director at the École des Hautes Études en Sciences Sociales, where he founded the ''Centre d'étude des mouvements sociaux''. Touraine was an imp ...

Alain Touraine


References


External links


Post Industrial Society Essay
Criticism of Bell's analysis of the role of information and knowledge in relation to contemporary social change and the extent of these changes. Technology essays, 2005. {{DEFAULTSORT:Post-Industrial Society
Industrial society In sociology Sociology is a social science Social science is the branch The branches and leaves of a tree. A branch ( or , ) or tree branch (sometimes referred to in botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytol ...
Social philosophy Theories of history Information economy