Origins and historyGalician-Portuguese developed in the region of the former Roman province of , from the (common Latin) that had been introduced by Roman soldiers, colonists and magistrates during the time of the . Although the process may have been slower than in other regions, the centuries of contact with Vulgar Latin, after a period of bilingualism, completely extinguished the native languages, leading to the evolution of a new variety of Latin with a few Gallaecian features. Gallaecian and Lusitanian influences were absorbed into the local Vulgar Latin dialect, which can be detected in some Galician-Portuguese words as well as in placenames of and Iberians, Iberian origin. In general, the more cultivated variety of Latin spoken by the Hispano-Roman elites in Roman Hispania had a peculiar regional accent, referred to as ''Hispano ore'' and ''agrestius pronuntians''. The more cultivated variety of Latin coexisted with the popular variety. It is assumed that the Iberian languages, Pre-Roman languages spoken by the Pre-Roman peoples of the Iberian Peninsula, native people, each used in a different region of Roman Hispania, contributed to the development of several different dialects of Vulgar Latin and that these diverged increasingly over time, eventually evolving into the early Romance languages of Iberia. An early form of Galician-Portuguese was already spoken in the Kingdom of the Suebi and by the year 800 Galician-Portuguese had already become the vernacular of northwestern Iberia. The first known phonetic changes in Vulgar Latin, which began the evolution to Galician-Portuguese, took place during the rule of the Germanic groups, the Suebi (411–585) and Visigoths (585–711). And the Galician-Portuguese "inflected infinitive" (or "personal infinitive") and the nasal vowels may have evolved under the influence of local Celtic languages (as in Old French). The nasal vowels would thus be a phonologic characteristic of the Vulgar Latin spoken in Roman , but they are not attested in writing until after the 6th and 7th centuries. The oldest known document to contain Galician-Portuguese words found in northern Portugal is called the ''Doação à Igreja de Sozello'' and dated to 870 but otherwise composed in Late Latin, Late/Medieval Latin. Another document, from 882, also containing some Galician-Portuguese words is the ''Carta de dotação e fundação da Igreja de S. Miguel de Lardosa''. In fact, many Latin documents written in Portuguese territory contain Romance forms. The ''Notícia de fiadores'', written in 1175, is thought by some to be the oldest known document written in Galician-Portuguese. The ''Pacto dos irmãos Pais'', discovered in 1999 (and possibly dating from before 1173), has been said to be even older, but despite the enthusiasm of some scholars, it has been shown that the documents are not really written in Galician-Portuguese but are in fact a mixture of Late Latin and Galician-Portuguese phonology, morphology and syntax. The ''Noticia de Torto'', of uncertain date (c. 1214?), and the ' (27 June 1214) are most certainly Galician-Portuguese. The earliest poetic texts (but not the manuscripts in which they are found) date from c. 1195 to c. 1225. Thus, by the end of the 12th century and the beginning of the 13th there are documents in prose and verse written in the local Romance vernacular. In Galicia the oldest document showing traces of the underlying Romance language is a royal charter by king Silo of Asturias, dated to 775: it uses substrate words as ''arrogio'' and ''lagena'', now ''arroio'' 'stream' and ''laxe'' 'stone', and presents also the elision of unstressed vowels and the lenition of plosive consonants; actually, many Galician Latin charters written during the Middle Ages show interferences of the local Galician-Portuguese contemporary language. As for the oldest document written in Galician-Portuguese in Galicia, it is probably a document from the monastery of Melón dated to 1231, since the ''Charter of the Boo Burgo of Castro Caldelas'', dated to 1228, is probably a slightly later translation of a Latin original.
LiteratureGalician-Portuguese had a special cultural role in the literature of the Christian kingdoms of Crown of Castile (Kingdom of Castile, Kingdoms of Castile, Kingdom of León, Leon and Kingdom of Galicia, Galicia, part of the medieval NW ) comparable to the List of Catalan-language poets, Catalan language of the Crown of Aragon (Principality of Catalonia and Kingdom of Aragon, Kingdoms of Aragon, Kingdom of Valencia, Valencia and Kingdom of Majorca, Majorca, NE medieval Iberian Peninsula), or that of Occitan language, Occitan in France and Italy during the same historical period. The main extant sources of Galician-Portuguese lyric poetry are these: * The four extant manuscripts of the ''Cantigas de Santa Maria'' (written by, and/or under the patronage of, Alfonso X the Wise, king of Castile, Leon and Galicia from 1252–1284) * ''Cancioneiro da Ajuda'' * ''Cancioneiro da Vaticana'' * ''Cancioneiro Colocci-Brancuti'', also known as ''Cancioneiro da Biblioteca Nacional'' (Lisbon) * Cancioneiro dun Grande de Espanha * Pergaminho Vindel * Pergaminho Sharrer * Os 5 lais de Bretanha * Tenzón entre Afonso Sánchez e Vasco Martíns de Resende The language was used for literary purposes from the final years of the 12th century to roughly the middle of the 14th century in what are now Spain and Portugal and was, almost without exception, the only language used for the composition of lyric poetry. Over 160 poets are recorded, among them Bernal de Bonaval, Pero da Ponte, Johan Garcia de Guilhade, Johan Airas de Santiago, and Pedr' Amigo de Sevilha. The main secular poetic genres were the ''cantigas d'amor'' (male-voiced love lyric), the ''cantiga de amigo, cantigas d'amigo'' (female-voiced love lyric) and the ''cantigas d'escarnho e de mal dizer'' (including a variety of genres from personal invective to social satire, poetic parody and literary debate). All told, nearly 1,700 poems survive in these three genres, and there is a corpus of over 400 ''cantigas de Santa Maria'' (narrative poems about miracles and hymns in honor of the Mary (mother of Jesus), Holy Virgin). The Kingdom of Castile, Castilian king Alfonso X of Castile, Alfonso X composed his ''cantigas de Santa Maria'' and his ''cantigas de escárnio e maldizer'' in Galician-Portuguese, even though he used Spanish language, Castilian for prose. Dinis of Portugal, King Dinis of Portugal, who also contributed (with 137 extant texts, more than any other author) to the secular poetic genres, made the language official language, official in Portugal in 1290. Until then, Latin had been the official (written) language for royal documents; the spoken language did not have a name and was simply known as ''lingua vulgar'' ("ordinary language", that is Vulgar Latin) until it was named "Portuguese" in King Dinis' reign. "Galician-Portuguese" and ''português arcaico'' ("Old Portuguese") are modern terms for the common ancestor of modern Portuguese and modern Galician. Compared to the differences in Ancient Greek dialects, the alleged differences between 13th-century Portuguese and Galician are trivial.
DivergenceAs a result of political division, Galician-Portuguese lost its unity when the County of Portugal Kingdom of Galicia#Separation of the County of Portugal .281128.29, separated from the Kingdom of Leon to establish the Kingdom of Portugal. The and Portuguese versions of the language then diverged over time as they followed independent evolutionary paths. As Portugal's territory was extended southward during the Reconquista, the increasingly-distinctive Portuguese language was adopted by the people in those regions, supplanting the earlier Arabic and other Romance/Latin languages that were spoken in these conquered areas during the Moorish era. Meanwhile, Galician was influenced by the neighbouring Leonese language, especially during the time of kingdoms of Leon and Leon-Castile, and in the 19th and 20th centuries, it has been influenced by Castilian. Two cities at the time of separation, Braga and Porto, were within the County of Portugal and have remained within Portugal. Further north, the cities of Lugo, A Coruña and the great medieval centre of Santiago de Compostela remained within Galicia. Galician was the main written language in Galicia until the 16th century, but later it was displaced by Castilian Spanish, which was the official language of the Crown of Castille. Galician slowly became mainly an oral language, preserved by the majority rural or "uneducated" population living in the villages and towns, and Castilian was taught as the "correct" language to the bilingual educated elite in the cities. During most of the 16th, 17th and 18th centuries, its written use was largely reduced to popular literature and theatre and private letters. From the 18th century onward grew the interest for the language by the studies of illustrious writers such as Martin Sarmiento, who studied the evolution of Galician from Latin and prepared the foundations for the first dictionary of Galician, José Cornide, and father Sobreira. In the 19th century a true literature in Galician emerged during the Rexurdimento, followed by the apparition of journals and, in the 20th century, scientific publications. Because until comparatively recently, most Galicians lived in many small towns and villages in a relatively remote and mountainous land, the language changed very slowly and was only very slightly influenced from outside the region. That situation made Galician remain the vernacular of Galicia until the late 19th and early 20th centuries and its most spoken language till the early 21st century. Modern Galician was only officially recognized by the Second Spanish Republic in the 1930s as a co-official language with Castilian within Galicia. The recognition was revoked by the regime of Francisco Franco but was restored after his death. The linguistic classification of Galician and Portuguese is still discussed today. There are those among Galician independence groups who demand their reunification as well as Portuguese and Galician philology, philologists who argue that both are dialects of a common language rather than two separate ones. The Fala language, spoken in a small region of the Spanish autonomous community of Extremadura, underwent a similar development as Galician. Today Galician is the regional language of Galicia (sharing co-officiality with Spanish), and it is spoken by the majority of its population, but with a large decline of use and efficient knowledge among the younger generations, and the phonetics and lexicon of many occasional users is heavily influenced by Spanish. Portuguese continues to grow and, today, is the sixth most spoken language in the world.
Phonology:1 eventually shifted to in central and southern Portugal (and thus in Brazil) and merged with in northern Portugal and Galicia. :2 and probably occurred in complementary distribution. :3 The written tilde (''ã'' ''ẽ'' ''ĩ'' ''õ'' ''ũ'' ''ỹ'' in the medieval sources) can be analyzed as a nasal consonant phoneme (usually , sometimes depending on position) following the marked vowel, with any nasalization of the vowel being a phonetic secondary effect. and were apico-alveolar, and and were lamino-alveolar. Later, all the affricate sibilants became fricatives, with the apico-alveolar and lamino-alveolar sibilants remaining distinct for a time but eventually merging in most dialects. See History of Portuguese for more information. As far as it is known, Galician-Portuguese (from 11th to 16th centuries) had possibly a 7-oral-vowel system (like in most of Romance languages) and a 5-nasal-vowel system . The vowels were lowered to in unstressed syllables, even in final syllables (like in modern Spanish); e.g. ''vento'' , ''quente'' . However, the distribution (including ) is still dubious and under discussion; some either stating that these two vowels were allophones and in complementary distribution (like in Spanish and Modern Galician, only treated as ), ''Alemanha, manhã'' ; or stating they were not allophones and under distribution like in European Portuguese nowadays, ''Alemanha, manhã'' .
Sample textHere is a sample of Galician-Portuguese lyric:
Oral traditionsThere has been a sharing of folklore in the Galician-Portuguese region going back to prehistoric times. As the Galician-Portuguese language spread south with the , supplanting Mozarabic, this ancient sharing of folklore intensified. In 2005 the governments of Portugal and Spain jointly proposed that Galician-Portuguese oral traditions be made part of the Masterpieces of the Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity, Masterpiece of Oral and Intangible Heritage of Humanity. The work of documenting and transmitting that common culture involves several universities and other organizations. Galician-Portuguese folklore is rich in oral traditions. These include the ''cantigas ao desafio'' or ''regueifas'', duels of improvised songs, many legends, stories, poems, romances, folk songs, sayings and riddles, and ways of speech that still retain a lexical, phonetic, morphological and syntactic similarity. Also part of the common heritage of oral traditions are the markets and festivals of patron saints and processions, religious celebrations such as the ''magosto,'' ''entroido'' or Corpus Christi (feast), Corpus Christi, with ancient dances and tradition – like the one where Coco (folklore), Coca the dragon fights with Saint George; and also traditional clothing and adornments, crafts and skills, work-tools, carved vegetable lanterns, superstitions, traditional knowledge about plants and animals. All these are part of a common heritage considered in danger of extinction as the traditional way of living is replaced by modern life, and the jargon of fisherman, the names of tools in traditional crafts, and the oral traditions which form part of celebrations are slowly forgotten. A Galician-Portuguese "baixo-limiao" lect is spoken in several villages. In Galicia it is spoken in Entrimo and Lobios and in northern Portugal in Terras de Bouro (lands of the Buri (Germanic tribe), Buri) and Castro Laboreiro including the mountain town (county seat) of Soajo and surrounding villages.
See alsoAbout the Galician-Portuguese languages * Cantiga de amigo * Eonavian * Fala language * Galician language * History of Portuguese * * Reintegrationism About Galician-Portuguese culture * Culture of Portugal * Lusitanian mythology
BibliographyManuscripts containing Galician-Portuguese ('secular') lyric (cited from Cohen 2003 [see below under ''critical editions'']): * A = "Cancioneiro da Ajuda", Palácio Real da Ajuda (Lisbon). * B = Biblioteca Nacional (Lisbon), cod. 10991. * Ba = Bancroft Library (University of California, Berkeley) 2 MS DP3 F3 (MS UCB 143) * N = Pierpont Morgan Library (New York), MS 979 (= PV). * S = Arquivo Nacional da Torre do Tombo (Lisbon), Capa do Cart. Not. de Lisboa, N.º 7-A, Caixa 1, Maço 1, Livro 3. * V = Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, cod. lat. 4803. * Va = Biblioteca Apostolica Vaticana, cod. lat. 7182, ff. 276rº – 278rº Manuscripts containing the ''Cantigas de Santa Maria'': * E = Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo (El Escorial), MS B. I. 2. * F = Biblioteca Nazionale Centrale (Florence), Banco Rari 20. * T = Real Monasterio de San Lorenzo (El Escorial), MS T. I. 1. * To = Biblioteca Nacional (Madrid), cod. 10.069 ("El Toledano") Critical editions of individual genres of Galician-Portuguese poetry (note that the ''cantigas d'amor'' are split between Michaëlis 1904 and Nunes 1932): * Cohen, Rip. (2003). ''500 Cantigas d' Amigo'': Edição Crítica / Critical Edition (Porto: Campo das Letras). * Lapa, Manuel Rodrigues (1970). ''Cantigas d'escarnho e de mal dizer dos cancioneiros medievais galego-portugueses''. Edição crítica pelo prof. –. 2nd ed. Vigo: Editorial Galaxia [1st. ed. Coimbra, Editorial Galaxia, 1965] with "Vocabulário"). * Mettmann, Walter. (1959–1972). ''Afonso X, o Sabio. Cantigas de Santa Maria''. 4 vols ["Glossário", in vol. 4]. Coimbra: Por ordem da Universidade (republished in 2 vols. ["Glossário" in vol. 2] Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia, 1981; 2nd ed.: ''Alfonso X, el Sabio, Cantigas de Santa Maria'', Edición, introducción y notas de –. 3 vols. Madrid: Clásicos Castália, 1986–1989). * Michaëlis de Vasconcellos, Carolina. (1904). ''Cancioneiro da Ajuda''. Edição critica e commentada por –. 2 vols. Halle a.S., Max Niemeyer (republished Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional – Casa de Moeda, 1990). * Nunes, José Joaquim. (1932). ''Cantigas d'amor dos trovadores galego-portugueses''. Edição crítica acompanhada de introdução, comentário, variantes, e glossário por –. Coimbra: Imprensa da Universidade (Biblioteca de escritores portugueses) (republished by Lisboa: Centro do Livro Brasileiro, 1972). On the biography and chronology of the poets and the courts they frequented, the relation of these matters to the internal structure of the manuscript tradition, and myriad relevant questions in the field, please see: * Oliveira, António Resende de (1987). "A cultura trovadoresca no ocidente peninsular: trovadores e jograis galegos", ''Biblos'' LXIII: 1–22. * (1988). "Do Cancioneiro da Ajuda ao Livro das Cantigas do Conde D. Pedro. Análise do acrescento à secção das cantigas de amigo de O", ''Revista de História das Ideias'' 10: 691–751. * (1989). "A Galiza e a cultura trovadoresca peninsular", ''Revista de História das Ideias'' 11: 7–36. * (1993). "A caminho de Galiza. Sobre as primeiras composições em galego-português", in ''O Cantar dos Trobadores''. Santiago de Compostela: Xunta de Galicia, pp. 249–260 (republished in Oliveira 2001b: 65–78). * (1994). ''Depois do Espectáculo Trovadoresco. a estrutura dos cancioneiros peninsulares e as recolhas dos séculos XIII e XIV''. Lisboa: Edições Colibri (Colecção: Autores Portugueses). * (1995). ''Trobadores e Xograres. Contexto histórico''. (tr. Valentín Arias) Vigo: Edicións Xerais de Galicia (Universitaria / Historia crítica da literatura medieval). * (1997a). "Arqueologia do mecenato trovadoresco em Portugal", in ''Actas do 2º Congresso Histórico de Guimarães'', 319–327 (republished in Oliveira 2001b: 51–62). * (1997b). "História de uma despossessão. A nobreza e os primeiros textos em galego-português", in ''Revista de História das Ideias'' 19: 105–136. * (1998a). "Le surgissement de la culture troubadouresque dans l'occident de la Péninsule Ibérique (I). Compositeurs et cours", in (Anton Touber, ed.) ''Le Rayonnement des Troubadours'', Amsterdam, pp. 85–95 (Internationale Forschungen zur allgemeinen und vergleichenden Literaturwissenschaft) (Port. version in Oliveira 2001b: 141–170). * (1998b). "Galicia trobadoresca", in ''Anuario de Estudios Literarios Galegos'' 1998: 207–229 (Port. Version in Oliveira 2001b: 97–110). * (2001a). ''Aventures i Desventures del Joglar Gallegoportouguès'' (tr. Jordi Cerdà). Barcelona: Columna (La Flor Inversa, 6). * (2001b). ''O Trovador galego-português e o seu mundo''. Lisboa: Notícias Editorial (Colecção Poliedro da História). For Galician-Portuguese prose, the reader might begin with: * Cintra, Luís F. Lindley. (1951–1990). ''Crónica Geral de Espanha de 1344''. Edição crítica do texto português pelo –. Lisboa: Imprensa Nacional-Casa de Moeda (vol. I 1951 [1952; reprint 1983]; vol II 1954 [republished 1984]; vol. III 1961 [republished 1984], vol. IV 1990) (Academia Portuguesa da História. Fontes Narrativas da História Portuguesa). * Lorenzo, Ramón. (1977). ''La traduccion gallego de la Cronica General y de la Cronica de Castilla''. Edición crítica anotada, con introduccion, índice onomástico e glosario. 2 vols. Orense: Instituto de Estudios Orensanos 'Padre Feijoo'. There is no up-to-date historical grammar of medieval Galician-Portuguese. But see: * Huber, Joseph. (1933). ''Altportugiesisches Elementarbuch''. Heidelberg: Carl Winter (Sammlung romanischer Elementar- und Händbucher, I, 8) (Port tr. [by Maria Manuela Gouveia Delille] ''Gramática do Português Antigo''. Lisboa: Fundação Calouste Gulbenkian, 1986). A recent work centered on Galician containing information on medieval Galician-Portuguese is: * Ferreiro, Manuel. (2001). ''Gramática Histórica Galega'', 2 vols. [2nd ed.], Santiago de Compostela: Laiovento. * An old reference work centered on Portuguese is: * Williams, Edwin B. (1962). ''From Latin to Portuguese''. 2nd ed. Philadelphia: University of Pennsylvania Press (1st ed. Philadelphia, 1938). Latin Lexica: * ''Mediae Latinitatis Lexicon Minus''. Lexique Latin Médiévale-Francais/Anglais. A Medieval Latin-French/English Dictionary. composuit J. F. Niermeyer, perficiendum curavit C. van de Kieft. Abbreviationes et index fontium composuit C. van de Kieft, adiuvante G. S. M. M. Lake-Schoonebeek. Leiden – New York – Köln: E. J. Brill 1993 (1st ed. 1976). * ''Oxford Latin Dictionary''. ed. P. G. W. Glare. Oxford: Clarendon Press 1983. Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin: * Weiss, Michael. (2009). ''Outline of the Historical and Comparative Grammar of Latin''. Ann Arbor, MI: Beechstave Press. On the early documents cited from the late 12th century, please see Ivo Castro, ''Introdução à História do Português. Geografia da Língua. Português Antigo''. (Lisbon: Colibri, 2004), pp. 121–125 (with references).