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Pope Gregory I ( la, Gregorius I; – 12 March 604), commonly known as Saint Gregory the Great, was the from 3 September 590 to his death. He is known for instigating the first recorded large-scale mission from Rome, the , to convert the then- Anglo-Saxons in England to . Gregory is also well known for his writings, which were more prolific than those of any of his predecessors as pope. The epithet Saint Gregory the Dialogist has been attached to him in because of his '. English translations of Eastern texts sometimes list him as Gregory "Dialogos", or the Anglo-Latinate equivalent "Dialogus". A 's son and himself the at 30, Gregory lived in a he established on his family estate before becoming a papal ambassador and then pope. Although he was the first pope from a background, his prior political experiences may have helped him to be a talented administrator. During his papacy, his administration greatly surpassed that of the emperors in improving the welfare of the people of Rome, and he challenged the theological views of before the emperor . Gregory regained papal authority in and and sent missionaries to , including and . The realignment of barbarian allegiance to Rome from their Christian alliances shaped medieval Europe. Gregory saw , , and align with Rome in religion. He also combated the heresy, popular particularly in North Africa at the time. Throughout the Middle Ages, he was known as "the Father of Christian Worship" because of his exceptional efforts in revising the Roman worship of his day. His contributions to the development of the , still in use in the , were so significant that he is generally recognized as its ''de facto'' author. Gregory is one of the and a . He is considered a in the , , , various denominations, and other denominations. Immediately after his death, Gregory was canonized by popular acclaim. The reformer admired Gregory greatly and declared in his that Gregory was the last good Pope. He is the of musicians, singers, students, and teachers.


Early life

The exact date of Gregory's birth is uncertain but is usually estimated to be around the year 540, in the city of Rome, then recently by the from the . His parents named him ''Gregorius'', which according to in ''An Homily on the Birth-Day of S. Gregory,'' "... is a Greek Name which signifies in the Latin Tongue, ''Vigilantius'', that is in English, Watchful..." The medieval writer who provided this etymology did not hesitate to apply it to the life of Gregory. Ælfric states, "He was very diligent in God's Commandments." Gregory was born into a wealthy noble Roman family with close connections to the church. His father, Gordianus, a patrician who served as a senator and for a time was the Prefect of the City of Rome,Thornton, pp 163–8 also held the position of in the church, though nothing further is known about that position. Gregory's mother, , was well-born, and had a married sister, Pateria, in . His mother and two paternal aunts are honored by Catholic and Orthodox churches as saints. Gregory's great-great-grandfather had been , the nominee of the Gothic king, .Dudden (1905), page 4. Gregory's election to the throne of St Peter made his family the most distinguished clerical dynasty of the period. The family owned and resided in a ' on the , fronting the same street (now the Via di San Gregorio) as the former palaces of the Roman emperors on the opposite. The north of the street runs into the ; the south, the . In Gregory's day the ancient buildings were in ruins and were privately owned. Villas covered the area. Gregory's family also owned working estates in and around Rome. Gregory later had portraits done in fresco in their former home on the Caelian and these were described 300 years later by . Gordianus was tall with a long face and light eyes. He wore a beard. was tall, had a round face, blue eyes and a cheerful look. They had another son whose name and fate are unknown. Gregory was born into a period of upheaval in Italy. From 542 the so-called swept through the provinces of the empire, including Italy. The plague caused famine, panic, and sometimes rioting. In some parts of the country, over a third of the population was wiped out or destroyed, with heavy spiritual and emotional effects on the people of the Empire. Politically, although the had long since vanished in favor of the Gothic kings of Italy, during the 540s was gradually retaken from the by , emperor of the ruling from . As the fighting was mainly in the north, the young Gregory probably saw little of it. in 546, destroying most of its population, but in 549 he invited those who were still alive to return to the empty and ruined streets. It has been hypothesized that young Gregory and his parents retired during that intermission to their Sicilian estates, to return in 549. The was over in Rome by 552, and a subsequent invasion of the was defeated in 554. After that, there was peace in Italy, and the appearance of restoration, except that the central government now resided in Constantinople. Like most young men of his position in Roman society, Gregory was well educated, learning grammar, rhetoric, the sciences, literature, and law; he excelled in all these fields. reported that "in grammar, dialectic and rhetoric ... he was second to none...." He wrote correct Latin but did not read or write Greek. He knew Latin authors, natural science, history, mathematics and music and had such a "fluency with imperial law" that he may have trained in it "as a preparation for a career in public life". Indeed, he became a government official, advancing quickly in rank to become, like his father, Prefect of Rome, the highest civil office in the city, when only thirty-three years old. The monks of the Monastery of St. Andrew, established by Gregory at the ancestral home on the Caelian, had a portrait of him made after his death, which John the Deacon also saw in the 9th century. He reports the picture of a man who was "rather bald" and had a "tawny" beard like his father's and a face that was intermediate in shape between his mother's and father's. The hair that he had on the sides was long and carefully curled. His nose was "thin and straight" and "slightly aquiline". "His forehead was high." He had thick, "subdivided" lips and a chin "of a comely prominence" and "beautiful hands". In the modern era, Gregory is often depicted as a man at the border, poised between the Roman and Germanic worlds, between East and West, and above all, perhaps, between the ancient and medieval epochs.


Monastic years

On his father's death, Gregory converted his family ''villa'' into a dedicated to (after his death it was rededicated as ). In his life of contemplation, Gregory concluded that "in that silence of the heart, while we keep watch within through contemplation, we are as if asleep to all things that are without.". Gregory had a deep respect for the monastic life and particularly the vow of poverty. Thus, when it came to light that a monk lying on his death bed had stolen three gold pieces, Gregory, as a remedial punishment, forced the monk to die alone, then threw his body and coins on a manure heap to rot with a condemnation, "Take your money with you to perdition." Gregory believed that punishment of sins can begin, even in this life before death. However, in time, after the monk's death, Gregory had 30 Masses offered for the man to before the . He viewed being a monk as the 'ardent quest for the vision of our Creator.' His three paternal aunts were nuns renowned for their sanctity. However, after the eldest two, , died after seeing a vision of their ancestor , the youngest soon abandoned the religious life and married the steward of her estate. Gregory's response to this family scandal was that "many are called but few are chosen." Gregory's mother, , is herself a . Eventually, ordained Gregory a and solicited his help in trying to heal the in . However, this schism was not healed until well after Gregory was gone.


Apocrisiariate (579–585)

In 579, Pelagius II chose Gregory as his ' (ambassador to the imperial court in ), a post Gregory would hold until 586. Gregory was part of the Roman delegation (both lay and clerical) that arrived in Constantinople in 578 to ask the emperor for military aid against the .Ekonomou, 2007, p. 9. With the Byzantine military , these entreaties proved unsuccessful; in 584, Pelagius II wrote to Gregory as ''apocrisiarius'', detailing the hardships that Rome was experiencing under the Lombards and asking him to ask to send a relief force. Maurice, however, had long ago determined to limit his efforts against the Lombards to intrigue and diplomacy, pitting the against them. It soon became obvious to Gregory that the Byzantine emperors were unlikely to send such a force, given their more immediate difficulties with the Persians in the East and the and to the North.Ekonomou, 2007, p. 10. According to Ekonomou, "if Gregory's principal task was to plead Rome's cause before the emperor, there seems to have been little left for him to do once imperial policy toward Italy became evident. Papal representatives who pressed their claims with excessive vigor could quickly become a nuisance and find themselves excluded from the imperial presence altogether". Gregory had already drawn an imperial rebuke for his lengthy canonical writings on the subject of the legitimacy of , who had occupied the Patriarchate of Constantinople for twelve years prior to the return of (who had been driven out by Justinian). Gregory turned to cultivating connections with the Byzantine elite of the city, where he became extremely popular with the city's upper class, "especially aristocratic women". Ekonomou surmises that "while Gregory may have become spiritual father to a large and important segment of Constantinople's aristocracy, this relationship did not significantly advance the interests of Rome before the emperor". Although the writings of John the Deacon claim that Gregory "labored diligently for the relief of Italy", there is no evidence that his tenure accomplished much towards any of the objectives of Pelagius II. Gregory's theological disputes with Patriarch Eutychius would leave a "bitter taste for the theological speculation of the East" with Gregory that continued to influence him well into his own papacy.Ekonomou, 2007, p. 11. According to Western sources, Gregory's very public debate with Eutychius culminated in an exchange before where Gregory cited a biblical passage in support of the view that Christ was corporeal and palpable after his Resurrection; allegedly as a result of this exchange, Tiberius II ordered Eutychius's writings burned. Ekonomou views this argument, though exaggerated in Western sources, as Gregory's "one achievement of an otherwise fruitless ''apokrisiariat''".Ekonomou, 2007, p. 12. In reality, Gregory was forced to rely on Scripture because he could not read the untranslated Greek authoritative works. Gregory left Constantinople for Rome in 585, returning to his monastery on the .Ekonomou, 2007, p. 13. Gregory was elected by to succeed Pelagius II in 590, when the latter died of the spreading through the city. Gregory was approved by an Imperial ' from Constantinople the following September (as was the norm during the ).


Controversy with Eutychius

In Constantinople, Gregory took issue with the aged , who had recently published a treatise, now lost, on the . Eutychius maintained that the resurrected body "will be more subtle than air, and no longer palpable". Gregory opposed with the palpability of the risen Christ in . As the dispute could not be settled, the , , undertook to arbitrate. He decided in favor of palpability and ordered Eutychius' book to be . Shortly after both Gregory and Eutychius became ill; Gregory recovered, but Eutychius died on 5 April 582, at age 70. On his deathbed Eutychius recanted impalpability and Gregory dropped the matter.


Papacy

Gregory was more inclined to remain retired into the monastic lifestyle of contemplation. In texts of all genres, especially those produced in his first year as pope, Gregory bemoaned the burden of office and mourned the loss of the undisturbed life of prayer he had once enjoyed as a monk. When he became pope in 590, among his first acts was writing a series of letters disavowing any ambition to the throne of Peter and praising the contemplative life of the monks. At that time, for various reasons, the had not exerted effective leadership in the West since the pontificate of . The episcopacy in was drawn from the great territorial families, and identified with them: the parochial horizon of Gregory's contemporary, , may be considered typical; in Spain the bishops had little contact with Rome; in Italy the territories which had ''de facto'' fallen under the administration of the papacy were beset by the violent dukes and the rivalry of the Byzantines in the and in the south. Pope Gregory had strong convictions on missions: "Almighty God places good men in authority that He may impart through them the gifts of His mercy to their subjects. And this we find to be the case with the British over whom you have been appointed to rule, that through the blessings bestowed on you the blessings of heaven might be bestowed on your people also." He is credited with re-energizing the Church's missionary work among the non-Christian peoples of northern Europe. He is most famous for sending a mission, often called the , under , prior of Saint Andrew's, where he had perhaps succeeded Gregory, to evangelize the pagan of England. It seems that the pope had never forgotten the English slaves whom he had once seen in the Roman Forum. The mission was successful, and it was from England that missionaries later set out for the Netherlands and Germany. The preaching of non-heretical Christian faith and the elimination of all deviations from it was a key element in Gregory's worldview, and it constituted one of the major continuing policies of his pontificate. Pope Gregory the Great urged his followers on the as a bodily need. It is said he was immediately after his death by "popular acclamation". In his official documents, Gregory was the first to make extensive use of the term "" (''servus servorum Dei'') as a papal title, thus initiating a practice that was to be followed by most subsequent popes.


Alms

The Church had a practice from early times of passing on a large portion of the donations it received from its members as . As pope, Gregory did his utmost to encourage that high standard among church personnel. Gregory is known for his extensive administrative system of charitable relief of the poor at Rome. The poor were predominantly refugees from the incursions of the . The philosophy under which he devised this system is that the wealth belonged to the poor and the church was only its steward. He received lavish donations from the wealthy families of Rome, who, following his own example, were eager, by doing so, to expiate their sins. He gave alms equally as lavishly both individually and en masse. He wrote in letters: "I have frequently charged you ... to act as my representative ... to relieve the poor in their distress ...." and "... I hold the office of steward to the property of the poor ...." In Gregory's time, the Church in Rome received donations of many different kinds: such as food and clothing; investment property: real estate and works of art; and , or -generating property, such as the , or agricultural estates. The Church already had a system for circulating the consumables to the poor: associated with each of the main city churches was a ''diaconium'' or office of the . He was given a building from which the poor could apply for assistance at any time. The circumstances in which Gregory became pope in 590 were of ruination. The Lombards held the greater part of Italy. Their depredations had brought the economy to a standstill. They camped nearly at the gates of Rome. The city itself was crowded with refugees from all walks of life, who lived in the streets and had few of the necessities of life. The seat of government was far from Rome in and appeared unable to undertake the relief of Italy. The pope had sent emissaries, including Gregory, asking for assistance, to no avail. In 590, Gregory could wait for Constantinople no longer. He organized the resources of the church into an administration for general relief. In doing so he evidenced a talent for and intuitive understanding of the principles of accounting, which was not to be invented for centuries. The church already had basic accounting documents: every was recorded in called ''regesta'', "lists" of amounts, recipients and circumstances. Revenue was recorded in ''polyptici'', "". Many of these polyptici were s recording the operating expenses of the church and the s, the ''patrimonia''. A central papal administration, the ''notarii'', under a chief, the ''primicerius notariorum'', kept the ledgers and issued ''brevia patrimonii'', or lists of property for which each ' was responsible. Gregory began by aggressively requiring his churchmen to seek out and relieve needy persons and reprimanded them if they did not. In a letter to a subordinate in he wrote: "I asked you most of all to take care of the poor. And if you knew of people in poverty, you should have pointed them out ... I desire that you give the woman, Pateria, forty for the children's shoes and forty bushels of grain ...." Soon he was replacing administrators who would not cooperate with those who would and at the same time adding more in a build-up to a great plan that he had in mind. He understood that expenses must be matched by income. To pay for his increased expenses he liquidated the investment property and paid the expenses in cash according to a budget recorded in the polyptici. The churchmen were paid four times a year and also personally given a golden coin for their trouble.Dudden (1905) pages 248–249. Money, however, was no substitute for food in a city that was on the brink of famine. Even the wealthy were going hungry in their villas. The church now owned between of revenue-generating farmland divided into large sections called ''patrimonia.'' It produced goods of all kinds, which were sold, but Gregory intervened and had the goods shipped to Rome for distribution in the ''diaconia''. He gave orders to step up production, set quotas and put an administrative structure in place to carry it out. At the bottom was the ''rusticus'' who produced the goods. Some rustici were or owned slaves. He turned over part of his produce to a ''conductor'' from whom he leased the land. The latter reported to an ''actionarius'', the latter to a ''defensor'' and the latter to a ''rector''. Grain, wine, cheese, meat, fish and oil began to arrive at Rome in large quantities, where it was given away for nothing as alms. Distributions to qualified persons were monthly. However, a certain proportion of the population lived in the streets or were too ill or infirm to pick up their monthly food supply. To them Gregory sent out a small army of charitable persons, mainly monks, every morning with prepared food. It is said that he would not dine until the indigent were fed. When he did dine he shared the family table, which he had saved (and which still exists), with 12 indigent guests. To the needy living in wealthy homes he sent meals he had cooked with his own hands as gifts to spare them the indignity of receiving charity. Hearing of the death of an indigent in a back room he was depressed for days, entertaining for a time the conceit that he had failed in his duty and was a murderer. These and other good deeds and charitable frame of mind completely won the hearts and minds of the Roman people. They now looked to the papacy for government, ignoring the state at Constantinople. The office of urban prefect went without candidates. From the time of Gregory the Great to the rise of the papacy was the most influential presence in Italy.


Works


Liturgical reforms

John the Deacon wrote that Pope Gregory I made a general revision of the liturgy of the , "removing many things, changing a few, adding some". In his own letters, Gregory remarks that he moved the ' (Our Father) to immediately after the and immediately before the . This position is still maintained today in the Roman Liturgy. The pre-Gregorian position is evident in the . Gregory added material to the ' of the Roman Canon and established the nine ''s'' (a vestigial remnant of the which was originally at that place) at the beginning of . He also reduced the role of deacons in the Roman Liturgy. directly influenced by Gregorian reforms are referred to as ''Sacrementaria Gregoriana''. Roman and other since this era have a number of prayers that change to reflect the feast or liturgical season; these variations are visible in the s and s as well as in the Roman Canon itself.


Divine Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts

In the and , Gregory is credited as the primary influence in constructing the more penitential , a fully separate form of the in the adapted to the needs of the season of . Its equivalent is the used only on . The Liturgy of the Presanctified Gifts continues to be used in the , a variant of the historically practiced in the of , and now practiced by the several churches that descended from it and at some occasions in the .


Gregorian chant

The mainstream form of Western , standardized in the late 9th century, was attributed to Pope Gregory I and so took the name of Gregorian chant. The earliest such attribution is in John the Deacon's 873 biography of Gregory, almost three centuries after the pope's death, and the chant that bears his name "is the result of the fusion of Roman and Frankish elements which took place in the Franco-German empire under , and their successors".


Writings

Gregory is commonly credited with founding the medieval papacy and so many attribute the beginning of medieval spirituality to him. Gregory is the only pope between the fifth and the eleventh centuries whose correspondence and writings have survived enough to form a comprehensive ''corpus''. Some of his writings are: *', frequently known in English-language histories by its Latin title, ''Magna Moralia, ''or as ''Moralia on Job. ''This is one of the longest patristic works. It was possibly finished as early as 591. It is based on talks Gregory gave on the Book of Job to his 'brethren' who accompanied him to Constantinople. The work as we have it is the result of Gregory's revision and completion of it soon after his accession to the papal office. * ' (''Liber regulae pastoralis''), in which he contrasted the role of bishops as pastors of their flock with their position as nobles of the church: the definitive statement of the nature of the episcopal office. This was probably begun before his election as pope and finished in 591. * ', a collection of four books of miracles, signs, wonders, and healings done by the holy men, mostly monastic, of sixth-century Italy, with the second book entirely devoted to a popular life of * , including: ** The sermons include the 22 ''Homilae in Hiezechielem ''(''Homilies on Ezekiel''), dealing with Ezekiel 1.1–4.3 in Book One, and Ezekiel 40 in Book 2. These were preached during 592–3, the years that the Lombards besieged Rome, and contain some of Gregory's most profound mystical teachings. They were revised eight years later. ** The ''Homilae xl in Evangelia ''(''Forty Homilies on the Gospels'') for the liturgical year, delivered during 591 and 592, which were seemingly finished by 593. A papyrus fragment from this codex survives in the , London, UK. ** ''Expositio in Canticis Canticorum. ''Only 2 of these sermons on the Song of Songs survive, discussing the text up to Song 1.9. * ''In Librum primum regum expositio ''(''Commentary on 1 Kings''), which scholars now think that this is a work by 12th c. monk, , who used no longer extant Gregorian material. *Copies of some 854 letters have survived. During Gregory's time, copies of papal letters were made by scribes into a ''Registrum ''(''Register''), which was then kept in the ''scrinium''. It is known that in the 9th century, when John the Deacon composed his ''Life'' of Gregory, the ''Registrum'' of Gregory's letters was formed of 14 papyrus rolls (though it is difficult to estimate how many letters this may have represented). Though these original rolls are now lost, the 854 letters have survived in copies made at various later times, the largest single batch of 686 letters being made by order of (772–95). The majority of the copies, dating from the 10th to the 15th century, are stored in the . Gregory wrote over 850 letters in the last 13 years of his life (590–604) that give us an accurate picture of his work. A truly autobiographical presentation is nearly impossible for Gregory. The development of his mind and personality remains purely speculative in nature. Opinions of the writings of Gregory vary. "His character strikes us as an ambiguous and enigmatic one," the Jewish Canadian-American popularist observed. "On the one hand he was an able and determined administrator, a skilled and clever diplomat, a leader of the greatest sophistication and vision; but on the other hand, he appears in his writings as a superstitious and credulous , hostile to learning, crudely limited as a theologian, and excessively devoted to saints, s, and s".


Identification of three figures in the Gospels

Gregory was among those who identified with , whom recounts as having Jesus with precious ointment, an event that some interpret as being the same as the performed by a woman that Luke (alone among the ) recounts as sinful.;; < Preaching on the passage in the , Gregory remarked: "This woman, whom Luke calls a sinner and John calls Mary, I think is the Mary from whom Mark reports that seven demons were cast out." Modern Biblical scholars distinguish these as three separate figures/persons, but within the general populace (and even some ), they are still believed to refer to the same person.


Iconography

In art Gregory is usually shown in full pontifical robes with the and , despite his actual habit of dress. Earlier depictions are more likely to show a monastic and plainer dress. Orthodox traditionally show St. Gregory vested as a bishop holding a and blessing with his right hand. It is recorded that he permitted his depiction with a , then used for the living. A dove is his , from the well-known story attributed to his friend Peter the Deacon, who tells that when the pope was dictating his homilies on a curtain was drawn between his secretary and himself. As, however, the pope remained silent for long periods at a time, the servant made a hole in the curtain and, looking through, beheld a dove seated upon Gregory's head with its beak between his lips. When the dove withdrew its beak the pope spoke and the secretary took down his words; but when he became silent the servant again applied his eye to the hole and saw the dove had replaced its beak between his lips. Ribera's oil painting of ''Saint Gregory the Great'' (c.1614) is from the Giustiniani collection. The painting is conserved in the , Rome. The face of Gregory is a caricature of the features described by John the Deacon: total baldness, outthrust chin, beak-like nose, whereas John had described partial baldness, a mildly protruding chin, slightly aquiline nose and strikingly good looks. In this picture also Gregory has his monastic back on the world, which the real Gregory, despite his reclusive intent, was seldom allowed to have. This scene is shown as a version of the traditional (where the are also sometimes shown dictating) from the tenth century onwards. An early example is the from an eleventh-century manuscript of Gregory's ''Moralia in Job''. The miniature shows the scribe, Bebo of , presenting the manuscript to the , . In the upper left the author is seen writing the text under divine inspiration. Usually the dove is shown whispering in Gregory's ear for a clearer composition. The late medieval subject of the shows a version of a 7th-century story that was elaborated in later . Gregory is shown saying Mass when Christ as the appears on the altar. The subject was most common in the 15th and 16th centuries, and reflected growing emphasis on the , and after the was an assertion of the doctrine against Protestant theology.


Famous quotes and anecdotes

* ''Non Angli, sed angeli, si forent Christiani.''– "They are not , but s, if they were Christian". , summarizing words reported to have been spoken by Gregory when he first encountered pale-skinned English boys at a , sparking his dispatch of to England to convert the English, according to . He said: "Well named, for they have angelic faces and ought to be co-heirs with the angels in heaven." Discovering that their province was , he went on to add that they would be rescued ''de ira'', "from the wrath", and that their king was named , ''Alleluia'', he said. * ''Locusta'', literally, "". However, the word sounds very much like "''loco sta''", meaning, "Stay in place!" Gregory himself wanted to go to England as a missionary and started out for there. On the fourth day of the journey, as they stopped for lunch, a locust landed on the edge of the Bible which Gregory was reading. He exclaimed, ''locusta!'' (locust). Reflecting on it, he understood it as a sign from Heaven whereby God wanted him to ''loco sta'', that is, remain in his own place. Within the hour an emissary of the Pope arrived to recall him. * "I beg that you will not take the present amiss. For anything, however trifling, which is offered from the prosperity of St. Peter should be regarded as a great blessing, seeing that he will have power both to bestow on you greater things, and to hold out to you eternal benefits with Almighty God." * ''Pro cuius amore in eius eloquio nec mihi parco'' – "For the love of whom (God) I do not spare myself from His Word." The sense is that since the creator of the human race and redeemer of him unworthy gave him the power of the tongue so that he could witness, what kind of a witness would he be if he did not use it but preferred to speak infirmly? * "For the place of heretics is very pride itself...for the place of the wicked is pride just as conversely humility is the place of the good." * "Whoever calls himself universal bishop, or desires this title, is, by his pride, the precursor to the Antichrist." * ''Non enim pro locis res, sed pro bonis rebus loca amanda sunt'' – "Things are not to be loved for the sake of a place, but places are to be loved for the sake of their good things." When Augustine asked whether to use or customs in the mass in England, Gregory said, in paraphrase, that it was not the place that imparted goodness but good things that graced the place, and it was more important to be pleasing to the Almighty. They should pick out what was "pia", "religiosa" and "recta" from any church whatever and set that down before the English minds as practice. * "For the rule of justice and reason suggests that one who desires his own orders to be observed by his successors should undoubtedly keep the will and ordinances of his predecessor." In his letters, Gregory often emphasized the importance of giving proper deference to last wills and testaments, and of respecting property rights. * "Compassion should be shown first to the faithful and afterwards to the enemies of the church." * "At length being anxious to avoid all these inconveniences, I sought the haven of the monastery... For as the vessel that is negligently moored, is very often (when the storm waxes violent) tossed by the water out of its shelter on the safest shore, so under the cloak of the Ecclesiastical office, I found myself plunged on a sudden in a sea of secular matters, and because I had not held fast the tranquillity of the monastery when in possession, I learnt by losing it, how closely it should have been held." In ''Moralia, sive Expositio in Job'' ("Commentary on Job," also known as ''Magna Moralia''), Gregory describes to the Bishop Leander the circumstances under which he became a monk. * "Illiterate men can contemplate in the lines of a picture what they cannot learn by means of the written word." *''Age quod agis'' (Do what you are doing). Through the centuries, this would become a repeated maxim of Catholic mystics and spiritual directors encouraging one to keep focus on what one is doing in trying to serve the Lord. *"Repentance is weeping for what one has done and not doing what one weeps for."


Memorials


Relics

The relics of Saint Gregory are enshrined in in Rome.


Lives

In Britain, appreciation for Gregory remained strong even after his death, with him being called ''Gregorius noster'' ("our Gregory") by the British. It was in Britain, at a monastery in , that the first full-length of Gregory was written, c. 713, by a monk or, possibly, a nun. Appreciation of Gregory in Rome and Italy itself, however, did not come until later. The first ''vita'' of Gregory written in Italy was not produced until (aka John the Deacon) in the 9th century.


Monuments

The namesake church of (largely rebuilt from the original edifices during the 17th and 18th centuries) remembers his work. One of the three oratories annexed, the oratory of Saint Silvia, is said to lie over the tomb of Gregory's mother. In England, Gregory, along with , is revered as the apostle of the land and the source of the nation's conversion.


Music

Italian composer composed a piece named ''St. Gregory the Great'' ''(San Gregorio Magno)'' that features as the fourth and final part of his ''Church Windows'' (''Vetrate di Chiesa'') works, written in 1925.


Feast day

The current , revised in 1969 as instructed by the , celebrates Saint Gregory the Great on 3 September. Before that, it assigned his feast day to 12 March, the day of his death in 604. Following the imposition of 's in 1961, celebration of Saint Gregory's feast day was made practically impossible, as John XXIII's reforms forbade the full observance of most feasts during Lent, during which 12 March invariably falls. For this reason, Saint Gregory's feast day was moved to 3 September, the day of his episcopal in 590, as part of the liturgical reforms of . The and those which follow the continue to commemorate Saint Gregory on 12 March which is during , the only time when the , which names Saint Gregory as its author, is used. Other churches also honour Gregory the Great: * the him with a on , * the him with a commemoration on , * the him with a on , * the him with a on . * Gregory the Great is in the with a on . A traditional is held in , , in honour of Saint Gregory (San Girgor) on Easter Wednesday, which most often falls in April, the range of possible dates being 25 March to 28 April. The feast day of Saint Gregory also serves as a commemorative day for the former pupils of , called Old Gregorians. Traditionally, OG ties are worn by all of the society's members on this day.


Written works

*


Modern editions

*''Homiliae in Hiezechihelem prophetam'', ed Marcus Adriaen, CCSL 142, (Turnhout: Brepols, 1971) *''Dialogorum libri quattuor seu De miraculis patrum italicorum: Grégoire le Grand, Dialogues'', ed. Adalbert de Vogüé, 3 vols., Sources crétiennes 251, 260, 265 (Paris, 1978–1980) — also available via the Brepols Library of Latin Texts online database at http://www.brepols.net/Pages/BrowseBySeries.aspx?TreeSeries=LLT-O


Translations

*''The Dialogues of Saint Gregory the Great'', trans. Edmund G. Gardner (London & Boston, 1911). *', trans. Henry Davis, ACW 11 (Newman Press, 1950). *
The Book of Pastoral Rule
', trans. with intro and notes by George E. Demacopoulos (: , 2007). *''Reading the Gospels with Gregory the Great: Homilies on the Gospels, 21–26'', trans. Santha Bhattacharji (Petersham, MA, 2001) ranslations of the 6 ''Homilies'' covering Easter Day to the Sunday after Easter *''The Letters of Gregory the Great'', trans. with intro and notes by John RC Martyn, (Toronto: Pontifical Institute of Mediaeval Studies, 2004). volume translation of the ''Registrum epistularum'' *''Gregory the Great: On the Song of Songs'', CS244 (Collegeville, MN, 2012).


See also

* *' * * * *


References


Notes


Citations


Sources

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *. Studia Anselmiana, volume 135. * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links

* * Index of 70 downloadable .pdf files containing the texts of Gregory I. * Found on the website: Lectionary Central. * Digitized by the Staatsbibliothek Bamberg. * Photographic images of a manuscript copied about 850–875 AD. * Orthodox and .
Noch ein Höhlengleichnis. Zu einem metaphorischen Argument bei Gregor dem Großen
by Meinolf Schumacher (in German).

contains two of his letters.

* ttp://www.christianiconography.info/gregory.html Saint Gregory the Greatat th
Christian Iconography
website

from Caxon's translation of the Golden Legend

* a German novel written by . {{DEFAULTSORT:Gregory 01 Anglican saints