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is a
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
brand A brand is a name, term, design, symbol or any other feature that identifies one seller's good or service as distinct from those of other sellers. Brands are used in business Business is the activity of making one's living or making mon ...

brand
that consists of five
home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home consoles are generally less powerful and customizable than ...
s, two
handhelds A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer small enough to hold and operate in the hand. Typically, any handheld computer device will have an LCD or OLED flat screen interface, providing a touchscreen interface with digital buttons an ...

handhelds
, a media center, and a
smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can per ...

smartphone
, as well as an online service and multiple magazines. The brand is produced by
Sony Interactive Entertainment Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), is a multinational video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device ...
, a division of
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
; the first PlayStation console was released in Japan in December 1994, and worldwide the following year. The original console in the series was the first console of any type to ship over 100 million units, doing so in under a decade. Its successor, the
PlayStation 2 The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/ ...

PlayStation 2
, was released in 2000. The PlayStation 2 is the best-selling home console to date, having reached over 155 million units sold by the end of 2012. Sony's next console, the
PlayStation 3 The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home c ...
, was released in 2006, selling over 87.4 million units by March 2017. Sony's next console, the
PlayStation 4 The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Inpu ...

PlayStation 4
, was released in 2013, selling a million units within a day, becoming the fastest selling console in history. The latest console in the series, the
PlayStation 5 The PlayStation 5 (PS5) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Inpu ...
, was released in 2020. The first
handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/out ...

handheld game console
in the series, the
PlayStation Portable The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may re ...

PlayStation Portable
or PSP, sold a total of 80 million units worldwide by November 2013. Its successor, the
PlayStation Vita The PlayStation Vita (PS Vita, Vita, or PSV) is a developed and marketed by . It was first released in on December 17, 2011, and in , , and other international territories beginning on February 22, 2012. The console is the successor to the , a ...

PlayStation Vita
, which launched in Japan in December 2011 and in most other major territories in February 2012, selling over four million units by January 2013.
PlayStation TV The PlayStation TV (abbreviated to PS TV), known in Japan and other parts of Asia as the PlayStation Vita TV or PS Vita TV, is a microconsole A microconsole is a home video game console that is typically powered by low-cost computing hardwa ...
is a
microconsole A microconsole is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home consoles ...
and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld game console. Other hardware released as part of the PlayStation series includes the PSX, a
digital video recorder A digital video recorder (DVR) is an electronic device The field of electronics is a branch of physics and electrical engineering that deals with the emission, behaviour and effects of electrons The electron is a subatomic particle, symbol ...

digital video recorder
which was integrated with the PlayStation and PlayStation 2, though it was short-lived due to its high price and was never released outside Japan, as well as a
Sony Bravia Bravia (stylized as BRAVIA) is a brand of Sony Visual Products Inc., a wholly owned subsidiary of Sony, Sony Corporation, and used for its television products. Its backronym is "Best Resolution Audio Visual Integrated Architecture". All Sony high ...
television set which has an integrated PlayStation 2. The main series of controllers utilized by the PlayStation series is the
DualShock The DualShock (originally Dual Shock; trademarked as DUALSHOCK or DUAL SHOCK; with the PlayStation 5 The PlayStation 5 (PS5) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an ...

DualShock
, which is a line of vibration-feedback
gamepad A gamepad is a type of game controller A game controller, gaming controller, or simply controller, is an input device In computing, an input device is a piece of equipment used to provide data and control signals to an information proces ...

gamepad
having sold 28 million controllers by June 2008. The
PlayStation Network PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartp ...
is an online service with about 110 million registered users (as of June 2013) and over 103 million active users monthly. (as of December 2019) It comprises an online virtual market, the
PlayStation Store The PlayStation Store (PS Store) is a digital media Digital media means any media (communication), communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, ...

PlayStation Store
, which allows the purchase and download of games and various forms of multimedia, a subscription-based online service known as
PlayStation Plus PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartph ...
and a social gaming networking service called
PlayStation Home PlayStation Home was a virtual 3D social gaming platform developed by Sony Computer Entertainment's London Studio for the PlayStation 3 (PS3) on the PlayStation Network (PSN). It was accessible from the PS3's XrossMediaBar (XMB). Membership was ...
, which had over 41 million users worldwide at the time of its closure in March 2015. PlayStation Mobile (formerly PlayStation Suite) is a software framework that provides PlayStation content on
mobile device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations automatically. Modern computers can perform generic sets ...
s. Version 1.xx supports both PlayStation Vita, PlayStation TV and certain devices that run the
Android operating system Android is a mobile operating system based on a modified version of the Linux kernel and other Open-source software, open source software, designed primarily for touchscreen mobile devices such as smartphones and tablet computer, tablets. Andro ...

Android operating system
, whereas version 2.00 released in 2014 only targeted PlayStation Vita and PlayStation TV.
Content Content or contents may refer to: Media * Content (media), information or experience provided to audience or end-users by publishers or media producers ** Content industry, an umbrella term that encompasses companies owning and providing mass m ...
set to be released under the framework consist of only original PlayStation games currently. Seventh generation PlayStation products also use the
XrossMediaBar The XrossMediaBar (pronounced "cross-media bar" and officially abbreviated as XMB) is a graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the indus ...
, which is an
Technology & Engineering Emmy Award A Technology and Engineering Emmy Award The Emmy Awards, or Emmys, are awards for artistic and technical merit in the television industry. It is considered one of the four major entertainment awards in the United States, the others bein ...
-winning
graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction ...
. A touch screen-based user interface called
LiveArea The PlayStation Vita system software is the official firmware In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes ...
was launched for the PlayStation Vita, which integrates social networking elements into the interface. Additionally, the PlayStation 2 and PlayStation 3 consoles also featured support for Linux-based operating systems;
Linux for PlayStation 2 Linux for PlayStation 2 (or PS2 Linux) is a kit released by Sony Computer Entertainment in 2002 that allows the PlayStation 2 console to be used as a personal computer. It included a Linux-based operating system, a USB computer keyboard, keyboard a ...
and
OtherOS OtherOS was a feature available in early versions of the PlayStation 3 The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a ...
respectively, though this has since been discontinued. The series has also been known for its numerous marketing campaigns, the latest of which being the "Greatness Awaits" and eventually, "Play Has No Limits" commercials in the United States. The series also has a strong line-up of first-party games due to
SIE Worldwide Studios Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SIE Worldwide Studios) is a group of video game developer A video game developer is a software developer specializing in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creati ...
, a group of many studios owned by Sony Interactive Entertainment that exclusively developed them for PlayStation consoles. In addition, the series features various budget re-releases of games by Sony with different names for each region; these include the
Greatest Hits A greatest hits album or best-of album is a type of compilation album A compilation album comprises Album#Tracks, tracks, which may be previously released or unreleased, usually from several separate recordings by either one or several Perfor ...
,
Platinum Platinum is a chemical element In chemistry, an element is a pure Chemical substance, substance consisting only of atoms that all have the same numbers of protons in their atomic nucleus, nuclei. Unlike chemical compounds, chemical el ...
, Essentials, and The Best selection of games.


History


Origins

PlayStation was the brainchild of
Ken Kutaragi is a Japanese engineering technologist and businessman. He is the former chairman and CEO of Sony Interactive Entertainment, Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIEI), the video game division of Sony Corporation, and current president and CEO of Cyb ...
, a
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
executive who managed one of the company's hardware engineering divisions and was later dubbed "The Father of the PlayStation". Until 1991, Sony had little direct involvement with the video game industry. The company supplied components for other consoles, such as the sound chip for the
Super Famicom The Super Nintendo Entertainment System (SNES), commonly shortened to Super NES or Super Nintendo, is a 16-bit 16-bit microcomputer A microcomputer is a small, relatively inexpensive computer A computer is a machine that can be progr ...

Super Famicom
from
Nintendo is a Japanese Multinational corporation, multinational consumer electronics and video game company headquartered in Kyoto, Japan. The company was founded in 1889 as by craftsman Fusajiro Yamauchi and originally produced handmade playing ca ...

Nintendo
, and operated a video game studio,
Sony Imagesoft Sony Imagesoft Inc. was an American video game publisher that operated from 1989 to 1995 and was located in California. It was established in January 1989 in Los Angeles, California, as a subsidiary of the Japan-based Sony Music Entertainment Japa ...
. As part of a joint project between Nintendo and Sony that began as early in 1988, the two companies worked to create a
CD-ROM A CD-ROM (, compact disc read-only memory) is a pre-pressed optical compact disc The compact disc (CD) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital ...

CD-ROM
version of the Super Famicom, though Nintendo denied the existence of the Sony deal as late as March 1991. At the
Consumer Electronics Show CES (formerly an initialism for Consumer Electronics Show) is an annual trade show A trade fair (trade show, trade exhibition, or trade exposition) is an exhibition organized so that companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal e ...
in June 1991, Sony revealed a Super Famicom with a built-in CD-ROM drive that incorporated Green Book technology or CD-i, called "Play Station" (also known as
SNES-CD The Super NES CD-ROM System (commonly shortened as the SNES-CD), known as Super Famicom CD-ROM Adapter in Japan, is an unreleased video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user inter ...
). However, a day after the announcement at CES, Nintendo announced that it would be breaking its partnership with Sony, opting to go with
Philips Koninklijke Philips N.V. (in Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer t ...

Philips
instead but using the same technology. The deal was broken by Nintendo after they were unable to come to an agreement on how revenue would be split between the two companies. The breaking of the partnership infuriated Sony President
Norio Ohga , otherwise spelled ''Norio Oga'' (January 29, 1930 – April 23, 2011), was the former president and chairman of Sony Corporation, credited with spurring the development of the compact disc as a commercially viable audio format. Biography Early ...
, who responded by appointing Kutaragi with the responsibility of developing the PlayStation project to rival Nintendo. At that time, negotiations were still on-going between Nintendo and Sony, with Nintendo offering Sony a "non-gaming role" regarding their new partnership with Philips. This proposal was swiftly rejected by Kutaragi who was facing increasing criticism over his work with regard to entering the video game industry from within Sony. Negotiations officially ended in May 1992 and in order to decide the fate of the PlayStation project, a meeting was held in June 1992, consisting of Sony President Ohga, PlayStation Head Kutaragi and several senior members of Sony's board. At the meeting, Kutaragi unveiled a proprietary CD-ROM-based system he had been working on which involved playing video games with 3D graphics to the board. Eventually, Sony President Ohga decided to retain the project after being reminded by Kutaragi of the humiliation he suffered from Nintendo. Nevertheless, due to strong opposition from a majority present at the meeting as well as widespread internal opposition to the project by the older generation of Sony executives, Kutaragi and his team had to be shifted from Sony's headquarters to
Sony Music Sony Music Entertainment (SME), also known as just Sony Music, is an American multinational music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. ...
, a completely separate financial entity owned by Sony, so as to retain the project and maintain relationships with Philips for the MMCD development project (which helped lead to the creation of the
DVD The DVD (common abbreviation for Digital Video Disc or Digital Versatile Disc) is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital elect ...

DVD
). According to SCE's producer Ryoji Akagawa and chairman Shigeo Maruyama, there was uncertainty over whether the console should primarily focus on 2D sprite graphics or 3D polygon graphics. Eventually, after witnessing the success of
Sega is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, a sovereign ...

Sega
's ''
Virtua Fighter is a series of fighting games created by Sega-AM2 and designers Yu Suzuki and Seiichi Ishii. The original ''Virtua Fighter (video game), Virtua Fighter'' was released in October 1993 and has received four main sequels and several spin-offs. The ...
'' in Japanese arcades, that Sony realized "the direction of the PlayStation became instantly clear" and 3D polygon graphics became the console's primary focus. The PlayStation logo was designed by Manabu Sakamoto. He wanted the logo to capture the 3D support of the console, but instead of just adding apparent depth to the letters "P" and "S", he created an
optical illusion Within visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment (biophysical), environment through photopic vision (daytime vision), color vision, scotopic vision (night vision), and mesopic vision (tw ...

optical illusion
that suggested the letters in depth of space. Sakamoto also stuck with four bright principal colors, red, yellow, green, and blue, only having to tune the green color for better harmony across the logo. Sakamoto also designed the black and white logo based on the same design, reserved for times where colors could not be used.


Formation of Sony Computer Entertainment

At
Sony Music Entertainment Sony Music Entertainment (SME), also known as just Sony Music, is an American multinational Music industry, music company. Owned by the parent conglomerate (company), conglomerate Sony, Sony Group Corporation, it is part of the Sony Music Group ...
, Kutaragi worked closely with Shigeo Maruyama, the CEO of Sony Music, and with Akira Sato to form Sony Computer Entertainment Inc. (SCEI) on November 16, 1993. A building block of SCEI was its initial partnership with Sony Music which helped SCEI attract creative talent to the company as well as assist SCEI in manufacturing, marketing and producing discs, something that Sony Music had been doing with Music Discs. The final two key members of SCEI were Terry Tokunaka, the President of SCEI from Sony's headquarters, and Olaf Olafsson. Olafsson was CEO and president of New York-based Sony Interactive Entertainment which was the parent company for the 1994-founded Sony Computer Entertainment of America (SCEA). The PlayStation project, SCEI's first official project, was finally given the green light by Sony executives in 1993 after a few years of development. Also in 1993,
Phil Harrison Phil Harrison is a vice president and general manager for Google, and the former corporate vice president of Microsoft. Previously, Phil was the British corporate executive and a representative director of Sony Computer Entertainment, Sony Comp ...

Phil Harrison
, who later became President of
SCE Worldwide Studios PlayStation Studios (formerly SCE Worldwide Studios and SIE Worldwide Studios) is a division Division or divider may refer to: Mathematics *Division (mathematics), the inverse of multiplication *Division algorithm, a method for computing the ...
, was recruited into SCEI to attract developers and publishers to produce games for their new PlayStation platform. ''
Computer Gaming World ''Computer Gaming World'' (CGW) was an American computer game magazine published between 1981 and 2006. One of the few magazines of the era to survive the video game crash of 1983 The video game crash of 1983 (known as the Atari shock in ...
'' in March 1994 reported a rumor that the "Sony PS-X" would be released in Japan "before the end of this year and will retail for less than $400". After a demonstration of Sony's distribution plan as well as tech demos of its new console to game publishers and developers in a hotel in
Tokyo Tokyo (Japanese language, Japanese: , ''Tōkyō'' ), historically known in the west as Tokio and officially the Tokyo Metropolis (, ''Tōkyō-to''), is capital of Japan, the capital and most populous Prefectures of Japan, prefecture of Japan ...

Tokyo
in 1994, numerous developers began to approach PlayStation. Two of whom later became major partners were
Electronic Arts Electronic Arts Inc. (EA) is an American video game company headquartered in Redwood City, California, Redwood City, California. It is the second-largest List of video game companies, gaming company in the Americas and Europe by revenue and m ...
in the West and
Namco simply known as Namco, was a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinatio ...
in Japan. One of the factors which attracted developers to the platform was the use of a 3D-capable, CD-ROM-based console which was much cheaper and easier to manufacture for in comparison to Nintendo's rival console, which used cartridge systems. The project eventually hit Japanese stores in December 1994 and gained massive sales due to its lower price point than its competitor, the
Sega Saturn The is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/output In comput ...
. The popularity of the console spread after its release worldwide in North America and Europe.


Home consoles


PlayStation

The original PlayStation, released in Japan on December 3,
1994 The year 1994 was designated as the "International Year of the Family The year 1994 was proclaimed the International Year of the Family by the United Nations General Assembly. Its objectives are promoted by the United Nations Programme on ...
, was the first of the ubiquitous PlayStation series of console and hand-held game devices. It has included successor consoles and upgrades including the
Net Yaroze The is a development kit A software development kit (SDK) is a collection of software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in crea ...
(a special black PlayStation with tools and instructions to program PlayStation games and applications), "PS one" (a smaller version of the original) and the
PocketStation The PocketStation is a Memory Card peripheral by Sony Computer Entertainment for the PlayStation (console), PlayStation home video game console. Categorized by Sony as a combination of a Memory Card and a miniature personal digital assistant, the ...

PocketStation
(a handheld which enhances PlayStation games and also acts as a memory card). It was part of the
fifth generation of video game consoles The fifth-generation era (also known as the 32-bit era, the 64-bit era, or the 3D era) refers to computer A computer is a machine that can be programmed to Execution (computing), carry out sequences of arithmetic or logical operations auto ...
competing against the
Sega Saturn The is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/output In comput ...
and the
Nintendo 64 The (abbreviated as N64) is a home video game console developed by Nintendo. The successor to the Super Nintendo Entertainment System, it was released on June 23, 1996 in Japan, on September 29, 1996 in North America, and March 1, 1997 in Europ ...

Nintendo 64
. By December 2003, the PlayStation and PS one had shipped a combined total of 102.49 million units, eventually becoming the first video game console to sell 120 million units.


PS One

Released on July 7,
2000 2000 was designated as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the World Mathematics, Mathematical Year. Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium due to a tendency of group ...
, concurrently with its successor the
PlayStation 2 The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/ ...

PlayStation 2
, the PS One (stylized as PS one) was a considerably smaller, redesigned version of the original PlayStation video game console. The PS one went on to outsell all other consoles, including its successor, throughout the remainder of the year. It featured two main changes from its predecessor, the first being a cosmetic change to the console and the second being the home menu's
Graphical User Interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction ...
; a variation of the GUI previously used only on PAL consoles up to that point.


PlayStation 2

Released in
2000 2000 was designated as the International Year for the Culture of Peace and the World Mathematics, Mathematical Year. Popular culture holds the year 2000 as the first year of the 21st century and the 3rd millennium due to a tendency of group ...
, 15 months after the
Dreamcast The is a home video game console released by Sega on November 27, 1998 in Japan, September 9, 1999 in North America, and October 14, 1999 in Europe. It was the first in the sixth generation of video game consoles, preceding Sony's PlayStation ...
and a year before its other competitors, the
Xbox Xbox is a video gaming A video game is an electronic game An electronic game is a game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn M ...
and the
Nintendo GameCube The is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home consoles are generall ...

Nintendo GameCube
, the PlayStation 2 is part of the
sixth generation of video game consoles In the history of video games The history of video games#REDIRECT Video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, c ...
, and is backwards-compatible with most original PlayStation games. Like its predecessor, it has received a slimmer redesign. It is the most successful console in the world, having sold over 155 million units as of December 28, 2012. On November 29, 2005, the PS2 became the fastest game console to reach 100 million units shipped, accomplishing the feat within 5 years and 9 months from its launch. This achievement occurred faster than its predecessor, the PlayStation, which took "9 years and 6 months since launch" to reach the same figure. PlayStation 2 shipments in Japan ended on December 28, 2012. ''The Guardian'' reported on January 4, 2013 that PS2 production had ended worldwide, but studies showed that many people all around the world still own one even if it is no longer in use. PlayStation 2 has been ranked as the best selling console of all time as of 2015.


Slimline model

Released in
2004 2004 was designated as the International Year of Rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Re ...
, four years after the launch of the original PlayStation 2, the PlayStation 2 Slimline was the first major redesign of the PlayStation 2. Compared to its predecessor, the Slimline was smaller, thinner, quieter and also included a built-in
Ethernet Ethernet () is a family of wired computer network A computer network is a set of s sharing resources located on or provided by . The computers use common s over to communicate with each other. These interconnections are made up of te ...

Ethernet
port (in some markets it also has an integrated
modem A modulator-demodulator, or simply a modem, is a hardware device that converts data from a digital format, intended for communication directly between devices with specialized wiring, into one suitable for a transmission medium such as telep ...

modem
). In
2007 2007 was designated as the International Heliophysical YearImage:IHY logo.png, 200px, right The International Heliophysical Year is a United Nations, UN-sponsored scientifically driven international program of scientific collaboration to unde ...
, Sony began shipping a revision of the Slimline which was lighter than the original Slimline together with a lighter
AC adapter An AC adapter, AC/DC adapter, or AC/DC converter is a type of external power supply #REDIRECT Power supply#REDIRECT Power supply A power supply is an electrical device that supplies electric power to an electrical load. The primary functio ...
. In
2008 2008 was designated as: *International Year of LanguagesThe United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2008 as the International Year of Languages, pursuant to a resolution of UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultura ...
, Sony released yet another revision of the Slimline which had an overhauled internal design incorporating the power supply into the console itself like the original PlayStation 2 resulting in a further reduced total weight of the console.


PlayStation 3

Released on November 11, 2006 in Japan, the PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a seventh generation game console from Sony. It competes with the and the
Nintendo Wii The Wii ( ) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home consoles ...

Nintendo Wii
. The PS3 is the first console in the series to introduce the use of motion-sensing technology through its
Sixaxis The Sixaxis (trademarked SIXAXIS) is a wireless gamepad produced by Sony for their PlayStation 3 video game console. It was introduced alongside the PlayStation 3 in 2006 and remained the console's official controller until 2008. The Sixaxis was s ...

Sixaxis
wireless controller. The console also incorporates a
Blu-ray Disc The Blu-ray Disc (BD), often known simply as Blu-ray, is a digital Digital usually refers to something using digits, particularly binary digits. Technology and computing Hardware *Digital electronics Digital electronics is a field of elec ...

Blu-ray Disc
player and features
high-definition High definition or HD may refer to: Visual technologies *HD DVD, discontinued optical disc format *HD Photo, former name for the JPEG XR image file format *HDV, format for recording high-definition video onto magnetic tape *HiDef, 24 frames-per- ...
resolution. The PS3 was originally offered with either a 20 GB or 60 GB hard drive, but over the years its capacity increased in increments available up to 500 GB. The PlayStation 3 has sold over 80 million consoles worldwide as of November 2013.


Slim model

Like its predecessors, the PlayStation 3 was re-released in
2009 2009 was designated as: *International Year of Astronomy 200px, Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Austria)#2009 Coinage, International Year of Astronomy commemorative coin. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) was a year-l ...
as a "slim" model. The redesigned model is 33% smaller, 36% lighter, and consumes 34% to 45% less power than previous models. In addition, it features a redesigned cooling system and a smaller Cell processor which was moved to a
45nm Per the , the 45  technology should refer to the average half-pitch of a memory cell manufactured at around the 2007–2008 time frame. and started mass-producing 45 nm chips in late 2007, and started production of 45 nm chip ...
manufacturing process. It sold in excess of a million units within its first 3 weeks on sale. The redesign also features support for (more commonly referred to by its manufacturer brandings of BraviaSync, VIERA Link, EasyLink and others) which allows control of the console over HDMI by using the remote control as the controller. The PS3 slim also runs quieter and is cooler than previous models due to its 45 nm Cell. The PS3 Slim no longer has the "main power" switch (similar to PlayStation 2 slim), like the previous PS3 models, which was located at the back of the console. It was officially released on September 1, 2009 in North America and Europe and on September 3, 2009 in Japan, Australia and New Zealand.


Super Slim model

In 2012, Sony revealed a new "Super Slim" PlayStation 3. The new console, with a completely redesigned case that has a sliding door covering the disc drive (which has been moved to the top of the console), is 4.3 pounds, almost three pounds lighter than the previous "slim" model. The console comes with either 12GB flash memory or a 250GB, 500GB hard drive. Several bundles which include a Super Slim PS3 and a selection of games are available.


PlayStation 4

The
PlayStation 4 The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Inpu ...

PlayStation 4
(PS4) was announced by
Sony Computer Entertainment Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), is a multinational video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device ...
at a press conference on February 20, 2013. In the meeting, Sony revealed some hardware specifications of the new console. The eighth-generation system, launched in the fourth quarter of 2013, introduced the
x86 x86 is a family of instruction set architecture In computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques for th ...

x86
architecture to the PlayStation series. According to lead system architect, Mark Cerny, development on the PlayStation 4 began as early as 2008. PlayStation Europe CEO Jim Ryan emphasized in 2011 that Sony wanted to avoid launching the next-generation console behind the competition. Among the new applications and services, Sony introduced the PlayStation App, allowing PS4 owners to turn smartphones and tablets into a
second screen A second screen involves the use of a computing device (commonly a mobile device, such as a smartphone A smartphone is a portable device A mobile device (or handheld computer) is a computer A computer is a machine that can be progra ...
to enhance gameplay. The company also planned to debut
PlayStation Now PlayStation Now (PS Now) is a cloud gaming subscription service developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. The service allows members to stream PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4 games on PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5 and Personal co ...

PlayStation Now
game streaming service, powered by technology from
Gaikai is an American company which provides technology for the streaming of high-end video games. Its technology has multiple applications, including in-home streaming over a local wired or wireless network (as in Remote Play between the PlayStation 4 ...

Gaikai
. By incorporating a share button on the new controller and making it possible to view in-game content being streamed live from friends, Sony planned to place more focus on social gameplay as well. The PlayStation 4 was first released in North America on November 15, 2013.


Slim model

PlayStation 4 Slim (officially marketed simply as PlayStation 4 or PS4) was unveiled on September 7, 2016. It is a revision of the original PS4 hardware with a streamlined form factor. The new casing is 40% smaller and carries a rounded body with a matte finish on the top of the console rather than a two-tone finish. The two USB ports on the front have a larger gap between them, and the optical audio port was also removed. [168] It ships with a minor update to the DualShock 4 controller, with the light bar visible through the top of the touchpad and dark matte grey coloured exterior instead of a partially shiny black. The PS4 Slim was released on September 15, 2016, with a 500 GB model at the same price point as the original PS4 model.PlayStation 4#cite note-ars-ps4slim-169, [169] Its model number is CUH-2000.PlayStation 4#cite note-ps4pro model no-170, [170]


Pro model

PlayStation 4 Pro or PS4 Pro for short (originally announced under the codename Neo)PlayStation 4#cite note-PS4Neo-35, [35] was unveiled on September 7, 2016. Its model number is CUH-7000.PlayStation 4#cite note-ps4pro model no-170, [170] It is an updated version of the PlayStation 4 with improved hardware, including an upgraded GPU with 4.2 teraflops of processing power, and higher CPU clock. It is designed primarily to enable selected games to be playable at 4K resolution, and improved quality for PlayStation VR. All games are backwards and forward compatible between PS4 and PS4 Pro, but games with optimizations will have improved graphics performance on PS4 Pro. Although capable of streaming 4K video from online sources, PS4 Pro does not support Ultra HD Blu-ray.PlayStation 4#cite note-verge-no4kbluray-171, [171] PlayStation 4#cite note-verge-ps4pro-172, [172] PlayStation 4#cite note-engadget-pro-173, [173] Additionally the PS4 Pro is the only PS4 model which can remote play at 1080p. The other models are limited to 720p.PlayStation 4#cite note-sony ps4 website-174, [174]


PlayStation 5

The PlayStation 5 (PS5) was released worldwide on November 12, 2020, and, alongside the Xbox Series X and Series S released the same month, is part of the ninth generation of video game consoles. The first news of the PS5 came from Mark Cerny in an interview with ''Wired (magazine), Wired'' in April 2019. Sony intends for the PlayStation 5 to be its next-generation console and to ship worldwide by the end of 2020. In early 2019, Sony's financial report for the quarter ending March 31, 2019, affirmed that new next-generation hardware was in development but would ship no earlier than April 2020. The current specifications were released in October 2019. The console is slated to use an 8-core, Simultaneous multithreading, 16-thread CPU based on AMD's Zen 2 microarchitecture, manufactured on the 7 nanometer process node. The graphics processor is a custom variant of AMD's Navi family using the RDNA (microarchitecture), RDNA microarchitecture, which includes support for hardware acceleration of Ray tracing (graphics), ray-tracing rendering, enabling real-time ray-traced graphics. The new console ships with a custom solid-state drive, SSD storage, as Cerny emphasized the need for fast loading times and larger bandwidth to make games more immersive, as well as to support the required content streaming from disc for 8K resolution. In a second interview with Wired in October 2019, further details of the new hardware were revealed: the console's integrated Blu-ray drive would support 100GB Blu-ray discs and Ultra HD Blu-ray; while a game installation from a disc is mandatory as to take advantage of the SSD, the user will have some fine-grain control of how much they want to have installed, such as only installing the multiplayer components of a game. Sony is developing an improved suspended gameplay state for the PlayStation 5 to consume less energy than the PlayStation 4. The system's new controller, the DualSense has adaptive triggers that can change the resistance to the player as necessary, such as changing the resistance during the action of pulling an arrow back in a bow in-game. The controller also has strong haptic technology, haptic feedback through voice coil actuators, which together with an improved controller speaker is intended to give better in-game feedback. USB-C connectivity, together with a higher rated battery are other improvements to the new controller. The PlayStation 5 features a completely revamped user interface. The PlayStation 5 is backwards-compatible with most PlayStation 4 and PlayStation Virtual reality, VR games, with Cerny stating that the transition to the new console is meant to be a soft one. In a later interview, Jim Ryan talked of the PlayStation 5 being able to play "99%" of PlayStation 4 games, an estimate derived from a sample size of "thousands". At Consumer Electronics Show, CES 2020, Sony unveiled the official logo for the platform.


Comparison


Handheld systems


PlayStation Portable

The
PlayStation Portable The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may re ...

PlayStation Portable
(PSP) was Sony's first handheld console to compete with Nintendo's DS console. The original model (PSP-1000) was released in December
2004 2004 was designated as the International Year of Rice Rice is the seed A seed is an embryonic ''Embryonic'' is the twelfth studio album by experimental rock band the Flaming Lips released on October 13, 2009, on Warner Bros. Re ...
and March 2005 in video gaming, 2005, The console is the first to utilize a new Proprietary hardware, proprietary optical storage medium known as Universal Media Disc (UMD), which can store both games and movies. It contains 32 Megabyte, MB of internal flash memory storage, expandable via Memory Stick PRO Duo cards. It has a similar control layout to the PS3 with its PlayStation logo button and its ('Triangle'), ('Circle/O'), ('Cross/X') and ('Square') buttons in their white-colored forms.


PSP-2000 and PSP-3000 models

The PSP-2000 (also known as the Slim & Lite in PAL territories) was the first major hardware revision of the PlayStation Portable, released in September
2007 2007 was designated as the International Heliophysical YearImage:IHY logo.png, 200px, right The International Heliophysical Year is a United Nations, UN-sponsored scientifically driven international program of scientific collaboration to unde ...
. The 2000 series was 33% lighter and 19% slimmer than the original PlayStation Portable. The capacity of the battery was also reduced by ⅓ but the run time remained the same as the previous model due to lower power consumption. Older model batteries will still work and they extend the amount of playing time. The PSP Slim & Lite has a new gloss finish. Its serial port was also modified in order to accommodate a new video-out feature (while rendering older PSP remote controls incompatible). On a PSP-2000, PSP games will only output to external monitors or TVs in progressive scan mode, so that televisions incapable of supporting progressive scan will not display PSP games; non-game video will output in either progressive or interlaced mode. USB charging was also made possible. Buttons are also reportedly more responsive on the PSP-2000. In
2008 2008 was designated as: *International Year of LanguagesThe United Nations General Assembly proclaimed 2008 as the International Year of Languages, pursuant to a resolution of UNESCO The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultura ...
, Sony released a second hardware revision called the PSP-3000 which included several features that were not present in the PSP-2000, such as a built-in microphone and upgraded screen, as well as the ability to output PSP games in interlaced mode.


PSP Go model

Released in October
2009 2009 was designated as: *International Year of Astronomy 200px, Euro gold and silver commemorative coins (Austria)#2009 Coinage, International Year of Astronomy commemorative coin. The International Year of Astronomy (IYA2009) was a year-l ...
, the PSP Go is the biggest redesign of the PlayStation Portable to date. Unlike previous PSP models, the PSP Go does not feature a UMD drive but instead has 16 Gigabyte, GB of internal flash memory to store games, videos and other media. This can be extended by up to 32GB with the use of a Memory Stick Micro (M2) flash card. Also unlike previous PSP models, the PSP Go's rechargeable battery is not removable or replaceable by the user. The unit is 43% lighter and 56% smaller than the original PSP-1000, and 16% lighter and 35% smaller than the PSP-3000. It has a 3.8" 480 × 272 liquid-crystal display, LCD (compared to the larger 4.3" 480 × 272 pixel LCD on previous PSP models). The screen slides up to reveal the main controls. The overall shape and sliding mechanism are similar to that of Sony's mylo (Sony), mylo COM-2 internet device. The PSP Go was produced and sold concurrently with its predecessor the PSP-3000 although it did not replace it. All games on the PSP Go must be purchased and downloaded from the
PlayStation Store The PlayStation Store (PS Store) is a digital media Digital media means any media (communication), communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, ...

PlayStation Store
as the handheld is not compatible with the original PSP's physical media, the Universal Media Disc. The handheld also features connectivity with the
PlayStation 3 The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home c ...
's controllers the
Sixaxis The Sixaxis (trademarked SIXAXIS) is a wireless gamepad produced by Sony for their PlayStation 3 video game console. It was introduced alongside the PlayStation 3 in 2006 and remained the console's official controller until 2008. The Sixaxis was s ...

Sixaxis
and DualShock 3 via Bluetooth connection.


PSP-E1000 model

The PSP-E1000 is a budget-focused PSP model which, unlike previous PSP models, does not feature Wi-Fi or stereo speakers (replaced by a single mono speaker) and has a matte "charcoal black" finish similar to the slim PlayStation 3. The E1000 was announced at Gamescom#Gamescom 2011, Gamescom 2011 and available across the PAL region for an RRP of Euro, €99.99.


PlayStation Vita

Released in Japan on December 17, 2011 and North America on February 22, 2012, the PlayStation Vita was previously codenamed ''Next Generation Portable'' (''NGP''). It was officially unveiled by Sony on January 27, 2011 at the PlayStation Meeting 2011. The original model of the handheld, the PCH-1000 series features a 5-inch OLED touchscreen, two analog sticks, a rear touchpad, Sixaxis motion sensing and a 4 core ARM Cortex-A9 MPCore processor. The new PCH-2000 series system is a lighter redesign of the device that was announced at the SCEJA Press Conference in September 2013 prior to the Tokyo Game Show. This model is 20% thinner and 15% lighter compared to the original model, has an additional hour of battery life, an LCD instead of OLED, includes a micro USB Type B port, 1GB of internal storage memory. It was released in Japan on October 10, 2013 in six colors: white, black, pink, yellow, blue, and olive green, and in North America on May 6, 2014. The Vita was discontinued in March 2019. SIE president Jim Ryan said that while the Vita was a great device, they have moved away from portable consoles, "clearly it's a business that we're no longer in now".


Controllers


Early PlayStation controllers

Released in 1994, the PlayStation control pad was the first controller made for the original PlayStation (console), PlayStation. It featured a basic design of a D-pad, 4 main select buttons ( ('Green Triangle'), ('Red Circle/Red O')), ('Blue Cross/Blue X') and ('Pink Square'), and start and select buttons on the face. 'Shoulder buttons' are also featured on the top [L1, L2, R1, R2] (named by the side [L=Left, R=Right] and 1 and 2 [top and bottom]). In 1996, Sony released the PlayStation Analog Joystick for use with flight simulation games. The original digital controller was then replaced by the Dual Analog in 1997, which added two analog sticks based on the same potentiometer technology as the Analog Joystick. This controller was then also succeeded by the DualShock controller.


DualShock, Sixaxis and DualSense

Released in 1998, the DualShock controller for the PlayStation succeeded its predecessor, the Dual Analog, and became the longest running series of controllers for the PlayStation brand. In addition to the inputs of the original, digital, controller (, , , , L1, L2, R1, R2, Start, Select and a D-pad), the DualShock featured two analog sticks in a similar fashion to the previous Dual Analog controller, which can also be depressed to activate the L3 and R3 buttons. The DualShock series consists of four controllers: the DualShock which was the fourth controller released for the PlayStation; the DualShock 2, the only standard controller released for the PlayStation 2, and the DualShock 3, the second and current controller released for the PlayStation 3, and the DualShock 4, which went through a massive redesign and is the default input of the PlayStation 4, and upon release was compatible with the PS3 originally only via USB and eventually with a firmware update, Bluetooth connectivity was enabled. The Sixaxis was the first official controller for the PlayStation 3, and is based on the same design as the DualShock series (but lacking the vibration motors of the DualShock series of controllers). Like the Dual Analog, the DualShock and DualShock 2 feature an "Analog" button between the analog sticks that toggles the analog sticks on and off (for use with games which support only the digital input of the original controller). On the PlayStation 3
Sixaxis The Sixaxis (trademarked SIXAXIS) is a wireless gamepad produced by Sony for their PlayStation 3 video game console. It was introduced alongside the PlayStation 3 in 2006 and remained the console's official controller until 2008. The Sixaxis was s ...

Sixaxis
and DualShock 3 controllers, the analog sticks are always enabled. Beginning with the Sixaxis, a 'PlayStation button' (which featured the incorporated PS logo and is similar in function to the Xbox 360 "Guide" button) was included on controllers. The PlayStation button replaces the "Analog" button of the DualShock and DualShock 2 controllers. Pressing the PS button on the PS3 brings up the XrossMediaBar, XMB, while holding it down brings up system options, known as "Quick Menu" on the PS4, (such as quit the game, change controller settings, turn off the system, and turn off the controller).


PlayStation Move

PlayStation Move is a motion-sensing game controller platform for the PlayStation 3 video game console by
Sony Computer Entertainment Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), is a multinational video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device ...
(SCE). Based on the handheld motion controller wand, PlayStation Move uses the PlayStation Eye webcam to track the wand's position and the inertial sensors in the wand to detect its motion. First revealed on June 2, 2009, PlayStation Move was launched in Q3/Q4 2010. Hardware available at launch included the main PlayStation Move motion controller and an optional PlayStation Move sub-controller. Although PlayStation Move is implemented on the existing PlayStation 3 console, Sony states that it is treating Move's debut as its own major "platform launch", planning an aggressive marketing campaign to support it. In addition to selling the controllers individually, Sony also plans to provide several different bundle options for PlayStation Move hardware; including a starter kit with a PS Eye, a Move motion controller, and a demo/sampler disc, priced under United States dollar, US$100; a full console pack with a PS3 console, DualShock 3 gamepad, PS Eye, and Move motion controller; and bundles of a Move motion controller with select games.


Other hardware


PocketStation

The PocketStation was a Memory Card peripheral by Sony Computer Entertainment for the original PlayStation (console), PlayStation. Categorized by Sony as a combination of a Memory Card and a miniature personal digital assistant. Released exclusively in Japan on December 23, 1999, it featured a monochrome Liquid crystal display, LCD, a speaker, a real-time clock and infrared communication capability. It could also be used as a standard PlayStation memory card by connecting it to a PlayStation memory card slot. It was extremely popular in Japan and Sony originally had plans to release it in the United States but the plan was ultimately scrapped due to various manufacturing and supply-and-demand problems.


PSX (2003)

Released solely in Japan in 2003 in video gaming, 2003, the
Sony , commonly known as Sony and stylized as SONY, is a Japanese multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from mult ...

Sony
PSX was a fully integrated digital video recorder, DVR and PlayStation 2 video game console. It was the first Sony product to utilize the
XrossMediaBar The XrossMediaBar (pronounced "cross-media bar" and officially abbreviated as XMB) is a graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the indus ...
(XMB) and can be linked with a
PlayStation Portable The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may re ...

PlayStation Portable
to transfer videos and music via USB. It also features software for non-linear video editing, video, Image editing, photo and audio engineering, audio editing. PSX supports online game compatibility using an internal broadband adapter. Games that utilize the PS2 HDD (for example, Final Fantasy XI) are supported as well. It was the first product released by Sony under the PlayStation brand that did not include a controller with the device itself.


Television sets

Released in 2010, the Sony BRAVIA KDL22PX300 is a 22-inch (56 cm) 720p television which incorporates a PlayStation 2 console, along with 4 HDMI ports. A 24-inch 1080p PlayStation branded 3D television, officially called the PlayStation 3D Display, was released in late 2011. A feature of this 3D television is ''SimulView''. During multiplayer games, each player will only see their respective screen (in full HD) appear on the television through their respective 3D glasses, instead of seeing a Split screen (computer graphics), split screen (e.g. player 1 will only see player 1's screen displayed through their 3D glasses).


Sony Ericsson Xperia Play

The Xperia Play is an Android-powered smartphone with a slide-up gamepad resembling the PSP Go developed by Sony Ericsson aimed at gamers and is the first to be PlayStation Certified.


Sony Tablets

Sony Tablets are PlayStation Certified Android tablets, released in 2011, 2012, and 2013. They offer connectivity with PlayStation 3 controllers and integrate with the PlayStation network using a proprietary application. The following models were released between 2011 and 2013: S, Sony Tablet S, Sony Tablet P, Xperia Tablet S and Xperia Tablet Z.


PlayStation TV

PlayStation TV, known in Asia as PlayStation Vita TV, is a
microconsole A microconsole is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home consoles ...
and a non-portable variant of the PlayStation Vita handheld. It was announced on September 9, 2013 at a Sony Computer Entertainment Japan presentation. Instead of featuring a display screen, the console connects to a television via HDMI. Users can play using a DualShock 3 controller, although due to the difference in features between the controller and the handheld, certain games are not compatible with PS TV, such as those that are dependent on the system's touch-screen, rear touchpad, microphone or camera. The device is said to be compatible with over 100 Vita games, as well as various digital PlayStation Portable, PlayStation and PC Engine titles. The system supports Remote Play compatibility with the PlayStation 4, allowing players to stream games from the PS4 to a separate TV connected to PS TV, and also allows users to stream content from video services such as Hulu and Niconico, as well as access the PlayStation Store. The system was released in Japan on November 14, 2013, in North America on October 14, 2014, and in Europe and Australasia on November 14, 2014.


PlayStation VR

PlayStation VR is a virtual reality device that is produced by
Sony Computer Entertainment Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), is a multinational video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device ...
. It features a 5.7 inch 1920x1080 resolution OLED display, and operates at 120 Hz which can eliminate blur and produce a smooth image; the device also has a low latency of less than 18ms. Additionally, it produces two sets of images, one being visible on a TV and one for the headset, and includes 3D audio technology so the player can hear from all angles. The PlayStation VR was released in October 2016.


PlayStation Classic

The PlayStation Classic is a miniature version of the original 1994 Model SCPH-1001 PlayStation console, that comes preloaded with 20 games, and two original style controllers. It was launched on the 24th anniversary of the PlayStation (console), original console on December 3, 2018.


Games

Each console has a variety of games. The
PlayStation 2 The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/ ...

PlayStation 2
, PSX (digital video recorder), PSX and
PlayStation 3 The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home c ...
exhibit backwards compatibility and can play most of the games released on the original PlayStation. Some of these games can also be played on the PlayStation Portable but they must be purchased and downloaded from a list of Lists of PS one Classics, PS one Classics from the
PlayStation Store The PlayStation Store (PS Store) is a digital media Digital media means any media (communication), communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, ...

PlayStation Store
. Games released on the PlayStation 2 can currently only be played on the original console as well as the PSX and the early models of the PlayStation 3 which are backwards compatible. The PlayStation 3 has two types of games, those released on Blu-ray Discs and downloadable games from the PlayStation Store. The PlayStation Portable consists of numerous games available on both its physical media, the Universal Media Disc and the Online distribution, Digital Download from the PlayStation Store. However, some games are only available on the UMD while others are only available on the PlayStation Store. The PlayStation Vita consists of games available on both its physical media, the PlayStation Vita card and digital download from the PlayStation Store.


First party games

PlayStation Studios is a group of video game developers owned by
Sony Computer Entertainment Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), is a multinational video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device ...
. It is dedicated to developing video games exclusively for the PlayStation series of consoles. The series has produced several best-selling franchises such as the ''Gran Turismo (series), Gran Turismo'' series of racing video games as well as critically acclaimed titles such as the ''Uncharted'' series. Other notable franchises include ''God of War (franchise), God of War'', ''Twisted Metal'' and more recently, ''LittleBigPlanet'' (series), '' Infamous (video game), Infamous'', and ''The Last of Us''.


Re-releases

Greatest Hits (North America), Platinum Range (PAL territories) and The Best (Japan and Asia) are
video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device such as a joystick, game controller, controller, computer keyboard, keyboard, or motion sensing device to generate visual f ...
s for the Sony PlayStation, PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3, and PlayStation Portable consoles that have been officially re-released at a lower price by Sony. Each region has its own qualifications to enter the re-release program. Initially, during the PlayStation era, a game had to sell at least 150,000 copies (later 250,000) and be on the market for at least a year to enter the Greatest Hits range. During the
PlayStation 2 The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/ ...

PlayStation 2
era, the requirements increased with the minimum number of copies sold increasing to 400,000 and the game had to be on the market for at least 9 months. For the
PlayStation Portable The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may re ...

PlayStation Portable
, games had to be on the market for at least 9 months with 250,000 copies or more sold. Currently, a PlayStation 3 game must be on the market for 10 months and sell at least 500,000 copies to meet the Greatest Hits criteria. PS one Classics were games that were released originally on the PlayStation and have been re-released on the PlayStation Store for the PlayStation 3 and PlayStation Portable. Classics HD are compilations of PlayStation 2 games that have been remastered for the PlayStation 3 on a single disc with additional features such as upscaled graphics, PlayStation Move support, Stereoscopy, 3D support and
PlayStation Network PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartp ...
trophies. PlayStation Mobile (formerly PlayStation Suite) is a cross-platform, cross-device software framework aimed at providing PlayStation content, currently original PlayStation games, across several devices including PlayStation Certified Android (operating system), Android devices as well as the
PlayStation Vita The PlayStation Vita (PS Vita, Vita, or PSV) is a developed and marketed by . It was first released in on December 17, 2011, and in , , and other international territories beginning on February 22, 2012. The console is the successor to the , a ...

PlayStation Vita
.


PlayStation Indies

Sony has generally supported indie game development since incorporating the digital distribution storefront in the PlayStation 3, though initially required developers to complete multiple steps to get an indie game certified on the platform. Sony improved and simplified the process in transitioning to the PlayStation 4. As Sony prepared to transition from the PlayStation 4 to PlayStation 5, they introduced a new PlayStation Indies program led by Shuhei Yoshida in July 2020. The program's goals are to spotlight new and upcoming indie titles for the PlayStation 4 and 5, focusing on those that are more innovative and novel, akin to past titles such as ''PaRappa the Rapper'', ''Katamari Damacy'', ''LittleBigPlanet'', and ''Journey (2012 video game), Journey''. Sony also anticipates bringing more indie titles to the PlayStation Now series as part of this program.


Online services


PlayStation 2 online service

Online gaming on PlayStation consoles first started in July 2001 with the release of PlayStation 2's unnamed online service in Japan. Later in August 2002 saw its release in North America, followed by the European release in June 2003. This service was shut down on March 31, 2016.


PlayStation Network

Released in 2006, the PlayStation Network is an online service focusing on online multiplayer gaming and digital media delivery. The service is provided and run by
Sony Computer Entertainment Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), is a multinational video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device ...
for use with the
PlayStation 3 The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home c ...
, and was later implemented on the
PlayStation Portable The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may re ...

PlayStation Portable
,
PlayStation Vita The PlayStation Vita (PS Vita, Vita, or PSV) is a developed and marketed by . It was first released in on December 17, 2011, and in , , and other international territories beginning on February 22, 2012. The console is the successor to the , a ...

PlayStation Vita
,
PlayStation 4 The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Inpu ...

PlayStation 4
and
PlayStation 5 The PlayStation 5 (PS5) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Inpu ...
video game consoles. The service has over 103 million active users monthly (as of December 2019). The Sony Entertainment Network provides other features for users like
PlayStation Home PlayStation Home was a virtual 3D social gaming platform developed by Sony Computer Entertainment's London Studio for the PlayStation 3 (PS3) on the PlayStation Network (PSN). It was accessible from the PS3's XrossMediaBar (XMB). Membership was ...
,
PlayStation Store The PlayStation Store (PS Store) is a digital media Digital media means any media (communication), communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, ...

PlayStation Store
, and PlayStation 3 Trophies, Trophies.


PlayStation Store

The PlayStation Store is an online virtual market available to users of the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5 and
PlayStation Portable The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may re ...

PlayStation Portable
Video game console, game consoles via the
PlayStation Network PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartp ...
. The store uses both physical currency and PlayStation Network Cards. The PlayStation Store's gaming content is updated every Tuesday and offers a range of downloadable content both for purchase and available free of charge. Available content includes full games, add-on content, Game demo, playable demos, Theme (computing), themes and game and movie Trailer (film), trailers. The service is accessible through an icon on the XrossMediaBar, XMB on the PS3 and PSP. The PS3 store can also be accessed on the PSP via a Remote Play connection to the PS3. The PSP store is also available via the PC application, Media Go. As of September 24, 2009, there have been more than 600 million downloads from the PlayStation Store worldwide. Video content such as films and television shows are also available from the PlayStation Store on the PlayStation 3 and PSP and will be made available on some new Sony BRAVIA televisions, VAIO laptop computers and Sony Blu-ray Disc players from February 2010.


Life with PlayStation

Life with PlayStation was a Folding@home application available for PlayStation 3 which connected to Stanford University’s Folding@home Distributed computing, distributed computer network and allowed the user to donate their console's spare processing cycles to the project. Folding@home is supported by Stanford University and volunteers make a contribution to society by Donation, donating computing power to this project. Research made by the project may eventually contribute to the creation of vital cures. The Folding@home client was developed by Sony Computer Entertainment in collaboration with Stanford University. Life with PlayStation also consisted of a 3D virtual view of the Earth and contained current weather and news information of various cities and countries from around the world, as well as a World Heritage channel which offered information about historical sites, and the United Village channel which is a project designed to share information about communities and cultures worldwide. As of PlayStation 3 system software update version 4.30 on October 24, 2012, the Life With PlayStation project has ended.


PlayStation Plus

PlayStation Plus, a subscription-based service on the
PlayStation Network PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartp ...
, complements the standard PSN services. It enables an auto-download feature for game patches and system software updates. Subscribers gain early or exclusive access to some betaware, betas, game demos, premium downloadable content (such as full game trials of retail games like Infamous (video game), ''Infamous'', and ''LittleBigPlanet'') and other
PlayStation Store The PlayStation Store (PS Store) is a digital media Digital media means any media (communication), communication media that operate with the use of any of various encoded machine-readable data formats. Digital media can be created, viewed, ...

PlayStation Store
items, as well as a free subscription to Qore (PlayStation Network), Qore. Other downloadable items include PlayStation Store discounts and free PlayStation Network games, PS one Classics, PlayStation Minis, themes and avatars. It offers a 14-day free trial.


PlayStation Blog

PlayStation Blog (stylized as PlayStation.Blog) is an online PlayStation focused gaming blog, part of the
PlayStation Network PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartp ...
. It was launched on June 11, 2007 and has featured in numerous interviews with third-party companies such as Square Enix. It also has posts from high-ranking
Sony Computer Entertainment Sony Interactive Entertainment (SIE), formerly known as Sony Computer Entertainment (SCE), is a multinational video game#REDIRECT Video game A video game is an electronic game that involves interaction with a user interface or input device ...
executives such as Jack Tretton, former President and Chief Executive Officer of Sony Computer Entertainment, and Shawn Layden, current President, SIEA, and Chairman,
SIE Worldwide Studios Sony Interactive Entertainment Worldwide Studios (SIE Worldwide Studios) is a group of video game developer A video game developer is a software developer specializing in video game development – the process and related disciplines of creati ...
. A sub-site of the blog called PlayStation Blog Share was launched on March 17, 2010 and allowed readers of the blog as well as users of the PlayStation Blog to submit ideas to the PlayStation team about anything PlayStation-related and vote on the ideas of other submissions.


PlayStation App

The PlayStation App is an application that was released on January 11, 2011 in several European countries for iOS (Apple), iOS (version 4 and above) and for Android (operating system), Android (version 1.6 and above), and has been installed more than 3.6 million times as of March 2, 2014. It allows users to view their trophies, see which of their PSN friends are online and read up to date information about PlayStation. It does not feature any gaming functionality.


PlayStation Mobile

The PlayStation Mobile (formerly ''PlayStation Suite'') is a software framework that will be used to provide downloadable ''PlayStation'' content to devices running Android (operating system), Android 2.3 and above as well as the
PlayStation Vita The PlayStation Vita (PS Vita, Vita, or PSV) is a developed and marketed by . It was first released in on December 17, 2011, and in , , and other international territories beginning on February 22, 2012. The console is the successor to the , a ...

PlayStation Vita
. The framework will be cross-platform and cross-device, which is what Sony calls "hardware-neutral". It was set to release before the end of calendar year 2011. In addition, Android devices that have been certified to be able to playback PlayStation Suite content smoothly will be certified with the PlayStation Certified certification.


PlayStation Now

PlayStation Now (PS Now) is a Gaikai-based video game streaming service used to provide PlayStation gaming content to
PlayStation 3 The PlayStation 3 (PS3) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console that is designed to be connected to a display device, such as a television, and an external power source as to play video games. Home c ...
(PS3),
PlayStation 4 The PlayStation 4 (PS4) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Inpu ...

PlayStation 4
(PS4),
PlayStation Vita The PlayStation Vita (PS Vita, Vita, or PSV) is a developed and marketed by . It was first released in on December 17, 2011, and in , , and other international territories beginning on February 22, 2012. The console is the successor to the , a ...

PlayStation Vita
,
PlayStation TV The PlayStation TV (abbreviated to PS TV), known in Japan and other parts of Asia as the PlayStation Vita TV or PS Vita TV, is a microconsole A microconsole is a home video game console that is typically powered by low-cost computing hardwa ...
and Bravia (brand), BRAVIA televisions. The service currently allows users to pay for access to a selection of original PlayStation 3 titles on either a per-game basis or via a subscription. PlayStation Now was announced on January 7, 2014 at the 2014 Consumer Electronic Show. At CES, Sony presented demos of The Last of Us, God of War: Ascension, Puppeteer and Beyond: Two Souls, playable through PS Now on Bravia TVs and PlayStation Vitas. PlayStation Now was launched in Open Beta in the United States and Canada on PS4 on July 31, 2014, on PS3 on September 18, 2014, on PS Vita and PS TV on October 14, 2014, with support for select 2014 Bravia TVs coming later in the year.
PlayStation Now PlayStation Now (PS Now) is a cloud gaming subscription service developed by Sony Interactive Entertainment. The service allows members to stream PlayStation 2, PlayStation 3 and PlayStation 4 games on PlayStation 4, PlayStation 5 and Personal co ...

PlayStation Now


Online social networking services


PlayStation Home

PlayStation Home is a community-based social gaming networking service for the PlayStation 3 on the
PlayStation Network PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartp ...
(PSN). It is available directly from the PlayStation 3 XrossMediaBar#PlayStation 3 XMB, XrossMediaBar. Membership is free, and only requires a PSN account. Home has been in development since early 2005 and started an open public Beta version#Beta, beta test on December 11, 2008. Home allows users to create a custom Avatar (computing), avatar, which can be made to suit the user's preference. Users can decorate their avatar's personal apartment ("HomeSpace") with default, bought, or won items. They can travel throughout the Home world (except cross region), which is constantly updated by Sony and partners. Each part of the world is known as a space. Public spaces can just be for display, fun, or for meeting people. Home features many mini-games which can be single player or multiplayer. Users can shop for new items to express themselves more through their avatars or HomeSpace. Home features video screens in many places for advertising, but the main video content is shown at the theatre for entertainment. Home plays host to a variety of special events which range from prize-giving events to entertaining events. Users can also use Home to connect with friends and customize content. ''PlayStation Home#Xi, Xi'', a once notable feature of Home, is the world's first console based Alternate Reality Game that took place in secret areas in Home and was created by nDreams.


Room for PlayStation Portable

"Room" (officially spelled as ''R∞M'' with capital letters and the infinity symbol in place of the "oo") was being beta tested in Japan from October 2009 to April 2010. Development of Room has been halted on April 15, 2010 due to negative feedback from the community. Announced at Tokyo Game Show, TGS 2009, it was supposed to be a similar service to the PlayStation Home and was being developed for the PSP. Launching directly from the PlayStation Network section of the XMB was also to be enabled. Just like in Home, PSP owners would have been able to invite other PSP owners into their rooms to "enjoy real time communication." A closed beta test had begun in Q4 2009 in Japan.


Others

Jason Schreier of ''Bloomberg News'' reported in December 2021 that Sony was working to create a new subscription service, code-named Spartacus, intended as a competitor to the Xbox Game Pass service by Microsoft, with plans to release in the second quarter of 2022. The multi-tiered service would incorporate PlayStation Plus, PlayStation Now, and additional features, such as the most-expensive tier that would give players access to PlayStation 1, 2, and 3 games.


Software


XrossMediaBar

The XrossMediaBar, originally used on the PSX, is a
graphical user interface The graphical user interface (GUI "UI" by itself is still usually pronounced . or ) is a form of user interface In the industrial design Industrial design is a process of design A design is a plan or specification for the construction ...
used for the PlayStation 3 and
PlayStation Portable The PlayStation Portable (PSP) is a handheld game console A handheld game console, or simply handheld console, is a small, portable self-contained video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may re ...

PlayStation Portable
, as well as a variety of other Sony devices. The interface features icon (computing), icons that are spread horizontally across the screen. Navigation moves the icons instead of a cursor (computers), cursor. These icons are used as categories to organize the options available to the user. When an icon is selected on the horizontal bar, several more appear vertically, above and below it (selectable by the up and down directions on a directional pad). The XMB can also be accessed in-game albeit with restrictions, it allows players to access certain areas of the XMB menu from within the game and is only available for the PlayStation 3. Although the capacity to play users' own music in-game was added with this update, the feature is dependent on game developers who must either enable the feature in their games or update existing games.


LiveArea

LiveArea, designed to be used on the
PlayStation Vita The PlayStation Vita (PS Vita, Vita, or PSV) is a developed and marketed by . It was first released in on December 17, 2011, and in , , and other international territories beginning on February 22, 2012. The console is the successor to the , a ...

PlayStation Vita
, is a graphical user interface set to incorporate various social networking features via the
PlayStation Network PlayStation Network (PSN) is a digital media entertainment service provided by Sony Interactive Entertainment. Launched in November 2006, PSN was originally conceived for the PlayStation video game consoles, but soon extended to encompass smartp ...
. It has been designed specifically as a touchscreen user interface for users.


Linux operating systems


Linux for PlayStation 2

In 2002, Sony released the first useful and fully functioning operating system for a video game console, after the
Net Yaroze The is a development kit A software development kit (SDK) is a collection of software development Software development is the process of conceiving, specifying, designing, programming, documenting, testing, and bug fixing involved in crea ...
experiment for the original PlayStation. The kit, which included an internal hard disk drive and the necessary software tools, turned the
PlayStation 2 The PlayStation 2 (PS2) is a home video game console A home video game console is a video game console A video game console is an electronic device that output Output may refer to: * The information produced by a computer, see Input/ ...

PlayStation 2
into a full-fledged computer system running Linux. Users can utilize a network adapter to connect the PlayStation 2 to the internet, a monitor cable adaptor to connect the PlayStation 2 to computer monitors as well as a USB Keyboard and Mouse which can be used to control Linux on the PlayStation 2.


Linux for PlayStation 3

The PlayStation 3 (excluding PlayStation 3 Slim) also supports running Linux OS on firmware versions prior to 3.21 without the need for buying additional hardware purchase. Yellow Dog Linux provides an official distribution that can be downloaded, and other distributions such as Fedora (operating system), Fedora, Gentoo Linux, Gentoo and Ubuntu (operating system), Ubuntu have been successfully installed and operated on the console. The use of Linux on the PlayStation 3 allowed users to access 6 of the 7 Synergistic Processing Unit, Synergistic Processing Elements; Sony implemented a hypervisor restricting access to the RSX 'Reality Synthesizer', RSX. The feature to install a second operating system on a PlayStation 3 was removed in a firmware update released in 2010.


Media


Magazines

The PlayStation brand has a wide series of magazines, from across different continents, covering PlayStation related articles and stories. Many of these magazines work closely with Sony and thus often come with demo discs for PlayStation games. Currently there are three magazines still in circulation namely ''PlayStation: The Official Magazine'', ''PlayStation Official Magazine - UK, PlayStation Official Magazine'', ''Official PlayStation Magazine (Australia)''. However, over the years, many PlayStation magazines have spawned while a few have also become defunct, these include the ''Official U.S. PlayStation Magazine'', ''Official UK PlayStation Magazine'', ''Official UK PlayStation 2 Magazine''.


PlayStation Underground

''PlayStation Underground'' was a non-traditional magazine that Sony Computer Entertainment, Sony Computer Entertainment America produced and published between Spring 1997 to Spring 2001. Subscribers received two PlayStation CDs, along with a booklet and colorful packaging every quarter. The CDs contained interviews, cheats, programmers moves, game demos and one-of-a-kind Memory Card saves. Several issues showed how a game was created from basic design to final product. Since the CDs could only be run on a PlayStation, it proved a useful marketing tool which spawned a line of ''PlayStation Underground JamPacks'' Demo CDs and which contained highlights from recent issues of ''PlayStation Underground'', along with seemingly as many game demos that could be packed on a single CD. Unlike ''PlayStation Underground'' these were available in most stores for $4.95, were published twice a year in Summer and Winter and usually spotlighted newly released or coming soon games. By 2001, Sony had decided to phase out ''Underground'' to focus on the ''JamPacks'' with the release of the PlayStation 2. ''PlayStation Underground'' CDs are mainly in the hands of collectors these days.


Marketing


Slogans

Advertising slogans used for each PlayStation console iteration: ;PlayStation * "NoS Lives" (The first letter 'E' was printed in red to denote the word, ''ready''. ''Enos'' stood for ''Ready, Ninth of September'') (US Commercials) * "U R Not " (The letter 'E' was printed in red to denote the word, ''ready'', as in ''You Are Not Ready'') * "Do Not Underestimate The Power of PlayStation." (From the S.A.P.S. – Society Against PlayStation — series of adverts) ;PS one * "Wherever, Whenever, Forever." ;PlayStation 2 * "The Beginning." * "Live In Yur Wrld, Ply In urs." (The PlayStation face button icons were used to denote certain letters: Live In Your World, Play In Ours) * "(Welcome to the) Third Place." * "Fun, Anyone?" * "The ultimate just got better – PlayStation 9 – teleport yours today." ;PlayStation Portable: * "PSP Hellz Yeah" (PSP-1000 Series) * "Dude, Get Your Own..." (PSP-2000 Series) * "Everywhere Just Got Better" (PSP-3000 Series and PSPgo) * "It's GO Time" (PSPgo) * "Your Whole World In Your Hands" (UK & Europe Territories) * "Step Your Game Up" (US Territory, PSP-3000 Series and PSPgo) ;PlayStation 3: * "The Wait Is Over" * "Welcome Chang" (the number three is used to denote an 'e' and was printed in red) * "This is Living." * "Play Byond" (the number three is used to denote an 'e' and was printed in red) * "It Only Does Everything" (US Commercials) (PS3 Slim) * "The Game Is Just The Start. Start PS3." (EU countries) * "Long Live Play" (PS3 Slim) * "Never Stop Playing" (PS3 Slim) * "Greatness Awaits" (PS3 SuperSlim) ;PlayStation Move * "This Changes Everything" * "Move Into The Action" ;PlayStation Network * "Download, Play, Connect." ;PlayStation Vita * "Never Stop Playing." * "The World is in Play." (EU only) ;PlayStation 4 * "See the Future" * "Push the boundaries of Play" * "Greatness Awaits" * "This is 4 the Players" * "Where the Greatest Play" ;PlayStation 5 * "Play Has No Limits"


Notable advertising campaigns


It Only Does Everything

The most notable of recent PlayStation commercials is the series of "It Only Does Everything" commercials featuring a fictional character called Kevin Butler who is a Vice President at PlayStation. These commercials usually advertise the PlayStation 3 and its games through a series of comedic answers to "Dear PlayStation" queries. These commercials garnered popularity among gamers, though its debut commercial received criticism from the Nigerian government due to a reference to the common Advance-fee fraud, 419 scams originating in Nigeria. Sony issued an apology and a new version of the advert with the offending line changed was produced. A spin-off of the campaign has been created for the PlayStation Portable which features similar campaign commercials called the "Step Your Game Up" campaign featuring a fictional teenage character named Marcus Rivers acting in a similar fashion to Kevin Butler but answering the "Dear PlayStation" queries about the PSP.


Netherlands Ceramic White PSP Commercials

In July 2006, an advertising campaign in the Netherlands was released in which a white people, white model dressed entirely in white and a black people, black model dressed entirely in black was used to compare Sony's new Ceramic White PSP and the original Piano Black PSP. This series of ads depicted both models fighting with each other and drew criticism from the media for being racist, though Sony maintains that the ad did not feature any racist message.


All I want for Xmas is a PSP

In November 2006, a marketing company employed by Sony's American division created a website entitled "''All I want for Xmas is a PSP''", designed to promote the PlayStation Portable, PSP Viral Marketing, virally. The site contained a blog which was purportedly written by "Charlie", a teenage boy attempting to get his friend Jeremy's parents to buy him a PSP, and providing a "music video" of either Charlie or Jeremy "rapping" about the PSP. Visitors to the website quickly recognized that the domain name was registered to a marketing company, exposing the campaign on sites such as YouTube and digg. Sony was forced to admit that the site was in fact a marketing campaign and in an interview with next-gen.biz, Sony admitted that the idea was "''poorly executed''".


Reception

In 2005, Australian newspaper The Age wrote an article about the PlayStation brand. Among the numerous interviews conducted with various people in the industry was an interview with Dr Jeffrey Brand, associate professor in communication and media at Bond University who said, "PlayStation re-ignited our imagination with video games". Game designers Yoshiki Okamoto called the brand "revolutionary — PlayStation has changed gaming, distribution, sales, image and more", while Evan Wells of Naughty Dog said "PlayStation is responsible for making playing games cool." In 2009, ViTrue, Inc. listed the PlayStation brand as number 13 on their "The Vitrue 100: Top Social Brands of 2009". The ranking was based on various aspects mainly dealing with popular social media sites in aspects such as Social Networking, Video Sharing, Photo Sharing and Blogs. In 2010, Gizmodo stated that the PlayStation brand was one of the last Sony products to completely stand apart from its competitors, stating that "If you ask the average person on the street what their favorite Sony product is, more often than not you'll hear PlayStation". As of April 2012, the PlayStation brand is the "most followed" brand on social networking site, Facebook, with over 22 million fans and followers in total which is more than any other brand in the entertainment industry. A study by Greenlight's Entertainment Retail has also shown that the PlayStation brand is the most interactive making 634 posts and tweets on social networking sites Facebook and Twitter. In July 2014, Sony boasted in a company release video that the PlayStation 3, PlayStation 4 and PlayStation Vita sold a combined total of 100 million units. It was announced at Tokyo Game Show on September 1, 2014, that PlayStation home game consoles claim 78% market share of all home consoles in Japan. , PlayStation is the strongest selling console brand worldwide.


References


External links

* {{Portal bar, Video games, Electronics, Japan, United States PlayStation (brand), Sony consoles, 1994 in video gaming Computer-related introductions in 1994 Home video game consoles Japanese brands Products introduced in 1994 Sony Interactive Entertainment