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The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, Republika sa Pilipinas * cbk, República de Filipinas * hil, Republika sang Filipinas * ibg, Republika nat Filipinas * ilo, Republika ti Filipinas * ivv, Republika nu Filipinas * pam, Republika ning Filipinas * krj, Republika kang Pilipinas * mdh, Republika nu Pilipinas * mrw, Republika a Pilipinas * pag, Republika na Filipinas * xsb, Republika nin Pilipinas * sgd, Republika nan Pilipinas * tgl, Republika ng Pilipinas * tsg, Republika sin Pilipinas * war, Republika han Pilipinas * yka, Republika si Pilipinas In the recognized optional languages of the Philippines: * es, República de Filipinas * ar, جمهورية الفلبين, Jumhūriyyat al-Filibbīn is an archipelagic country in
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian sub ...

Southeast Asia
. It is situated in the western Pacific Ocean, and consists of about 7,640 islands, that are broadly categorized under three main geographical divisions from north to south:
Luzon Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
,
Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Visayan Visayans ( Visayan: ''Mga Bisaya'', ) or Visayan people, are a Philippine ethnolinguistic group native to the whole Visayas The Visayas ( ), or the Visayan Islands (Bisayan languages, Visayan ...
, and
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the i ...
. The Philippines is bounded by the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a of the . It is bounded in the north by the shores of (hence the name), in the west by the , in the east by the islands of and northwestern (mainly , and ), and in the south by , and the , encompassing an area of ...

South China Sea
to the west, the
Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas of water, various gulfs, bights, bays, and straits. Terminology * Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) ...
to the east, and the
Celebes Sea The Celebes Sea ( ms, Laut Sulawesi, id, Laut Sulawesi, fil, Dagat Selebes) of the western Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the So ...
to the southwest, and shares
maritime border A maritime boundary is a conceptual division of the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbor life. About 29% of Earth's surface is land consisting of continent A continent is ...
s with
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
to the north, Japan to the northeast,
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country in the western Pacific Ocean, Pacific. The nation has approximately 340 islands and connects the w ...

Palau
to the east and southeast, Indonesia to the south, Malaysia and
Brunei Brunei ( ; ), officially the Nation of Brunei, the Abode of Peace ( ms, Negara Brunei Darussalam, JawiJawi may refer to: People and languages *Australia: **Jawi dialect, a nearly extinct Australian aboriginal language **Jawi people, an Aus ...

Brunei
to the southwest, Vietnam to the west, and China to the northwest. The Philippines covers an area of and, , had a population of around 109 million people, making it the world's twelfth-most populous country. The Philippines is a
multinational state A multinational state or a multinational union is a sovereign entity Sovereignty is the supreme authority within a territory. Sovereignty entails hierarchy within the state, as well as external autonomy for states. In any state, sovereignty i ...
, with diverse
ethnicities An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has certain capacities or attributes such as reason, morality, consciousness or self-consciousne ...
and cultures throughout its islands.
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
is the nation's capital, while the
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
is
Quezon City Quezon City (, ; fil, Lungsod Quezon ), also known as the City of Quezon and Q.C. (read in Filipino as Kyusi), is the List of cities in the Philippines, most populous city in the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population ...

Quezon City
, both lying within the urban area of
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Poli ...

Metro Manila
.
Negrito The term Negrito () refers to several diverse ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical so ...

Negrito
s, some of the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, were followed by successive waves of
Austronesian peoples The Austronesian peoples, also sometimes referred to as the Austronesian-speaking peoples, are a large group of various peoples in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries ...
. Adoption of
Animism Animism (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it ...

Animism
,
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
and
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission
o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or expression that occurs as an utterance on its own and expresses a spontaneous feeling ...
) is an Abrahamic religions, Abrahamic monotheistic religion teaching that Muhammad is a Muhammad in Islam, messenger of God.Peters, F. E. 2009. "Allāh." In , ed ...
established island-kingdoms called Kedatuans, Rajahnates and
Sultanate This article includes a list of successive Muslim state An Islamic state is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state. In the case of its broad associati ...
s. The arrival of
Ferdinand Magellan Ferdinand Magellan ( or ; pt, Fernão de Magalhães, ; es, link=no, Fernando de Magallanes, ; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information In ...

Ferdinand Magellan
, a
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...
explorer leading a fleet for Spain, marked the beginning of Spanish colonization. In 1543, Spanish explorer
Ruy López de Villalobos Ruy López de Villalobos (; ca. 1500 – April 4, 1544) was a Spanish explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answer ...
named the archipelago ' in honor of
Philip II of Spain Philip II) in Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_map = , map_caption ...

Philip II of Spain
. Spanish settlement through
Mexico Mexico, officially the United Mexican States, is a country A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organi ...
, beginning in 1565, led to the Philippines becoming part of the
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
for more than 300 years. During this time,
Catholicism The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian r ...
became the dominant religion, and Manila became the western hub of trans-Pacific trade. In 1896, the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
began, which then became entwined with the 1898
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
. Spain ceded the territory to the United States, while Filipino rebels declared the
First Philippine Republic The Philippine Republic ( es, República Filipina), more commonly known by historians as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collec ...
. The ensuing Philippine–American War ended with the United States establishing control over the territory, which they maintained until the Japanese invasion of the islands during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. Following
liberation Liberation or liberate may refer to: Concepts *Enlightenment (spiritual) **''Moksha'', the concept of salvation within Indian religions **''Nirvana'', a closely related term *Emancipation *Sexual liberation *Women's liberation or feminism *Libera ...
, the Philippines became independent in 1946. Since then, the
unitary Unitary may refer to: * Unitary construction, in automotive design a common term for unibody (unitary body/chassis) construction * Lethal Unitary Chemical Agents and Munitions (Unitary), as chemical weapons opposite of Binary * Unitarianism, in Chr ...
sovereign state A sovereign state is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized social relation, social relatio ...
has often had a tumultuous experience with democracy, which included the overthrow of a
dictatorship A dictatorship is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a month ...
by the
People Power Revolution The People Power Revolution, also known as the EDSA Revolution or the February Revolution, was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the ...
. It is considered to be an
emerging market An emerging market (or an emerging country or an emerging economy) is a market that has some characteristics of a developed market, but does not fully meet its standards. This includes markets that may become developed markets in the future or were ...
and a
newly industrialized country The category of newly industrialized country (NIC), newly industrialized economy (NIE) or middle income country is a Socioeconomics, socioeconomic Categorization, classification applied to several countries around the world by Political science, ...
, which has an economy transitioning from being based on agriculture to being based more on services and manufacturing. The Philippines is a founding member of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
,
World Trade Organization The World Trade Organization (WTO) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through ...
,
Association of Southeast Asian Nations ASEAN; ( , ) officially the Association of Southeast Asian Nations, is an economic union comprising 10 member states in Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southe ...

Association of Southeast Asian Nations
, the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC; ) is an inter-governmental forum for 21 member economies in the Pacific Rim The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean. The ''Pacific Ocean, Pacific Basin'' include ...
forum, and the
East Asia Summit The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeas ...

East Asia Summit
. The Philippines' position as an island country on the Pacific
Ring of Fire The Ring of Fire (also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Rim of Fire, the Girdle of Fire or the Circum-Pacific belt) is a region around much of the rim of the Pacific Ocean where many Types of volcanic eruptions, volcanic eruptions and e ...
and close to the equator makes the country prone to
earthquakes An earthquake (also known as a quake, tremor or temblor) is the shaking of the surface of the Earth resulting from a sudden release of energy in the Earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known ...
and typhoons. The country has a variety of
natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can broadly be classified upon their availability — they are classified into renewabl ...
s and a globally significant
level of biodiversity
level of biodiversity
. This low-lying island geography makes the country vulnerable to climate change, increasing risk from typhoons and
sea level rise Tide gauge measurements show that the current global sea level rise began at the start of the 20th century. Between 1900 and 2017, the globally averaged sea level Mean sea level (MSL) (often shortened to sea level) is an average In colloqui ...

sea level rise
.


Etymology

Spanish explorer
Ruy López de Villalobos Ruy López de Villalobos (; ca. 1500 – April 4, 1544) was a Spanish explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information Information can be thought of as the resolution of uncertainty; it answer ...
, during his expedition in 1542, named the islands of
Leyte Leyte ( ) is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), someti ...

Leyte
and
Samar Samar ( ) is the third-largest and seventh-most populous island in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas, links=no), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas, links=no), * bik, Republika kan ...

Samar
"'" after
Philip II of Spain Philip II ( es, Felipe II; 21 May 152713 September 1598) also known as "Philip the Prudent" (Spanish: Felipe el Prudente) was King of Spain (1556–1598), King of Portugal (1580–1598, as Philip I, pt, Filipe I), King of Naples and List of mon ...

Philip II of Spain
, then the
Prince of Asturias Prince or Princess of Asturias ( es, link=no, Príncipe/Princesa de Asturias) is the main substantive title used by the heir apparent or heir presumptive to the monarchy of Spain, throne of Spain. According to the Spanish Constitution of 1978: ...
. His eventual reign was the
zenith The zenith is an imaginary point directly "above" a particular location, on the imaginary celestial sphere. "Above" means in the vertical direction (plumb line) opposite to the gravity direction at that location (nadir). The zenith is the "high ...

zenith
of the global ranging
Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as the Hispanic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Hispánica) or the Catholic Monarchy ( es, link=no, Monarquía Católica) during the Early Modern period, was a colonial empire ...

Spanish Empire
. Eventually the name "'" would be used to cover the archipelago's Spanish possessions. Before Spanish rule was established, other names such as ' (Islands of the West) and Magellan's name for the islands, ', were also used by the Spanish to refer to islands in the region. During the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
, the
Malolos Congress , officially the ( tl, Lungsod ng ), is a and capital of the province A province is almost always an administrative division within a country or state. The term derives from the ancient Roman '' provincia'', which was the major territor ...

Malolos Congress
proclaimed the establishment of the ' or the '' Philippine Republic''. From the period of the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
(1898) and the Philippine–American War (1899–1902) until the
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
period (1935–1946), American colonial authorities referred to the country as ''The Philippine Islands'', a translation of the Spanish name. The United States began the process of changing the reference to the country from ''The Philippine Islands'' to ''The Philippines'', specifically when it was mentioned in the Philippine Autonomy Act or the Jones Law. The full official title, ''Republic of the Philippines'', was included in the 1935 constitution as the name of the future independent state, it is also mentioned in all succeeding constitutional revisions.


History


Prehistory (pre–900)

There is evidence of early
hominins The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae Homininae (), also called "African hominids" or "African apes", is a subfamily of Hominidae. It includes two tribes, with their extant as well as extinct species: 1) the tribe H ...
living in what is now the Philippines as early as 709,000 years ago. A small number of bones from
Callao Cave Callao Cave () is one of 300 limestone Limestone is a common type of carbonate rock, carbonate sedimentary rock. It is composed mostly of the minerals calcite and aragonite, which are different Polymorphism (materials science), crystal forms ...

Callao Cave
potentially represent an otherwise unknown species, ''
Homo luzonensis ''Homo luzonensis'', also locally called "Ubag" after a mythical caveman, is an extinct, possibly pygmy peoples, pygmy, species of archaic human from the Late Pleistocene of Luzon, the Philippines. Their remains, teeth and phalanges, are known on ...
'', that lived around 50,000 to 67,000 years ago. The oldest
modern human Early modern human (EMH) or anatomically modern human (AMH) are terms used to distinguish ''Homo sapiens'' (the only extant Hominina species) that are Human anatomy, anatomically consistent with the Human variability, range of phenotypes seen in ...
remains found on the islands are from the
Tabon Caves The Tabon Caves, dubbed as the ''Philippines' Cradle of Civilization'', are a group of caves located on Lipuun Point, north of Quezon, Palawan, Quezon municipality, in the south western part of the province of Palawan on Palawan Island, in the Phi ...
of
Palawan Palawan (pronounced ), officially the Province of Palawan ( cyo, Probinsya i'ang Palawan; tl, Lalawigan ng Palawan; hil, Kapuoran sang Palawan; ceb, Lalawigan sa Palawan), is an archipelagic Provinces of the Philippines, province of the Phil ...

Palawan
, U/Th-dated to 47,000 ± 11–10,000 years ago. The
Tabon Man Tabon Man refers to remains discovered in the Tabon Caves in Lipuun Point in Quezon, Palawan Palawan (pronounced ), officially the Province of Palawan ( cyo, Probinsya i'ang Palawan; tl, Lalawigan ng Palawan; hil, Kapuoran sang Palawan; ...
is presumably a
Negrito The term Negrito () refers to several diverse ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical so ...

Negrito
, who were among the archipelago's earliest inhabitants, descendants of the first human migrations out of Africa via the coastal route along
southern Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The region consists of the countries of Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Bhutan, India, Maldives, Nepal, Pakistan, and Sri Lan ...

southern Asia
to the now sunken landmasses of
Sundaland Sundaland (also called the Sundaic region) is a biogeographical Biogeography is the study of the distribution of species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an o ...
and Sahul. The first Austronesians reached the Philippines at around 2200 BC, settling the
Batanes Islands Batanes ( ivv, Provinsiya nu Batanes; tl, Lalawigan ng Batanes, ) is an archipelagic province in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipina ...
and
northern Luzon Luzon ( or ) is the largest and most populous island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_(right),_are_large_islands_of_north-west_Europe image:Small_Island_in_Lower_Sa ...
from
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
. From there, they rapidly spread downwards to the rest of the islands of the Philippines and
Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical southeastern subregion of Asia, consisting of the regions that are south of China, south-east of the Indian sub ...

Southeast Asia
. This population assimilated with the existing Negritos resulting in the modern Filipino ethnic groups which display various ratios of
genetic admixture Genetic admixture occurs when previously diverged or isolated genetic lineages mix.⅝ Admixture results in the introduction of new genetic lineages into a population. Examples Climatic cycles facilitate genetic admixture in cold periods and gene ...
between Austronesian and Negrito groups. Genetic signatures also indicate the potential migration of
Austroasiatic The Austroasiatic languages , also known as Mon–Khmer , are a large language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and wri ...
, Papuan, and
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
n people. Jade artifacts have been found dated to 2000 BC, with the
lingling-o Jade ''lingling-o'' from Vietnam ''Lingling-o'' or ''ling-ling-o'', is a type of penannular or double-headed pendant or amulet that has been associated with various late Neolithic to late Iron Age Austronesian people, Austronesian cultures. Most ...

lingling-o
jade items crafted in Luzon made using raw materials originating from Taiwan. By 1000 BC, the inhabitants of the archipelago had developed into four kinds of social groups: hunter-gatherer tribes, warrior societies, highland plutocracies, and port principalities.


Early states (900–1565)

The earliest known surviving written record found in the Philippines is the
Laguna Copperplate Inscription The Laguna Copperplate Inscription ( tl, Kasulatang tansong natagpuan sa Laguna) is an official document, more precisely an acquittance, inscription, inscribed in the Hindu calendar, Shaka year 822 (AD 900). It is the earliest known calendar-da ...

Laguna Copperplate Inscription
. By the 1300s, a number of the large coastal settlements had emerged as trading centers, and became the focal point of societal changes. Some polities had exchanges with other states across Asia. Trade with China is believed to have begun during the
Tang dynasty The Tang dynasty (, ; ), or Tang Empire, was an imperial dynasty of China that ruled from 618 to 907, with an interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organiza ...
, but grew more extensive during the
Song dynasty The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...
. By the 2nd millennium CE, some Philippine polities sent delegations participating in the
tributary system of China The tributary system of China (), or Cefeng system () was a network of loose international relations focused on China which facilitated trade and foreign relations by acknowledging China's predominant role in East Asia. It involved multiple relatio ...
. Indian cultural traits, such as linguistic terms and religious practices, began to spread within the Philippines during the 10th century, likely via the Hindu
Majapahit The Majapahit () was a Javanese Hindu Hindus (; ) are persons who regard themselves as culturally, ethnically, or religiously adhering to aspects of Hinduism.Jeffery D. Long (2007), A Vision for Hinduism, IB Tauris, , pages 35–37 ...

Majapahit
empire. By the 15th century, Islam was established in the
Sulu Archipelago The Sulu Archipelago ( Tausug: سوڬ, ms, كڤولاوان سولو, fil, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arc ...

Sulu Archipelago
and spread from there. Polities founded in the Philippines from the 10th–16th centuries include
Maynila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are ...
, Tondo,
Namayan Namayan (Baybayin: Pre-Kudlit: or (''Sapa''), Post-Kudlit: ), also called Sapa,Locsin, Leandro V. and Cecilia Y. Locsin. 1967. ''Oriental Ceramics Discovered in the Philippines.'' Vermont: Charles E. Tuttle Company. Maysapan or Nasapan, and ...

Namayan
,
Pangasinan Pangasinan, officially the Province of Pangasinan ( pag, Luyag na Pangasinan, ; ilo, Probinsia ti Pangasinan; tl, Lalawigan ng Pangasinan) is a coastal province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative div ...
,
Cebu Cebu (; ceb, Sugbo), officially the Province of Cebu ( ceb, Lalawigan sa Sugbo; tl, Lalawigan ng Cebu), is a of the located in the , and consists of a main island and . Its capital is , nicknamed "the Queen City of the South", the oldest ...
,
Butuan (pronounced ), officially the ( ceb, Dakbayan sa ; Butuanon: ''Dakbayan hong ''; tl, Lungsod ng ), is a in the region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science ...
,
Maguindanao Maguindanao (, Maguindanaon: ''Prubinsya nu Magindanaw''; Iranun The Iranun are a Moro ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attrib ...
, Lanao,
Sulu Sulu (; Tausug language, Tausūg: ''Wilāya sin Lupa' Sūg''; tl, Lalawigan ng Sulu) is a Provinces of the Philippines, province of the Philippines in the Sulu Archipelago and part of the Bangsamoro, Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Minda ...
, and
Ma-i Ma-i or Maidh (also spelled Ma'I, Mai, Ma-yi or Mayi; Baybayin (, ''pre-kudlit'': , ''virama-krus-kudlit'': , ''virama-pamudpod'': ; also formerly commonly incorrectly known as alibata) is a Philippine script. The script Script may ref ...
. The early polities were typically made up of three-tier social structure: a nobility class, a class of "freemen", and a class of dependent debtor-bondsmen. Among the nobility were leaders called "
Datu Datu is a title which denotes the rulers (variously described in historical accounts as chiefs, sovereign princes, and monarchs) of numerous indigenous peoples throughout the Philippine archipelago. The title is still used today, especially i ...
s", responsible for ruling autonomous groups called "
barangay A barangay (; abbreviated as Brgy. or Bgy.), sometimes referred to by its archaic name barrio (abbreviated as Bo.), is the smallest administrative division in the Philippines and is the native Filipino term for a Village#Philippines, village, d ...
" or "dulohan". When these barangays banded together, either to form a larger settlement or a geographically looser alliance group, the more esteemed among them would be recognized as a "paramount datu",
rajah ''Raja'' (; from sa, राजन्, IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguist ...

rajah
, or
sultan Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phone ...

sultan
which headed the community state. Warfare developed and escalated during the 14th to 16th centuries and throughout these periods population density is thought to have been low. The Luções from
Luzon Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
then had economic and military influence in
South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north and is perpendicular to the east and west. Etymology The word ''south'' comes from Old English ''sūþ'', from earlier Proto-Germanic language, Proto-Germa ...

South
,
Southeast The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar remnant that is massive enough to be Hydrostatic equilibrium, rounded by its own gravity ...

Southeast
and
East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia, which is defined in both Geography, geographical and culture, ethno-cultural terms. The modern State (polity), states of East Asia include China, Japan, Mongolia, North Korea, South Korea, and Taiwan. ...

East Asia
.The Mediterranean Connection
By William Henry Scott (Published in "Philippine Studies" ran by Ateneo de Manila University Press)
In 1521, Portuguese explorer
Ferdinand Magellan Ferdinand Magellan ( or ; pt, Fernão de Magalhães, ; es, link=no, Fernando de Magallanes, ; c. 1480 – 27 April 1521) was a Portuguese explorer Exploration is the act of searching for the purpose of discovery of information In ...

Ferdinand Magellan
arrived in the area, claimed the islands for Spain, and was then killed by
Lapulapu Lapulapu or Lapu-Lapu ( fl. 1521), whose name was first recorded as Cilapulapu, was a datu of Mactan in the Visayas. Modern Philippine society regards him as the first Filipino hero because of his resistance to imperial Spanish colonization. ...
's fighters at the
Battle of Mactan The Battle of Mactan ( ceb, Gubat sa Mactan; fil, Labanan sa Mactan) was a fierce clash fought in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipi ...
.


Colonial rule (1565–1946)

Colonization began when Spanish explorer
Miguel López de Legazpi Miguel López de Legazpi (; c. 1502 – August 20, 1572), also known as '' El Adelantado'' and ''El Viejo'' (The Elder), was a Spanish navigator and governor who established the first Spanish settlement in the East Indies when his expediti ...
arrived from Mexico in 1565. In 1571, became the capital of the
Spanish East Indies Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain , * gl, Reino de España, * oc, Reiaume d'Espanha, , , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_an ...
, which encompassed Spanish territories in Asia and the Pacific. The Spanish successfully invaded the different local states by employing the principle of , bringing most of what is now the Philippines into a single unified administration. Disparate barangays were deliberately consolidated into towns, where
Catholic missionaries Missionary work of the Catholic Church has often been undertaken outside the geographically defined parishes and dioceses by Catholic religious order, religious orders who have people and material resources to spare, and some of which specialized in ...
were more easily able to convert the inhabitants to
Christianity Christianity is an Abrahamic The Abrahamic religions, also referred to collectively as the world of Abrahamism and Semitic religions, are a group of Semitic-originated religion Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of ...

Christianity
. From 1565 to 1821, the Philippines was governed as part of the Mexico-based
Viceroyalty of New Spain New Spain, officially the Viceroyalty of New Spain ( es, Virreinato de Nueva España, ), or Kingdom of New Spain, was an integral territorial entity of the Spanish Empire The Spanish Empire ( es, link=no, Imperio Español), also known as t ...

Viceroyalty of New Spain
, later administered from
Madrid Madrid ( , ) is the capital and most populous city of Spain , image_flag = Bandera de España.svg , image_coat = Escudo de España (mazonado).svg , national_motto = , national_anthem = , image_ ...

Madrid
following the
Mexican War of Independence The Mexican War of Independence ( es, Guerra de Independencia de México, links=no, 16 September 1810 – 27 September 1821) was an armed conflict and political process resulting in Mexico's independence from Spain. It was not a single, c ...
. Manila was the western hub of the trans-Pacific trade.
Manila galleons The Manila Galleons ( es, Galeón de Manila; fil, Galyon ng Maynila) were Spain, Spanish trading sailing ship, ships which for two-and-a-half centuries linked the Spanish Captaincy General of the Philippines with Mexico across the Pacific Ocean ...
were constructed in Bicol and
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
. During its rule, Spain quelled , as well as defending against external military challenges. Spanish forces included soldiers from elsewhere in New Spain, many of whom deserted and intermingled with the wider population. Immigration blurred the racial caste system Spain maintained in towns and cities. War against the Dutch from the West, in the 17th century, together with conflict with the Muslims in the South nearly bankrupted the colonial treasury. Administration of the Philippine islands were considered a drain on the economy of Spain, and there were debates to abandon it or trade it for other territory. However, this was opposed due to economic potential, security, and the desire to continue religious conversion in the islands and the surrounding region. The Philippines survived on an annual subsidy provided by the Spanish Crown, which averaged 250,000 pesos and was usually paid through the provision of 75 tons of silver bullion being sent from the Americas. British forces occupied Manila from 1762 to 1764 during the
Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Kingdom of Great Britain, Great Britain and Kingdom of France, France. In Europe, the conflict ar ...
, with Spanish rule restored through the 1763 Treaty of Paris. The Spanish considered their war with the Muslims in Southeast Asia an extension of the
Reconquista The ' (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portug ...

Reconquista
. The
Spanish–Moro conflict The Spanish–Moro conflict ( es, Batallas de Castilla y Moro; fil, Sagupaang Kastila at Moro) was a series of battles in the Philippines lasting over several centuries. It began during the Spanish East Indies, Spanish Era until the Spanish ...
lasted for several hundred years. In the last quarter of the 19th century, Spain conquered portions of
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the i ...
and
Jolo Jolo ( tsg, Sūg) is a volcanic A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, object, su ...
, and the Moro Muslims in the
Sultanate of Sulu The Sultanate of Sulu ( ar, سلطنة سولك, : كاسولتانن سين سوڬ, ) was a Muslim that ruled the islands in the , parts of in today's , certain portions of and north-eastern (present-day the certain parts of and ). The ...
formally recognized Spanish sovereignty. In the 19th century, Philippine ports opened to world trade and shifts started occurring within Filipino society. The
Latin American wars of independence Decolonization of the Americas refers to the process by which the countries in the Americas gained their independence from European rule. The American Revolution was the first in the Americas, and the British defeat in the American Revolutionary W ...
and renewed immigration led to shifts in social identity, with the term ''Filipino'' shifting from referring to Spaniards born in the Philippines to a term encompassing all people in the archipelago. This identity shift was driven by wealthy families of mixed ancestry, to which it became a national identity. Revolutionary sentiments were stoked in 1872 after were executed on weak pretences.Nuguid, Nati. (1972)
"The Cavite Mutiny"
in Mary R. Tagle. ''12 Events that Have Influenced Philippine History''.
anila Anila or Anil (Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languag ...

anila
National Media Production Center. Retrieved December 20, 2009 fro
StuartXchange Website
This would inspire a
propaganda movement The Propaganda Movement was a set of communication actions through books, leaflets and newspaper articles by a group of Filipinos who called for political reforms, lasting approximately from 1880 to 1898 with the most activity between 1880 and ...
in Spain, organized by Marcelo H. del Pilar,
José Rizal José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896) was a Filipino nationalist, writer, and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pi ...
,
Graciano López Jaena Graciano López y Jaena (; December 18, 1856 – January 20, 1896), commonly known as Graciano López Jaena, was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ' ...
, and Mariano Ponce, lobbying for political reforms in the Philippines. Rizal was eventually executed on December 30, 1896, on charges of rebellion. This radicalized many who had previously been loyal to Spain. As attempts at reform met with resistance, in 1892 established the militant secret society called the
Katipunan The Katipunan, officially known as the Kataastaasan, Kagalanggalangang Katipunan ng mga Anak ng Bayan (KKK; en, Supreme and Venerable Association of the Children of the Nation; es, Suprema y Venerable Asociación de los Hijos del Pueblo), was ...
, who sought independence from Spain through armed revolt. The Katipunan started the
Philippine Revolution The Philippine Revolution ( fil, Himagsikang Pilipino / Rebolusyong Pilipino; es, Revolución Filipina), called the Tagalog War () by the Spanish, was a revolution and subsequent conflict fought between the people and insurgents of the Philippi ...
in 1896. Internal disputes led to in which Bonifacio lost his position and
Emilio Aguinaldo Emilio Aguinaldo y Famy (: March 22, 1869February 6, 1964) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Phil ...

Emilio Aguinaldo
was elected as the new leader of the revolution. In 1897, the
Pact of Biak-na-Bato The Pact of Biak-na-Bato, signed on December 15, 1897, created a truce between Spanish colonial Governor-General Fernando Primo de Rivera Fernando Primo de Rivera y Sobremonte, 1st Marquess of Estella (24 July 1831 – 23 May 1921) was a Sp ...
brought about the exile of the revolutionary leadership to Hong Kong. In 1898, the
Spanish–American War The Spanish–American War (April 21 – August 13, 1898, es, Guerra hispano-estadounidense or ; fil, Digmaang Espanyol-Amerikano) was an armed conflict War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, governments, S ...
began and reached the Philippines. Aguinaldo returned, resumed the revolution, and declared independence from Spain on June 12, 1898. The
First Philippine Republic The Philippine Republic ( es, República Filipina), more commonly known by historians as the First Philippine Republic or the Malolos Republic, was a polity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collec ...
was established on January 21, 1899. The islands had been ceded by Spain to the United States alongside
Puerto Rico Puerto Rico (; abbreviated PR; tnq, Boriken, ''Borinquen''), officially the Commonwealth of Puerto Rico ( es, link=yes, Estado Libre Asociado de Puerto Rico, lit=Free Associated State of Puerto Rico) is a Caribbean island and Unincorporated ...

Puerto Rico
and
Guam Guam (; ch, Guåhan ) is an in the subregion of the western . It is the and territory of the United States (reckoned from the ); in , it is the largest and southernmost of the and the largest island in Micronesia. Guam's capital is , and t ...

Guam
as a result of the latter's victory in the Spanish–American War. As it became increasingly clear the United States would not recognize the First Philippine Republic, the Philippine–American War broke out. The war resulted in the deaths of 250,000 to 1 million civilians, mostly due to famine and disease. After the defeat of the First Philippine Republic, an American civilian government was established. American forces continued to secure and extend their control over the islands, suppressing an attempted extension of the Philippine Republic, securing the Sultanate of Sulu, and establishing control over interior mountainous areas that had resisted Spanish conquest. Cultural developments strengthened the continuing development of a national identity,Armes, Roy
"Third World Film Making and the West"
p.152. University of California Press, 1987. Retrieved on October 30, 2020.
and Tagalog began to take precedence over other local languages. Governmental functions were gradually devolved to Filipinos under the
Taft Commission The Taft Commission, also known as the Second Philippine Commission (Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Ph ...
and in 1935 the Philippines was granted
Commonwealth A commonwealth is a traditional English term for a political community founded for the common good In philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about reason, Metaphysics, existenc ...
status with
Manuel Quezon Manuel Luis Quezon y Molina (19 August 1878 – 1 August 1944), also referred to by his initials MLQ, was a Filipino statesman, soldier and politician who served as president of the Commonwealth of the Philippines The Commonwealth of the P ...
as president and
Sergio Osmeña Sergio Osmeña Sr. (, ; 9 September 1878 – 19 October 1961) was a Filipino people, Filipino politician who served as the List of presidents of the Philippines, fourth president of the Philippines from 1944 to 1946. He was Vice President o ...
as vice president. Quezon's priorities were defence, social justice, inequality and economic diversification, and national character. Tagalog was designated the
national language A national language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most languages have a writing system composed o ...
, women's suffrage was introduced, and land reform mooted.Manapat, Carlos, et al.'' Economics, Taxation, and Agrarian Reform''. Quezon City: C&E Pub., 2010.Print. During World War II the
Japanese Empire The was a historical nation-state that existed from the Meiji Restoration The , referred to at the time as the , and also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was a political event that restored practical imp ...

Japanese Empire
invaded An invasion is a Offensive (military), military offensive in which large numbers of combatants of one geopolitics, geopolitical Legal entity, entity aggressively enter territory (country subdivision), territory owned by another such entity, gene ...
and the
Second Philippine Republic The Second Philippine Republic, officially known as the Republic of the Philippines ( tl, Republika ng Pilipinas; ja, フィリピン, Firipin kyōwakoku; Spanish: ''República de Filipinas'') and also known as the Japanese-sponsored Philippine ...
, under
Jose P. Laurel José Paciano Laurel y García (March 9, 1891 – November 6, 1959) was a Filipino people, Filipino politician and judge. He was the president of the Second Philippine Republic, a Japanese puppet state when occupied during World War II, from 1943 ...

Jose P. Laurel
, was established as a puppet state. From 1942 the Japanese occupation of the Philippines was opposed by large-scale . Atrocities and
war crimes A war crime is a violation of the laws of war The law of war is the component of international law that regulates the conditions for initiating war (''jus ad bellum'') and the conduct of warring parties (''jus in bello''). Laws of war de ...
were committed during the war, including the Bataan Death March and the
Manila massacre #REDIRECT Manila massacre#REDIRECT Manila massacre Destruction of the Walled City (Intramuros), 1945 The Manila massacre ( fil, Pagpatay sa Maynila or ''Masaker sa Maynila''), also called the Rape of Manila ( fil, Paggahasa sa Maynila), involv ...
. Allied troops defeated the Japanese in 1945. By the end of the war it is estimated that over a million Filipinos had died. On October 11, 1945, the Philippines became one of the of the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization aiming to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, and be a centre for harm ...

United Nations
. On July 4, 1946, the Philippines was officially recognized by the United States as an independent nation through the Treaty of Manila, during the presidency of
Manuel Roxas Manuel Acuña Roxas (; born Manuel Roxas y Acuña; January 1, 1892 – April 15, 1948) was the fifth President of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as ''Presidente ng Pi ...

Manuel Roxas
.


Postcolonial period (1946–present)

Efforts to end the
Hukbalahap Rebellion The Hukbalahap Rebellion was a rebellion staged by former Hukbalahap or ''Hukbo ng Bayan Laban sa Hapon'' (People's Army against the Japanese) soldiers against the Philippine government. It started during the Japanese occupation of the Philippin ...
began during
Elpidio Quirino Elpidio Rivera Quirino (born Elpidio Quirino y Rivera; November 16, 1890 – February 29, 1956) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), ...
's term, however, it was only during
Ramon Magsaysay Ramon del Fierro Magsaysay Sr. (August 31, 1907 – March 17, 1957) was a Filipino statesman who served as the seventh president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as '' ...

Ramon Magsaysay
's presidency that the movement was suppressed. Magsaysay's successor, Carlos P. Garcia, initiated the
Filipino First PolicyThe Filipino First ( tgl, Pilipino Muna) refers to a policy A policy is a deliberate system of principles to guide decisions and achieve rational outcomes. A policy is a statement of intent, and is implemented as a procedure or protocol. Policie ...
, which was continued by
Diosdado Macapagal Diosdado Pangan Macapagal Sr. GCrM, KGCR (, September 28, 1910 – April 21, 1997) was the ninth President of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, informally referred to as ''Presidente ng Pilip ...

Diosdado Macapagal
, with celebration of Independence Day moved from July 4 to June 12, the date of Emilio Aguinaldo's declaration, and pursuit of a claim on the eastern part of
North Borneo (I persevere and I achieve) , national_anthem = '' God Save the King/Queen'' , capital = Kudat (1881–1884); Sandakan (1884–1945); Jesselton (1946) , common_languages = English, Kadazan-Dusun, Bajau, Murut, ...
. In 1965, Macapagal lost the presidential election to
Ferdinand Marcos Ferdinand Emmanuel Edralin Marcos Sr. (, September 11, 1917 – September 28, 1989) was a Filipino politician and lawyer who was the 10th president of the Philippines The president of the Philippines ( fil, Pangulo ng Pilipinas, sometime ...
. Early in his presidency, Marcos initiated numerous infrastructure projects but, together with his wife , was accused of corruption and embezzling billions of dollars in public funds. Nearing the end of his term, Marcos declared
martial law Martial law is the temporary imposition of direct military control of normal civil functions or suspension of civil law by a government, especially in response to a temporary emergency where civil forces are overwhelmed, or in an military occ ...
on September 21, 1972. This period of his rule was characterized by political repression, censorship, and human rights violations. On August 21, 1983, Marcos' chief rival, opposition leader
Benigno Aquino Jr. Benigno Simeon "Ninoy" Aquino Jr., (November 27, 1932 – August 21, 1983) was a Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Re ...
, was
assassinated Assassination is the act of deliberately killing a prominent or important person, such as heads of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona who officially embodies a state Foakes, pp. 110–11 " he head of state ...
on the tarmac at
Manila International Airport Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila ), is the capital of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Repu ...
. Marcos called a snap presidential election in 1986. Marcos was proclaimed the winner, but the results were widely regarded as fraudulent. The resulting protests led to the
People Power Revolution The People Power Revolution, also known as the EDSA Revolution or the February Revolution, was a series of popular demonstrations in the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the ...
, which forced Marcos and his allies to flee to
Hawaii Hawaii ( ; haw, Hawaii or ) is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspape ...

Hawaii
, and Aquino's widow,
Corazon Aquino Maria Corazon "Cory" Sumulong Cojuangco Aquino (, 25 January 1933 – 1 August 2009) was a Filipinos, Filipina politician who served as the List of presidents of the Philippines, 11th president of the Philippines from 1986 to 1992. She was t ...
, was installed as president. The return of democracy and government reforms beginning in 1986 were hampered by national debt, government corruption, and coup attempts. A Communist rebellion in the Philippines, communist insurgency and a military conflict with Moro conflict, Moro separatists persisted, while the administration also faced a series of disasters, including the sinking of the ''MV Doña Paz'' in December 1987, and the eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991. Aquino was succeeded by Fidel V. Ramos, whose economic performance, at 3.6% growth rate, was overshadowed by the onset of the 1997 Asian financial crisis. Ramos' successor, Joseph Estrada, was overthrown by the 2001 EDSA Revolution and succeeded by his Vice President of the Philippines, vice president, Gloria Macapagal Arroyo, on January 20, 2001. Arroyo's 9-year administration was marked by economic growth, but was tainted by graft and political scandals. On November 23, 2009, 34 journalists and several civilians were Maguindanao massacre, killed in Maguindanao. Economic growth continued during Benigno Aquino III's administration, which pushed for good governance and transparency. In 2015, a Mamasapano clash, clash which took place in Mamasapano, Maguindanao killed 44 members of the Philippine National Police-Special Action Force, resulting in efforts to pass the Bangsamoro Basic Law reaching an impasse. Former Davao City mayor Rodrigo Duterte won the 2016 Philippine presidential election, 2016 presidential election, becoming the first president from Mindanao. Duterte launched Philippine Drug War, an anti-drug campaign and Build! Build! Build! Infrastructure Plan, an infrastructure program. The implementation of the Bangsamoro Organic Law led to the creation of the autonomous Bangsamoro region in Mindanao. In early 2020, the COVID-19 pandemic in the Philippines, COVID-19 pandemic reached the country causing the gross domestic product to shrink by 9.5%, the country's worst annual economic performance since records began in 1947.


Geography and environment

The Philippines is an archipelago composed of about 7,640 List of islands of the Philippines, islands, covering a total area, including inland bodies of water, of around , with cadastral survey data suggesting it may be larger. Its coastline gives it the world's List of countries by length of coastline, fifth-longest coastline.Central Intelligence Agency. (2009)
"Field Listing : Coastline"
Washington, DC.
The exclusive economic zone of the Philippines, EEZ of the Philippines covers . It is located between 116° 40', and 126° 34' E longitude and 4° 40' and 21° 10' N latitude and is bordered by the
Philippine Sea The Philippine Sea is a marginal sea This is a list of seas of the World Ocean, including marginal seas, areas of water, various gulfs, bights, bays, and straits. Terminology * Ocean The ocean (also the sea or the world ocean) ...
to the east, the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a of the . It is bounded in the north by the shores of (hence the name), in the west by the , in the east by the islands of and northwestern (mainly , and ), and in the south by , and the , encompassing an area of ...

South China Sea
to the west, and the
Celebes Sea The Celebes Sea ( ms, Laut Sulawesi, id, Laut Sulawesi, fil, Dagat Selebes) of the western Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arctic Ocean in the north to the So ...
to the south. The island of Borneo is located a few hundred kilometers southwest, and Taiwan is located directly to the north. Sulawesi is located to the southwest and
Palau Palau (), officially the Republic of Palau ( pau, Beluu er a Belau) and historically ''Belau'', ''Palaos'' or ''Pelew'', is an island country in the western Pacific Ocean, Pacific. The nation has approximately 340 islands and connects the w ...

Palau
is located to the east of the islands. The highest List of mountains in the Philippines, mountain is Mount Apo. It measures up to above sea level and is located on the island of
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the i ...
. Running east of the archipelago, the Philippine Trench extendes down at the Emden Deep. The longest List of rivers of the Philippines, river is the Cagayan River in northern
Luzon Luzon (; ) is the largest and most populous List of islands in the Philippines, island in the Philippines. It is ranked List of islands by area, 15th largest in the world by land area. Located in the northern portion of the archipelago, it is the ...
, measuring about . Manila Bay,Jacinto, G.S., Azanza, R.V.,Velasquez,I.B. and Siringan, F.P.(2006). "Manila Bay:Environmental Challenges and Opportunities" in Wolanski, E.(ed.) The Environment in Asia Pacific Harbours. Springer: Dordrecht, Netherlands. p309-328. upon the shore of which the capital city of Manila lies, is connected to Laguna de Bay, the largest List of lakes of the Philippines, lake in the Philippines, by the Pasig River. The Puerto Princesa Subterranean River, which runs underground through a karst landscape before reaching the ocean, is a UNESCO World Heritage Site. Situated on the western fringes of the Pacific
Ring of Fire The Ring of Fire (also known as the Pacific Ring of Fire, the Rim of Fire, the Girdle of Fire or the Circum-Pacific belt) is a region around much of the rim of the Pacific Ocean where many Types of volcanic eruptions, volcanic eruptions and e ...
, the Philippines experiences frequent seismic and volcanic activity. The Benham Plateau to the east in the Philippine Sea is an undersea region active in Plate tectonics, tectonic subduction. Around 20 List of earthquakes in the Philippines, earthquakes are registered daily, though most are too weak to be felt. The last major earthquake was the 1990 Luzon earthquake. There are List of active volcanoes in the Philippines, many active volcanoes such as the Mayon Volcano, Mount Pinatubo, and Taal Volcano. The 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo, eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991 produced the List of large volcanic eruptions of the 20th century, second largest terrestrial eruption of the 20th century. The Philippines is the world's second-biggest Geothermal power in the Philippines, geothermal energy producer behind the United States, with 18% of Energy in the Philippines, the country's electricity needs being met by geothermal power. The country has valuable mineral deposits as a result of its complex geologic structure and high level of seismic activity. The Philippines are thought to have the second-largest gold deposits after South Africa, along with a large amount of copper deposits, and the world's largest deposits of palladium. Other minerals include chromite, nickel, and zinc. Despite this, a lack of law enforcement, poor management, opposition due to the presence of indigenous communities, and past instances of environmental damage and disaster, have resulted in these mineral resources remaining largely untapped.


Biodiversity

The Philippines is a megadiverse countries, megadiverse country. Retrieved February 15, 2010 from gbgm-umc.org. Eight major types of forests are distributed throughout the Philippines; dipterocarp, beach forest, pine forest, Vitex parviflora, molave forest, Montane ecosystems, lower montane forest, upper montane or mossy forest, mangroves, and ultrabasic forest. As of 2021, the Philippines has only 7 million hectares of forest cover left, according to official estimates (roughly 23% of the country's total land area), though experts contend that the actual figure is likely much lower. Deforestation, often the result of illegal logging, is Deforestation in the Philippines, an acute problem in the Philippines. Forest cover declined from 70% of the Philippines's total land area in 1900 to about 18.3% in 1999. Around 1,100 land vertebrate species can be found in the Philippines including over 100 mammal species and 243 bird species not thought to exist elsewhere. The Philippines has among the highest rates of discovery in the world with sixteen new species of mammals discovered in the last ten years. Because of this, the rate of List of ecoregions with high endemism, endemism for the Philippines has risen and likely will continue to rise. Parts of its marine waters contain the highest diversity of shorefish species in the world. Large reptiles include the Philippine crocodile and saltwater crocodile. The largest crocodile in captivity, known locally as Lolong, was captured in the southern island of Mindanao, and died on February 10, 2013, from pneumonia and cardiac arrest. The national bird, known as the Philippine eagle, has the longest body of any eagle; it generally measures 86 to 102 cm (2.82 to 3.35 ft) in length and weighs 4.7 to 8.0 kg (10.4 to 17.6 lb). The Philippine eagle is part of the family Accipitridae and is endemic to the rainforests of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao. The Philippines has the third highest number of endemic birds in the world (behind Indonesia and Australia) with 243 endemics. Notable birds include the Celestial monarch, flame-templed babbler, Red-vented cockatoo, Whiskered pitta, Sulu hornbill, Rufous hornbill, Luzon bleeding-heart and the Flame-breasted fruit dove. Philippine territorial waters, maritime waters encompass as much as producing unique and diverse marine life, an important part of the Coral Triangle, a territory shared with other countries. The total number of corals and marine fish species was estimated at 500 and 2,400 respectively. New records and species discoveries continue. The Tubbataha Reef in the Sulu Sea was declared a World Heritage Site in 1993. Philippine waters also sustain the cultivation of fish, crustaceans, oysters, and seaweeds. One species of oyster, Pinctada maxima, produces pearls that are naturally golden in color. Pearls have been declared a "National Gem". With an estimated 13,500 plant species in the country, 3,200 of which are unique to the islands, Philippine rainforests boast an array of flora, including many rare types of List of the orchids of the Philippines, orchids and rafflesia. Many species are endangered and scientists say that Southeast Asia, which the Philippines is part of, faces a catastrophic extinction rate of 20% by the end of the 21st century due in part to habitat loss resulting from deforestation.


Climate

The Philippines has a tropical maritime climate that is usually hot and humid. There are three seasons: a hot dry season or summer from March to May; a rainy season from June to November; and a cool dry season from December to February. The southwest monsoon lasts from May to October, and the northeast monsoon from November to April. Temperatures usually range from to . The coolest month is January; the warmest is May. The average yearly temperature is around . In considering temperature, location in terms of latitude and longitude is not a significant factor, and temperatures at sea level tend to be in the same range. Altitude usually has more of an impact. The average annual temperature of Baguio at an elevation of above sea level is , making it a popular destination during hot summers. Annual rainfall measures as much as in the mountainous east coast section but less than in some of the sheltered valleys. Sitting astride the Typhoons in the Philippines, typhoon belt, the islands experience 15–20 typhoons annually from July to October,Library of Congress – Federal Research Division. (March 2006)
''Country Profile: Philippines''
Retrieved July 30, 2020.
with around nineteen typhoons entering the Philippine Area of Responsibility, Philippine area of responsibility in a typical year and eight or nine making landfall.''Monthly Typhoon Tracking Charts''
(2010). Retrieved April 24, 2010 from the National Institute of Informatics, Kitamoto Laboratory, Digital Typhoon Website.
Historically typhoons were sometimes referred to as ''baguios''. The wettest recorded typhoon to hit the Philippines dropped in Baguio from July 14 to 18, 1911. The Philippines is highly Climate change in the Philippines, exposed to climate change and is among the world's ten countries that are most Climate change vulnerability, vulnerable to climate change risks.


Government and politics

The Philippines has a democracy, democratic government in the form of a constitutional republic with a presidential system. The President of the Philippines, President functions as both head of state and head of government and is the commander-in-chief of the Armed Forces of the Philippines, armed forces. The president Presidential elections in the Philippines, is elected by popular vote for a single six-year term, during which he or she appoints and presides over the Cabinet (government), cabinet. Rodrigo Duterte was elected to a six-year term as president 2016 Philippine presidential election, in 2016. The bicameral Congress of the Philippines, Congress is composed of the Senate of the Philippines, Senate, serving as the upper house, with members elected to a six-year term, and the House of Representatives of the Philippines, House of Representatives, serving as the lower house, with members elected to a three-year term. Philippine politics tends to be dominated by those with well-known names, such as members of List of political families in the Philippines, political dynasties or celebrities."The Philippines' celebrity-obsessed elections"
(April 26, 2007). ''The Economist''. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
Senators are elected at large while the representatives are elected from both Legislative districts of the Philippines, legislative districts and through Party-list representation in the House of Representatives of the Philippines, sectoral representation. The judiciary, judicial power is vested in the Supreme Court of the Philippines, Supreme Court, composed of a Chief Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, Chief Justice as its presiding officer and fourteen Associate Justice of the Supreme Court of the Philippines, associate justices, all of whom are appointed by the President from nominations submitted by the Judicial and Bar Council. The capital city of the Philippines is
Manila Manila ( , ; fil, Maynila, ), officially the City of Manila ( fil, Lungsod ng Maynila, ), is the capital city, capital of the Philippines, and its second most populous city. It is Cities of the Philippines#Independent cities, highly urbanize ...

Manila
and the most populous city is
Quezon City Quezon City (, ; fil, Lungsod Quezon ), also known as the City of Quezon and Q.C. (read in Filipino as Kyusi), is the List of cities in the Philippines, most populous city in the Philippines. According to the 2020 census, it has a population ...

Quezon City
, both within the single urban area of
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Poli ...

Metro Manila
. There have been Constitutional reform in the Philippines, attempts to change the government to a federal government, federal, unicameral, or parliamentary government since the Ramos administration. There is a significant amount of corruption in the Philippines, which some historians attribute to the system of governance put in place during the Spanish colonial period.


Foreign relations

As a Philippines and the United Nations, founding and active member of the United Nations, the country List of members of the United Nations Security Council, has been elected to the United Nations Security Council, Security Council. Carlos P. Romulo was a former President of the United Nations General Assembly. The country is an active participant in peacekeeping missions, particularly in United Nations Transitional Administration in East Timor, East Timor. Over 10 million Filipinos live and work overseas. The Philippines is a founding and active member of ASEAN (Association of Southeast Asian Nations).. (1999). ''3 ASEAN Informal Summit''. Archived fro
the original
on December 17, 2007. Retrieved December 13, 2009.
It has hosted several ASEAN summit, summits and is an active contributor to the direction and policies of the bloc. It is also a member of the
East Asia Summit The East Asia Summit (EAS) is a regional forum held annually by leaders of, initially, 16 countries in the East Asian, Southeast Asia Southeast Asia or Southeastern Asia is the United Nations geoscheme for Asia#South-eastern Asia, southeas ...

East Asia Summit
(EAS), the
Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation The Asia-Pacific Economic Cooperation (APEC; ) is an inter-governmental forum for 21 member economies in the Pacific Rim The Pacific Rim comprises the lands around the rim of the Pacific Ocean. The ''Pacific Ocean, Pacific Basin'' include ...
(APEC), the Group of 24, and the Non-Aligned Movement.. (older version – as it existed in 2009 – during the presidency of Gloria Macapagal Arroyo),
The Official Government Portal of the Republic of the Philippines
''.
The country is also seeking to obtain observer status in the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation. The Philippines has a long Philippines–United States relations, relationship with the United States, covering economics, security, and people-to-people relations. A Mutual Defense Treaty (U.S.–Philippines), mutual defense treaty between the two countries was signed in 1951, and supplemented later with the Philippines–United States Visiting Forces Agreement, 1999 Visiting Forces Agreement and the 2016 Enhanced Defense Cooperation Agreement. The Philippines supported American policies during the Cold War and participated in the Korean War, Korean and Vietnam War, Vietnam wars. In 2003 the Philippines was designated a Major non-NATO ally. Under President Duterte ties with the United States have weakened with military purchases instead coming from China and Russia, while Duterte states that the Philippines will no longer participate in any US-led wars. In 2021, it was revealed the United States would defend the Philippines including the
South China Sea The South China Sea is a of the . It is bounded in the north by the shores of (hence the name), in the west by the , in the east by the islands of and northwestern (mainly , and ), and in the south by , and the , encompassing an area of ...

South China Sea
. The Philippines attaches great importance in its China–Philippines relations, relations with China, and has established significant cooperation with the country. Japan is the biggest bilateral contributor of official development assistance to the country. Although historical tensions exist due to the events of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, much of the animosity has faded.Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991)
"Relations with Asian Neighbors"''Philippines: A Country Study''
Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved January 5, 2010 fro
Country Studies US Website
Historical and cultural ties continue to affect Philippines–Spain relations, relations with Spain. Relations with Middle Eastern countries are shaped by the high number of Filipinos working in these countries, and by issues relating the Muslim minority in the Philippines. Concerns have been raised regarding issues such as domestic abuse and war affecting the around 2.5 million overseas Filipino workers in the region. The Philippines Spratly Islands dispute, has claims in the Spratly Islands which overlap with claims by China, Malaysia, Taiwan, and Vietnam. The largest of its controlled islands in Thitu Island, which contains the Philippine's smallest village. The Scarborough Shoal Scarborough Shoal standoff, standoff in 2012, where China took control of the shoal from the Philippines, led to an Philippines v. China, international arbitration case and has made the shoal a prominent symbol in the wider dispute.


Military

The Armed Forces of the Philippines (AFP) consist of three branches: the Philippine Air Force, the Philippine Army, and the Philippine Navy. The Armed Forces of the Philippines are a Volunteer military, volunteer force. Civilian security is handled by the Philippine National Police under the Department of the Interior and Local Government (DILG). In Bangsamoro, the largest separatist organizations, the Moro National Liberation Front and the Moro Islamic Liberation Front were engaging the government politically . Other more militant groups like the Abu Sayyaf have kidnapped foreigners for ransom, particularly in the Sulu Archipelago. Their presence decreased due to successful security provided by the Philippine government. The Communist Party of the Philippines and its military wing, the New People's Army, have been waging Communist rebellion in the Philippines, guerrilla warfare against the government since the 1970s, reaching its apex in 1986 when Communist guerrillas gained control of a fifth of the country's territory, before significantly dwindling militarily and politically after the return of democracy in 1986. , $2.843 billion, or 1.1 percent of GDP is spent on military forces.


Administrative divisions

The Philippines is governed as a unitary state, with the exception of the Bangsamoro Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao (BARMM), although there have been several steps towards decentralization within the unitary framework. A 1991 law devolved some powers to Local government in the Philippines, local governments. The country is divided into 17 Regions of the Philippines, regions, 81 Provinces of the Philippines, provinces, 146 Cities of the Philippines, cities, 1,488 Municipalities of the Philippines, municipalities, and 42,036 barangays. Regions other than Bangsamoro serve primarily to organize the provinces of the country for administrative convenience. , Calabarzon was the most populated region while the Metro Manila, National Capital Region (NCR) the most densely populated.


Demographics

The Commission on Population estimated the country's population to be 107,190,081 as of December 31, 2018, based on the latest population census of 2015 conducted by the Philippine Statistics Authority. The population increased from 1990 to 2008 by approximately 28 million, a 45% growth in that time frame.CO2 Emissions from Fuel Combustion
Population 1971–2008
pdf
page 86); page 86 of the pdf, IEA (OECD/ World Bank) (original population ref OECD/ World Bank e.g. in IEA Key World Energy Statistics 2010 page 57) (archived fro
the original
on October 12, 2009)
The first Philippines census, official census in the Philippines was carried out in 1877 and recorded a population of 5,567,685. A third of the population resides in
Metro Manila Metropolitan Manila (often shortened as Metro Manila; fil, Kalakhang Maynila), officially the National Capital Region (NCR; fil, Pambansang Punong Rehiyon), is the seat of government The seat of government is (as defined by ''Brewer's Poli ...

Metro Manila
and its immediately neighboring regions. The 2.34% average annual population growth rate between 1990 and 2000 decreased to an estimated 1.90% for the 2000–2010 period. Government attempts to reduce population growth have been a Reproductive Health Bill (Philippines), contentious issue. The population's median age is 22.7 years with 60.9% aged from 15 to 64 years old. Life expectancy at birth is 69.4 years, 73.1 years for females and 65.9 years for males. Poverty incidence dropped to 21.6% in 2015 from 25.2% in 2012.Republic of the Philippines. National Statistics Office
''Poverty Incidence''
Retrieved July 30, 2020.
Metro Manila is the most populous of the List of metropolitan areas in the Philippines, 3 defined metropolitan areas in the Philippines and the List of metropolitan areas by population, 5th most populous in the world.Demographia. (June 2020)
''Demographia World Urban Areas (World Agglomerations) Population & Projections''
(Edition 16). Retrieved July 15, 2020. p. 23.
Census data from 2015 showed it had a population of 12,877,253 constituting almost 13% of the national population. Including suburbs in the adjacent provinces (Bulacan,
Cavite , officially the Province of ( tl, Lalawigan ng Kabite; Chabacano: ''Provincia de Cavite''), is a Provinces of the Philippines, province in the Philippines located in the Calabarzon Regions of the Philippines, region in Luzon. Located on the ...

Cavite
, Laguna (province), Laguna, and Rizal) of Greater Manila Area, Greater Manila, the population is around 23,088,000. Across the country, the Philippines has a total urbanization rate of 51.2 percent. Metro Manila's gross regional product was estimated to be Philippine peso, ₱468.4 billion (at constant 1985 prices) and accounts for 33% of the nation's GDP.Republic of the Philippines. National Statistical Coordination Board. (July 2009)
''2008 Gross Regional Domestic Product – Levels of GRDP''
. Retrieved April 4, 2010.
In 2011 Manila ranked as the list of cities by GDP, 28th wealthiest urban agglomeration in the world and the 2nd in Southeast Asia.


Ethnic groups

There is substantial ethnic diversity with the Philippines, a product of the seas and mountain ranges dividing the archipelago along with significant foreign influences. According to the 2010 census, 24.4% of Filipinos are Tagalog, 11.4% Visayans/Bisaya , 9.9% Cebuano, 8.8% Ilocano, 8.4% Hiligaynon, 6.8% Bikol, 4% Waray, and 26.2% are "others", which can be broken down further to yield more distinct non-tribal groups like the Moro, the Kapampangan people, Kapampangan, the Pangasinan people, Pangasinense, the Ibanag people, Ibanag, and the Ivatan people, Ivatan. There are also Indigenous peoples of the Philippines, indigenous peoples like the Igorot, the Lumad, the Mangyan, the Bajau, and the Peoples of Palawan, tribes of Palawan.
Negrito The term Negrito () refers to several diverse ethnic groups who inhabit isolated parts of Southeast Asia Southeast Asia, also spelled South East Asia and South-East Asia, and also known as Southeastern Asia or SEA, is the geographical so ...

Negrito
s are considered among the earliest inhabitants of the islands.Dolan, Ronald E. (Ed.). (1991)
"Ethnicity, Regionalism, and Language"''Philippines: A Country Study''
Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress. Retrieved April 8, 2010 fro
Country Studies US Website
These minority aboriginal settlers are an Australoid group and are a left-over from the first human migration out of Africa to Australia, and were likely displaced by later waves of migration. At least some Negritos in the Philippines have Denisovan admixture in their genomes. Ethnic Filipinos generally belong to several Southeast Asians, Southeast Asian ethnic groups classified linguistically as part of the Austronesian peoples, Austronesian or Malayo-Polynesian languages, Malayo-Polynesian speaking people. There is some uncertainty over the origin of this Austronesian speaking population, with it being likely that ancestors related to Taiwanese aborigines brought their language and mixed with existing populations in the area. The Manobo people, Manobo and Sama people, Sama ethnic groups have ancestral affinity with the Austroasiatic languages, Austroasiatic Mlabri language, Mlabri and Lua people, Htin peoples of mainland Southeast Asia.
South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia Asia () is 's largest and most populous , located primarily in the and . It shares the continental of with the continent of and the continental landmass of with both Europe and . Asia cov ...

South Asia
n ancestry was also detected with Filipinos and peaking among the Sama Dilaut, Dilaut people. There was also a westward expansion of Papuan ancestry from Papua New Guinea to Eastern Indonesia and Mindanao detected among the Blaan and Sangirese language, Sangir. European DNA is present in many Filipinos today. A Craniometry, craniometric study reveals that samples taken from graveyards across the Philippines show a mean ratio of European descent of circa 6%. Under Spanish rule there was also immigration from elsewhere in the empire, especially Latin American Asian, from Latin America. Chinese Filipinos are mostly the descendants of immigrants from Fujian in China after 1898, numbering around 2 million, although there are an estimated 20 percent of Filipinos who have partial Chinese ancestry, stemming from precolonial and colonial Chinese migrants. While a distinct minority, Chinese Filipinos are well-integrated into Filipino society. As of 2015, there were 220,000 to 600,000 American citizens living in the country. There are also up to 250,000 Amerasians scattered across the cities of Angeles City, Angeles, Manila, and Olongapo. Other important non-indigenous minorities include Indian Filipino, Indians and Arab Filipino, Arabs. There are also Japanese people, which include escaped Christians (Kirishitan) who Martyrs of Japan, fled the persecutions of Shogun Tokugawa Ieyasu which the Spanish empire in the Philippines had offered asylum from. The descendants of mixed-race couples are known as ''Filipino mestizo, Tisoy''.


Languages

''Ethnologue'' lists 186 individual languages in the Philippines, 182 of which are living languages, while 4 no longer have any known speakers. Most native languages are part of the Philippine languages, Philippine branch of the Malayo-Polynesian languages, which is itself a branch of the Austronesian languages, Austronesian language family.Lewis, M. Paul, Gary F. Simons, and Charles D. Fennig (eds.). (2015)
Ethnologue: Languages of the World
' (18th ed.). Dallas, Tex.: SIL International. Retrieved April 13, 2015.
In addition, various Spanish-based creole varieties collectively called Chavacano exist. There are also many Philippine Negrito languages#Unique vocabulary, Philippine Negrito languages that have unique vocabularies that survived Austronesian acculturation. Filipino language, Filipino and Philippine English, English are the official languages of the country. Filipino is a standardized version of Tagalog language, Tagalog, spoken mainly in Metro Manila. Both Filipino and English are used in government, education, print, broadcast media, and business, with third local languages often being used at the same time. The Philippine constitution provides for the promotion of Spanish language in the Philippines, Spanish and Arabic on a voluntary and optional basis. Spanish, which was widely used as a lingua franca in the late nineteenth century, has since declined greatly in use, although Spanish loanwords are still present today in Philippine languages, while Arabic is mainly taught in Islamic schools in Mindanao. Nineteen regional languages act as auxiliary official languages used as media of instruction: Aklan language, Aklanon, Bikol languages, Bikol, Cebuano language, Cebuano, Chavacano, Hiligaynon language, Hiligaynon, Ibanag language, Ibanag, Ilocano language, Ilocano, Ivatan language, Ivatan, Kapampangan language, Kapampangan, Kinaray-a language, Kinaray-a, Maguindanao language, Maguindanao, Maranao language, Maranao, Pangasinan language, Pangasinan, Sambal language, Sambal, Surigaonon language, Surigaonon, Tagalog, Tausug language, Tausug, Waray language, Waray, and Yakan language, Yakan.DepEd adds 7 languages to mother tongue-based education for Kinder to Grade 3
GMA News. July 13, 2013.
Other indigenous languages such as, Cuyonon language, Cuyonon, Ifugao language, Ifugao, Itbayat language, Itbayat, Kalinga language, Kalinga, Kamayo language, Kamayo, Kankanaey language, Kankanaey, Masbateño language, Masbateño, Romblomanon language, Romblomanon, Manobo languages, Manobo, and several Visayan languages are prevalent in their respective provinces. Article 3 of Republic Act No. 11106 declared the Filipino Sign Language as the national sign language of the Philippines, specifying that it shall be recognized, supported and promoted as the medium of official communication in all transactions involving the deaf, and as the language of instruction of deaf education.


Religion

The Philippines is a secular state which protects Freedom of religion in the Philippines, freedom of religion. Christianity in the Philippines, Christianity is the dominant faith, shared by about 89% of the population. , the country had the Catholic Church by country, world's third largest Roman Catholic population, and was the Christianity in Asia, largest Christian nation in Asia. Census data from 2015 found that about % of the population professed Catholic Church in the Philippines, Catholicism. Around 37% of the population regularly attend Catholic Mass, Mass. 29% of self-identified Catholics consider themselves very religious. An Independent Catholic churches, independent Catholic church, the Philippine Independent Church, has around 66,959 adherents. Protestantism in the Philippines, Protestants were 9.13% of the population in 2015. % of the population are members of Iglesia ni Cristo. The combined following of the Philippine Council of Evangelical Churches comes to % of the total population. Islam in the Philippines, Islam is the second largest religion. The Muslim population of the Philippines was reported as % of the total population according to census returns in 2015. Conversely, a 2012 report by the National Commission of Muslim Filipinos (NCMF) stated that about 10,700,000 or 11% of Filipinos are Muslims. The majority of Muslims live in Mindanao and nearby islands. Most practice Sunni Islam under the Shafi'i school. The percentage of combined positive atheism, positive atheist and agnostic people in the Philippines was measured to be about 3% of the population as of 2008. The 2015 Philippine Census reported the religion of about % of the population as "none". A 2014 survey by Gallup International Association reported that 21% of its respondents identify as "not a religious person". Around % of the population practice indigenous Philippine folk religions, whose practices and folk beliefs are often syncretized with Christianity and Islam. Buddhism in the Philippines, Buddhism is practiced by around % of the population, concentrated among Filipinos of Chinese descent.


Health

In 2016, % of healthcare came from private expenditures while % was from the government (12.4% from the national government, 7.1% from the local government, and 17.4% from social health insurance). Total health expenditure share in GDP for the year 2016 was 4.5%. Per capita health expenditure rate in 2015 was , which was one of the lowest in Southeast Asia. The budget allocation for Healthcare in 2019 was ₱98.6 billion and had an increase in budget in 2014 with a record high in the collection of taxes from the House Bill 5727 (commonly known as Sin tax Bill). There were 101,688 hospital beds in the country in 2016, with government hospital beds accounting for 47% and private hospital beds for 53%. In 2009, there were an estimated 90,370 physicians or 1 per every 833 people, 480,910 nurses and 43,220 dentists. Retention of skilled practitioners is a problem. Seventy percent of nursing graduates go overseas to work. , the Philippines was the largest supplier of nurses for export. The Philippines suffers a triple burden of high levels of communicable diseases, high levels of non-communicable diseases, and high exposure to natural disasters. In 2018, there were 1,258 hospitals licensed by the Department of Health (Philippines), Department of Health, of which were government-run and private. A total of 20,065 barangay health stations (BHS) and 2,590 rural health units (RHUs) provide primary care services throughout the country as of 2016. Cardiovascular diseases account for more than 35% of all deaths. 9,264 cases of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) were reported for the year 2016, with 8,151 being asymptomatic cases. At the time the country was considered a low-HIV-prevalence country, with less than 0.1% of the adult population estimated to be HIV-positive. HIV/AIDS cases increased from 12,000 in 2005United States Agency for International Development. (May 2008)
''USAID Country Health Statistical Report – Philippines''
. Retrieved July 13, 2020.
to 39,622 as of 2016, with 35,957 being asymptomatic cases. There is improvement in patients access to medicines due to Filipinos' growing acceptance of generic drugs, with 6 out of 10 Filipinos already using generics. While the country's universal healthcare implementation is underway as spearheaded by the state-owned Philippine Health Insurance Corporation, most healthcare-related expenses are either borne out of pocket or through health maintenance organization (HMO)-provided health plans. As of April 2020, there are only about 7 million individuals covered by these plans.


Education

The Philippines had a simple literacy rate of 98.3% as of 2015, and a functional illiteracy, functional literacy rate of 90.3% as of 2013. Education takes up a significant proportion of the national budget. In the 2020 budget, education was allocated PHP17.1 billion from the PHP4.1 trillion budget. The Commission on Higher Education (Philippines), Commission on Higher Education (CHED) lists 2,180 higher education institutions, among which 607 are public and 1,573 are private.Republic of the Philippines. Commission on Higher Education. (August 2010). . ''Official Website of the Commission on Higher Education''. Retrieved April 17, 2011. Classes start in June and end in March. The majority of colleges and universities follow a semester calendar from June to October and November to March, while some have adopted an increasingly common semester calendar from August to December and January to May. Primary and secondary schooling is divided between a 6-year elementary period, a 4-year junior high school period, and a 2-year senior high school period. As of 2021–2022, the Department of Education considered September 13, 2021 as the opening date of the school year. The school year will last 209 days and will end on June 24, 2022. The Department of Education (Philippines), Department of Education (DepEd) covers elementary, secondary, and non-formal education. The Technical Education and Skills Development Authority (TESDA) administers middle-level education training and development. The Commission on Higher Education (CHED) was created in 1994 to, among other functions, formulate and recommend development plans, policies, priorities, and programs on Higher education in the Philippines, higher education and research. In 2004, madrasa, madaris were mainstreamed in 16 regions nationwide, mainly in Muslim areas in Mindanao under the auspices and program of the Department of Education. Public universities are all non-sectarian entities, and are further classified as State Universities and Colleges (SUC) or Local Colleges and Universities (LCU). The University of the Philippines, a system of eight constituent universities, is the national university system of the Philippines.Republic of the Philippines. (Approved: April 29, 2008)
''Republic Act 9500 – An Act to Strengthen the University of the Philippines as the National University''
Chan Robles Law Library.
The country's top ranked universities are as follows: University of the Philippines, Ateneo de Manila University, De La Salle University, and University of Santo Tomas. The University of Santo Tomas, established in 1611, has the oldest Extant literature, extant university charter in the Philippines and Asia.


Economy

The Philippine economy has produced an estimated gross domestic product (nominal) of $356.8 billion. Primary exports include semiconductors and electronic products, transport equipment, garments, copper products, petroleum products, coconut oil, and fruits. Major trading partners include the United States, Japan, China, Singapore, South Korea, the Netherlands, Hong Kong, Germany, Taiwan, and Thailand. Its unit of currency is the Philippine peso (₱ or PHP). A
newly industrialized country The category of newly industrialized country (NIC), newly industrialized economy (NIE) or middle income country is a Socioeconomics, socioeconomic Categorization, classification applied to several countries around the world by Political science, ...
, the Philippine economy has been transitioning from one based upon agriculture to an economy with more emphasis upon services and manufacturing. Of the country's 2018 labor force of around 43.46 million, the Agriculture in the Philippines, agricultural sector employed 24.3%, and accounted for 8.1% of 2018 GDP. The industrial sector employed around 19% of the workforce and accounted for 34.1% of GDP, while 57% of the workers involved in the services sector were responsible for 57.8% of GDP. The unemployment rate , stands at 4.5%. Meanwhile, due to lower charges in basic necessities, the inflation rate eased to 1.7% in August 2019. Gross international reserves as of October 2013 are $83.201 billion. The Debt-to-GDP ratio continues to decline to 37.6% as of the second quarter of 2019 from a record high of 78% in 2004. The country is a net importer but it is also a creditor nation. Manila hosts the headquarters of the Asian Development Bank. The 1997 Asian Financial Crisis affected the economy, resulting in a lingering decline of the value of the peso and falls in the stock market. The extent it was affected initially was not as severe as that of some of its Asian neighbors. This was largely due to the fiscal conservatism of the government, partly as a result of decades of monitoring and fiscal supervision from the International Monetary Fund (IMF), in comparison to the massive spending of its neighbors on the rapid acceleration of economic growth. There have been signs of progress since. In 2004, the economy experienced 6.4% GDP growth and 7.1% in 2007, its fastest pace of growth in three decades.Felix, Rocel. (January 25, 2008)
2007 GDP seen growing at fastest rate in 30 years
''The Philippine Daily Inquirer''. Retrieved May 29, 2010. (archived fro
the original
on February 22, 2015)
Average annual GDP growth per capita for the period 1966–2007 still stands at 1.45% in comparison to an average of 5.96% for the East Asia and the Pacific region as a whole. The daily income for 45% of the population of the Philippines remains less than $2.Reddel, Paul (May 27, 2009)
''Infrastructure & Public-Private Partnerships in East Asia and the Philippines''
[PowerPoint slides]. Presentation in Manila to the American Foreign Chambers of Commerce of the Philippines. Retrieved February 13, 2010 from the Public-Private Infrastructure Advisory Facility (PPIAF) Website.
Remittances from overseas Filipinos contribute significantly to the Philippine economy. Remittances peaked in 2006 at 10.4% of the national GDP, and were 8.6% and 8.5% in 2012 and in 2014 respectively. In 2014 the total worth of foreign exchange remittances was US$28 billion. Regional development is uneven, with Luzon – Metro Manila in particular – gaining most of the new economic growth at the expense of the other regions. Service industries such as Tourism in the Philippines, tourism and Business Process Outsourcing in the Philippines, business process outsourcing have been identified as areas with some of the best opportunities for growth for the country. The Outsourcing#Business process outsourcing, Business Process Outsourcing (BPO) industry is composed of eight sub-sectors, namely, knowledge process outsourcing and back offices, animation, Call center industry in the Philippines, call centers, software development, game development, engineering design, and medical transcription. , the Philippines was reported as having eclipsed India as the main center of BPO services in the world.


Science and technology

The Department of Science and Technology (Philippines), Department of Science and Technology is the governing agency responsible for the development of coordination of science and technology-related projects in the Philippines. Research organizations in the country include the International Rice Research Institute, which focuses on the development of new rice varieties and rice crop management techniques. The Philippines bought its first satellite in 1996. In 2016, Space program of the Philippines, the Philippines first micro-satellite, Diwata-1 was launched aboard the US Cygnus (spacecraft), Cygnus spacecraft. The Philippines has a high concentration of cellular phone users."Asia's Fab 50 Companies: PLDT-Philippine Long Distance Telephone"
''Forbes''. September 3, 2008. Retrieved 2009-13-14.
Text messaging is a popular form of communication and, in 2007, the nation sent an average of one billion Short message service, SMS messages per day. The country has a high level of mobile financial services utilization.Teves, Oliver. (October 29, 2007)
Cell phones double as electronic wallets in Philippines
''USA Today''. Associated Press. Retrieved July 6, 2020.
The Philippine Long Distance Telephone Company, commonly known as PLDT, is a formerly nationalized telecommunications provider. It is also the largest company in the country. The National Telecommunications Commission (Philippines), National Telecommunications Commission is the agency responsible for the supervision, adjudication and control over all Telecommunications in the Philippines, telecommunications services throughout the country. There are approximately 417 AM and 1079 FM radio stations and 438 television and 1,551 cable television stations. On March 29, 1994, the country was Internet in the Philippines, connected to the Internet via a 64 kbit/s connection from a router serviced by PLDT to a Sprint router in California. Estimates for Internet penetration in the Philippines vary widely ranging from a low of 2.5 million to a high of 24 million people. Social networking in the Philippines, Social networking and watching videos are among the most frequent Internet activities. The Philippine population is the world's top internet user. The Philippines was ranked 50th in the Global Innovation Index in 2020, it has increased its ranking considerably since 2014, where it was ranked 100th.


Tourism

The travel and tourism sector contributed 10.6% of the country's GDP in 2015 and providing 1,226,500 jobs in 2013. 8,260,913 international visitors arrived from January to December 2019, up by 15.24% for the same period in 2018. of these came from East Asia, came from North America, and came from other ASEAN countries. The island of Boracay, popular for its beaches, was named as the best island in the world by Travel + Leisure in 2012. The Philippines is also a popular retirement destination for foreigners due to its climate and low cost of living.


Infrastructure


Transportation

Transportation in the Philippines is facilitated by road, air, rail and waterways. As of December 2018, there are of roads in the Philippines, with only of roads paved. The Strong Republic Nautical Highway (SRNH), an integrated set of highway segments and ferry routes covering 17 cities was established in 2003. The Pan-Philippine Highway connects the islands of Luzon, Samar, Leyte, and Mindanao, forming the backbone of land-based transportation in the country. Roads are the dominant form of transport, carrying 98% of people and 58% of cargo. A Philippine expressway network, network of expressways extends from the capital to other areas of Luzon. The Cebu–Cordova Link Expressway in Cebu will be finished by 2021. Traffic is a significant issue facing the country, especially Traffic in Metro Manila, within Manila and on arterial roads connecting to the capital. Public transport in the country include buses, jeepneys, UV Express, TNVS, Filcab, taxis, and tricycles. Jeepneys are a popular and iconic public utility vehicle. Jeepneys and other Public Utility Vehicles which are older than 15 years are Public Utility Vehicle Modernization Program, being phased out gradually in favor of a more efficient and environmentally friendly Euro 4 compliant vehicles. Despite wider historical use, rail transport in the Philippines is extremely limited, being confined to transporting passengers within Metro Manila and neighboring Laguna (province), Laguna, with a separate short track in the Bicol Region. There are plans to revive Freight transport to reduce road congestion. , the country had a railway footprint of only 79 kilometers, which it had plans to expand up to 244 kilometers. Metro Manila is served by three rapid transit lines: LRT Line 1 (Metro Manila), LRT Line 1, LRT Line 2 (Metro Manila), LRT Line 2 and MRT Line 3 (Metro Manila), MRT Line 3.United Nations Centre for Human Settlements. (1993)
''Provision of Travelway Space for Urban Public Transport in Developing Countries''
UN–HABITAT. pp. 15, 26–70, 160–179. .
The PNR Metro Commuter Line, PNR South Commuter Line transports passengers between Metro Manila and Laguna. Railway lines that are under-construction include the Line 2 East Extension Project (2020), the MRT Line 7 (Metro Manila), MRT Line 7 (2020), the Metro Manila Subway (2025), and the PNR North–South Commuter Railway which is divided into several phases, with partial operations to begin in 2022. The civil airline industry is regulated by the Civil Aviation Authority of the Philippines. Philippine Airlines is Asia's oldest commercial airline still operating under its original name. Cebu Pacific is the countries leading low-cost carrier. As an archipelago, inter-island travel using watercraft is often necessary. Boats have always been important to societies in the Philippines. Most boats are outrigger boat, double-outrigger vessels, which can reach up to in length, known as ''banca''/''bangka'', ''parao'', prahu, or ''balanghay''. A variety of boat types are used throughout the islands, such as dugout canoe, dugouts (''baloto'') and house-boats like the ''lepa-lepa''. Terms such as ''bangka'' and ''baroto'' are also used as general names for a variety of boat types. Modern ships use plywood in place of logs and motor engines in place of sails. These ships are used both for fishing and for inter-island travel. The principal seaports of Port of Manila, Manila, Batangas International Port, Batangas, Port of Subic, Subic Bay, Port of Cebu, Cebu, Port of Iloilo, Iloilo, Port of Davao, Davao, Cagayan de Oro, General Santos, and Port of Zamboanga, Zamboanga form part of the ASEAN Transport Network. The Pasig River Ferry serves the cities of Manila, Makati, Mandaluyong, Pasig and Marikina in Metro Manila.


Water supply and sanitation

In 2015, it was reported by the Joint Monitoring Programme for Water Supply and Sanitation that 74% of the population had access to improved sanitation, and that "good progress" had been made between 1990 and 2015. As of 2016, 96% of Filipino households have an improved source of drinking water, and 92% of households had sanitary toilet facilities, although connections of these toilet facilities to appropriate sewerage systems remain largely insufficient especially in rural and urban poor communities.


Culture

There is significant cultural diversity across the islands, reinforced by the fragmented geography of the country. The cultures within
Mindanao Mindanao () is the List of islands of the Philippines, second-largest island in the Philippines, after Luzon and List of islands by population, seventh-most populous island in the world. Located in the southern region of the archipelago, the i ...
and the
Sulu Archipelago The Sulu Archipelago ( Tausug: سوڬ, ms, كڤولاوان سولو, fil, Kapuluan ng Sulu) is a chain of islands in the Pacific Ocean The Pacific Ocean is the largest and deepest of Earth's oceanic divisions. It extends from the Arc ...

Sulu Archipelago
developed in a particularly distinct manner, due to very limited degree of Spanish influence and greater influence from nearby Islamic regions. Despite this, a Filipino nationalism, national identity National revival, emerged in the 19th century, the development of which is represented by National symbols of the Philippines, shared national symbols and other cultural and historical touchstones. One of the most visible Spanish influence on Filipino culture, Hispanic legacies is the prevalence of Catálogo Alfabético de Apellidos, Spanish names and surnames among Filipinos; a Spanish name and surname, however, does not necessarily denote Spanish ancestry. This peculiarity, unique among the people of Asia, came as a result of a colonial edict by Governor-General Narciso Clavería y Zaldúa, 1st Count of Manila, Narciso Clavería y Zaldua, which ordered the systematic distribution of family names and implementation of Spanish naming customs, Hispanic nomenclature on the population. The names of many locations are also Spanish, or stem from Spanish roots and origins. There is a substantial American influence on modern Filipino culture. The common use of the English language is an example of the American impact on Philippine society. It has contributed to the influence of American pop cultural trends. This affinity is seen in Filipinos' consumption of fast food and American film and music. American global fast-food chain stalwarts have entered the market, but local fast-food chains like Goldilocks Bakeshop, Goldilocks and most notably Jollibee, the leading fast-food chain in the country, have emerged and compete successfully against foreign chains. The Ati-Atihan Festival, Ati-Atihan, Moriones Festival, Moriones and Sinulog List of festivals in the Philippines, festivals are among the most well-known.


Values

As a general description, the distinct value system of Filipinos is rooted primarily in personal alliance systems, especially those based in kinship, obligation, friendship, religion (particularly Christianity), and commercial relationships.''Social Values and Organization''
Philippines, Country Studies US. Online version of print book Ronald E. Dolan, ed. ''Philippines: A Country Study''. Washington: GPO for the Library of Congress, 1991.
Filipino values are, for the most part, centered around maintaining social harmony, motivated primarily by the desire to be accepted within a group. The main sanction against diverging from these values are the concepts of "''Hiya''", roughly translated as 'a sense of shame', and "''Amor propio''" or 'self-esteem'. Social approval, acceptance by a group, and belonging to a group are major concerns. Caring about what others will think, say or do, are strong influences on social behavior among Filipinos.Hallig, Jason V
''Communicating Holiness to the Filipinos: Challenges and Needs''
, The Path to a Filipino Theology of Holiness, pp. 2, 10.
Other elements of the Filipino value system are optimism about the future, pessimism about present situations and events, concern and care for other people, the existence of friendship and friendliness, the habit of being hospitable, religious nature, respectfulness to self and others, respect for the female members of society, the fear of God, and abhorrence of acts of cheating and thievery. File dated April 8, 2000. In


Architecture

Spanish architecture has left an imprint in the Philippines in the way many towns were designed around a poblacion, central square or ''plaza mayor'', but many of the buildings bearing its influence were demolished during World War II. Four Philippine baroque churches are included in the list of UNESCO World Heritage Sites: the San Agustin Church, Manila, San Agustín Church in Manila, Paoay Church in Ilocos Norte, Santa Maria Church, Nuestra Señora de la Asunción (Santa María) Church in Ilocos Sur, and Miagao Church, Santo Tomás de Villanueva Church in Iloilo. Vigan in Ilocos Sur is also known for the many Hispanic-style houses and buildings preserved there. American rule introduced new architectural styles. This led to the construction of government buildings and Art Deco theaters. During the American period, some semblance of city planning using the architectural designs and master plans by Daniel Burnham was done on the portions of the city of Manila. Part of the Burnham plan was the construction of government buildings that resembled Greek architecture, Greek or Neoclassical architecture. In Iloilo City, Iloilo, structures from both the Spanish and American periods can still be seen, especially in Calle Real, Iloilo, Calle Real. Certain areas of the country like Batanes have slight differences as both Spanish and Filipino ways of architecture assimilated differently due to the climate. Limestones were used as a building material, with houses being built to withstand typhoons.


Performing arts

In general, there are two types of Philippine traditional folk dance. The first one reflects the influence under the Spanish occupation and the other, the country's profuseness of tribes that offer their own tribal dances. The music that incorporates the former are mostly bandurria-based bands that utilizes 14th string guitars. One example of such type is the Cariñosa. A Hispanic Filipino dance, unofficially considered as the "National Dance of the Philippines". Another example is the Tinikling. While native dances had become less popular over time, a revival of folk dances began in the 1920s. In the Modern and Post-Modern time periods, dances may vary from the delicate ballet up to the more street-oriented styles of breakdancing. Locally produced spoken dramas became established in the late 1870s. Around the same time, Spanish influence led to the introduction of ''zarzuela'' plays which integrated musical pieces, and of ''Comedia (Spanish play), comedia'' plays which included more significant dance elements. Such performances became popular throughout the country, and were written in a number of local languages. American influence led to the introduction of vaudeville and ballet. During the 20th century the Realism (theatre), realism genre became more dominant, with performances written to focus on contemporary political and societal issues. During the Spanish era Rondalya music, where traditional string orchestra mandolin type instruments were used, was widespread.Filipino Arts & Music Ensemble
, Filipino Heritage, The Making of a Nation, Volume 9, 1978, famenyc.org
Kundiman developed in the 1920s and 30's, and had a renaissance in the postwar period. The American colonial period exposed many Filipinos to US culture and popular forms of music. Rock music was introduced to Filipinos in the 1960s, and developed into Filipino rock, or "Pinoy rock", a term encompassing diverse styles such as pop rock, alternative rock, heavy metal music, heavy metal, punk rock, punk, new wave music, new wave, ska, and reggae. Martial law in the 1970s produced several Philippine folk music, Filipino folk rock bands and artists who were at the forefront of political demonstrations. The 1970s also saw the birth of Manila Sound and Original Pilipino Music (OPM). Filipino hip-hop traces its origins back to 1979, entering the mainstream in 1990. Karaoke is a popular activity in the country. From 2010 to 2020, Philippine pop music or Pinoy pop, P-pop went through a huge metamorphosis in its increased quality, budget, investment, and variety, matching the country's rapid economy of the Philippines, economic growth, and an accompanying social and cultural resurgence of its Asian identity. This was heard by heavy influence from K-pop and J-pop, growth in Asian style ballads, idol groups, and EDM music, and less reliance on Western genres, mirroring the Korean wave and similar Japanese wave popularity among millennial Filipinos and mainstream culture.


Literature

Philippine mythology has been handed down primarily through the traditional Philippine folk literature, oral folk literature of the Filipino people. Some popular figures from Philippine mythologies are Maria Makiling, Biag ni Lam-Ang, Lam-Ang, and the Sarimanok. Philippine literature comprises works usually written in Filipino, Spanish, or English. Some of the most known were created from the 17th to 19th century. Ibong Adarna, Adarna, for example, is a famous epic about an eponymous magical bird allegedly written by José de la Cruz (writer), José de la Cruz or "Huseng Sisiw". Francisco Balagtas, the poet and playwright who wrote ''Florante at Laura'', is recognized as a preeminent writer in the Tagalog (Filipino) language.
José Rizal José Protasio Rizal Mercado y Alonso Realonda (; June 19, 1861 – December 30, 1896) was a Filipino nationalist, writer, and polymath during the tail end of the Spanish colonial period of the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pi ...
wrote the novels ''Noli Me Tángere (novel), Noli Me Tángere'' (''Touch Me Not'') and ''El Filibusterismo'' (''The Filibustering'', also known as ''The Reign of Greed'').


Cinema

Philippine cinema began at the end of the 19th century, and made up around 20% of the domestic market during the second half of the 20th century. During the 21st century however, the industry has struggled to compete with larger budget foreign films. Critically acclaimed Philippines films include ''Himala'' (''Miracle''). Moving pictures were first shown in the Philippines on January 1, 1897. All films were all in Spanish since Philippine cinema was first introduced during the final years of the Spanish era of the country. Antonio Ramos was the first known movie producer. Meanwhile, Jose Nepomuceno was dubbed as the "Father of Philippine Movies". His work marked the start of the local production of movies. Production companies remained small during the era of silent film, but 1933 saw the emergence of sound films and the arrival of the first significant production company. The postwar 1940s and the 1950s are regarded as a high point for Philippine cinema. The growing dominance of Hollywood films and the cost of production has severely reduced local filmmaking.A bleak storyline for the Filipino film industry
Conde, Carlos H. ''International Herald Tribune''. February 11, 2007. (archived fro
the original
on April 1, 2007)

. Vanzi, Sol Jose. ''Newsflash''. January 15, 2006.
Nonetheless, some local films continue to find success.


Mass media

Media in the Philippines, Philippine media uses mainly Filipino and English, though broadcasting has shifted to Filipino. There are large numbers of both List of radio stations in the Philippines, radio stations and List of newspapers in the Philippines, newspapers. The top three newspapers by nationwide readership as well as credibility are the Philippine Daily Inquirer, Manila Bulletin, and The Philippine Star. While freedom of the press is protected by the constitution, the country is very dangerous for journalists.Country profile: The Philippines
(January 9, 2018). ''BBC News''. Retrieved July 25, 2020.
The dominant Television in the Philippines, television networks were ABS-CBN and GMA Network, GMA, both being free to air. ABS-CBN, at the time the largest network was shut down following a cease and desist order issued by the National Telecommunications Commission (Philippines), National Telecommunications Commission on May 5, 2020, a day after the ABS-CBN franchise renewal controversy, expiration of the network's franchise. Prior to this move, Duterte accused ABS-CBN of being biased against his administration and vowed to block the renewal of their franchise. However, critics of the Duterte administration, human rights groups, and media unions said the shutdown of ABS-CBN was an attack on press freedom. On July 10, 2020, the House of Representatives declined a renewal of ABS-CBN's TV and radio franchise, voted 70–11. TV, the Internet, and social media, particularly Facebook, remain the top source of news and information for majority of Filipinos as newspaper readership continues to decline. English broadsheets are popular among executives, professionals and students. Cheaper Tagalog tabloids, which feature crime, sex, gossips and gore, saw a rise in the 1990s, and tend to be popular among the masses, particularly in Manila.


Cuisine

Regional variations exist throughout the islands, for example rice is a standard starch in Luzon while cassava is more common in Mindanao. Filipino taste buds tend to favor robust flavors, but the cuisine is not as spicy as those of its neighbors. Unlike many Asians, most Filipinos do not eat with chopsticks; they use Western cutlery. However, possibly due to rice being the primary staple food and the popularity of a large number of stews and main dishes with broth in Filipino cuisine, the main pairing of utensils seen at the Filipino dining table is that of spoon and fork, not knife and fork. The traditional way of eating with the hands known as ''kamayan'' (using the hand for bringing food to the mouth) was previously more often seen in the less urbanized areas. However, due to the various Filipino restaurants that introduced Filipino food to people of other nationalities, as well as to Filipino urbanites, ''kamayan'' fast became popular. This recent trend also sometimes incorporates the "Boodle fight" concept (as popularized and coined by the Philippine Army), wherein banana leaves are used as giant plates on top of which rice portions and Filipino viands are placed all together for a filial, friendly or communal ''kamayan'' feasting.


Sports

Basketball in the Philippines, Basketball is played at both amateur and professional levels and is considered to be the most popular sport in the Philippines. In 2010, Manny Pacquiao was named Edward J. Neil Trophy#2000s, "Fighter of the Decade" for the 2000s by the Boxing Writers Association of America. The national Filipino martial arts, martial art and sport of the country is Arnis de Mano, Arnis. Sabong or cockfighting is another popular entertainment especially among Filipino men, and was documented by Magellan's voyage as a pastime in the kingdom of Taytay. Filipinos also play football, and their Philippines national football team, football team has participated in only one 2019 AFC Asian Cup, Asian Cup. Beginning in Philippines at the 1924 Summer Olympics, 1924, the Philippines has competed in every Summer Olympic Games, except when they participated in the American-led boycott of the 1980 Summer Olympics. The Philippines is also the first Tropical nations at the Winter Olympics, tropical nation to compete at the Winter Olympic Games Philippines at the 1972 Winter Olympics, debuting in the 1972 edition. In 2021, the country tallied its first ever Olympic gold medal via weightlifter Hidilyn Diaz's victory at the 2020 Tokyo Olympics, delayed Tokyo Olympics.


See also

* Outline of the Philippines


Notes


References


Citations


Bibliography

* * * * *


Further reading

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Government


Official website of the National Government of the Republic of the Philippines

Official Gazette of the Republic of the Philippines

Official website of the Senate of the Philippines

Official website of the House of Representatives of the Philippines

Official website of the Supreme Court of the Philippines

Official website of Bangko Sentral ng Pilipinas (Central Bank of the Philippines)

Official website of the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA)

Official website of the Philippine National Police (PNP)

Official website of the Department of Tourism

The Philippines Online Tourism Guide


Trade


World Bank summary of trade statistics: Philippines


General information


Philippines profile
from the BBC News * at UCB Libraries GovPubs
Philippines
''The World Factbook''. Central Intelligence Agency. *
Philippines
at ''Encyclopædia Britannica'' *
Philippine News and Current Events

Key Development Forecasts for the Philippines
from International Futures


Books and articles


History of the Philippine Islands
in many volumes, from Project Gutenberg (indexed under Emma Helen Blair, the general editor) * About the influence of the Spanish people and language * * *


Wikimedia

* meta:Wikimedia Philippines, Wikimedia Philippines *


Other


Asian Development Bank (ADB)

Filipinana.net – Free digital library and a research portal

WikiSatellite view of Philippines
at WikiMapia {{Good article Philippines, English-speaking countries and territories Former colonies in Asia Former Spanish colonies Island countries Maritime Southeast Asia Member states of ASEAN Member states of the United Nations Newly industrializing countries Republics Southeast Asian countries Spanish East Indies States and territories established in 1565 States and territories established in 1898 States and territories established in 1946 Volcanic arc islands Countries in Asia Former Japanese colonies