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Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος ; 382 – 21 October 336 BC) was the king (
basileus ''Basileus'' ( el, βασιλεύς) is a Greek term and title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic quali ...
) of the kingdom of
Macedon Macedonia (; grc, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient kingdom on the periphery of Archaic and Classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (5th and 4th centuries BC) in Greek culture.The " ...
from 359 BC until his assassination in 336 BC. He was a member of the Argead dynasty of Macedonian kings, the third son of King
Amyntas III of Macedon Amyntas III (Greek language, Greek: Αμύντας Γ΄ της Μακεδονίας) (died 370 BC) was king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedon in 393 BC and again from 392 to 370 BC. He was the son of Arrhidaeus and grandson of Amyntas, one of ...
, and father of
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (') of the kingdom of and a member of the . He was born in in 356 BC and succeeded his ...

Alexander the Great
and
Philip III
Philip III
. The
rise of Macedon Under the reign of Philip II (359–336 BC), the kingdom of Macedonia, initially at the periphery of classical Greek affairs, came to dominate Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a per ...
, its conquest and political consolidation of most of
Classical Greece Classical Greece was a period of around 200 years (the 5th and 4th centuries BC) in Ancient Greece Ancient Greece ( el, Ἑλλάς, Hellás) was a civilization belonging to a period of History of Greece, Greek history from the Greek Dar ...
during the reign of Philip II was achieved in part by his reformation of the Macedonian army, establishing the
Macedonian phalanxThe Macedonian phalanx ( gr, Μακεδονική φάλαγξ) is an infantry at the Battle of the Somme (July–November 1916) during the First World War Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in mili ...

Macedonian phalanx
that proved critical in securing victories on the battlefield. After defeating the
Greek city-states ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ...

Greek city-states
of
Athens , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 rect 15 475 485 874 rect 500 475 ...
and Thebes at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, Philip II led the effort to establish a
federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, who are organized by some form of Institutionalisation, institutionalized ...

federation
of Greek states known as the
League of Corinth The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός ''Hellenikos'', "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a confederation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC aft ...
, with him as the elected
hegemon Hegemony (, , ) is the political, economic, and military predominance of one state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (new ...
and
commander-in-chief A commander-in-chief or supreme commander is the person who exercises supreme command and control Image:CIC-USS-CarlVinson-2001.jpg, A watchstander at her station in the combat information center of USS Carl Vinson, USS ''Carl Vinson'' in the ...
of
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in . Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of 2021; is its largest and capital city, followed by . Situated on the southern tip of the , ...
for a planned invasion of the
Achaemenid Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, , translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient based in founded by . Ranging at its greatest extent from the and proper in the west to the in the east, it ...

Achaemenid Empire
of
Persia Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in . It is bordered to the northwest by and , to the north by the , to the northeast by , to the east by , to the southeast by , t ...

Persia
. However, his assassination by a royal bodyguard,
Pausanias of Orestis Pausanias of Orestis ( grc, Παυσανίας ἐκ τῆς Ὀρεστίδος) was a member of Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ...
, led to the immediate succession of his son Alexander, who would go on to invade the Achaemenid Empire in his father's stead.


Biography


Youth and accession

Philip was the youngest son of King
Amyntas III Amyntas III (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million a ...
and Eurydice I. After the assassination of his eldest brother, Alexander II, Philip was sent as a
hostage A hostage is a person seized by an abductor in order to compel another party such as a relative Relative may refer to: General use *Kinship and family, the principle binding the most basic social units society. If two people are connected by ci ...
to Illyria by
Ptolemy of Aloros Ptolemy of Aloros ( grc-gre, Πτολεμαῖος), was sent by King Amyntas III of Macedon as an envoy to Athens c. 375–373 BC. After Amyntas' death, he began a liaison with his widow, Eurydice. In 368 BC, he assassinated her son, Alexander ...
. Philip was later held in Thebes (c. 368–365 BC), which at the time was the leading city of Greece. While in Thebes, Philip received a military and diplomatic education from
Epaminondas Epaminondas (; grc-gre, Ἐπαμεινώνδας, Epameinṓndas; – 362 BC) was a Greeks, Greek General officer, general (''strategos''/Boeotarch) of Thebes, Greece, Thebes and statesman of the 4th century BC who transformed the Ancient Gre ...

Epaminondas
, became
eromenos The word ''eromenos'' describes an adolescent boy who is the passive (or ‘receptive’, ‘subordinate’) partner in a homosexual relationship (usually between males), opposite to the word ''erastes'' (to love, the older and active partner) in A ...
of
Pelopidas:''For the genus Genus (plural genera) is a taxonomic rank Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such classification. The term may also refer to a specific ...
, and lived with Pammenes, who was an enthusiastic advocate of the
Sacred Band of Thebes The Sacred Band of Thebes (Ancient Greek: , ''Hieròs Lokhos, Lókhos'') was a troop of select soldiers, consisting of 150 pairs of Homosexuality in ancient Greece, male lovers which formed the elite force of the Ancient Thebes (Boeotia), Theban a ...
. In 364 BC, Philip returned to
Macedon Macedonia (; grc-gre, Μακεδονία), also called Macedon (), was an ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past events
. In 359 BC, Philip's other brother, King Perdiccas III, died in battle against the
Illyrians The Illyrians ( grc, Ἰλλυριοί, ''Illyrioi''; la, Illyrii) were a group of Indo-European speaking peoples, who inhabited the western Balkan Peninsula The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in so ...

Illyrians
. Before leaving, Perdiccas had appointed Philip as
regent A regent (from the Latin : ruling, governing) is a person appointed to govern a state ''pro tempore'' (Latin Language, Latin: 'for the time being') because the regnant monarch is a minor, is absent, abdicated the throne, is incapacitated or dea ...
for his infant son
Amyntas IV Amyntas IV (Ancient Greek, Greek: Ἀμύντας Δ΄) was a titular king of the Greek kingdom of Macedonia in 359 BC and member of the Argead dynasty. Biography Amyntas was a son of King Perdiccas III of Macedon. He was born in about 365 BC.Jos ...
, but Philip succeeded in taking the kingdom for himself. Philip's military skills and expansionist vision of Macedonia brought him early success. He first had to remedy the woes over Macedonian territory faced by his throne’s government. This was a predicament that had greatly worsened through Macedonia’s defeat by the
Illyrians The Illyrians ( grc, Ἰλλυριοί, ''Illyrioi''; la, Illyrii) were a group of Indo-European speaking peoples, who inhabited the western Balkan Peninsula The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in so ...

Illyrians
, a struggle in which King Perdiccas himself had died. The
Paeonians Paeonians were an ancient Indo-European people that dwelt in Paeonia. Paeonia was an old country whose location was to the north of ancient Macedonia, to the south of Dardania, to the west of Thrace and to the east of Illyria, most of their lan ...

Paeonians
and the
Thracians The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European languages, Indo-European speaking people, who inhabited large parts of Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. ...
had sacked and invaded the eastern regions of Macedonia, while the
Athenians , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect 15 15 985 460 Acropolis of Athens rect 15 475 485 ...

Athenians
had landed at Methoni on the coast with a contingent under the Macedonian pretender Argaeus II.


Military career


Improvements to the army

Using diplomacy, Philip pushed back the Paeonians and Thracians promising tributes, and defeated the 3,000 Athenian
hoplite Hoplites () ( grc, ὁπλίτης : hoplítēs) were citizen-soldiers of Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 B ...
s (359 BC). Momentarily free from his opponents, he concentrated on strengthening his internal position and, above all, his army. Philip II made many notable contributions to the Macedonian army. The cavalry and infantry, which were the primary source of the army's strength, roughly doubled from the time of the battles with the Illyrians to 334 BC. The discipline and training of the soldiers increased as well, and the Macedonian soldiers under Philip were provided with the possibility of promotion through the ranks and rewards and bonus wages for exceptional service. In addition to these changes, Philip created the
Macedonian phalanxThe Macedonian phalanx ( gr, Μακεδονική φάλαγξ) is an infantry at the Battle of the Somme (July–November 1916) during the First World War Infantry is an army specialization whose military personnel, personnel engage in mili ...

Macedonian phalanx
, an infantry formation that consisted of soldiers all armed with a ''
sarissa The sarisa or sarissa ( el, σάρισα) was a long spear or Pike (weapon), pike about in length. It was introduced by Philip II of Macedon and was used in his Macedonian phalanxes as a replacement for the earlier Dory (spear), dory, which wa ...
.'' Philip is credited for adding the ''sarissa'' to the Macedonian army, where it soon was the common weapon used by most soldiers.


Early military career

Philip had married
Audata Audata (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers c ...
, great-granddaughter of the Illyrian king of Dardania,
Bardyllis Bardylis (also Bardyllis ; grc, Βάρδυλις; 448 – c. 358 BC) was an Illyrian king, and the founder of the first attested Illyrian dynasty. During his reign, Bardylis united many southern Illyrian tribes This is a list of ancient tribes ...
. However, this marriage did not prevent him from marching against the Illyrians in 358 BC and defeating them in a battle in which some 7,000 Illyrians died (357). By this move, Philip established his authority inland as far as
Lake Ohrid Lake Ohrid ( mk, Охридско Езеро , al, Liqeni i Ohrit , ''Liqeni i Pogradecit'';) is a lake which straddles the mountainous border between the southwestern part of North Macedonia and Albanian Ohrid Lake Coast, eastern Albania. It is ...

Lake Ohrid
and earned the favour of the Epirotes. After securing the western and southern borders of Macedon, Philip went on to siege
Amphipolis Amphipolis ( ell, Αμφίπολη, translit=Amfipoli; grc, Ἀμφίπολις, translit=Amphipolis) is a municipality in the Serres regional unit of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country loca ...
in 357 BC. The Athenians had been unable to conquer Amphipolis, which commanded the
gold mines Gold mining is the resource extraction of gold by mining. History The exact date that humans first began to mine gold is unknown, but some of the oldest known gold artifacts were found in the Varna Necropolis in Bulgaria. The graves of the ...
of Mount Pangaion, so Philip reached an agreement with Athens to lease the city to them after his conquest, in exchange for
Pydna Pydna (in Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately ...
(which was lost by Macedon in 363 BC). However, after conquering Amphipolis, Philip captured Pydna for himself and kept both cities (357 BC). Athens soon declared war against him, and as a result, Philip allied Macedon with the
Chalcidian LeagueThe Chalcidian League ( el, Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, ''Koinon tōn Chalkideōn'', "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the Olynthians or the Chalcidians in Thrace (, ''Chalkideis epi Thrakēs'') to distinguish them from t ...
of
Olynthus Olynthus ( grc, Ὄλυνθος ''Olynthos'', named for the ὄλυνθος ''olunthos'', "the fruit of the wild fig tree") was an ancient city of Chalcidice, built mostly on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the hea ...
. He subsequently conquered
Potidaea__NOTOC__ Remains of the city wall of Potidaea. Potidaea (; grc, Ποτίδαια, ''Potidaia'', also Ποτείδαια, ''Poteidaia'') was a colony In political science, a colony is a territory subject to a form of foreign rule. Though do ...

Potidaea
, this time keeping his word and ceding it to the League in 356 BC. In 357 BC, Philip married the Epirote princess
Olympias Olympias ( grc, Ὀλυμπιάς, , c. 375–316 BC) was the eldest daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the sister of Alexander I of Epirus, the fourth wife of Philip of Macedon, Philip II, the king of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon ...

Olympias
, who was the daughter of the king of the
Molossians The Molossians () were a group of ancient Ancient history is the aggregate of past eventsWordNet ...
.
Alexander Alexander is a male given name. The most prominent bearer of the name is Alexander the Great, the king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia who created one of the largest empires in ancient history. Etymology T ...

Alexander
was born in 356 BC, the same year as Philip's racehorse won at the
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a pe ...
. During 356 BC, Philip conquered the town of Crenides and changed its name to
Philippi Philippi (; grc-gre, Φίλιπποι, ''Philippoi'') was a major Greek city northwest of the nearby island, Thasos Thasos or Thassos ( el, Θάσος, ''Thásos'') is a Greek island, geographically part of the North Aegean Sea, but administ ...

Philippi
. He then established a powerful garrison there to control its mines, which yielded much of the gold he later used for his campaigns. In the meantime, his general
Parmenion Parmenion (also Parmenio; grc-gre, Παρμενίων; c. 400 – 330 BC), son of Philotas, was an Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382 ...
defeated the Illyrians again. In 355–354 BC he besieged Methone, the last city on the
Thermaic Gulf The Thermaic Gulf (), also called the Gulf of Salonika and the Macedonian Gulf, is a gulf A gulf is a large inlet from the ocean into the landmass, typically with a narrower opening than a bay (geography), bay, but that is not observable in a ...
controlled by Athens. During the siege, Philip was injured in his right eye, which was later removed surgically. Despite the arrival of two Athenian fleets, the city fell in 354 BC. Philip also attacked Abdera and Maronea, on the
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied ...
coast (354–353 BC).


Third Sacred War

Philip's involvement in the
Third Sacred War The Third Sacred War (356–346 BC) was fought between the forces of the Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was co ...
(356-346 BC) began in 354 BC. At the request of the Thessalian League, Philip and his army traveled to
Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek#Thessalian, Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic and modern administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece, co ...

Thessaly
in order to capture
Pagasae Pagasae or Pagases ( el, Παγασαί, Pagasaí), also Pagasa, was a town and polis ''Polis'' (, ; grc-gre, πόλις, ), plural ''poleis'' (, , ), literally means "city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin ...
, resulting in an alliance with Thebes. A year later in 353 BC, Philip was once again asked to assist in battle, but this time against the tyrant Lycophron who was supported by
Onomarchus Onomarchus ( grc, Ὀνόμαρχος) was general of the Phocians in the Third Sacred War The Third Sacred War (356–346 BC) was fought between the forces of the Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancien ...
. Philip and his forces invaded Thessaly, defeating 7,000 Phocians and forcing Phayllus, the brother of Onomarchus, to leave. That same year, Onomarchus and his army defeated Philip in two succeeding battles. Philip returned to Thessaly the next summer, this time with an army of 20,000 infantry, 3,000 cavalry, and the additional support of the Thessalian League's forces. At the Battle of Crocus Field, 6,000 Phocians fell and 3,000 were taken as prisoners and later drowned. This battle earned Philip immense prestige as well as the free acquisition of
Pherae Pherae ( Greek: Φεραί) was a city and polis ''Polis'' (; grc-gre, :wikt:πόλις, πόλις ), plural ''poleis'' (, ) literally means "city" in Greek. It defined the administrative and religious city center, as distinct from the res ...
. He was made the leader (''
archon ''Archon'' ( gr, ἄρχων, árchōn, plural: ἄρχοντες, ''árchontes'') is a Greek word that means "ruler", frequently used as the title of a specific public office. It is the masculine present participle of the verb stem αρχ-, meanin ...

archon
'') of the Thessalian League and was able to claim Magnesia and Perrhaebia, which expanded his territory to Pagasae. Philip did not attempt to advance into
Central Greece Continental Greece ( el, Στερεά Ελλάδα, ''Stereá Elláda''; formerly , ''Chérsos Ellás''), colloquially known as Roúmeli (Ρούμελη), is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic region of Greece. In English the ...

Central Greece
because the Athenians, unable to arrive in time to defend Pagasae, had occupied
Thermopylae Thermopylae (; Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods ...

Thermopylae
. There were no hostilities with Athens yet, but Athens was threatened by the Macedonians. From 352 to 346 BC, Philip did not again travel south. He was active in completing the subjugation of the
Balkan The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geograp ...

Balkan
hill-country to the west and north, and in reducing the Greek cities of the coast as far as the . To the chief of these coastal cities,
Olynthus Olynthus ( grc, Ὄλυνθος ''Olynthos'', named for the ὄλυνθος ''olunthos'', "the fruit of the wild fig tree") was an ancient city of Chalcidice, built mostly on two flat-topped hills 30–40m in height, in a fertile plain at the hea ...
, Philip continued to profess friendship until its neighboring cities were in his hands. In 348 BC, Philip started the siege of Olynthus, which, apart from its strategic position, housed his half-brothers, Arrhidaeus and
Menelaus In Greek mythology Greek mythology is the body of myths originally told by the Ancient Greece, ancient Greeks, and a genre of Ancient Greek folklore. These stories concern the Cosmogony, origin and Cosmology#Metaphysical cosmology, nature of ...
, pretenders to the Macedonian throne. Olynthus had at first allied itself with Philip, but later shifted its allegiance to Athens. The latter, however, did nothing to help the city because its expeditions were held back by a revolt in
Euboea Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια Euboea (, ) or Evia (, ; el, Εύβοια ; grc, Εὔβοια ) is the second-largest List of islands of Greece, Greek island in area and population, after Crete. It is separated from Boeotia ...

Euboea
. The Macedonian king took Olynthus in 348 BC and razed the city to the ground. The same fate was inflicted on other cities of the Chalcidian peninsula, resulting in the
Chalcidian LeagueThe Chalcidian League ( el, Κοινόν τῶν Χαλκιδέων, ''Koinon tōn Chalkideōn'', "League of the Chalcidians"), also referred to as the Olynthians or the Chalcidians in Thrace (, ''Chalkideis epi Thrakēs'') to distinguish them from t ...
dissolving. Macedon and the regions adjoining it having now been securely consolidated, Philip celebrated his
Olympic Games The modern Olympic Games or Olympics (french: Jeux olympiques) are leading international sporting events featuring summer and winter sports competitions in which thousands of athletes An athlete (also sportsman or sportswoman) is a pe ...
at
Dium Dion or Dio ( el, Δίον; grc, Δῖον; la, Dium) is a village and municipal unit in the municipality of Dion-Olympos in the Pieria regional unit, Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country ...
. In 347 BC, Philip advanced to the conquest of the eastern districts about Hebrus, and compelled the submission of the
Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in ancient history.. "The Thracians were an Indo-European people who occupied ...

Thracian
prince
CersobleptesCersobleptes ( el, Kερσoβλέπτης, Kersobleptēs, also found in the form Cersebleptes, Kersebleptēs), was son of Cotys I, king of the Odrysians in Thrace Map of Ancient Thrace made by Abraham Ortelius in 1585, stating both the names ...
. In 346 BC, he intervened effectively in the war between Thebes and the Phocians, but his wars with Athens continued intermittently. However, Athens had made overtures for peace, and when Philip again moved south, peace was sworn in Thessaly.


Later campaigns (346–336 BC)

With key Greek city-states in submission, Philip II turned to
Sparta Sparta (Doric Greek Doric or Dorian ( grc, Δωρισμός, Dōrismós) was an . Its variants were spoken in the southern and eastern as well as in , , , , , some islands in the southern and some cities on the south east coast of ...

Sparta
, warning them "If I invade Laconia, I shall turn you out. The Spartans'
laconic A laconic phrase or laconism is a concise or terse statement, especially a blunt Blunt may refer to: * Blunt (surname), a surname (and list of people with the name) * Blunt (cigar), a term used in the cigar industry to designate blunt-tipped, u ...
reply was one word: "If." Philip proceeded to invade Laconia, devastate much of it and eject the Spartans from various parts. In 345 BC, Philip conducted a hard-fought campaign against the Ardiaioi (
Ardiaei The Ardiaei were an Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyri ...
), under their king
Pleuratus I Pleuratus I (Ancient Greek: Πλευρᾶτος; ruled 356335 ) was an Illyrian king of the Illyrian tribe of the Taulantii. Pleuratus was the father of Glaucias of Taulantii, Glaucias. Philip II won a fierce battle with him in 344 BC although Phi ...
, during which Philip was seriously wounded in the lower right leg by an Ardian soldier. In 342 BC, Philip led a military expedition north against the
Scythians The Scythians (from grc, Σκύθης , ) or Scyths, also known as Saka and Sakae ( ; egy, 𓋴𓎝𓎡𓈉 The ancient Egyptian Hill-country or "Foreign land" hieroglyph (𓈉) is a member of the sky, earth, and water hieroglyphs. A ...
, conquering the Thracian fortified settlement Eumolpia to give it his name, ''Philippopolis'' (modern
Plovdiv Plovdiv ( bg, Пловдив, ) is the second-largest city in Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a co ...

Plovdiv
). In 340 BC, Philip started the siege of
Perinthus Perinthus or Perinthos ( grc, ἡ Πέρινθος) was a great and flourishing town of ancient Thrace The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern ...
, and in 339 BC, began another siege against the city of
Byzantium Byzantium () or Byzantion ( grc-gre, Βυζάντιον) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark A ...

Byzantium
. As both sieges failed, Philip's influence over Greece was compromised. He successfully reasserted his authority in the
Aegean Aegean may refer to: *Aegean Sea *Aegean Islands *Aegean Region (geographical), Turkey *Aegean Region (statistical), Turkey *Aegean civilizations *Aegean languages, a group of ancient languages and proposed language family *Aegean Sea (theme), a n ...

Aegean
by defeating an alliance of Thebans and Athenians at the Battle of Chaeronea in 338 BC, and in the same year, destroyed
Amfissa Amfissa ( el, Άμφισσα , also mentioned in classical sources as Amphissa) is a town in Phocis Phocis ( el, Φωκίδα, , grc, Φωκίς ) is one of the regional units of Greece. It is part of the administrative region of Central Greece ...
because the residents had illegally cultivated part of the Crisaian plain which belonged to
Delphi Delphi (; ), in legend previously called Pytho (Πυθώ), in ancient times was a sacred precinct that served as the seat of Pythia, the major oracle who was consulted about important decisions throughout the ancient classical world. The oracle ...

Delphi
. These decisive victories led to Philip being recognized as the
military leader Military ranks are a system of hierarchy, hierarchical relationships in armed forces, police, intelligence agencies or other institutions organized along military lines. The military rank system defines dominance, authority, and responsibility i ...
of the
League of Corinth The League of Corinth, also referred to as the Hellenic League (from Greek Ἑλληνικός ''Hellenikos'', "pertaining to Greece and Greeks"), was a confederation of Greek states created by Philip II during the winter of 338 BC/337 BC aft ...
, a Greek
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
allied against the
Persian Empire The Achaemenid Empire (; peo, wikt:𐎧𐏁𐏂𐎶, 𐎧𐏁𐏂, translit=Xšāça, translation=The Empire), also called the First Persian Empire, was an ancient Iranian peoples, Iranian empire based in Western Asia founded by Cyrus the Grea ...

Persian Empire
, in 338/7 BC. Members of the league agreed never to wage war against each other, unless it was to suppress
revolution In political science Political science is the scientific study of politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, suc ...

revolution
.


Asian campaign (336 BC)

Philip II was involved quite early against the Achaemenid Empire. From around 352 BC, he supported several Persian opponents to
Artaxerxes III Ochus ( Greek: Ὦχος, ''Ôchos''; Babylonian: ''Ú-ma-kuš''), better known by his dynastic name of Artaxerxes III ( peo, 𐎠𐎼𐎫𐎧𐏁𐏂 ''Artaxšaçā'') was King of Kings King of Kings ( Akkadian: ''šar šarrāni''; Old Pe ...

Artaxerxes III
, such as
Artabazos II Artabazos II (in Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 m ...
, Amminapes or a Persian nobleman named Sisines, by receiving them for several years as exiles at the Macedonian court. This gave him a good knowledge of Persian issues, and may even have influenced some of his innovations in the management of the Macedonian state. Alexander was also acquainted with these Persian exiles during his youth. In 336 BC, Philip II sent
Parmenion Parmenion (also Parmenio; grc-gre, Παρμενίων; c. 400 – 330 BC), son of Philotas, was an Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382 ...
, with Amyntas, Andromenes and Attalus, and an army of 10,000 men into
Asia Minor Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural or artificial feature of ...

Asia Minor
to make preparations for an invasion to free the Greeks living on the western coast and islands from Achaemenid rule. At first, all went well. The Greek cities on the western coast of Anatolia revolted until the news arrived that Philip had been assassinated and had been succeeded as king by his young son Alexander. The Macedonians were demoralized by Philip's death and were subsequently defeated near Magnesia by the Achaemenids under the command of the mercenary
Memnon of Rhodes Memnon of Rhodes (Greek: Μέμνων ὁ Ῥόδιος; c. 380 – 333 BC) was a prominent Rhodes, Rhodian Greeks, Greek commander in the service of the Achaemenid Empire, Persian Achaemenid Empire. Related to the Persian aristocracy by the ma ...
.


Marriages

The kings of Macedon practiced
polygamy Polygamy (from Greek language, Late Greek , ''polygamía'', "state of marriage to many spouses") is the practice of marriage, marrying multiple spouses. When a man is married to more than one wife at the same time, sociologists call this poly ...
. Philip II had seven wives throughout his life, all members of royalty from foreign dynasties. All of Philip's wives were considered queens, making their children royalty as well. The dates of Philip's multiple marriages and the names of some of his wives are contested. Below is the order of marriages offered by
Athenaeus Athenaeus of Naucratis Naucratis or Naukratis ( grc-gre, Ναύκρατις, "Naval Command"; Egyptian Egyptian describes something of, from, or related to Egypt. Egyptian or Egyptians may refer to: Nations and ethnic groups * Egyptians, a n ...
, 13.557b–e: *
Audata Audata (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers c ...
, the daughter of
Illyrian Illyrian may refer to: * Illyria, the historical region on the Balkan Peninsula ** Illyrians, ancient tribes inhabiting Illyria ** Illyrian language, a language or group of languages of ancient Illyrian tribes * Illyrian (South Slavic), a common na ...

Illyrian
king
Bardyllis Bardylis (also Bardyllis ; grc, Βάρδυλις; 448 – c. 358 BC) was an Illyrian king, and the founder of the first attested Illyrian dynasty. During his reign, Bardylis united many southern Illyrian tribes This is a list of ancient tribes ...
. Mother of
Cynane Cynane ( el, Kυνάνη, ''Kynane'' or , ''Kyna''; killed 323 BC) was half-sister to Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the ...
. *
Phila of ElimeiaPhila ( el, Φίλα τῆς Ἐλίμειας), sister of Derdas III, Derdas and Machatas of Elimeia, was the first or second wife of Philip II of Macedon. References

*Dicaearchus ap. Aflien. xiii. p. 557, c. *''Who's who in the age of Ale ...
, the sister of Derdas and Machatas of
Elimiotis Elimiotis or Elimeia ( grc, Ἐλιμιώτις or Ἐλιμία or Ἐλίμεια) was a region of Upper Macedonia that was located along the Haliacmon, Haliacmon river. The capital of Elimiotis was Aiani, located in the modern municipality of ...
. *
NicesipolisNicesipolis or Nicasipolis of Pherae ( el, Νικησίπολις ''Nikesipolis''), was a Thessalian woman, native of the city Pherae, wife or concubine of king Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μα ...
of
Pherae Pherae ( Greek: Φεραί) was a city and polis ''Polis'' (; grc-gre, :wikt:πόλις, πόλις ), plural ''poleis'' (, ) literally means "city" in Greek. It defined the administrative and religious city center, as distinct from the res ...
,
Thessaly Thessaly ( el, Θεσσαλία, translit=Thessalía, ; ancient Aeolic Greek#Thessalian, Thessalian: , ) is a traditional geographic regions of Greece, geographic and modern administrative regions of Greece, administrative region of Greece, co ...

Thessaly
, mother of
Thessalonica Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica (), is the List of countries by largest and second largest cities, second-largest city in Greece, with over 1 million inhabitants in its Thessaloni ...
. *
Olympias Olympias ( grc, Ὀλυμπιάς, , c. 375–316 BC) was the eldest daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the sister of Alexander I of Epirus, the fourth wife of Philip of Macedon, Philip II, the king of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon ...

Olympias
of
Epirus sq, Epiri rup, Epiru , native_name_lang = , settlement_type = Historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a culture, cultural, ethnic group, ethn ...
, daughter of Neoptolemus I, mother of
Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, was a king (') of the kingdom of and a member of the . He was born in in 356 BC and succeeded his ...

Alexander the Great
and
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( grc-gre, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ}; 69 BC10 August 30 BC) was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.She was also a diplomat, Ancient ...
. *
Philinna Philinna (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
of
Larissa Larissa (; el, Λάρισα, , ) is the capital and largest city of the Thessaly modern regions of Greece, region in Greece. It is the fifth-most populous city in Greece with a population of 144,651 according to the 2011 census. It is also capita ...

Larissa
, mother of Arrhidaeus later called
Philip III of Macedon Philip III Arrhidaeus ( grc, Φίλιππος Γ΄ ὁ Ἀρριδαῖος; c. 359 BC – 25 December, 317 BC) reigned as king of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia an Ancient Greek Kingdom in northern Greece from after 11 June 323 BC un ...

Philip III of Macedon
. *
Meda of Odessos Meda of Odessos ( grc, Μήδα, Mḗda), died 336 BC, was a Thracian The Thracians (; grc, Θρᾷκες ''Thrāikes''; la, Thraci) were an Indo-European speaking people who inhabited large parts of Eastern and Southeastern Europe in anci ...
, daughter of the king Cothelas, of
Thrace Thrace (; el, Θράκη, Thráki; bg, Тракия, Trakiya; tr, Trakya) or Thrake is a geographical and historical region in Southeast Europe, now split among Bulgaria, Greece, and Turkey, which is bounded by the Balkan Mountains to th ...
. * Cleopatra, daughter of Hippostratus and niece of general Attalus of Macedonia. Philip renamed her
Cleopatra Eurydice of Macedon Eurydice ( Greek: Εὐρυδίκη), born Cleopatra ( Greek: Κλεοπάτρα) was a mid-4th century BC Macedonian noblewoman, niece of Attalus, and last of the seven wives of Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιπ ...
.


Assassination

King Philip was assassinated in October 336 BC at Aegae, the ancient capital of the kingdom of Macedon. Philip and his royal court were gathered in order to celebrate the marriage of
Alexander I of Epirus Alexander I of Epirus ( grc, Ἀλέξανδρος Α'; c. 371 BC – 331 BC), also known as Alexander Molossus (), was a king of Epirus Epirus () is a geographical and historical History (from Ancient Greek, Greek , ''historia' ...
and
Cleopatra of Macedon Cleopatra of Macedonia (Greek language, Greek: Κλεοπάτρα της Μακεδονίας) c. 355/354 BC – 308 BC), or Cleopatra of Epirus (Greek language, Greek: Κλεοπάτρα της Ηπείρου) was an ancient Ancient Macedonians, ...
—Philip's daughter by his fourth wife
Olympias Olympias ( grc, Ὀλυμπιάς, , c. 375–316 BC) was the eldest daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the sister of Alexander I of Epirus, the fourth wife of Philip of Macedon, Philip II, the king of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon ...

Olympias
. While the king was entering into the town's theatre, he was unprotected in order to appear approachable to the Greek diplomats and dignitaries who were present at that time. Philip was suddenly approached by
Pausanias of Orestis Pausanias of Orestis ( grc, Παυσανίας ἐκ τῆς Ὀρεστίδος) was a member of Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382–336 BC) was the king (basileus) of the ...
, one of his seven bodyguards, and was stabbed in his ribs. After Philip was killed, the assassin then immediately tried to escape and reach his getaway associates who were waiting for him with horses at the entrance to Aegae. The assassin was pursued by three of Philip's other bodyguards, and during the chase, he accidentally tripped on a vine. He was subsequently stabbed to death by the bodyguards. The reasons for the assassination are difficult to expound fully. There was already controversy among ancient historians; the only contemporary account in our possession is that of
Aristotle Aristotle (; grc-gre, Ἀριστοτέλης ''Aristotélēs'', ; 384–322 BC) was a Greek philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questio ...

Aristotle
who states, rather tersely, that Philip was killed because Pausanias had been offended by Attalus (Philip's uncle-in-law) and his friends. Attalus was the uncle of Philip's wife
Cleopatra Cleopatra VII Philopator ( grc-gre, Κλεοπάτρα Φιλοπάτωρ}; 69 BC10 August 30 BC) was queen of the Ptolemaic Kingdom of Ancient Egypt, Egypt from 51 to 30 BC, and its last active ruler.She was also a diplomat, Ancient ...
(renamed Eurydice upon marriage).


Cleitarchus' analysis

Fifty years later, the historian
Cleitarchus Cleitarchus or Clitarchus ( el, Κλείταρχος) was one of the historian A historian is a person who studies and writes about the past and is regarded as an authority on it. Historians are concerned with the continuous, methodical narrat ...
expanded and embellished the story. Centuries later, this version was to be narrated by
Diodorus Siculus Diodorus Siculus, or Diodorus of Sicily ( grc-gre, Διόδωρος Σικελιώτης ;  1st century BC), was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern ...
and all the historians who used Cleitarchus. According to the sixteenth book of Diodorus' history, Pausanias of Orestis had been a lover of Philip, but became jealous when Philip turned his attention to a younger man, also called Pausanias. The elder Pausanias' taunting of the new lover caused the younger Pausanias to throw away his life in battle, which turned his friend Attalus against the elder Pausanias. Attalus took his revenge by getting Pausanias of Orestis drunk at a public dinner and then raping him. When Pausanias complained to Philip, the king felt unable to chastise Attalus, as he was about to send him to Asia with
Parmenion Parmenion (also Parmenio; grc-gre, Παρμενίων; c. 400 – 330 BC), son of Philotas, was an Macedonian general in the service of Philip II of Macedon Philip II of Macedon ( grc-gre, Φίλιππος Β΄ ὁ Μακεδών; 382 ...
, to establish a bridgehead for his planned invasion. Philip also was recently married to Attalus' niece,
Cleopatra Eurydice Eurydice (Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
. Rather than offend Attalus, Philip tried to mollify Pausanias by elevating him within his personal bodyguard. Pausanias' desire for revenge seems to have turned towards the man who had failed to avenge his damaged honour, so he planned to kill Philip. Some time after the alleged rape, while Attalus was away in Asia fighting the Persians, he put his plan in action.


Justin's analysis

Other historians (e.g.,
Justin Justin may refer to: People * Justin (name), including a list of persons with the given name Justin * Justin (historian), a Latin historian who lived under the Roman Empire * Justin I (c. 450–527), or ''Flavius Iustinius Augustus'', Eastern Roma ...
9.7) suggested that Alexander and/or his mother
Olympias Olympias ( grc, Ὀλυμπιάς, , c. 375–316 BC) was the eldest daughter of king Neoptolemus I of Epirus, the sister of Alexander I of Epirus, the fourth wife of Philip of Macedon, Philip II, the king of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedon ...

Olympias
were at least privy to the intrigue, if not themselves instigators. Olympias seems to have been anything but discreet in manifesting her gratitude to Pausanias, according to Justin's report: He writes that the same night of her return from exile, she placed a crown on the assassin's corpse, and later erected a
tumulus A tumulus (plural tumuli) is a mound A mound is a heaped pile of earth Earth is the third planet from the Sun and the only astronomical object known to harbour and support life. 29.2% of Earth's surface is land consisting of co ...

tumulus
over his grave and ordering annual sacrifices to the memory of Pausanias.


Modern analysis

Many modern historians have observed that none of the accounts are probable: In the case of Pausanias, the stated motive of the crime hardly seems adequate. On the other hand, the implication of Alexander and Olympias seems specious – to act as they did would have required brazen effrontery in the face of a military personally loyal to Philip. What seems to be recorded are the natural suspicions that fell on the chief beneficiaries of the assassination, however their actions in response to the murder cannot prove their guilt in the crime itself – regardless of how sympathetic they might have seemed afterward. Whatever the actual background to the assassination, it may have had an enormous effect on later world history, far beyond what any conspirators could have predicted. As asserted by some modern historians, had the older and more settled Philip been the one in charge of the war against Persia, he might have rested content with relatively moderate conquests, e.g., making
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
into a Macedonian province, and not pushed further into an overall conquest of Persia and further campaigns in India.


Tomb of Philip II at Aigai

In 1977, Greek archaeologist
Manolis Andronikos Manolis Andronikos ( el, Μανόλης Ανδρόνικος) (October 23, 1919 – March 30, 1992) was a Greek archaeologist and a professor at the Aristotle University of Thessaloniki. Biography Andronikos was born on October 23, 1919 at ...
started excavating the Great Tumulus at Aigai near modern
Vergina Vergina ( el, Βεργίνα, ''Vergína'' ) is a small town in northern Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe ...
, the capital and burial site of the kings of Macedon, and found that two of the four tombs in the tumulus were undisturbed since antiquity. Moreover, these two, and particularly Tomb II, contained fabulous treasures and objects of great quality and sophistication. Although there was much debate for some years, as suspected at the time of the discovery Tomb II has been shown to be that of Philip II as indicated by many features, including the
greave A greave (from the Old French Old French (, , ; Modern French French ( or ) is a Romance language of the Indo-European family. It descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire, as did all Romance languages. French evolved fr ...
s, one of which was shaped consistently to fit a leg with a misaligned tibia (Philip II was recorded as having broken his tibia). Also, the remains of the skull show damage to the right eye caused by the penetration of an object (historically recorded to be an arrow).Musgrave J, Prag A. J. N. W., Neave R., Lane Fox R., White H. (2010) The Occupants of Tomb II at Vergina. Why Arrhidaios and Eurydice must be excluded, ''Int J Med Sci'' 2010; 7:s1–s15
/ref> Two scientists who studied some of the bones claimed in 2015 that Philip was buried in Tomb I, not Tomb II. On the basis of age, knee
ankylosis Ankylosis is a stiffness of a joint due to abnormal adhesion and rigidity of the bones of the joint, which may be the result of injury or disease. The rigidity may be complete or partial and may be due to inflammation of the tendinous or muscular ...
, and a hole matching the penetrating wound and lameness suffered by Philip, the authors of the study identified the remains of Tomb I in Vergina as those of Philip II. Tomb II instead was identified in the study as that of King
Arrhidaeus Arrhidaeus or Arrhidaios ( el, Ἀρριδαῖoς; lived 4th century BC), one of Alexander the Great Alexander III of Macedon ( grc-gre, Αλέξανδρος}, ; 20/21 July 356 BC – 10/11 June 323 BC), commonly known as Alexander the Great, ...

Arrhidaeus
and his wife Eurydice II. The
Greek Ministry of Culture The Ministry of Culture and Sports ( el, Υπουργείο Πολιτισμού και Αθλητισμού) is the government department of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in So ...
replied that this claim was baseless, and that the archaeological evidence shows that the ankylotic knee belongs to another body which was thrown or put into Tomb I after this had been looted, and probably between 276/5 and 250 BC. Besides this, the theory that Tomb I belonged to Philip II had previously been shown to be false. More recent research gives further evidence that Tomb II contains the remains of Philip II. File:Grobowiec Filipa II Macedonskiego.jpg, Great Tumulus of Aigai File:Facade of Philip II tomb Vergina Greece.jpg, The tomb of Philip II of Macedon at the Museum of the Royal Tombs in
Vergina Vergina ( el, Βεργίνα, ''Vergína'' ) is a small town in northern Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe ...
File:Philip II larnax vergina greece.jpg, The golden
larnax upThe golden larnax and the golden crown of Vergina.html"_;"title="Philip_II_of_Macedon,_Vergina">Philip_II_of_Macedon,_Vergina_Museum. A_larnax_(plural:_larnakes;__grc.html" ;"title="Vergina_Museum..html" ;"title="Vergina.html" ;"title="Philip II ...
and the golden grave crown of Philip File:Diadem (2).jpg, alt=The gilded silver diadem of Philip II, found in his tomb at Vergina. , The
gilded Gilding is a decorative technique for applying a very thin coating of gold Gold is a chemical element Image:Simple Periodic Table Chart-blocks.svg, 400px, Periodic table, The periodic table of the chemical elements In chemistry, an ...
silver
diadem A diadem is a type of crown '' File:서봉총 금관 금제드리개.jpg, The Seobongchong Golden Crown of Ancient Silla, which is 339th National Treasure of South Korea. It is basically following the standard type of Silla's Crown. It wa ...

diadem
of Philip II, found in his tomb at
Vergina Vergina ( el, Βεργίνα, ''Vergína'' ) is a small town in northern Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe ...
.


Legacy


Cult

The at
Vergina Vergina ( el, Βεργίνα, ''Vergína'' ) is a small town in northern Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe ...
in Macedonia (the ancient city of Aegae – Αἰγαί) is thought to have been dedicated to the worship of the family of Alexander the Great and may have housed the cult statue of Philip. It is probable that he was regarded as a hero or deified on his death. Though the Macedonians did not consider Philip a god, he did receive other forms of recognition from the Greeks, e.g. at
Eresos Eresos (; el, Ερεσός; grc, Ἔρεσος) and its twin beach village Skala Eresou are located in the southwest part of the Greek island of Lesbos. They are villages visited by considerable numbers of tourists. From 1999 until 2010, Eresos ...

Eresos
(altar to Zeus Philippeios),
Ephesos Ephesus (; gr, Ἔφεσος, Éphesos; tr, Efes; may ultimately derive from hit, 𒀀𒉺𒊭, Apaša) was a city in ancient Greece on the coast of Ionia, southwest of present-day Selçuk in İzmir Province, Turkey. It was built in the 10th ...

Ephesos
(his statue was placed in the
temple of Artemis alt=columns in field at the site of the temple today., The site of the temple in 2017 The Temple of Artemis or Artemision ( gr, Ἀρτεμίσιον; tr, Artemis Tapınağı), also known as the Temple of Diana, was a Greek temple Greek t ...

temple of Artemis
), and at Olympia, where the
Philippeion The Philippeion ( el, Φιλιππεῖον) in the Altis of Olympia, Greece, Olympia was an Ionic order, Ionic circular memorial in limestone and marble, a tholos (architecture), tholos, which contained chryselephantine (ivory and gold) statues o ...

Philippeion
was built. Isocrates once wrote to Philip that if he defeated Persia, there would be nothing left for him to do but to become a god, and
DemadesDemades ( el, Δημάδης, BC) was an Athenian , image_skyline = File:Athens Montage L.png, center, 275px, alt=Athens montage. Clicking on an image in the picture causes the browser to load the appropriate article. rect ...
proposed that Philip be regarded as the thirteenth god; however, there is no clear evidence that Philip was raised to the divine status accorded his son
Alexander Alexander is a male given name. The most prominent bearer of the name is Alexander the Great, the king of the Ancient Greek kingdom of Macedonia (ancient kingdom), Macedonia who created one of the largest empires in ancient history. Etymology T ...

Alexander
.


Biblical reference

Philip is mentioned in the opening verse of the deutero-canonical First Book of Maccabees.


Fictional portrayals

* Fredric March portrayed Philip II of Macedon in the film ''Alexander the Great (1956 film), Alexander the Great'' (1956). * Val Kilmer portrayed Philip II of Macedon in Oliver Stone's 2004 biopic ''Alexander (2004 film), Alexander''. * Sunny Ghanshani portrayed Philip II of Macedon in Siddharth Kumar Tewary's series Porus (TV series), Porus.


Games

* ''Hegemony Gold: Wars of Ancient Greece'' is a PC strategy game that follows the campaigns of Philip II in Greece. * Philip II appears in the Battle of Chaeronea in ''Rome: Total War: Alexander'' * Philip II appears as a card in the Macedonian civilization deck that is played once then goes into history in ''Imperium: Classics''


Dedications

* Filippos Veria, one of the most successful handball teams of Greece, bears the name of Philip II. He is also depicted in the team's emblem. * Philip II is depicted in the emblem of the Hellenic Army Supreme Military Support Command, 2nd Support Brigade of the Hellenic Army, stationed in Kozani.


See also

* Government of Macedonia (ancient kingdom) *Museum of the Royal Tombs of Aigai (Vergina)


References


External links


A family tree focusing on his ancestors





Pothos.orgDeath of Philip: Murder or Assassination?


entry in historical source book by Mahlon H. Smith
Facial reconstruction expert revealed how technique brings past to life
press release of the University of Leicester, with a portrait of Philip based on a reconstruction of his face.
Twilight of the Polis and the rise of Macedon
(''Philip, Demosthenes and the Fall of the Polis''). Yale University courses
Lecture 24

''Introduction to Ancient Greek History''

The Burial of the Dead (at Vergina) or The Unending Controversy on the Identity of the Occupants of Tomb II
{{DEFAULTSORT:Philip 02 Of Macedon Philip II of Macedon, 382 BC births 336 BC deaths 4th-century BC Macedonian monarchs 4th-century BC Macedonians 4th-century BC murdered monarchs 4th-century BC rulers Ancient Pellaeans Argead kings of Macedonia Family of Alexander the Great Ancient Olympic competitors Ancient Macedonian athletes Ancient Greek chariot racers Murdered royalty of Macedonia (ancient kingdom) People in the deuterocanonical books Theban hegemony Demosthenes Ancient Greek generals