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Peter Nielsen Ladefoged ( , ; 17 September 1925 – 24 January 2006) was a British
linguist Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo ...

linguist
and
phonetician Phonetics is a branch of linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well as the methods for studying and modeling them. The traditional areas of lingu ...

phonetician
. He was Professor of Phonetics at
University of California, Los Angeles The University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) is a public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Los Angeles, California. UCLA’s academic roots were established in 1882 as a teachers college then known ...
(UCLA), where he taught from 1962 to 1991. His book ''A Course in Phonetics'' is a common introductory text in phonetics, and '' The Sounds of the World's Languages'' (co-authored with
Ian Maddieson Ian Maddieson (born September 1, 1942 in Watford Watford () is a large town and borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self- ...
) is widely regarded as a standard phonetics reference. Ladefoged also wrote several books on the phonetics of
African languages The languages of Africa are divided into several major Language family, language families: *Niger–Congo languages, Niger–Congo or perhaps Atlantic–Congo languages (includes Bantu languages, Bantu and non-Bantu, and possibly Mande languages ...

African languages
. Prior to UCLA, he was a lecturer at the universities of
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...
,
Scotland Scotland ( sco, Scotland, gd, Alba Alba (Scottish Gaelic Scottish Gaelic ( gd, Gàidhlig or Scots Gaelic, sometimes referred to simply as Gaelic) is a Goidelic language (in the Celtic languages, Celtic branch of the Indo-European ...

Scotland
(1953–59, 1960–1) and
Ibadan Ibadan (, ; ) is the Capital city, capital and most populous city of Oyo State, in Nigeria. It is the List of Nigerian cities by population, third-largest city by population in Nigeria after Lagos and Kano (city), Kano, with a total population ...

Ibadan
,
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of , , , , , , , , , , , , , , , and as we ...

Nigeria
(1959–60).


Early life

Peter Ladefoged was born on 17 September 1925, in
SuttonSutton (''south settlement'' or ''south town'' in Old English) may refer to: Places United Kingdom England In alphabetical order by county: * Sutton, Bedfordshire * Sutton, Berkshire, a List of United Kingdom locations: Stu-Sz#Su, location * Sut ...

Sutton
(then in
Surrey Surrey () is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and R ...

Surrey
, now in
Greater London Greater London is an Metropolitan and non-metropolitan counties of England, administrative area governed by the Greater London Authority, and a Ceremonial counties of England, ceremonial county of England that covers the bulk of the same area ...

Greater London
), England. He attended
Haileybury CollegeHaileybury may refer to: Australia * Haileybury (Melbourne) (Lift up your hearts) , established = 1892 , type = Independent school, Independent, co-educational, day school , denomination = , slogan ...
from 1938–43, and
Gonville and Caius College, Cambridge Gonville & Caius College (often referred to simply as Caius ) is a Colleges of the University of Cambridge, constituent college of the University of Cambridge in Cambridge, England. Originally founded in 1348, it is the fourth-oldest of the thi ...
,
Cambridge University The University of Cambridge is a collegiate university, collegiate research university in Cambridge, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Founded in 1209 and granted a royal charter by Henry III of England, Henry III in 1231, Cambridge is the second-oldest ...
from 1943–44. He received an MA (1951) and a PhD (1959) in Phonetics from the
University of Edinburgh The University of Edinburgh ( sco, University o Edinburgh, gd, Oilthigh Dhùn Èideann; abbreviated as ''Edin.'' in post-nominals Post-nominal letters, also called post-nominal initials, post-nominal titles, designatory letters or simply ...
in 1959.


Career

Ladefoged was involved with the phonetics laboratory at UCLA, which he established in 1962. He also was interested in listening to and describing every sound used in spoken human language, which he estimated at 900
consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of d ...
s and 200
vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing system using symbols for syllables ...

vowel
s. This research formed the basis of much of '' The Sounds of the World's Languages''. In 1966 Ladefoged moved from the UCLA English Department to join the newly established Linguistics Department. While at UCLA, Ladefoged was hired as a consultant on the movie ''
My Fair Lady ''My Fair Lady'' is a musical theatre, musical based on George Bernard Shaw's 1913 play ''Pygmalion (play), Pygmalion'', with book and lyrics by Alan Jay Lerner and music by Frederick Loewe. The story concerns Eliza Doolittle, a Cockney flower g ...
''. He wrote the transcriptions that can be seen in Professor Higgins's notebook, and his voice was used in the scenes where Higgins describes vowel pronunciation. Ladefoged was also a member of the
International Phonetic Association The International Phonetic Association (IPA; French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...

International Phonetic Association
for a long time, and was President of the Association from 1986 to 1991. He was deeply involved in maintaining its
International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabet An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest s ...
, and was the principal mover of the 1989 International Phonetic Association Kiel Convention. He was also editor of the ''Journal of the International Phonetic Association''. Ladefoged served on the board of directors of the Endangered Language Fund since its inception. Ladefoged was a founding member of the
Association for Laboratory PhonologyThe Association for Laboratory Phonology is a non-profit professional society for researchers interested in the sound structure of language. It was founded to promote the scientific study of all aspects of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of lingui ...
.


Personal life

Ladefoged married Jenny MacDonald in 1953, a marriage which lasted over 50 years. They had three children: Lise Friedman, a bookseller; Thegn Ladefoged,
archaeologist Archaeology or archeology is the study of human activity through the recovery and analysis of material culture. Archaeology is often considered a branch of socio-cultural anthropology, but archaeologists also draw from biological, geological, ...

archaeologist
and professor of
anthropology Anthropology is the scientific study of human Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most abundant and widespread species In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ...
at
University of Auckland , mottoeng = By natural ability and hard work , established = 1883; years ago , endowment = New Zealand Dollar, NZD $251 million (31 December 2020) , budget = NZD $1.226 billion (31 December 2020) , chancellor = Scott St John , vice_cha ...
; and Katie Weiss, attorney and
public defender A public defender is a lawyer A lawyer or attorney is a person who practices law, as an advocate An advocate is a professional in the field of law. Different countries' legal systems use the term with somewhat differing meanings. The b ...
, residing in
Nashville Nashville is the Capital city, capital and List of municipalities in Tennessee, most populous city of the U.S. state of Tennessee. The city is the county seat of Davidson County, Tennessee, Davidson County and is located on the Cumberland River. ...
, Tennessee. He also had five grandchildren Zelda Ladefoged, Ethan Friedman, Amy Friedman, Joseph Weiss, and Catherine Weiss. On May 5, 1970, Ladefoged was arrested and suffered injuries from police while participating in an anti–Vietnam War protest at UCLA. He was initially charged with failure to disperse, but the charge was later changed to assault on a police officer. He was acquitted in the first trial.


Death

Ladefoged died on 24 January 2006 at the age of 80 in hospital in London, England after a research trip to India. He was on his way home to Los Angeles, California from his research trip.


Academic timeline

* 1953–55: Assistant Lecturer in Phonetics, University of Edinburgh * 1955–59: Lecturer in Phonetics, University of Edinburgh * 1959–60: Lecturer in Phonetics,
University of Ibadan The University of Ibadan (UI) is a Public Research University, public research university in Ibadan, Nigeria. The university was founded in 1948 as University College Ibadan, one of many colleges within University of London. It became an independe ...

University of Ibadan
, Nigeria * 1960–61: Lecturer in Phonetics, University of Edinburgh * 1961–62: Field fellow, Linguistic Survey of West Africa, Nigeria * Summer 1960:
University of Michigan , mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. ...

University of Michigan
* Summer 1961:
Royal Institute of Technology The KTH Royal Institute of Technology ( sv, Kungliga Tekniska högskolan), abbreviated KTH, is a Public university, public research university in Stockholm, Sweden. KTH conducts research and education in Institute of technology, engineering and ...
, ungliga Tekniska högskolan or KTH (
Stockholm Stockholm (; ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smalle ...

Stockholm
,
Sweden Sweden ( sv, Sverige ), officially the Kingdom of Sweden ( sv, links=no, Konungariket Sverige ), is a Nordic country The Nordic countries, or the Nordics, are a geographical and cultural region In geography, regions are areas that ...

Sweden
) * 1962–63: Assistant Professor of Phonetics, Department of English, UCLA * 1962: Established, and directed until 1991, the UCLA Phonetics Laboratory * 1963–65: Associate Professor of Phonetics, Department of Linguistics], UCLA * 1965–91: Professor of Phonetics, Department of Linguistics, UCLA * 1977–80: Chair, Department of Linguistics, UCLA * 1991: "retired" to become UCLA Research Linguist, Distinguished Professor of Phonetics Emeritus * 2005: Leverhulme Professor, University of Edinburgh * 2005–06: Adjunct professor at the
University of Southern California , mottoeng = "Let whoever earns the palm bear it" , religious_affiliation = Nonsectarian - Methodist Methodism, also called the Methodist movement, is a group of historically related denominations Denomination may refer to: * Religious de ...

University of Southern California
(USC)


Academic honours

* Fellow of the
Acoustical Society of America The Acoustical Society of America (ASA) is an international scientific society founded in 1929 dedicated to generating, disseminating and promoting the knowledge of acoustics Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of mechanic ...
* Fellow of the American Speech and Hearing Association * Distinguished Teaching Award, UCLA 1972 * President,
Linguistic Society of America The Linguistic Society of America (LSA) is a learned society A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization An organization, or organisation (English in the Commonw ...
, 1978 * President of the Permanent Council for the Organization of International Congresses of Phonetic Sciences, 1983–1991 * President,
International Phonetic Association The International Phonetic Association (IPA; French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a ...

International Phonetic Association
, 1987–1991 * UCLA Research Lecturer 1989 * Fellow of the
American Academy of Arts and Sciences The American Academy of Arts and Sciences, founded 1780, (abbreviation: AAAS) is one of the oldest learned societies A learned society (; also known as a learned academy, scholarly society, or academic association) is an organization ...

American Academy of Arts and Sciences
1990 * UCLA College of Letters and Science Faculty Research Lecturer 1991 * Gold medal, XIIth International Congress of Phonetic Sciences 1991 * Corresponding Fellow of the
British Academy The British Academy is the United Kingdom's national academy#REDIRECT National academy A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research Res ...
1992 * Honorary D.Litt., University of Edinburgh, 1993 * Foreign Member,
Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters The Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters ( da, Kongelige Danske Videnskabernes Selskab) is a Danish non-governmental national academy for the advancement of science that was founded in 1742. It is based in the Carlsberg Foundation's build ...

Royal Danish Academy of Sciences and Letters
, 1993 * Silver medal,
Acoustical Society of America The Acoustical Society of America (ASA) is an international scientific society founded in 1929 dedicated to generating, disseminating and promoting the knowledge of acoustics Acoustics is a branch of physics that deals with the study of mechanic ...
1994 * Corresponding Fellow,
Royal Society of Edinburgh The Royal Society of Edinburgh is Scotland's national academy#REDIRECT National academy A national academy is an organizational body, usually operating with state financial support and approval, that co-ordinates scholarly research Re ...
, 2001 * Honorary D.Sc.
Queen Margaret University Queen Margaret University (formerly Queen Margaret University College and Queen Margaret College) is a university, founded in 1875 and located in Edinburgh, Scotland. It is named after Saint Margaret of Scotland, Saint Margaret, wife of Malcolm I ...

Queen Margaret University
, Edinburgh, 2002


Selected publications

*
Monograph supplement to ''Revista do Laboratório de Fonética Experimental da Faculdade de Letras da Universidade de Coimbra''
(Journal of Experimental Phonetics Laboratory of the Faculty of Arts, University of Coimbra). * Paperback edition 1971. Translation into Japanese, Taishukan Publishing Company, 1976. Second edition, with added chapters on computational phonetics 1996. * Reprinted 1968. * * * * 2nd ed 1982, 3rd ed. 1993, 4th ed. 2001, 5th ed. Boston:
Thomson/Wadsworth Cengage is an American educational content, technology, and services company for the higher education, K-12, professional, and library markets. It operates in more than 20 countries around the world.(Jun 27, 2014Global Publishing Leaders 2014: Ce ...
2006, 6th ed. 2011 (co-author Keith Johnson) Boston: Wadsworth/Cengage Learning. Japanese translation 2000. * * 2001, 2nd ed. 2004. * * *


Works involved in or about

*
George Cukor George Dewey Cukor (; July 7, 1899 – January 24, 1983) was an American film director A film director controls a 's artistic and dramatic aspects and visualizes the (or script) while guiding the and s in the fulfilment of that . The ...
(director),
Alan Jay Lerner Alan Jay Lerner (August 31, 1918 – June 14, 1986) was an American lyricist A lyricist or lyrist is a songwriter who writes lyrics Lyrics are word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence ...
(lyricist): ''
My Fair Lady ''My Fair Lady'' is a musical Musical is the adjective of music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common element ...
''. Motion picture film. (1964). *


References


External links

*
Peter Ladefoged's home page at UCLA


{{DEFAULTSORT:Ladefoged, Peter 1925 births 2006 deaths People from Sutton, London Linguists from the United Kingdom Linguists from England Phoneticians Speech perception researchers People educated at Haileybury and Imperial Service College Alumni of the University of Edinburgh Academics of the University of Edinburgh University of California, Los Angeles faculty British expatriates in Nigeria University of Ibadan people Linguists of Eskimo–Aleut languages Linguists of Muskogean languages Linguistic Society of America presidents Corresponding Fellows of the British Academy 20th-century linguists Fellows of the Royal Society of Edinburgh