Early yearsSeeger was born on May 3, 1919, at the French Hospital (Manhattan), French Hospital, Midtown Manhattan. His family, which Seeger called "enormously Christian, in the Puritan, Calvinist New England tradition," traced its genealogy back over 200 years. A paternal ancestor, Karl Ludwig Seeger, a doctor from Kingdom of Württemberg, Württemberg, Germany, had emigrated to America during the American Revolution and married into the old New England family of Parsons in the 1780s. Seeger's father, the Harvard-trained composer and musicologist Charles Seeger, Charles Louis Seeger, Jr., was born in Mexico City, Mexico, to American parents. Charles established the first musicology curriculum in the U.S. at the University of California, Berkeley, in 1913; helped found the American Musicological Society; and was a key founder of the academic discipline of ethnomusicology. Pete's mother, Constance de Clyver Seeger (née Edson), raised in Tunisia and trained at the Paris Conservatory of Music, was a concert violinist and later a teacher at the Juilliard School.Dunaway (2008), p. 20. In 1912, his father, Charles Seeger, was hired to establish the music department at the University of California, Berkeley, but was forced to resign in 1918 because of his outspoken pacifism during World War I. Charles and Constance moved back east, making Charles's parents' estate in Patterson, New York, just north of New York City, their base of operations. When baby Pete was eighteen months old, they set out with him and his two older brothers in a homemade trailer to bring musical uplift to the working people in the American South. Upon their return, Constance taught violin and Charles taught composition at the New York Institute of Musical Art (later Juilliard School, Juilliard), whose president, family friend Frank Damrosch, was Constance's adoptive "uncle." Charles also taught part-time at the New School for Social Research. Career and money tensions led to quarrels and reconciliations, but when Charles discovered Constance had opened a secret bank account in her own name, they separated, and Charles took custody of their three sons. Beginning in 1936, Charles held various administrative positions in the federal government's Resettlement Administration, Farm Resettlement program, the Works Projects Administration, WPA's Federal Music Project (1938–1940) and the wartime Pan American Union. After World War II, he taught ethnomusicology at the University of California, Berkeley, and Yale University.Winkler (2009), p. 4. Charles and Constance divorced when Pete was seven and in 1932 Charles married his composition student and assistant, Ruth Crawford Seeger, Ruth Crawford, now considered by many to be one of the most important Modernism (music), modernist composers of the 20th century. Deeply interested in folk music, Ruth had contributed musical arrangements to Carl Sandburg's extremely influential folk song anthology, Carl Sandburg#Folk music, the ''American Songbag'' (1927), and later created significant original settings for eight of Sandburg's poems. Pete's eldest brother, Charles Seeger III, was a radio astronomer, and his next older brother, John Seeger, taught in the 1950s at the Dalton School in Manhattan and was the principal from 1960 to 1976 at Ethical Culture Fieldston School, Fieldston Lower School in the Bronx. Pete's uncle, Alan Seeger, a noted American war poet ("I Have a Rendezvous with Death"), had been one of the first American soldiers to be killed in World War I. All four of Pete's half-siblings from his father's second marriage—Margaret (Peggy), Mike, Barbara, and Penelope (Penny)—became folk singers. Peggy Seeger, a well-known performer in her own right, married British folk singer and activist Ewan MacColl. Mike Seeger was a founder of the New Lost City Ramblers, one of whose members, John Cohen (musician), John Cohen, married Pete's half-sister Penny, also a talented singer, who died young. Barbara Seeger joined her siblings in recording folk songs for children. In 1935, Pete attended Camp Rising Sun, an international leadership camp held every summer in upstate New York, which influenced his life's work. His final visit occurred in 2012.
Early workAt four, Seeger was sent away to boarding school, but came home two years later when his parents learned the school had failed to inform them he had contracted scarlet fever. He attended first and second grades in Nyack, New York, where his mother lived, before entering boarding school in Ridgefield, Connecticut. Despite being classical musicians, his parents did not press him to play an instrument. On his own, the otherwise bookish and withdrawn boy gravitated to the ukulele, becoming adept at entertaining his classmates with it while laying the basis for his subsequent remarkable audience rapport. At thirteen, Seeger enrolled in the Avon Old Farms School in Avon, Connecticut, from which he graduated in 1936. He was selected to attend Camp Rising Sun (New York), Camp Rising Sun, the George E. Jonas Foundation's international summer leadership program. During the summer of 1936, while traveling with his father and stepmother, Pete heard the five-string banjo for the first time at the Bascom Lamar Lunsford#The Mountain Dance and Folk Festival, Mountain Dance and Folk Festival in western North Carolina near Asheville, North Carolina, Asheville, organized by local folkloristics, folklorist, lecturer, and traditional music performer Bascom Lamar Lunsford, whom Charles Seeger had hired for Resettlement Administration, Farm Resettlement music projects. The festival took place in a covered baseball field. There the Seegers:
watched square-dance teams from Bearwallow, North Carolina, Bear Wallow, Happy Hollow, Cane Creek, Spooks Branch, Cheoah Valley, Bull Creek, and Soco Gap; heard the five-string banjo player Samantha Bumgarner; and family string bands, including a group of Indians from the Cherokee reservation who played string instruments and sang ballads. They wandered among the crowds who camped out at the edge of the field, hearing music being made there as well. As Lunsford's daughter would later recall, those country people "held the riches that Dad had discovered. They could sing, fiddle, pick the banjos, and guitars with traditional grace and style found nowhere else but deep in the mountains. I can still hear those haunting melodies drift over the ball park."Judith Tick, ''Ruth Crawford Seeger'', p. 239.For the Seegers, experiencing the beauty of this music firsthand was a "conversion experience." Pete was deeply affected and, after learning basic strokes from Lunsford, spent much of the next four years trying to master the five-string banjo. The teenage Seeger also sometimes accompanied his parents to regular Saturday evening gatherings at the Greenwich Village loft of painter and art teacher Thomas Hart Benton (painter), Thomas Hart Benton and his wife Rita. Benton, a lover of Americana, played Cindy (folk song), "Cindy" and "Old Joe Clark" with his students Charles Pollock, Charlie and Jackson Pollock; friends from the Old-time music, "hillbilly" recording industry; and avant-garde music, avant-garde composers Carl Ruggles and Henry Cowell. It was at one of Benton's parties that Pete heard "John Henry (folklore)#Music, John Henry" for the first time. Seeger enrolled at Harvard College on a partial scholarship, but as he became increasingly involved with politics and folk music, his grades suffered and he lost his scholarship. He dropped out of college in 1938. He dreamed of a career in journalism and took courses in art as well. His first musical gig was leading students in folk singing at the Dalton School, where his aunt was principal. He polished his performance skills during a summer stint of touring New York state with the Vagabond Puppeteers (Jerry Oberwager, 22; Mary Wallace, 22; and Harriet Holtzman, 23), a traveling puppet theater "inspired by rural education campaigns of post-revolutionary Mexico." One of their shows coincided with a strike by dairy farmers. The group reprised its act in October in New York City. An article in the October 2, 1939, ''Daily Worker'' reported on the Puppeteers' six-week tour this way: That fall, Seeger took a job in Washington, D.C., assisting Alan Lomax, a friend of his father's, at the Archive of American Folk Song of the Library of Congress. Seeger's job was to help Lomax sift through commercial "African American music, race" and "Old-time music, hillbilly" music and select recordings that best represented American folk music, a project funded by the music division of the Pan American Union (later the Organization of American States), of whose music division his father, Charles Seeger, was head (1938–53). Lomax also encouraged Seeger's folk-singing vocation, and Seeger was soon appearing as a regular performer on Alan Lomax and Nicholas Ray's weekly CBS, Columbia Broadcasting show ''Back Where I Come From'' (1940–41) alongside Josh White, Burl Ives, , and Woody Guthrie (whom he had first met at Will Geer's Grapes of Wrath benefit concert for migrant workers on March 3, 1940). ''Back Where I Come From'' was unique in having a Racial integration, racially integrated cast. The show was a success, but was not picked up by commercial sponsors for nationwide broadcasting because of its integrated cast. During World War II, the war, Seeger also performed on nationwide radio broadcasts by Norman Corwin. From 1942 to 1945, Seeger served in the United States Army, Army, as an Entertainment Specialist. In 1949, Seeger worked as the vocal instructor for the progressive City and Country School in Greenwich Village, New York.
Early activismIn 1936, at the age of 17, Pete Seeger joined the Young Communist League, USA, Young Communist League (YCL), then at the height of its influence. In 1942, he became a member of the Communist Party USA (CPUSA) itself, but he left in 1949. In the spring of 1941, the twenty-one-year-old Seeger performed as a member of the Almanac Singers along with Millard Lampell, Cisco Houston, Woody Guthrie, Butch Hawes and Bess Lomax Hawes, and Lee Hays. Seeger and the Almanacs cut several albums of Phonograph record#78 rpm disc developments, 78s on Keynote Records, Keynote and other labels: ''Songs for John Doe'' (recorded in late February or March and released in May 1941), ''Talking Union'', and an album each of sea shanties and pioneer songs. Written by Millard Lampell, ''Songs for John Doe'' was performed by Lampell, Seeger, and Hays, joined by Josh White and Sam Gary. It contained lines, such as "It wouldn't be much thrill to die for Du Pont in Brazil," that were sharply critical of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Roosevelt's unprecedented peacetime draft (enacted in September 1940). This anti-war/anti-draft tone reflected the Communist Party line after the 1939 Molotov–Ribbentrop Pact, which maintained that the war was "phony" and a mere pretext for big American corporations to get Hitler to attack Soviet Russia. Seeger has said he believed this line of argument at the time, as did many fellow members of the Young Communist League (YCL). Though nominally members of the History of the Communist Party USA#1935–1939: Popular Front, Popular Front, which was allied with Roosevelt and more moderate liberals, the YCL's members still smarted from Roosevelt and Winston Churchill, Churchill's arms embargo on Republican faction (Spanish Civil War), Loyalist Spain (which Roosevelt later called a mistake), and the alliance frayed in the confusing welter of events. A June 16, 1941, review in ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine, which, under its owner, Henry Luce, had become very interventionist, denounced the Almanacs' ''John Doe'', accusing it of scrupulously echoing what it called "the mendacious Moscow tune" that "Franklin Roosevelt is leading an unwilling people into a J.P. Morgan war." Eleanor Roosevelt, a fan of folk music, reportedly found the album "in bad taste," though President Roosevelt, when the album was shown to him, merely observed, correctly, as it turned out, that few people would ever hear it. More alarmist was the reaction of eminent German-born Harvard Professor of Government Carl Joachim Friedrich, an adviser on domestic propaganda to the United States military. In a review in the June 1941 ''Atlantic Monthly'', entitled "The Poison in Our System," he pronounced ''Songs for John Doe'' "strictly subversive and illegal," "whether Communist or Nazi financed," and "a matter for the attorney general," observing further that "mere" legal "suppression" would not be sufficient to counteract this type of populist poison, the poison being folk music and the ease with which it could be spread. While the U.S. had not officially declared war on the Axis powers in the summer of 1941, the country was energetically producing arms and ammunition for its allies overseas. Despite the boom in manufacturing this concerted rearming effort brought, African Americans were barred from working in defense plants. Racial tensions rose as Black labor leaders (such as A. Philip Randolph and Bayard Rustin) and their white allies began organizing protests and marches. To combat this social unrest, President Roosevelt issued Executive Order 8802 (the Fair Employment Act) on 25 June 1941. The order came three days after Hitler broke the non-aggression pact and invaded the Soviet Union, at which time the Communist Party quickly directed its members to get behind the draft and forbade participation in strikes for the duration of the war—angering some leftists. Copies of ''Songs for John Doe'' were removed from sale, and the remaining inventory destroyed, though a few copies may exist in the hands of private collectors. The Almanac Singers' ''Talking Union'' album, on the other hand, was reissued as an LP by Folkways Records, Folkways (FH 5285A) in 1955 and is still available. The following year, the Almanacs issued ''Dear Mr. President (Almanac Singers album), Dear Mr. President'', an album in support of Roosevelt and the war effort. The title song, "Dear Mr. President", was a solo by Pete Seeger, and its lines expressed his lifelong credo: Seeger's critics, however, continued to bring up the Almanacs' repudiated ''Songs for John Doe''. In 1942, a year after the ''John Doe'' album's brief appearance (and disappearance), the FBI decided that the now-pro-war Almanacs were still endangering the war effort by subverting recruitment. According to the New York ''World Telegram'' (February 14, 1942), Carl Friedrich's 1941 article "The Poison in Our System" was printed up as a pamphlet and distributed by the Council for Democracy (an organization that Friedrich and Henry Luce's right-hand man, C. D. Jackson, Vice President of ''Time (magazine), Time'' magazine, had founded "to combat all the Nazi, fascist, communist, pacifist" antiwar groups in the United States). Seeger served in the United States Army, U.S. Army in the Pacific Ocean theater of World War II, Pacific. He was trained as an airplane mechanic, but was reassigned to entertain the American troops with music. Later, when people asked him what he did in the war, he always answered: "I strummed my banjo." After returning from service, Seeger and others established People's Songs, conceived as a nationwide organization with branches on both coasts and designed to "create, promote and distribute songs of labor and the American People." With Pete Seeger as its director, People's Songs worked for the 1948 presidential campaign of Roosevelt's former Secretary of Agriculture and Vice President, Henry A. Wallace, who ran as a third-party candidate on the Progressive Party (United States, 1948), Progressive Party ticket. Despite having attracted enormous crowds nationwide, however, Wallace won only in New York City, and following the election, he was excoriated for accepting the help in his campaign of Communists and fellow travelers, such as Seeger and singer Paul Robeson.
Spanish Civil War songsSeeger had been a fervent supporter of the Republican forces in the Spanish Civil War. In 1943, with Tom Glazer and Bess and Baldwin Hawes, he recorded an album of 78s called ''Songs of the Lincoln Battalion'' on Moe Asch's Stinson label. This included such songs as "There's a Valley in Spain called Jarama, There's a Valley in Spain Called Jarama" and "¡Ay Carmela! (song), Viva la Quince Brigada". In 1960, this collection was re-issued by Moe Asch as one side of a Folkways LP called ''Songs of the Lincoln and International Brigades''. On the other side was a reissue of the legendary ''Six Songs for Democracy'' (originally recorded in Barcelona in 1938 while bombs were falling), performed by Ernst Busch (actor), Ernst Busch and a chorus of members of the Thälmann Battalion, made up of volunteers from Germany. The songs were "Moorsoldaten" (Peat Bog Soldiers (song), "Peat Bog Soldiers", composed by political prisoners of German concentration camps); "Freiheit (song), Die Thaelmann-Kolonne", "Hans Beimler", "Das Lied Von Der Einheitsfront" ("Song of the United Front" by Hanns Eisler and Bertolt Brecht), "Der Internationalen Brigaden" ("Song of the International Brigades"), and "Los cuatro generales" ("The Four Generals", known in English as "The Four Insurgent Generals").
Group recordingsAs a self-described "split tenor" (between a tenor and a countertenor), Pete Seeger was a founding member of two highly influential folk groups: the Almanac Singers and . The Almanac Singers, which Seeger co-founded in 1941 with Millard Lampell and Arkansas singer and activist , was a topical group, designed to function as a singing newspaper promoting the industrial unionization movement, racial and religious inclusion, and other progressive causes. Its personnel included, at various times: Woody Guthrie, Bess Lomax Hawes, Sis Cunningham, Josh White, and Sam Gary. As a controversial Almanac singer, the 21-year-old Seeger performed under the stage name "Pete Bowers" to avoid compromising his father's government career. In 1950, the Almanacs were reconstituted as the Weavers, named after the title of an 1892 play by Gerhart Hauptmann, about a workers' strike (which contained the lines "We'll stand it no more, come what may!"). They did benefits for strikers, at which they sang songs such as "Talking Union", about the struggles for unionisation of industrial workers such as miners and automobile workers. Besides Pete Seeger (performing under his own name), members of the Weavers included charter Almanac member Lee Hays, Ronnie Gilbert, and Fred Hellerman; later Frank Hamilton (musician), Frank Hamilton, Erik Darling, and Bernie Krause serially took Seeger's place. In the atmosphere of the 1950s red scare, the Weavers' repertoire had to be less overtly topical than that of the Almanacs had been, and its progressive message was couched in indirect language—arguably rendering it even more powerful. The Weavers on occasion performed in tuxedos (unlike the Almanacs, who had dressed informally) and their managers refused to let them perform at political venues. The Weavers' string of major Chart-topper, hits began with "On Top of Old Smoky" and an arrangement of 's signature waltz, " ", which topped the charts for 13 weeks in 1950 and was covered by many other pop singers. On the flip side of "Irene" was the Israeli song "Tzena, Tzena, Tzena". Other Weavers hits included Woody Guthrie discography#1940, RCA Victor Sessions, Dust Bowl Ballads, "Dusty Old Dust" ("So Long It's Been Good to Know You" by Woody Guthrie), "Kisses Sweeter than Wine (song), Kisses Sweeter Than Wine" (by Hays, Seeger, and Lead Belly), and the South African Zulu song by Solomon Linda, "Wimoweh" (about Shaka), among others. The Weavers' performing career was abruptly derailed in 1953, at the peak of their popularity, when blacklisting prompted radio stations to refuse to play their records and all their bookings were canceled. They briefly returned to the stage, however, at a sold-out reunion at Carnegie Hall in 1955 and in a subsequent reunion tour, which produced a hit version of Merle Travis's "Sixteen Tons", as well as LPs of their concert performances. "Kumbaya", a Gullah black spiritual dating from slavery days, was also introduced to wide audiences by Pete Seeger and the Weavers (in 1959), becoming a staple of Boy and Girl Scout campfires. In the late 1950s,
Banjo and 12-string guitarIn 1948, Seeger wrote the first version of his now-classic ''How to Play the Five-String Banjo'', a book that many banjo players credit with starting them off on the musical instrument, instrument. He went on to invent the ''long-neck'' or ''Seeger'' banjo. This instrument is three frets longer than a typical banjo, is slightly longer than a bass guitar at 25 frets, and is tuned a minor third lower than the normal 5-string banjo. Hitherto strictly limited to the Appalachian region, the five-string banjo became known nationwide as the American folk instrument par excellence, largely thanks to Seeger's championing of and improvements to it. According to an unnamed musician quoted in David King Dunaway's biography, "by nesting a resonant chord between two precise notes, a melody note and a chiming note on the fifth string," Pete Seeger "gentrified" the more percussive traditional Appalachian "frailing" style, "with its vigorous hammering of the forearm and its percussive rapping of the fingernail on the banjo head." Although what Dunaway's informant describes is the age-old droned frailing style, the implication is that Seeger made this more acceptable to mass audiences by omitting some of its percussive complexities, while presumably still preserving the characteristic driving rhythmic quality associated with the style. From the late 1950s on, Seeger also accompanied himself on the 12-string guitar, an instrument of Mexican origin that had been associated with , who had styled himself "the King of the 12-String Guitar." Seeger's distinctive custom-made guitars had a triangular soundhole. He combined the long scale length (approximately 28") and capo, capo-to-key techniques that he favored on the banjo with a variant of Drop D tuning, drop-D (DADGBE) tuning, tuned two whole steps down with very heavy strings, which he played with thumb and finger picks.
Introduction of the "Steel Pan" to U.S. audiencesIn 1956, then "Peter" Seeger (see film credits) and his wife, Toshi, traveled to Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Trinidad, to seek out information on the steelpan, steel drum, or "ping-pong" as it was sometimes called. The two searched out a local panyard director, Isaiah, and proceeded to film the construction, tuning and playing of the then-new national instrument of Trinidad and Tobago. He was attempting to include the unique flavor of the steelpan in American folk music.
McCarthy eraIn the 1950s, and indeed consistently throughout his life, Seeger continued his support of civil and labor rights, racial equality, international understanding, and anti-militarism (all of which had characterized the Wallace campaign), and he continued to believe that songs could help people achieve these goals. However, with the ever-growing revelations of Joseph Stalin's atrocities and the Hungarian Revolution of 1956, he became increasingly disillusioned with Soviet Communism. He left the CPUSA in 1949, but remained friends with some who did not leave it, although he argued with them about it."Pete Seeger: The Power of Song"
Folk music revivalTo earn money during the blacklist period of the late 1950s and early 1960s, Seeger worked gigs as a music teacher in schools and summer camps, and traveled the college campus circuit. He also recorded as many as five albums a year for Moe Asch's Folkways Records label. As the nuclear disarmament movement picked up steam in the late 1950s and early 1960s, Seeger's anti-war songs, such as " " (co-written with ), " " adapted from the Book of Ecclesiastes, and "The Bells of Rhymney" by the Welsh poet Idris Davies (1957), gained wide currency. Seeger was the first person to make a studio recording of "Last Night I Had the Strangest Dream" in 1956. Seeger also was closely associated with the and in 1963 helped organize a landmark Carnegie Hall concert, featuring the youthful Freedom Singers, as a benefit for the Highlander Folk School in Tennessee. This event, and Martin Luther King Jr.'s March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom in August of that same year, brought the civil rights anthem " " to wide audiences. He sang it on the 50-mile walk from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama, along with 1,000 other marchers. By this time, Seeger was a senior figure in the 1960s folk revival centered in Greenwich Village, as a longtime columnist in ''Sing Out!'', the successor to the People's Songs ''Bulletin'', and as a founder of the topical Broadside Magazine, ''Broadside'' magazine. To describe the new crop of politically committed folk singers, he coined the phrase "Woody's children," alluding to his associate and traveling companion, Woody Guthrie, who by this time had become a legendary figure. This urban folk-revival movement, a continuation of the activist tradition of the 1930s and 1940s and of People's Songs, used adaptations of traditional tunes and lyrics to effect social change, a practice that goes back to the Industrial Workers of the World or Wobblies' ''Little Red Song Book'', compiled by Swedish-born union organizer Joe Hill (activist), Joe Hill (1879–1915). (The ''Little Red Song Book'' had been a favorite of Woody Guthrie, who was known to carry it around.) Seeger toured Australia in 1963. His single "Little Boxes", written by Malvina Reynolds, was number one in the nation's Top 40. That tour sparked a folk boom throughout the country at a time when popular music tastes, post–Assassination of JFK, Kennedy assassination, competed between folk, the Surf music, surfing craze, and the British rock boom that gave the world the Beatles and The Rolling Stones, among others. Folk clubs sprang up all over the nation; folk performers were accepted in established venues; Australian performers singing Australian folk songs—many of their own composing—emerged in concerts and festivals, on television, and on recordings; and overseas performers were encouraged to tour Australia. The long television blacklist of Seeger began to end in the mid-1960s, when he hosted a regionally broadcast educational folk-music television show, ''Rainbow Quest''. Among his guests were Johnny Cash, June Carter, Reverend Gary Davis, Mississippi John Hurt, Doc Watson, the Stanley Brothers, Elizabeth Cotten, Patrick Sky, Buffy Sainte-Marie, Tom Paxton, Judy Collins, Hedy West, Donovan, The Clancy Brothers, Richard Fariña and Mimi Fariña, Sonny Terry and Brownie McGhee, Mamou Cajun Band, Bernice Johnson Reagon, the Beers Family, Roscoe Holcomb, Malvina Reynolds, Sonia Malkine, and Shawn Phillips. Thirty-nine hour-long programs were recorded at WNJU's Newark, New Jersey, Newark studios in 1965 and 1966, produced by Seeger and his wife Toshi, with Sholom Rubinstein. The Smothers Brothers ended Seeger's national blacklisting by broadcasting him singing "Waist Deep in the Big Muddy" on their CBS variety show on February 25, 1968, after his similar performance in September 1967 was censored by CBS. In November 1976, Seeger wrote and recorded the anti-death penalty song "Delbert Tibbs", about the death-row inmate Delbert Tibbs, who was later exonerated. Seeger wrote the music and selected the words from poems written by Tibbs. Seeger also supported the Jewish Camping Movement. He came to Surprise Lake Camp in Cold Spring, New York, over the summer many times. He sang and inspired countless campers.
Pete Seeger and Bob DylanPete Seeger was one of the earliest backers of Bob Dylan; he was responsible for urging A&R man John H. Hammond, John Hammond to produce Dylan's first LP on Columbia Records, Columbia, and for inviting him to perform at the Newport Folk Festival, of which Seeger was a board member. There was a widely repeated story that Seeger was so upset over the extremely loud amplified sound that Dylan, backed by members of the Paul Butterfield, Butterfield Blues Band, brought into the 1965 Newport Folk Festival that he threatened to disconnect the equipment. There are multiple versions of what went on, some fanciful. What is certain is that tensions had been running high between Dylan's manager Albert Grossman and Festival board members (who besides Seeger also included Theodore Bikel, Bruce Jackson (scholar), Bruce Jackson, Alan Lomax, festival MC Peter Yarrow, and George Wein) over the scheduling of performers and other matters. Two days earlier, there had been a scuffle and a brief exchange of blows between Grossman and Alan Lomax, and the board, in an emergency session, had voted to ban Grossman from the grounds, but had backed off when George Wein pointed out that Grossman also managed highly popular draws Odetta and . Seeger has been portrayed as a folk "purist" who was one of the main opponents to Dylan's Electric Dylan controversy, "going electric," but when asked in 2001 about how he recalled his "objections" to the electric style, he said:
I couldn't understand the words. I wanted to hear the words. It was a great song, "Maggie's Farm," and the sound was distorted. I ran over to the guy at the controls and shouted, "Fix the sound so you can hear the words." He hollered back, "This is the way they want it." I said "Damn it, if I had an axe, I'd cut the cable right now." But I was at fault. I was the MC, and I could have said to the part of the crowd that booed Bob, "you didn't boo Howlin' Wolf yesterday. He was electric!" Though I still prefer to hear Dylan acoustic, some of his electric songs are absolutely great. Electric music is the vernacular of the second half of the twentieth century, to use my father's old term.
Vietnam War era and beyondA longstanding opponent of the arms race and of the Vietnam War, Seeger satire, satirically attacked then-President Lyndon B. Johnson, Lyndon Johnson with his 1966 recording, on the album ''Dangerous Songs!?'', of Len Chandler's children's song "Beans in My Ears". Beyond Chandler's lyrics, Seeger said that "Mrs. Jay's little son Alby" had "beans in his ears," which, as the lyrics imply, ensures that a person does not hear what is said to them. To those opposed to continuing the Vietnam War, the phrase implied that "Alby Jay," a loose pronunciation of Johnson's nickname "LBJ," did not listen to anti-war protests as he too had "beans in his ears." During 1966, Seeger and Malvina Reynolds took part in environmental activism. The album ''God Bless the Grass'' was released in January of that year and became the first album in history wholly dedicated to songs about environmental issues. Their politics were informed by the same ideologies of nationalism, populism, and criticism of big business. Seeger attracted wider attention starting in 1967 with his song "Waist Deep in the Big Muddy", about a Captain (land), captain—referred to in the lyrics as "the big fool"—who drowned while leading a platoon on maneuvers in Louisiana during World War II. With its lyrics about a platoon being led into danger by an ignorant captain, the song's anti-war message was obvious—the line "the big fool said to push on" is repeated several times. In the face of arguments with the management of CBS about whether the song's political weight was in keeping with the usually light-hearted entertainment of the ''Smothers Brothers Comedy Hour'', the final lines were "Every time I read the paper/those old feelings come on/We are waist deep in the Big Muddy and the big fool says to push on." The lyrics could be interpreted as an allegory of Johnson as the "big fool" and the Vietnam War as the foreseeable danger. Although the performance was cut from the September 1967 show, after wide publicity, it was broadcast when Seeger appeared again on the Smothers' Brothers show on February 25, 1968. At the November 15, 1969, Moratorium to End the War in Vietnam, Vietnam Moratorium March on Washington, DC, Seeger led 500,000 protesters in singing John Lennon's song "Give Peace a Chance" as they rallied across from the White House. Seeger's voice carried over the crowd, interspersing phrases like "Are you listening, Richard Nixon, Nixon?" between the refrain, choruses of protesters singing, "All we are saying ... is give peace a chance." Inspired by Woody Guthrie, whose guitar was labeled "This machine kills fascists,":Image:Woody Guthrie.jpg, photo Seeger's banjo was emblazoned with the motto "This Machine Surrounds Hate and Forces It to Surrender." In the documentary film ''The Power of Song'', Seeger mentions that he and his family visited North Vietnam in 1972. Being a supporter of progressive labor unions, Seeger had supported Edward Sadlowski, Ed Sadlowski in his bid for the presidency of the United Steelworkers of America. In 1977, Seeger appeared at a fundraiser in Homestead, Pennsylvania. In 1978, Seeger joined American folk, blues, and jazz singer Barbara Dane at a rally in New York for striking coal miners. He also headlined a benefit concert—with bluegrass artist Hazel Dickens—for the striking coal miners of Stearns, Kentucky, at the Lisner Auditorium in Washington, D.C. on June 8, 1979. In 1980, Pete Seeger performed in Cambridge, Massachusetts. The performance was later released by Smithsonian Folkways as the album ''Singalong Sanders Theater, 1980''.
Hudson River sloop ''Clearwater''In 1966, Seeger and his wife Toshi founded the Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, a non-profit organization, nonprofit organization based in Poughkeepsie, New York, that sought to protect the Hudson River and surrounding wetlands and waterways through advocacy and public education. It constructed a floating ambassador for this environmental mission, the sloop ''Clearwater'', and began an annual music and environmental festival, today known as the Great Hudson River Revival.
Reflection on support for Soviet CommunismIn 1982, Seeger performed at a benefit concert for the 1982 demonstrations in Poland against the Polish government. His biographer David King Dunaway, David Dunaway considers this the first public manifestation of Seeger's decades-long personal dislike of communism in its Soviet form.David King Dunaway (2008), p. 103. In the late 1980s, Seeger also expressed disapproval of violent revolutions, remarking to an interviewer that he was really in favor of incremental change and that "the most lasting revolutions are those that take place over a period of time." In his autobiography ''Where Have All the Flowers Gone'' (1993, 1997, reissued in 2009), Seeger wrote, "Should I apologize for all this? I think so." He went on to put his thinking in context:
How could Hitler have been stopped? Maxim Litvinov, Litvinov, the Soviet delegate to the League of Nations in '36, proposed a worldwide quarantine but got no takers. For more on those times check out pacifist Dave Dellinger's book, ''From Yale to Jail ... '' At any rate, today I'll apologize for a number of things, such as thinking that Stalin was merely a "hard driver" and not a "supremely cruel misleader." I guess anyone who calls himself a Christian should be prepared to apologize for the Inquisition, the burning of heretics by Protestants, the slaughter of Jews and Muslims by Crusades, Crusaders. White people in the U.S.A. ought to apologize for Indian removal, stealing land from Native Americans and Slavery in the United States, enslaving blacks. Europeans could apologize for worldwide conquests, Mongolians for Genghis Khan. And supporters of Franklin D. Roosevelt, Roosevelt could apologize for his support of Somoza family, Somoza, of Dixiecrat, Southern White Democrats, of Francoist Spain, Franco Spain, for putting Japanese American internment, Japanese Americans in concentration camps. Who should my granddaughter Moraya apologize to? She's part African, part European, part Chinese, part Japanese, part Native American. Let's look ahead.In a 1995 interview, however, he insisted that "I still call myself a communist, because communism is no more what Russia made of it than Christianity is what the churches make of it." In later years, as the aging Seeger began to garner awards and recognition for his lifelong activism, he also found himself criticized once again for his opinions and associations of the 1930s and 1940s. In 2006, David Boaz—Voice of America and NPR commentator and president of the Libertarianism, libertarian Cato Institute—wrote an opinion piece in ''The Guardian'', entitled "Stalin's Songbird," in which he excoriated ''The New Yorker'' and ''The New York Times'' for lauding Seeger. He characterized Seeger as "someone with a longtime habit of following the party line" who had only "eventually" parted ways with the CPUSA. In support of this view, he quoted lines from the Almanac Singers' May 1941 ''Songs for John Doe'', contrasting them darkly with lines supporting the war from ''Dear Mr. President'', issued in 1942, after the United States and the Soviet Union had entered the war. In 2007, in response to criticism from historian Ronald Radosh, Ron Radosh, a former Trotskyite who now writes for the conservative ''National Review,'' Seeger wrote a song condemning Stalin, "Big Joe Blues":
The song was accompanied by a letter to Radosh, in which Seeger stated, "I think you're right, I should have asked to see the gulags when I was in U.S.S.R. [in 1965]."Daniel J. Wakin
I'm singing about old Joe, cruel Joe. He ruled with an iron hand. He put an end to the dreams Of so many in every land. He had a chance to make A brand new start for the human race. Instead he set it back Right in the same nasty place. I got the Big Joe Blues. Keep your mouth shut or you will die fast. I got the Big Joe Blues. Do this job, no questions asked. I got the Big Joe Blues.
Later workOn March 16, 2007, Pete Seeger, his sister Peggy Seeger, Peggy, his brothers Mike Seeger, Mike and John, his wife Toshi, and other family members spoke and performed at a symposium and concert sponsored by the American Folklife Center in honor of the Seeger family, held at the Library of Congress in Washington, D.C., where Pete Seeger had been employed by the Archive of American Folk Song 67 years earlier. In September 2008, Appleseed Recordings released ''At 89'', Seeger's first studio album in 12 years. On September 29, 2008, the 89-year-old singer-activist, once banned from commercial TV, made a rare national TV appearance on the ''Late Show with David Letterman'', singing "Take It From Dr. King". On January 18, 2009, Seeger and his grandson Tao Rodríguez-Seeger joined Bruce Springsteen and the crowd in singing the Woody Guthrie song "This Land Is Your Land" in the finale of Barack Obama's inaugural concert in Washington, D.C.Tommy Stevenson
Personal lifeSeeger married Toshi Seeger, Toshi Aline Ohta in 1943, whom he credited with being the support that helped make the rest of his life possible. The couple remained married until Toshi's death in July 2013. Their first child, Peter Ōta Seeger, was born in 1944 and died at six months, while Pete was deployed overseas. Pete never saw him. They went on to have three more children: Daniel (an accomplished photographer and filmmaker), Mika Seeger, Mika (a potter and muralist), and Tinya (a potter), as well as grandchildren Tao Rodríguez-Seeger (a musician), Cassie (an artist), Kitama Cahill-Jackson (a psychotherapist), Moraya (a marriage and family therapist married to the NFL player Chris DeGeare), Penny, and Isabelle, and great-grandchildren Dio and Gabel. Tao, a folk musician in his own right, sings and plays guitar, banjo, and harmonica with the Mammals. Kitama Jackson is a documentary filmmaker who was associate producer of the PBS documentary ''Pete Seeger: The Power of Song''. When asked by Beliefnet about his religious or spiritual beliefs, and his definition of God, Seeger replied: He was a member of a Unitarian Universalism, Unitarian Universalist Church in New York. Seeger lived in Beacon, New York. He and Toshi purchased their land in 1949 and lived there first in a trailer, then in a log cabin they built themselves. He remained engaged politically and maintained an active lifestyle in the Hudson Valley region of New York throughout his life. For years during the Iraq War, Seeger maintained a weekly protest vigil alongside Route 9 in Wappingers Falls, near his home. He told a ''New York Times'' reporter that "working for peace was like adding sand to a basket on one side of a large scale, trying to tip it one way despite enormous weight on the opposite side." Seeger went on to say, “Some of us try to add more sand by teaspoons ... It’s leaking out as fast as it goes in and they’re all laughing at us. But we’re still getting people with teaspoons. I get letters from people saying, ‘I’m still on the teaspoon brigade.'” Toshi died in Beacon on July 9, 2013, at the age of 91, and Pete died at New York–Presbyterian Hospital in New York City on January 27, 2014, at the age of 94.
LegacyResponse and reaction to Seeger's death quickly poured in. President Barack Obama noted that Seeger had been called "America's tuning fork" and that he believed in "the power of song" to bring social change, "Over the years, Pete used his voice and his hammer to strike blows for workers' rights and civil rights; world peace and environmental conservation, and he always invited us to sing along. For reminding us where we come from and showing us where we need to go, we will always be grateful to Pete Seeger." Folksinger and fellow activist Billy Bragg wrote that "Pete believed that music could make a difference. Not change the world, he never claimed that – he once said that if music could change the world he'd only be making music – but he believed that while music didn't have agency, it did have the power to make a difference." Bruce Springsteen said of Seeger's death, "I lost a great friend and a great hero last night, Pete Seeger," before performing " " while on tour in South Africa.
Tributes* A proposal was made in 2009 to name the Walkway Over the Hudson in his honor. * A posthumous suggestion that Seeger's name be applied to the Tappan Zee Bridge Replacement, replacement Tappan Zee Bridge being built over the Hudson River was made by a local town supervisor. Seeger's boat, the sloop ''Hudson River Sloop Clearwater, Clearwater'', is based at Beacon, New York, just upriver from the bridge. * Oakwood Friends School, located in Poughkeepsie New York, not far from Seeger's home, performed " " at one of their worship meetings. The collaboration was with three teachers (playing guitar and vocals) as well as a student harmonica player and a student vocalist. * A free five-day memorial called Seeger Fest took place on July 17–21, 2014, featuring Judy Collins, Peter Yarrow, Harry Belafonte, Anti-Flag, Michael Glabicki of Rusted Root, Steve Earle, Holly Near, Fred Hellerman, Guy Davis, DJ Logic, Paul Winter Consort, Dar Williams, DJ Kool Herc, The Rappers Delight Experience, Tiokasin Ghosthorse, David amram, Mike + Ruthy, Tom Chapin, James Maddock, The Chapin Sisters, Rebel Diaz, Sarah Lee Guthrie & Johnny Irion, Elizabeth Mitchell, Emma's Revolution, Toni Blackman, Kim & Reggie Harris, Magpie, Abrazos Orchestra, Nyraine, George Wein, The Vanaver Caravan, White Tiger Society, Lorre Wyatt, AKIR, Adira & Alana Amram, Aurora Barnes, The Owens Brothers, The Tony Lee Thomas Band, Jay Ungar & Molly Mason, New York City Labor Chorus, Roland Moussa, Roots Revelators, Kristen Graves, Bob Reid, Hudson River Sloop Singers, Walkabout Clearwater Chorus, Betty & The baby Boomers, Work O' The Weavers, Jacob Bernz * Sarah Armour, and Amanda Palmer. * In 2006, thirteen folk music songs made popular by Pete Seeger were reinterpreted by Bruce Springsteen on his fourteenth studio album, ''We Shall Overcome: The Seeger Sessions''. * In 2014, Wepecket Island Records recorded a Pete Seeger tribute album calle
AwardsSeeger received many awards and recognitions throughout his career, including: * Induction into the Songwriters Hall of Fame (1972) * The Eugene V. Debs Award (1979) * The Letelier-Moffitt Human Rights Award (1986) * The Grammy Lifetime Achievement Award (1993) * The National Medal of Arts from the National Endowment for the Arts (1994) * Kennedy Center Honors, Kennedy Center Honor (1994) * The Harvard Arts Medal (1996) * The James Smithson Bicentennial Medal (1996) * Induction into the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame (1996) * Grammy Award for Best Traditional Folk Album of 1996 for his record ''Pete'' (1997) * The Felix Varela Medal, Cuba's highest honor for "his humanistic and artistic work in defense of the environment and against racism" (1999) * The Schneider Family Book Award for his children's picture book ''The Deaf Musicians''. (2007) * The Mid-Hudson Civic Center Hall of Fame (2008)- Seeger and Arlo Guthrie performed the first public concert at the Poughkeepsie, New York not-for-profit family entertainment venue, close to Seeger's home, in 1976. Grandson Tao Rodríguez-Seeger accepted the Hall of Fame plaque on behalf of his grandfather. * Grammy Award for Best Traditional Folk Album of 2008 for his record ''At 89'' (2009) * The Peace Abbey Courage of Conscience Award for his commitment to peace and social justice as a musician, songwriter, activist, and environmentalist that spans over sixty years. (2008) * The Dorothy and Lillian Gish Prize (2009) *Grammy Award for Best Musical Album for Children of 2010 for his record album ''Tomorrow's Children'' with the Rivertown Kids and Friends (2011) * George Peabody Medal (2013) * Grammy Award for Best Spoken Word Album of 2013 nomination for ''Pete Seeger: The Storm King; Stories, Narratives, Poems'' (2014) * Woody Guthrie, Woody Guthrie Prize (2014) (inaugural recipient)
Discography* ''American Folk Songs for Children'' (1953) * ''American Industrial Ballads'' (1956) * ''American Favorite Ballads, Vol. 2'' (1958) * ''Gazette, Vol. 1'' (1958) * ''Sleep-Time: Songs & Stories'' (1958) * ''God Bless the Grass'' (1966) * ''Dangerous Songs!?'' (1966) * ''Rainbow Race'' (1973) * ''American Folk Songs for Children'' (1990) * ''At 89'' (2008)
See also* List of banjo players * List of peace activists * Tom Winslow – Clearwater singer and songwriter * Union Boys
References*Dunaway, David K. ''How Can I Keep from Singing: The Ballad of Pete Seeger''. [McGraw Hill (1981), DaCapo (1990)] Revised Edition. New York: Villard Trade Paperback, 2008 , , ,
Further reading* Briggs, John, ''Pete Seeger, The People's Singer'', Atombank Books, 2015, * "The Music Man" (profile and interview). In ''Something to Say: Thoughts on Art and Politics in America'', text by Richard Klin, photos by Lily Prince, Leapfrog Press, 2011. * Reich, Susanna
General links* * * * *
Films* * *
Interviews* The Pop Chronicles interviewed Seeger o