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The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the
nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mecha ...

nervous system
of bilateral animals, with the other part being the
central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecu ...

central nervous system
(CNS). The PNS consists of the
nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term diale ...

nerve
s and
ganglia A ganglion is a group of neuron cell bodies in the peripheral nervous system The peripheral nervous system (PNS) is one of two components that make up the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies li ...

ganglia
outside the
brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tis ...

brain
and
spinal cord The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. It encloses the central canal of the spinal cord, which contain ...

spinal cord
. The main function of the PNS is to connect the CNS to the limbs and
organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly categorized as parenchyma Parenchyma () is the bulk of functional ...
, essentially serving as a relay between the brain and spinal cord and the rest of the body. Unlike the CNS, the PNS is not protected by the
vertebral column The vertebral column, also known as the backbone or spine, is part of the axial skeleton Axial may refer to: * one of the describing relationships in an animal body * and submarine volcano off Oregon, USA * , a ghost town * In geometry: :* ...

vertebral column
and
skull The skull is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North A ...

skull
, or by the
blood–brain barrier The blood–brain barrier (BBB) is a highly selective semipermeable border of endothelial cells Endothelium is a single layer of squamous Epithelium () is one of the four basic types of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are mu ...
, which leaves it exposed to
toxin A toxin is a harmful substance produced within living cells or organisms; synthetic toxicants created by artificial processes are thus excluded. The term was first used by organic chemist Ludwig Brieger (1849–1919), derived from the word toxic ...
s and mechanical injuries. The peripheral nervous system is divided into the
somatic nervous system The somatic nervous system (SNS), or voluntary nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles. The somatic nervous system consists of sensory nerves carryi ...
and the
autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of viscera, internal organs. The autonomic nervous ...

autonomic nervous system
. In the somatic nervous system, the
cranial nerve Cranial nerves are the nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, ...
s are part of the PNS with the exception of the
optic nerve The optic nerve, also known as cranial nerve II, or simply as CN II, is a paired cranial nerve that transmits visual system, visual information from the retina to the brain. In humans, the optic nerve is derived from optic stalks during the se ...

optic nerve
(cranial nerve II), along with the
retina The retina (from la, rete "net") is the innermost, light-sensitive layer of tissue of the eye Eyes are organs of the visual system. They provide living organisms with vision, the ability to receive and process visual detail, as well ...

retina
. The second cranial nerve is not a true peripheral nerve but a tract of the
diencephalon The diencephalon (or interbrain) is a division of the forebrain In the anatomy of the brain of vertebrates, the forebrain or prosencephalon is the rostral (forward-most) portion of the brain. The forebrain (prosencephalon), the midbrain ( ...

diencephalon
.Board Review Series: Neuroanatomy, 4th Ed., Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Maryland 2008, p. 177. .
Cranial nerve ganglia In neuroanatomy, the cranial nerve ganglia are ganglia of certain cranial nerves. They can be Parasympathetic system, parasympathetic or sensory. All cranial nerve ganglia are bilateral. Parasympathetic The four cranial parasympathetic ganglia ...
originated in the CNS. However, the remaining ten cranial nerve
axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see spelling differences Despite the various English dialects Dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from ...
s extend beyond the brain and are therefore considered part of the PNS. The autonomic nervous system exerts involuntary control over
smooth muscle Smooth muscle is an involuntary non-striated muscle Striated muscle tissue is a muscle tissue Muscle tissue is a soft tissue that composes muscles in animal bodies, and gives rise to muscles' ability to contract. It is also referred to as myo ...

smooth muscle
and
gland In animals, a gland is a group of cells in an animal's body that synthesizes substances (such as hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλά ...

gland
s. The connection between CNS and organs allows the system to be in two different functional states: sympathetic and
parasympathetic The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system, the others being the sympathetic nervous system and the enteric nervous system. The enteric nervous system is sometimes considered part of t ...
.


Structure

The peripheral nervous system is divided into the
somatic nervous system The somatic nervous system (SNS), or voluntary nervous system is the part of the peripheral nervous system associated with the voluntary control of body movements via skeletal muscles. The somatic nervous system consists of sensory nerves carryi ...
, and the
autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of viscera, internal organs. The autonomic nervous ...

autonomic nervous system
. The somatic nervous system is under voluntary control, and transmits signals from the brain to end organs such as
muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are organs An organ is a group of tissues with similar functions. Plant life and animal life rely on many organs that co-exist in organ systems. A given organ's tissues can be broadly cat ...

muscle
s. The
sensory nervous system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sense ...
is part of the somatic nervous system and transmits signals from senses such as
taste The gustatory system or sense of taste is the sensory system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, ph ...

taste
and touch (including fine touch and gross touch) to the spinal cord and brain. The autonomic nervous system is a 'self-regulating' system which influences the function of organs outside voluntary control, such as the
heart rate Heart rate is the speed of the heartbeat Heartbeat or heartbeats may refer to: Physiology *Cardiac cycle, of the heart *Contraction of the cardiac muscle, muscles of the heart, or a perceived effect of it, such as: **Heart sounds, the noises gene ...

heart rate
, or the functions of the
digestive system The human digestive system consists of the human gastrointestinal tract, gastrointestinal tract plus the accessory organs of digestion (the tongue, salivary glands, pancreas, liver, and gallbladder). Digestion involves the breakdown of food in ...
.


Somatic nervous system

The somatic nervous system includes the
sensory nervous system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly complex part of an animal that coordinates its Behavior, actions and Sense ...
and the
somatosensory system The somatosensory system is a part of the sensory nervous system The sensory nervous system is a part of the nervous system In biology, the classical doctrine of the nervous system determines that it is a Complex system, highly comple ...
and consists of sensory nerves and somatic nerves, and many nerves which hold both functions. In the
head Head Sport GmbH is an American-Austrian manufacturing company Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in th ...

head
and
neck The neck is the part of the body on many vertebrate Vertebrates () comprise all species of animal Animals (also called Metazoa) are multicellular eukaryotic organisms that form the Kingdom (biology), biological kingdom Animalia. With ...

neck
,
cranial nerve Cranial nerves are the nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling differences#-re, -er, ...
s carry somatosensory data. There are twelve cranial nerves, ten of which originate from the
brainstem The brainstem (or brain stem) is the posterior stalk-like part of the brain A brain is an organ Organ may refer to: Biology * Organ (anatomy) An organ is a group of Tissue (biology), tissues with similar functions. Plant life and anim ...

brainstem
, and mainly control the functions of the anatomic structures of the head with some exceptions. One unique cranial nerve is the
vagus nerve The vagus nerve, historically cited as the pneumogastric nerve, is the tenth cranial nerve Cranial nerves are the nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axi ...
, which receives sensory information from organs in the
thorax The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioc ...

thorax
and
abdomen The abdomen (colloquially called the belly, tummy, midriff or stomach) is the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the front part of the abdominal segment of the Trunk (anatomy) ...

abdomen
. The
accessory nerve The accessory nerve is a cranial nerve Cranial nerves are the nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and Br ...
is responsible for innervating the
sternocleidomastoid The sternocleidomastoid muscle is one of the largest and most superficial cervical muscles. The primary actions of the muscle are rotation of the head to the opposite side and flexion Motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion in ...
and
trapezius muscle The trapezius is a large paired trapezoid In Euclidean geometry, a Convex polygon, convex quadrilateral with at least one pair of parallel (geometry) , parallel sides is referred to as a trapezium () in English outside North America, but ...
s, neither of which being exclusively in the head. For the rest of the body,
spinal nerve A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column. These are grouped into the ...

spinal nerve
s are responsible for somatosensory information. These arise from the
spinal cord The spinal cord is a long, thin, tubular structure made up of nervous tissue, which extends from the medulla oblongata in the brainstem to the lumbar region of the vertebral column. It encloses the central canal of the spinal cord, which contain ...

spinal cord
. Usually these arise as a web ("plexus") of interconnected nerves roots that arrange to form single nerves. These nerves control the functions of the rest of the body. In humans, there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves: 8 cervical, 12 thoracic, 5 lumbar, 5 sacral, and 1 coccygeal. These nerve roots are named according to the spinal vertebrata which they are adjacent to. In the cervical region, the spinal nerve roots come out ''above'' the corresponding vertebrae (i.e., nerve root between the skull and 1st cervical vertebrae is called spinal nerve C1). From the thoracic region to the coccygeal region, the spinal nerve roots come out ''below'' the corresponding vertebrae. It is important to note that this method creates a problem when naming the spinal nerve root between C7 and T1 (so it is called spinal nerve root C8). In the lumbar and sacral region, the spinal nerve roots travel within the dural sac and they travel below the level of L2 as the cauda equina.


Cervical spinal nerves (C1–C4)

The first 4 cervical spinal nerves, C1 through C4, split and recombine to produce a variety of nerves that serve the neck and back of head. Spinal nerve C1 is called the
suboccipital nerve The suboccipital nerve (first cervical dorsal ramus) is the dorsal primary ramus of the first cervical nerve (C1). It exits the spinal cord between the human skull, skull and the first cervical vertebra, the Atlas (anatomy), atlas. It lies within ...
, which provides motor innervation to muscles at the base of the
skull The skull is a bone A bone is a rigid tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in North A ...

skull
. C2 and C3 form many of the nerves of the neck, providing both sensory and motor control. These include the
greater occipital nerve The greater occipital nerve is a nerve of the head. It is a spinal nerve, specifically the medial branch of the dorsal primary ramus of cervical spinal nerve 2. It arises from between the first and second cervical vertebrae, ascends, and then pas ...
, which provides sensation to the back of the head, the
lesser occipital nerve The lesser occipital nerve or small occipital nerve is a cutaneous spinal nerve. It arises from cervical spinal nerve 2 The cervical spinal nerve 2 (C2) is a spinal nerve A spinal nerve is a , which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signa ...
, which provides sensation to the area behind the
ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is the external part of the ear, which consists ...

ear
s, the
greater auricular nerve The great auricular nerve is a cutaneous nerve of the head. It originates from the cervical plexus The cervical plexus is a plexus A plexus (from the Latin for "braid") is a branching network of vessels or Nerve, nerves. The vessels may be Blo ...
and the lesser auricular nerve. The
phrenic nerve The phrenic nerve is a mixed motor/sensory nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), or nerve fiber (or nerve fibre: see American and British English spelling dif ...
is a nerve essential for our survival which arises from nerve roots C3, C4 and C5. It supplies the
thoracic diaphragm The thoracic diaphragm, or simply the diaphragm ( grc, διάφραγμα, diáphragma, partition), is a sheet of internal skeletal muscle Skeletal muscles (commonly referred to as muscles) are Organ (biology), organs of the vertebrate muscu ...
, enabling
breathing Breathing (or ventilation) is the process of moving air File:Atmosphere gas proportions.svg, Composition of Earth's atmosphere by volume, excluding water vapor. Lower pie represents trace gases that together compose about 0.043391% of th ...

breathing
. If the spinal cord is transected above C3, then spontaneous breathing is not possible.


Brachial plexus (C5–T1)

The last four cervical spinal nerves, C5 through C8, and the first thoracic spinal nerve, T1, combine to form the
brachial plexus The brachial plexus is a network () of nerves (formed by the anterior rami The ventral ramus (pl. ''rami'') (Latin for ''branch'') is the anterior division of a spinal nerve. The ventral rami supply the antero-lateral parts of the trunk (anatomy), ...

brachial plexus
, or
plexus brachialis
plexus brachialis
, a tangled array of nerves, splitting, combining and recombining, to form the nerves that subserve the upper-limb and upper back. Although the brachial plexus may appear tangled, it is highly organized and predictable, with little variation between people. See
brachial plexus injuries A brachial plexus injury (BPI), also known as brachial plexus lesion, is an injury to the brachial plexus The brachial plexus is a network () of nerves (formed by the anterior rami The ventral ramus (pl. ''rami'') (Latin for ''branch'') is the ant ...
.


Lumbosacral plexus (L1–Co1)

The
anterior Standard anatomical terms of location deal unambiguously with the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient ...
divisions of the
lumbar nerves The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each sid ...
,
sacral nerves A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of fibers (called axons) in the peripheral nervous system. A nerve transmits electrical impulses. It is the basic unit of the peripheral nervous system. A nerve provide ...
, and
coccygeal nerve A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body there are 31 pairs of spinal nerves, one on each side of the vertebral column. These are grouped into the ...
form the
lumbosacral plexus The anterior divisions of the lumbar nerve The lumbar nerves are the five pairs of spinal nerves A spinal nerve is a mixed nerve, which carries motor, sensory, and autonomic signals between the spinal cord and the body. In the human body Th ...
, the first lumbar nerve being frequently joined by a branch from the twelfth thoracic. For descriptive purposes this plexus is usually divided into three parts: *
lumbar plexus The lumbar plexus is a web of nerves (a nervous plexus) in the lumbar region of the body which forms part of the larger lumbosacral plexus. It is formed by the Ventral ramus of spinal nerve, divisions of the first four lumbar nerves (L1-L4) and ...

lumbar plexus
*
sacral plexus In human anatomy The human body is the structure of a human being Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a tax ...

sacral plexus
* pudendal plexus


Autonomic nervous system

The
autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies smooth muscle and glands, and thus influences the function of viscera, internal organs. The autonomic nervous ...

autonomic nervous system
(ANS) controls involuntary responses to regulate physiological functions. The brain and spinal cord of the
central nervous system The central nervous system (CNS) is the part of the nervous system In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecu ...

central nervous system
are connected with organs that have smooth muscle, such as the heart, bladder, and other cardiac, exocrine, and endocrine related organs, by ganglionic neurons. The most notable physiological effects from autonomic activity are pupil constriction and dilation, and salivation of saliva. The autonomic nervous system is always activated, but is either in the sympathetic or parasympathetic state. Depending on the situation, one state can overshadow the other, resulting in a release of different kinds of
neurotransmitters A neurotransmitter is a signaling molecule In biology, cell signaling (cell signalling in British English), or cell-cell communication, governs the basic activities of cells and coordinates multiple-cell actions. A signal is an entity that ...

neurotransmitters
.


Sympathetic nervous system

The
sympathetic system The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) is one of two divisions of the autonomic nervous system, along with the parasympathetic nervous system. The enteric nervous system is sometimes considered part of the autonomic nervous system, and sometimes c ...
is activated during a “fight or flight” situation in which mental stress or physical danger is encountered. Neurotransmitters such as
norepinephrine Norepinephrine (NE), also called noradrenaline (NA) or noradrenalin, is an organic chemical , CH4; is among the simplest organic compounds. In chemistry Chemistry is the scientific discipline involved with Chemical element, elements and ...

norepinephrine
, and
epinephrine Adrenaline, also known as epinephrine, is a hormone A hormone (from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a co ...

epinephrine
are released, which increases heart rate and blood flow in certain areas like muscle, while simultaneously decreasing activities of non-critical functions for survival, like digestion. The systems are independent to each other, which allows activation of certain parts of the body, while others remain rested.


Parasympathetic nervous system

Primarily using the neurotransmitter
acetylcholine Acetylcholine (ACh) is an organic chemical that functions in the brain and body of many types of animals (including humans) as a neurotransmitter—a chemical message released by nerve cells to send signals to other cells, such as neurons, musc ...

acetylcholine
(ACh) as a mediator, the
parasympathetic system The parasympathetic nervous system (PSNS) is one of the three divisions of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system that supplies s ...
allows the body to function in a “rest and digest” state. Consequently, when the parasympathetic system dominates the body, there are increases in salivation and activities in digestion, while heart rate and other sympathetic response decrease. Unlike the sympathetic system, humans have some voluntary controls in the parasympathetic system. The most prominent examples of this control are urination and defecation.


Enteric nervous system

There is a lesser known division of the autonomic nervous system known as the
enteric nervous system The enteric nervous system (ENS) or intrinsic nervous system is one of the main divisions of the autonomic nervous system The autonomic nervous system (ANS), formerly the vegetative nervous system, is a division of the peripheral nervous system ...
. Located only around the digestive tract, this system allows for local control without input from the sympathetic or the parasympathetic branches, though it can still receive and respond to signals from the rest of the body. The enteric system is responsible for various functions related to gastrointestinal system.


Disease

Diseases of the peripheral nervous system can be specific to one or more nerves, or affect the system as a whole. Any peripheral nerve or nerve root can be damaged, called a
mononeuropathy Peripheral neuropathy, often shortened to neuropathy, is a general term describing disease affecting the peripheral nerves, meaning nerves beyond the brain and spinal cord. Damage to peripheral nerves may impair sensation, movement, gland, or or ...
. Such injuries can be because of injury or trauma, or
compression Compression may refer to: Physical science *Compression (physics), size reduction due to forces *Compression member, a structural element such as a column *Compressibility, susceptibility to compression *Gas compression *Compression ratio, of a c ...
. Compression of nerves can occur because of a tumour mass or injury. Alternatively, if a nerve is in an area with a fixed size it may be trapped if the other components increase in size, such as
carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), ...

carpal tunnel syndrome
and
tarsal tunnel syndrome Tarsal tunnel syndrome (TTS), is a compression neuropathy and painful foot condition in which the tibial nerve is compressed as it travels through the tarsal tunnel. This tunnel is found along the inner leg behind the medial malleolus (bump on the ...

tarsal tunnel syndrome
. Common symptoms of
carpal tunnel syndrome Carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a medical condition due to compression of the median nerve The median nerve is a nerve A nerve is an enclosed, cable-like bundle of nerve fibers called axon An axon (from Greek ἄξων ''áxōn'', axis), ...

carpal tunnel syndrome
include pain and numbness in the thumb, index and middle finger. In peripheral neuropathy, the function one or more nerves are damaged through a variety of means. Toxic damage may occur because of diabetes (
diabetic neuropathy Diabetic neuropathy refers to various types of nerve damage associated with diabetes mellitus Diabetes mellitus, commonly known as just diabetes, is a group of metabolic disorder A metabolic disorder is a disorder that negatively alters the b ...
), alcohol, heavy metals or other toxins; some infections; autoimmune and inflammatory conditions such as
amyloidosis Amyloidosis is a group of diseases in which abnormal protein Proteins are large biomolecule , showing alpha helices, represented by ribbons. This poten was the first to have its suckture solved by X-ray crystallography by Max Perutz and ...

amyloidosis
and
sarcoidosis Sarcoidosis is a disease involving abnormal collections of inflammatory cells that form lumps known as granulomata. The disease usually begins in the lungs, skin, or lymph nodes. Less commonly affected are the eyes, liver, heart, and brain. Any ...

sarcoidosis
. Peripheral neuropathy is associated with a sensory loss in a "glove and stocking" distribution that begins at the peripheral and slowly progresses upwards, and may also be associated with acute and chronic pain. Peripheral neuropathy is not just limited to the somatosensory nerves, but the autonomic nervous system too (
autonomic neuropathy Autonomic neuropathy (AN or AAN) is a form of polyneuropathy Polyneuropathy ( poly- + neuro- + wikt:-pathy, -pathy) is damage or disease affecting peripheral nerves (peripheral neuropathy) in roughly the same areas on both sides of the body, fea ...
).


See also

* Classification of peripheral nerves *
Connective tissue in the peripheral nervous system Nervous tissue, also called neural tissue, is the main tissue Tissue may refer to: Biology * Tissue (biology), an ensemble of similar cells that together carry out a specific function * ''Triphosa haesitata'', a species of geometer moth found in ...
* Preferential motor reinnervation


References


External links


Peripheral nervous system photomicrographs
from the US NIH
Neuropathy: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments
from ''Medical News Today''
Peripheral Neuropathy
at the Mayo Clinic {{Authority control Neuroscience