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Pepin or Pippin (or ''Pepin Carloman'', ''Pepinno'', April 777 – 8 July 810), born Carloman, was the son of
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
and
King of the Lombards The Kings of the Lombards or ''reges Langobardorum'' (singular ''rex Langobardorum'') were the monarchs of the Lombard people from the early 6th century until the Lombardic identity became lost in the 9th and 10th centuries. After 568, the Lomb ...
(781–810) under the authority of his father. Pepin was the second son of
Charlemagne Charlemagne ( , ) or Charles the Great ( la, Carolus Magnus; 2 April 748 – 28 January 814) was King of the Franks The Franks—Germanic-speaking peoples that invaded the Western Roman Empire in the 5th century—were first led by i ...

Charlemagne
by his then-wife
Hildegard Hildegard is a female name derived from the Old High German ''hild'' ('war' or 'battle') and ''gard'' ('enclosure' or 'yard'), and means 'battle enclosure'. Variant spellings include: Hildegarde; the Polish language, Polish, Portuguese language, P ...
. He was born Carloman, but was rechristened with the royal name Pepin (also the name of his older half-brother
Pepin the Hunchback Pepin, or Pippin the Hunchback (French: Pépin le Bossu, German: Pippin der Buckelige; c. 768 / 769 – 811) was a Franks, Frankish prince. He was the eldest son of Charlemagne and noblewoman Himiltrude. He developed a kyphosis, humped back after ...
, and his grandfather
Pepin the Short Pepin the Short, also called the Younger (german: Pippin der Jüngere, french: Pépin le Bref, c. 714 – 24 September 768) was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was ...
) when he was a young child. He was made "king of Italy" after his father's conquest of the
Lombards The Lombards () or Langobards ( la, Langobardi) were a Germanic people The Germanic peoples were a historical group of people living in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based on ...
, in 781, and crowned by
Pope Hadrian I Pope Adrian I ( la, Hadrianus I; died 25 December 795) was the bishop of Rome and ruler of the Papal States from 1 February 772 to his death. He was the son of Theodore, a Roman nobleman. Adrian and his predecessors had to contend with periodic ...
with the
Iron Crown of Lombardy The Iron Crown ( it, Corona Ferrea; la, Corona Ferrea) is a reliquary A reliquary (also referred to as a ''shrine'', by the French term ''châsse'', and historically including ''wikt:phylactery, phylacteries'') is a container for relics. A p ...
. He was active as ruler of Lombardy and worked to expand the Frankish empire. In 791, he marched a Lombard army into the
Drava The Drava or Dravefederal subject ..., Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding it, whose territory largely coincides ...
valley and ravaged
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...

Pannonia
, while his father marched along the
Danube The Danube ( ; ) is the List of rivers of Europe#Longest rivers, second-longest river in Europe, after the Volga in Russia. It flows through much of Central Europe, Central and Southeastern Europe, from the Black Forest into the Black Sea. It ...

Danube
into Avar territory. Charlemagne left the campaigning to deal with a Saxon revolt in 792. Pepin and Duke
Eric of Friuli Eric (also ''Heirichus'' or ''Ehericus''; died 799) was the Duke of Friuli The dukes and margraves of Friuli were the rulers of the Duchy of Friuli, Duchy and March of Friuli in the Middle Ages. The dates given below, when contentious, are discus ...
continued, however, to assault the Avars' ring-shaped strongholds. The great Ring of the Avars, their capital fortress, was taken twice. The booty was sent to Charlemagne in
Aachen Aachen ( ; Aachen dialect Aachen dialect (natively ''Öcher Platt'') is a dialect of Ripuarian language, Ripuarian Franconian spoken in the German Rhineland city of Aachen. This dialect, as part of the large West Germanic languages, West Ger ...

Aachen
and redistributed to all his followers and even to foreign rulers, including King
Offa of Mercia Offa (died 29 July 796 AD) was List of monarchs of Mercia, King of Mercia, a kingdom of History of Anglo-Saxon England, Anglo-Saxon England, from 757 until his death. The son of Thingfrith and a descendant of Eowa of Mercia, Eowa, Offa came to ...

Offa of Mercia
. A celebratory poem, ''
De Pippini regis Victoria Avarica ''Rythmus'' (or ''Carmen'') ''de Pippini regis Victoria Avarica'' ("Poem
ong Ong or ONG may refer to: Arts and media * Ong's Hat ''Ong's Hat'' was one of the earliest Internet-based secret history conspiracy theory, conspiracy theories created as a piece of collaborative fiction (aka ''Incunabula'') by four core individ ...
of king Pippin's Avar victory"), also known by its incipit as ''Omnes gentes qui fecisti'' ("All peoples whom you created"), is a medieval Latin encomium celebrating th ...
'', was composed after Pepin forced the Avar khagan to submit in 796. This poem was composed at
Verona Verona ( , ; vec, Verona or ''Veròna'') is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia' ...

Verona
, Pepin's capital after 799 and the centre of
Carolingian Renaissance The Carolingian Renaissance was the first of three medieval renaissances The medieval renaissances were periods characterised by significant cultural renewal across medieval In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itsel ...
literature in Italy. The ''
Versus de Verona The ''Versus de Verona'', also ''Carmen Pipinianum'' or ''Rhythmus Pipinianus'' (''Ritmo Pipiniano''), was a medieval Latin poetic encomium on the city of Verona, composed during the Carolingian Renaissance, between 795 and 806. It was modeled on ...
'' (c. 800), an urban encomium of the city, likewise praises king Pepin. The ''
Historia Langobardorum codicis Gothani The ''Historia Langobardorum codicis Gothani'', also called the ''Chronicon Gothanum'', is a history of the Lombard people written at and for the court of King Pippin of Italy between the years 806 and 810. It is preserved in the twelfth-century ' ...
'' hails Pepin's campaign against Benevento and his liberation of Corsica "from the oppression of the Moors." His activities included a long, but unsuccessful siege of
Venice Venice ( ; it, Venezia ; vec, Venesia or ) is a city in northeastern Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of delimited by the and surrounding ...

Venice
in 810. The siege lasted six months and Pepin's army was ravaged by the diseases of the local swamps and was forced to withdraw. A few months later Pepin died, on 8 July 810.


Family

The issue of Pepin's relationships is not entirely clear. A litany of ''Liber confrater augiensis'' attributes to him as his wife a certain Chrotais (or Ruadheid), married shortly before 796,. However, the ''Vita Hludowici'' written by
Thegan of Trier Thegan of Trier (or Degan of Treves) (before 800 – ca. 850) was a Francia, Frankish Roman Catholic prelate and the author of ''Gesta Hludowici imperatoris'' which is a principal source for the life of the Holy Roman Emperor Louis the Pious, the so ...
around 840 says that King
Bernard of Italy Bernard (797 – 17 April 818) was the King of the Lombards from 810 to 818. He plotted against his uncle, Holy Roman Emperor, Emperor Louis the Pious, when the latter's ''Ordinatio Imperii'' made Bernard a vassal of his cousin Lothair I, Lothair. ...
was born of a concubine (''ex concubina natus''), an affirmation reinforced by a litany of St. Gallen placing Bernard in a list of Carolingians of illegitimate birth. We do not know the origin of Chrotais but her name, that of Bernard of Italy and the fact that
Adalard of Corbie Saint Adalard of Corbie ( la, Adalhardus Corbeiensis; c. 751, Huise – 2 January 827) was son of Bernard, son of Charles Martel, Bernard the son of Charles Martel and half-brother of Pippin the Younger, Pepin; Charlemagne was his cousin. Biograp ...
and his half-brother Wala are then the protectors of Bernard of Italy suggests a close relationship between Chrotais and these. This hypothesis is reinforced by the fact that the first names of Bernard, Gundrada and Theodrada are found in the brothers and sisters of Wala and Adalard. Only, it is chronologically improbable that Chrotais is daughter of Wala, impossible that it is daughter of a brother or sister of Wala, who were too young, and the ''Vita Adalhardiis'' formal about the fact that Bernard had only five children. It remains as an explanation that the wife of Pepin is a grand-niece of his namesake, the third wife of Charles Martel.Settipani 1993 , p. 212. Besides his son Bernard, Pepin had five daughters:
Adelaide Adelaide ( ) is the capital city A capital or capital city is the municipality holding primary status in a Department (country subdivision), department, country, Constituent state, state, province, or other administrative region, usually ...
, who married
Lambert I of Nantes Lambert I (died 836) was the Count of Nantes and Prefect of the Breton March between 818 and 831 and Duke of Spoleto between 834 and 836. Lambert succeeded his father Guy of Nantes, Guy. Lambert participated in an expedition undertaken by Louis t ...
; Atala; Gundrada; Bertha; and Tetrada, who married Adelaide's stepson,
Lambert II of Nantes Lambert II (died 852) was the Count of NantesThe counts of Nantes were originally the Frankish rulers of the Nantais under the Carolingians and eventually a capital city of the Duchy of Brittany. Their county served as a March (frontier), march ag ...
. All of whom but the eldest were born between 800 and Pepin's death. All except Adelaide and Tetrada died before their grandfather's death in 814. Pepin was expected to inherit a third of his father's empire, but he predeceased him. The Lombard crown passed on to his illegitimate son Bernard, but the empire went to Pepin's younger brother,
Louis the Pious Louis the Pious (16 April 778 – 20 June 840), also called the Fair, and the Debonaire, was King of the Franks The Franks The Franks ( la, Franci or ) were a group of Germanic peoples whose name was first mentioned in 3rd-century Ro ...

Louis the Pious
.


Notes

{{Authority control 777 births 810 deaths 8th-century kings of Italy 9th-century kings of Italy Rulers of the Carolingian Empire Frankish warriors Italian monarchs 9th-century Frankish monarchs Children of Charlemagne 8th-century Frankish kings