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The Penghu (
Hokkien Hokkien () is a Southern Min Southern Min (), Minnan (Mandarin Mandarin may refer to: * Mandarin (bureaucrat), a bureaucrat of Imperial China (the original meaning of the word) ** by extension, any senior government bureaucrat A bureau ...
POJ: ''Phîⁿ-ô͘''  or ''Phêⁿ-ô͘'' ) or Pescadores Islands are an
archipelago An archipelago ( ), sometimes called an island group or island chain, is a chain, cluster or collection of island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as ...

archipelago
of 90 islands and
islet An islet is a very small island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll ( ...

islet
s in the
Taiwan Strait The Taiwan Strait is a -wide strait separating the Taiwan (island), island of Taiwan and mainland, continental Asia. The strait is part of the South China Sea and connects to the East China Sea to the north. The narrowest part is wide. Names ...

Taiwan Strait
. The largest city is
Magong Magong (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Má-keng'') is a county-administered city and county seat, seat of Penghu County, Taiwan. Magong City is located on Penghu's main island. Name The settlement's Mazu temples, temple honoring the Chines ...

Magong
, located on the largest island, which is also named Magong. Covering an area of , the archipelago collectively forms of the
Republic of China Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. It shares Maritime boundary, maritime borders with the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the sout ...

Republic of China
(Taiwan) and is the second smallest
county A county is a geographical region In geography, regions are areas that are broadly divided by physical characteristics (physical geography), human impact characteristics (human geography), and the interaction of humanity and the environment ...
after
Lienchiang County The Matsu Islands (; Foochow Romanized Foochow Romanized, also known as Bàng-uâ-cê (BUC for short; ) or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê (), is a Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originall ...
(the Matsu Islands).


Name

The traditional name of the islands, the Pescadores, comes from the
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
name ''Ilhas dos Pescadores'' ("Fishermen Islands"). The
European Portuguese European Portuguese ( pt, português europeu, ), also known as Portuguese of Portugal (Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portugues ...
pronunciation is but, in English, it is typically closer to . The islands have also been called ''Pehoe'' from the Minnan name ''Phêⁿ-ô·''. Using romanization based on the Mandarin pronunciation for the Chinese name, the islands have also been referred to as "Penghu Liehtao".


History


Prehistory

Penghu 1 Penghu 1 is a fossil jaw (mandible In anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology concerned with the study of the structure of organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργαν ...
, a fossil jaw (mandible) dating to the late
Pleistocene The Pleistocene ( , often referred to as the ''Ice Age'') is the geological Epoch (geology), epoch that lasted from about 2,580,000 to 11,700 years ago, spanning the earth’s most recent period of repeated glaciations. Before a change finally ...
that belonged to a member of an extinct
hominin The Hominini form a taxonomic tribe of the subfamily Homininae Homininae (), also called "African hominids" or "African apes", is a subfamily of Hominidae The Hominidae (), whose members are known as great apes or hominids (), are a t ...
species, was discovered in the
Pescadores ChannelThe Pescadores Channel, United States National Geospatial-Intelligence Agency () is the body of water that separates the Pescadores Islands from western Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neigh ...
around 2008. Finds of fine red
cord-marked pottery Cord-marked pottery or Cordmarked pottery is an early form of a simple earthenware pottery made in precontact villages. It allowed food to be stored and cooked over fire. Cord-marked pottery varied slightly around the world, depending upon the clay ...
at Guoye, Huxi, indicate that Penghu was visited by
Austronesian Austronesian may refer to: *The Austronesian languages *The historical Austronesian peoples who carried Austronesian languages on their migrations {{disambiguation ...
s from southwestern Taiwan around 5,000 years ago, though not settled permanently.
Han Chinese The Han Chinese (), or the Han people (), is an East Asian East Asia is the east East is one of the four cardinal direction The four cardinal directions, or cardinal points, are the directions north North is one of the four ...
from southern
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...

Fujian
began to establish fishing communities on the islands in the 9th and 10th centuries, and representatives were intermittently stationed there by the
Southern Song The Song dynasty (; ; 960–1279) was an imperial dynasty of China that began in 960 and lasted until 1279. The dynasty was founded by Emperor Taizu of Song Emperor Taizu of Song (21 March 927 – 14 November 976), personal name Zhao Kua ...

Southern Song
and Yuan governments from around 1170.
Wang Dayuan Wang Dayuan (, Floruit, fl. 1311–1350), courtesy name Huanzhang (), was a traveller from Quanzhou, China during the Yuan dynasty in the 14th century. He is known for his two major ship voyages. Wang Dayuan was born around 1311 at Hongzhou (presen ...
gave a detailed first-hand account of the islands in his ''
Daoyi Zhilüe ''Daoyi Zhilüe'' () or ''Daoyi Zhi'' () which may be translated as ''A Brief Account of Island Barbarians'' or other similar titles, is a book written c. 1339 by Yuan Dynasty Chinese traveller Wang Dayuan recounting his travels to over a hundred p ...
'' (1349).


Ming dynasty

In the 15th century, the
Ming The Ming dynasty (), officially the Great Ming, was the ruling dynasty of China from 1368 to 1644 following the collapse of the Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an eth ...

Ming
ordered the evacuation of the islands as part of their maritime ban. When these restrictions were removed in the late 16th century, legal fishing communities were re-established on the islands. These fishermen worshipped at the
Mazu TempleThis is a list of Mazu temples, dedicated to Mazu (媽祖) also known as Tian Shang Sheng Mu (天上圣母) or Tian Hou (天后) Chinese Goddess of Sea and Patron Deity of fishermen, sailors and any occupations related to sea/ocean, also regarded as ...

Mazu Temple
that gave
Magong Magong (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Má-keng'') is a county-administered city and county seat, seat of Penghu County, Taiwan. Magong City is located on Penghu's main island. Name The settlement's Mazu temples, temple honoring the Chines ...

Magong
its name and themselves gave rise to the Portuguese and English name ''Pescadores''. The Ming established a permanent military presence starting in 1597. At this time, the
Dutch East India Company The Dutch East India Company, officially the United East India Company ( nl, Vereenigde Oost Indische Compagnie; VOC), was a multinational corporation A multinational company (MNC) is a corporate A corporation is an organization—u ...

Dutch East India Company
was trying to force China to open a port in
Fujian Fujian (; alternately romanized as Fukien or Hokkien) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, sub ...

Fujian
to Dutch trade and expel the Portuguese from
Macau Macau or Macao (; ; ; ), officially the Macao Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (MSAR), (RAEM) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. Lond ...

Macau
. When the Dutch were defeated by the Portuguese at the
Battle of Macau The Battle of Macau in 1622 was a conflict of the Dutch–Portuguese War The Dutch–Portuguese War was an armed conflict involving Dutch Republic, Dutch forces, in the form of the Dutch East India Company and the Dutch West India Company, agai ...
in 1622, they seized Penghu, built a fort there, and threatened raids on Chinese ports and shipping unless the Chinese allowed trading with them on Penghu and that China not trade with Manila. In response, the Chinese governor of Fujian demanded that the Dutch withdraw from Penghu to Taiwan, where the Chinese would permit them to engage in trade. The Dutch continued to raid the Fujian coast between October 1622 and January 1624 to force their demands, but were unsuccessful. In 1624, the new governor of Fujian sent a fleet of 40–50 warships with 5,000 troops to Penghu and expelled the Dutch, who moved to Fort Zeelandia on Taiwan.


Qing dynasty

For a period in the mid-17th century,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
and the archipelago were ruled by the
Koxinga Zheng Chenggong, Prince of Yanping (27 August 1624 – 23 June 1662), better known internationally as Koxinga () or Cheng Ch'eng-kung, was a Ming loyalist who resisted the Qing conquest of China The transition from Ming to Qing, Ming–Qin ...
kingdom (
Kingdom of Tungning The Kingdom of Tungning (), also known as Tywan by the British at the time, pp. 347–348. was a dynastic Thalassocracy, maritime state that ruled part of southwestern Formosa (Taiwan) and Penghu islands between 1661 and 1683, and regarded as th ...

Kingdom of Tungning
), which was overthrown by the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
in 1683 after the
Battle of Penghu The Battle of Penghu () was a naval battle fought in 1683 between the Kingdom of Tungning based in Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Repu ...
. The Penghu archipelago was captured by the French in March 1885, in the closing weeks of the
Sino-French War The Sino-French War (, french: Guerre franco-chinoise, vi, Chiến tranh Pháp-Thanh), also known as the Tonkin War and Tonquin War, was a limited conflict fought from August 1884 to April 1885. There was no declaration of war A declaration ...
, and evacuated four months later. The Pescadores Campaign was the last campaign of Admiral
Amédée Courbet Anatole-Amédée-Prosper Courbet (26 June 1827 – 11 June 1885) was a French admiral who won a series of important land and naval victories during the Tonkin Campaign (1883–86) and the Sino-French War (August 1884 – April 1885). Early years ...
, whose naval victories during the war had made him a national hero in France. Courbet was among several French soldiers and sailors who succumbed to
cholera Cholera is an infection An infection is the invasion of an organism's body by , their multiplication, and the reaction of tissues to the infectious agents and the s they produce. An infectious disease, also known as a transmissible disea ...

cholera
during the French occupation of Penghu. He died aboard his flagship '' Bayard'' in
Makung Magong (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Má-keng'') is a county-administered city and county seat, seat of Penghu County, Taiwan. Magong City is located on Penghu's main island. Name The settlement's Mazu temples, temple honoring the Chines ...
harbour on 11 June 1885.


Empire of Japan

Towards the end of the
First Sino-Japanese War The First Sino-Japanese War (25 July 1894 – 17 April 1895) was a conflict between the Qing dynasty of China and the Empire of Japan primarily over influence in Joseon Korea. After more than six months of unbroken successes by Japanese lan ...

First Sino-Japanese War
, having defeated the Qing in northern China, Japan sought to ensure that it obtained Penghu and Taiwan in the final settlement. In March 1895, the Japanese defeated the Chinese garrison on the islands and occupied
Makung Magong (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Má-keng'') is a county-administered city and county seat, seat of Penghu County, Taiwan. Magong City is located on Penghu's main island. Name The settlement's Mazu temples, temple honoring the Chines ...
. The Japanese occupation of Penghu, with its fine harbor, gave the
Imperial Japanese Navy The Imperial Japanese Navy (IJN; Kyūjitai are the traditional forms of kanji, Chinese characters, Chinese written characters used in Japanese language, Japanese. Their simplified counterparts are shinjitai (), "new character forms". Some of ...
an advanced base from which their short-range coal-burning ships could control the Taiwan Straits and thus prevent more Chinese troops from being sent to Taiwan. This action persuaded the Chinese negotiators at Shimonoseki that Japan was determined to annex Taiwan, and, after Penghu, Taiwan and the
Liaodong Peninsula The Liaodong Peninsula (also Liaotung Peninsula, ) is a peninsula in southern Liaoning province in Northeast China, and makes up the southwestern coastal half of the Liaodong region. It is located between the river mouth, mouths of the Daliao ...
had been ceded to Japan in the Sino-Japanese
Treaty of Shimonoseki #REDIRECT Treaty of Shimonoseki #REDIRECT Treaty of Shimonoseki#REDIRECT Treaty of Shimonoseki The , also known as Treaty of Maguan () in China and in the period before and during WWII in Japan, was a treaty signed at the , Shimonoseki, Japa ...

Treaty of Shimonoseki
in April, helped to ensure the success of the Japanese invasion of Taiwan in May. Penghu County was then called the
Hōko Prefecture Image:Hoko Prefectural Office.JPG, The Hōko Prefecture government building now serves as the Penghu County Government building. was one of the administrative divisions of Taiwan during the Taiwan under Japanese rule, Japanese ruling period from 1 ...
by the Japanese government of Taiwan. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, Makō (Makung) was a major base for the Imperial Japanese Navy and the embarkation point for the invasion of the Philippines.


Republic of China

In the Cairo Declaration of 1943, the United States, the United Kingdom and China stated it to be their purpose that "all the territories that Japan has stolen from the Chinese, such as Formosa and The Pescadores, shall be restored to the Republic of China". On 26 July 1945, the three governments issued the
Potsdam Declaration The Potsdam Declaration, or the Proclamation Defining Terms for Japanese Surrender, was a statement that called for the surrender of all Japanese armed forces during World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbrev ...
, declaring that "the terms of the Cairo Declaration shall be carried out". However, the United States and the United Kingdom have regarded the aforementioned documents as merely wartime statements of intention with no binding force in law. Following the
surrender of Japan The surrender of Imperial Japan was Jewel Voice Broadcast, announced by Japanese Emperor Hirohito on August 15 and formally signed on September 2, 1945, End of World War II in Asia, bringing the hostilities of World War II to a close. By the ...
on 2 September 1945,
Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers The Supreme Commander for the Allied Powers (SCAP) (originally briefly styled Supreme Commander of the Allied Powers, ja, 連合国軍最高司令官総司令部, ''Rengōkokugun saikōshireikan sōshireibu'') was the title held by General Dougla ...
Douglas MacArthur , birth_date = , birth_place = Little Rock, Arkansas (The Little Rock, The "Little Rock") , government_type = council-manager government, Council-manager , leader_title = List of mayors of Lit ...

Douglas MacArthur
issued General Order No. 1, which directed Japanese forces to surrender to the Allied Powers and facilitate the occupation of Japanese territories by the Allied Powers. In the
Treaty of San Francisco The , also called the , re-established peaceful relations between Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territo ...
, signed in 1951 and coming into effect in 1952, Japan renounced sovereignty over Taiwan and Penghu, but left their final disposition unsettled. The archipelago has been administered by the Republic of China since 1945.
Boat people Vietnamese boat people ( vi, Thuyền nhân Việt Nam), also known simply as boat people, refers to the refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerc ...
fleeing Vietnam in the 1970s and 1980s who were rescued by Taiwan's ships in the South China Sea were sent to Penghu. On 25 May 2002,
China Airlines Flight 611 China Airlines Flight 611 was a regularly scheduled passenger flight from Chiang Kai-shek International Airport (now Taoyuan International Airport Taiwan Taoyuan International Airport is an international airport serving Taipei Taip ...
, a
Boeing 747-200 The Boeing 747 is a large, long–range wide-body airliner A wide-body aircraft, also known as a twin-aisle aircraft, is an airliner An airliner is a type of aircraft for transporting passengers and air cargo. Such aircraft are mos ...
aircraft flying from
Taipei Taipei (), officially Taipei City, is the Capital city, capital and a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality of the Taiwan, Republic of China (Taiwan). Located in Regions of Taiwan, Northern Taiwan, Taipei City is an enclave of t ...

Taipei
to
Hong Kong Hong Kong (; , ), officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region of the People's Republic of China (HKSAR), is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Pe ...

Hong Kong
, disintegrated and exploded over the Islands. The wreckage slammed into the Taiwan Strait, a couple of miles off the coast. All 225 passengers and crew on board were killed.


Climate

Penghu County has a dry-winter
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
: Cwa), bordering on a regular
humid subtropical climate A humid subtropical climate is a zone of climate characterized by hot and humid summers, and cool to mild winters. These climates normally lie on the southeast side of all continents, generally between latitude In geography Geograp ...
(
Köppen climate classification The Köppen climate classification is one of the most widely used climate classification systems. It was first published by German-Russian climate science, climatologist Wladimir Köppen (1846–1940) in 1884, with several later modifications by ...
: Cfa).


Geology

Penghu is the remnant of a
Miocene The Miocene ( ) is the first geological epoch In geochronology, an epoch is a subdivision of the geologic timescale that is longer than an age (geology), age but shorter than a period (geology), period. The current epoch is the Holocene Epoch of ...
aged
shield volcano A shield volcano is a type of volcano A volcano is a rupture in the crust of a planetary-mass object A planet is an astronomical body orbit In physics, an orbit is the gravitationally curved trajectory of an physical body, obj ...

shield volcano
, the stratigraphy of the island is dominated by two to four layers of
basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive A volcanic rock from Italy with a relatively large six-sided phenocryst (diameter about 1 mm) surrounded by a fine-grained groundmass, as seen in thin section under a petrographic microscope Extr ...

basalt
interbedded with
sandstone Sandstone is a clastic sedimentary rock of a clast (sand grain), derived from a basalt Basalt (, ) is a fine-grained extrusive igneous rock formed from the rapid cooling of low-viscosity lava rich in magnesium and iron ('' mafic ' ...
and
mudstone Mudstone, a type of mudrock Mudrocks are a class of fine-grained Granularity (also called graininess), the condition of existing in granular material, granules or Grain, grains, refers to the extent to which a material or system is composed ...

mudstone
deposited in shallow marine conditions.


Government

Penghu County is administered by Penghu County Government headed by Magistrate
Lai Feng-wei Lai Feng-wei (; born 20 September 1953) is a Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the nort ...
of the
Kuomintang The Kuomintang (KMT), also referred to as the Guomindang (GMD) or the Chinese Nationalist Party, is a political party in the Taiwan, Republic of China, initially Republic of China (1912–1949), on the Mainland China, Chinese mainland and ...
and headquartered at the Penghu County Hall.


Administrative divisions

Penghu County is divided into one
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and five rural townships. It is further divided into 97 villages. Like
Lienchiang County The Matsu Islands (; Foochow Romanized Foochow Romanized, also known as Bàng-uâ-cê (BUC for short; ) or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê (), is a Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originall ...
, Penghu County has no urban townships. The county seat is located at where it houses the Penghu County Hall and Penghu County Council. The main islands of Magong City/Huxi Township, Baisha Township, and Xiyu Township are the three most populous islands and are connected via bridges. Two shorter bridges connect Huxi and Baisha. The
Penghu Great Bridge The Penghu Great Bridge or Penghu Trans-Oceanic Bridge () is a bridge in Penghu County, Taiwan. It connects Siyu, Penghu, Siyu Island and Baisha, Penghu, Baisha Main Island. History The idea of the bridge construction came after knowing the sea ...

Penghu Great Bridge
connecting Baisha and Xiyu is the longest bridge in
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
.


Politics

The county elects a single representative to the
Legislative Yuan The Legislative Yuan is the unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicam ...
. In the
2016 Republic of China legislative election The 2016 Taiwanese legislative election was held, along with the 2016 Taiwanese presidential election, presidential election, on 16 January 2016 for all 113 seats in the Legislative Yuan. The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) led by Tsai Ing-wen ...
, this seat was won by the
Democratic Progressive Party The Democratic Progressive Party (DPP) is a Taiwanese nationalist and center-left Centre-left politics (British English) or center-left politics (American English), also referred to as moderate-left politics, are political views that l ...
with 55.4% of the vote.


Political dispute

Despite the controversy over the
political status of Taiwan The controversy regarding the political status of Taiwan, sometimes referred to as the Taiwan Issue or Taiwan Strait Issue or, from a Taiwanese perspective, as the Mainland Issue, is a result of the Chinese Civil War The Chinese Civil W ...
, both the Republic of China and the People's Republic of China agree that Penghu is a county in (their own respective) "Taiwan Province" (
Taiwan Province Taiwan Province (; PFS: ''Thòi-vàn-sén'' or ''Thòi-vân-sén'') is a nominal administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-lev ...
, Republic of China and
Taiwan Province, People's Republic of China Taiwan Province is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision ...
). However, geographically, the
island of Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The m ...
does not include Penghu, although it is closer to Taiwan than mainland China. Thus, Penghu is listed separately from "Taiwan" in some contexts, e.g. the Separate Customs Territory of Taiwan, Penghu, Kinmen, and Matsu (the official WTO name for the Republic of China) and in the Treaty of Shimonoseki, the Cairo Declaration, and the Treaty of San Francisco.


Economy

Due to its restricted geography, fisheries have been the main industry for Penghu. The Agriculture and Fisheries Bureau of the Penghu County Government governs matters related to agriculture and fisheries in Penghu. In 2016, the bureau placed a ban on the harvesting of
sea urchin Sea urchins () are spine (zoology), spiny, globular echinoderms in the class Echinoidea. About 950 species of sea urchin live on the seabed of every ocean and inhabit every depth zone — from the intertidal seashore down to . The spherical, ha ...

sea urchin
s due to their declining population. However, the ban was lifted in 2017 but catches are limited only to those species larger than in
diameter In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...

diameter
.


Demographics


Education

Education-related matters in Penghu County are administered under the Education Department of the Penghu County Government. The county houses the National Penghu University of Science and Technology.


Energy

Penghu is powered by the
Chienshan Power Plant The Chienshan Power Plant () is a Fossil-fuel power station, fuel-fired power plant in Huxi, Penghu, Huxi Township, Penghu County, Taiwan. With the total capacity of 140 MW, the power plant is the largest diesel fuel-fired power plant in Taiwan. C ...
, a 140 MW diesel-fired power plant commissioned in 2001, and the Hujing Power Plant on Table Island. On 24 December 2010, the Taiwan-Penghu Undersea Cable Project of Taipower was approved by the
Executive Yuan The Executive Yuan is the executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a st ...
to connect the
electrical grid An electrical grid is an interconnected network for electricity delivery Electricity delivery is the process that starts after generation of electricity in the power station A power station, also referred to as a power plant and somet ...
in Taiwan Island to Penghu. Under a wind power development project approved in 2002 by the
Executive Yuan The Executive Yuan is the executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a st ...
, the ROC government plans to set up a total of 200 wind turbines in Penghu within 10 years. However, only 14 turbines have been set up . On 1 October 2015, Taipower announced the construction of another 11 new wind turbines across the island, of which six will be constructed in Huxi Township and five in Baisha Township. The current total
desalination Desalination is a process that takes away mineral components from saline water Saline water (more commonly known as salt water) is water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odor ...
capacity of the county to provide clean water to its residents is 15,500 m3 per day. To reduce its
groundwater Groundwater is the water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an , transparent, tasteless, odorless, and , which is the main constituent of 's and the s of all known living organisms (in which it acts as a ). It is vital for all known form ...

groundwater
use, in November 2015 the county secured a contract of building an additional desalination plant with 4,000 m3 capacity per day, construction of which is expected to be completed by May 2018.


Tourism

The
Penghu National Scenic Area The Penghu National Scenic Area is one of the National Scenic Areas of the Republic of China (Taiwan), and covers most, but not all of the islands and islets that form Penghu County. These islands have a total of 320 kilometers of shoreline. A Na ...
was established in the early 1990s, comprising most of the islands and islets of the archipelago. Tourism has since become one of the main sources of income of the county. Historical sites include Central Street, Tianhou Temple, Four-eyed Well, Penghu Reclamation Hall, Qimei Lighthouse, Xiyu Eastern Fort, Jinguitou Fortress and Xiyu Western Fort. Museums in the county are Chuwan Crab Museum, Ocean Resources Museum, Chang Yu-sheng Memorial Museum and Penghu Living Museum. Other attractions in the county include the , Fenggui Cave, , Whale Cave, Xiaomen Geology Gallery and South Penghu Marine National Park. Since 1 January 2015, tourists from
Mainland China The term "mainland China" refers to the area directly governed by the People's Republic of China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies ...

Mainland China
can directly apply for the Exit & Entry Permit upon arrival in Penghu. This privilege also applies to
Kinmen Kinmen, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features ...

Kinmen
and the
Matsu Islands The Matsu Islands (; Foochow Romanized Foochow Romanized, also known as Bàng-uâ-cê (BUC for short; ) or Hók-ciŭ-uâ Lò̤-mā-cê (), is a Latin alphabet The Latin alphabet or Roman alphabet is the collection of letters originall ...
as a means to boost tourism in the outlying islands of Taiwan. The county welcomed 1.8 million tourists in 2018 with an average annual growth of around 10%. File:臺灣澎湖馬公 松島艦遭難紀念碑 Memorial to the cruiser Matsushima located in Penghu, TAIWAN in 1908.jpg, Original 1908 memorial to the cruiser pictured. Modern park memorial in
Magong Magong (Hokkien Pe̍h-ōe-jī, POJ: ''Má-keng'') is a county-administered city and county seat, seat of Penghu County, Taiwan. Magong City is located on Penghu's main island. Name The settlement's Mazu temples, temple honoring the Chines ...

Magong
City, Penghu,
Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere, Eastern and N ...

Taiwan
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Drug trafficking

As a lightly populated outlying island, Penghu lends itself to being used as a trans-shipment hub for drug smuggling into Taiwan from China and the Philippines. Beginning in 2016, the area became the focus of a major drug trafficking crackdown by the Taiwanese police. In 2016, Chou Meng-hsiang (周盟翔), chief prosecutor of the Penghu District Prosecutors Office, "led an investigation team in Taiwan, including officers from the Coast Guard Administration, in a bid to bring (a) drug trafficking ring to justice." A joint investigation with Philippine and Chinese authorities spanning one and a half years resulted in the seizure of "22.6 kilograms of amphetamine, 11.4 kilograms of ephedrine, and about 40 kilograms of calcium chloride" with an estimated value of NT$123 million. Eight suspects were arrested in
Cagayan Cagayan ( ) ( ilo, Probinsia ti Cagayan; ibg, Provinsiya na Cagayan; itv, Provinsiya ya Cagayan; tl, Lalawigan ng Cagayan) is a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative ...
, a small island in northern Philippines, but no Taiwanese nationals were charged in relation to the importation scheme. In 2017, media reported "the biggest-ever haul of drugs in the county’s history" when 506 kg of
ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant. It is often used to prevent hypotension, low blood pressure during anesthesia. It has also been used for asthma, narcolepsy, and obesity but is not the preferred treatment. It is of unclear benefit in nas ...

ephedrine
was seized from a Chinese fishing boat off Penghu "as part of an ongoing crackdown on the area drug trade".
Ephedrine Ephedrine is a medication and stimulant. It is often used to prevent hypotension, low blood pressure during anesthesia. It has also been used for asthma, narcolepsy, and obesity but is not the preferred treatment. It is of unclear benefit in nas ...

Ephedrine
smuggling has increased in recent years as it has a similar structure to amphetamines and can be easily converted into
methamphetamine Methamphetamine (contracted from ) is a potent central nervous system (CNS) stimulant that is mainly used as a recreational drug use, recreational drug and less commonly as a second-line treatment for attention deficit hyperactivity disord ...

methamphetamine
. According to a Focus Taiwan report, "(It) can then be sold for ten times the price, in this case that would be more than NT$1 billion (US$33.33 million)." Despite the size of the drug seizure, only the five crew members of the Chinese fishing boat were detained in the operation, with authorities "unable to find the Taiwanese ship which should have turned up to take delivery of the drugs". It was unclear from media reports how the Taiwanese side of the smuggling operation knew to abort the rendezvous. The suppliers of the shipment also evaded capture. It was believed the drugs were destined to be transported from Penghu for distribution on Taiwan.


Transport


Air

Penghu is served by Penghu Airport in and
Qimei Airport Qimei Airport or Chi Mei Airport () is an airport serving Cimei, Penghu, an island in Penghu, Penghu County, Taiwan, Taiwan (ROC). History The Penghu County Government approved the building of the airport in 1977 for those on Chimay in order to i ...
in Cimei Township. Both airports opened in 1977.
Daily Air Daily Air Corporation () is an airline with its headquarters in Songshan District, Taipei, Songshan District, Taipei, Taiwan. It operates scheduled passenger services to offshore islands from Taiwan, including Penghu, Green Island and Orchid Islan ...
operates flights between Penghu to Kaohsiung.


Water

The county has Magong Harbor and Longmen Jianshan Pier. Magong Harbor hosts ferry connections with
Kaohsiung Kaohsiung City (; Mandarin Chinese: ; Wade–Giles: ''Kao¹-hsiung²'') is a Special municipality (Taiwan), special municipality in southern Taiwan. It ranges from the coastal urban centre to the rural Yushan Range with an area of . Kao ...
,
Tainan Tainan, officially Tainan City, is a special municipality in southern Taiwan Taiwan, officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and ...
,
Chiayi Chiayi ( Taigi POJ: ''Ka-gī''; ), officially known as Chiayi City, is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The So ...
and
Kinmen Kinmen, alternatively known as Quemoy, is a group of islands An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features ...

Kinmen
.


See also

*
Administrative divisions of Taiwan Taiwan Taiwan (), officially the Republic of China (ROC), is a country in East Asia. Neighbouring countries include the China, People's Republic of China (PRC) to the northwest, Japan to the northeast, and the Philippines to the south. The ...
* List of cities in Taiwan


References


Citations


Works cited

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Further reading

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External links


Penghu County Government

Penghu Tour Official Website

澎湖研究學術研討會 第1-8屆論文輯全球資訊網-歷屆論文
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Traditional Chinese Traditional Chinese characters are one type of standard Chinese character Chinese characters, also called ''hanzi'' (), are logogram In a written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural la ...

Traditional Chinese
)
Living Museum
(Copyright © 2012 Culture Taiwan) * {{Authority control Archipelagoes of Taiwan Archipelagoes of the Pacific Ocean Landforms of Penghu County