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The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two
peace treaties A peace treaty is an agreement between two or more hostile parties, usually countries or government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a State (polity), state. In the case of ...
signed in October 1648 in the
Westphalia Westphalia (; german: Westfalen ; nds, Westfalen ) is a region of northwestern Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769 ...

Westphalia
n cities of
Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens ...
and
Münster Münster ( , ; nds, Mönster) is an independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the H ...

Münster
. They ended the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
(1618–1648) and
Eighty Years' War The Eighty Years' War ( nl, Tachtigjarige Oorlog; es, Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a Dutch Revolt, revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg a ...
(1568–1648), and brought peace to the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, closing a calamitous period of European history that killed approximately eight million people. The Holy Roman Emperor (
Ferdinand III of Habsburg
Ferdinand III of Habsburg
), the Spanish Monarchy, the kingdoms of France and Sweden, the United Provinces (Netherlands), and their respective allies among the princes of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
participated in these treaties.Clodfelter, Micheal (2017). ''Warfare and Armed Conflicts: A Statistical Encyclopedia of Casualty and Other Figures, 1492–2015.'' McFarland. p. 40. . The negotiation process was lengthy and complex. Talks took place in two cities, because each side wanted to meet on territory under its own control. A total of 109 delegations arrived to represent the belligerent states, but not all delegations were present at the same time. Two treaties were signed to end the war in the Empire: the Treaty of Münster and the Treaty of Osnabrück. These treaties ended the Thirty Years' War in the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, with the Habsburgs (rulers of Austria and Spain) and their Catholic allies on one side, battling the Protestant powers (Sweden and certain Holy Roman principalities) allied with France, which was Catholic but strongly anti-Habsburg under King
Louis XIV Louis XIV (Louis Dieudonné; 5 September 16381 September 1715), also known as Louis the Great () or the Sun King (), was King of France from 14 May 1643 until his death in 1715. His reign of 72 years and 110 days is the List of longest-reigning mo ...

Louis XIV
. The separate
Peace of Münster The Peace of Münster was a treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, a ...
ended the Eighty Years' War between Spain and the United Provinces. Joachim Whaley, a leading English-language historian of the Holy Roman Empire, mentions that later commentators such as
Leibniz Gottfried Wilhelm (von) Leibniz ; see inscription of the engraving depicted in the "#1666–1676, 1666–1676" section. ( – 14 November 1716) was a German polymath active as a mathematician, philosopher, scientist, and diplomat. He is a promin ...

Leibniz
,
Rousseau Jean-Jacques Rousseau (, ; ; 28 June 1712 – 2 July 1778) was a Republic of Geneva, Genevan philosopher, writer, and composer. His political philosophy influenced the progress of the Age of Enlightenment, Enlightenment throughout Europe, as w ...

Rousseau
,
Kant Immanuel Kant (, , ; 22 April 1724 – 12 February 1804) was a German philosopher A philosopher is someone who practices philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about r ...

Kant
, and
Schiller Johann Christoph Friedrich (von) Schiller (, short: ; 10 November 17599 May 1805) was a German poet, philosopher, physician, historian, and playwright. During the last seventeen years of his life (1788–1805), Schiller developed a productive, i ...

Schiller
eulogized the Peace of Westphalia as the first step towards a universal peace, but he points out that "their projections for the future should not be mistaken for descriptions of reality". Scholars of
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
have identified the Peace of Westphalia as the origin of principles crucial to modern international relations, collectively known as
Westphalian sovereignty Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is a principle in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between na ...
, though other historians argue that this is largely a myth invented after the fact.


Background

Europe had been battered by the Thirty Years' War and the Eighty Years' War, exacting a heavy toll in money and lives. The Eighty Years' War was a prolonged struggle for the independence of the Netherlands, supported by England, against Spain and Portugal. The Thirty Years' War was a partly religious, mostly dynastic power struggle. The war included a large number of players, siding either with the
House of Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
or the
House of Bourbon The House of Bourbon (, also ; ) is a European of French origin, a branch of the , the royal . Bourbon kings first ruled France and in the 16th century. By the 18th century, members of the held thrones in , , , and . Spain and have monarchs ...

House of Bourbon
, though the factionalization was more complex than just dynastic allegiances. With between 4.5 million and 8 million dead in the Thirty Years' War alone, and decades of constant warfare, the need for peace became increasingly clear.


Locations

Peace negotiations between France and the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...
Emperor An emperor (from la, imperator The Latin word "imperator" derives from the stem of the verb la, imperare, label=none, meaning 'to order, to command'. It was originally employed as a title roughly equivalent to ''commander'' under the Roma ...
began in
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
in 1636. These negotiations were initially blocked by
Cardinal Richelieu Armand Jean du Plessis, Duke of Richelieu Duke of Richelieu was a title of French nobility. It was created on 26 November 1629 for Cardinal Richelieu, Armand Jean du Plessis de Richelieu (known as Cardinal Richelieu) who, as a Roman Catholic cl ...
of France, who insisted on the inclusion of all his allies, whether fully sovereign countries or states within the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. In
Hamburg en, Hamburgian(s) , timezone1 = Central (CET) , utc_offset1 = +1 , timezone1_DST = Central (CEST) , utc_offset1_DST = +2 , postal_code_type = Post ...

Hamburg
, Sweden, France and the Holy Roman Empire negotiated a preliminary peace in December 1641. They declared that the preparations of Cologne and the Treaty of Hamburg were preliminaries of an overall peace agreement. The main peace negotiations took place in
Westphalia Westphalia (; german: Westfalen ; nds, Westfalen ) is a region of northwestern Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the and by both area and population. Its 3,769 ...

Westphalia
, in the neighbouring cities of
Münster Münster ( , ; nds, Mönster) is an independent city An independent city or independent town is a city or town that does not form part of another general-purpose local government entity (such as a province). Historical precursors In the H ...

Münster
and
Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens ...
. Both cities were maintained as neutral and demilitarized zones for the negotiations. In Münster, negotiations took place between the Holy Roman Empire and France, as well as between the
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
and Spain who on 30 January 1648 signed a
peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreement, between countries * Consensus, a decision-making process * Contract, enforceab ...
, that was not part of the Peace of Westphalia. Münster had been, since its re-Catholicisation in 1535, a strictly mono-denominational community. It housed the Chapter of the
Prince-Bishopric of Münster The Prince-Bishopric of Münster (german: Fürstbistum Münster; Bistum Münster, Hochstift Münster) was a large ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchical A monarchy is a form ...
. Only
Roman Catholic Roman or Romans most often refers to: *Rome , established_title = Founded , established_date = 753 BC , founder = King Romulus , image_map = Map of comune of Rome (metropolitan city of Capital Rome, region Laz ...
worship was permitted, while
Calvinism Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Refor ...
and
Lutheranism Lutheranism is one of the largest branches of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity Christianity is an , based on the and of . It is the , with about 2.5 billion followers. Its adherents, known as , make up a major ...
were prohibited. Sweden preferred to negotiate with the Holy Roman Empire in Osnabrück, controlled by the Protestant forces. Osnabrück was a bidenominational Lutheran and Catholic city, with two Lutheran churches and two Catholic churches. The city council was exclusively Lutheran, and the burghers mostly so, but the city also housed the Catholic Chapter of the
Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück The Prince-Bishopric of OsnabrückAlso known as the Prince-Bishopric of Osnaburg) (german: link=no, Hochstift Osnabrück; Fürstbistum Osnabrück, Bistum Osnabrück) was an ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can ...
and had many other Catholic inhabitants. Osnabrück had been subjugated by troops of the Catholic League from 1628 to 1633 and then taken by Lutheran Sweden.


Delegations

The peace negotiations had no exact beginning or end, because the 109 delegations never met in a plenary session. Instead, various delegations arrived between 1643 and 1646 and left between 1647 and 1649. The largest number of diplomats were present between January 1646 and July 1647. Delegations had been sent by 16 European states, 66
Imperial State An Imperial State or Imperial Estate ( la, Status Imperii; german: Reichsstand, plural: ') was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet ('). Rulers of thes ...
s representing the interests of 140 Imperial States, and 27 interest groups representing 38 groups. * The French delegation was headed by Henri II d'Orléans, Duke of Longueville and further comprised the diplomats Claude d'Avaux and
Abel ServienAbel Servien, marquis de Sablé et de Boisdauphin and comte de La Roche des Aubiers (1 November 159317 February 1659) was a French diplomat who served Cardinal Mazarin and signed for the French the Treaty of Westphalia. He was an early member of t ...

Abel Servien
. * The Swedish delegation was headed by Count Johan Oxenstierna and was assisted by . * The Imperial delegation was headed by Count Maximilian von Trautmansdorff. His aides were: ** In Münster, Johann Ludwig von Nassau-Hadamar and Isaak Volmar. ** In Osnabrück, Johann Maximilian von Lamberg and ''
Reichshofrat The Aulic Council ( la, Consilium Aulicum, german: Reichshofrat, literally meaning Court Council of the Empire) was one of the two supreme courts of the Holy Roman Empire, the other being the Imperial Chamber Court. It had not only concurrent jurisd ...

Reichshofrat
'' Johann Krane. *
Philip IV of Spain Philip IV ( es, Felipe, pt, Filipe; 8 April 160517 September 1665), also called the Planet King (Spanish: ''Rey Planeta''), was King of Spain , coatofarms = Coat of Arms of Spanish Monarch.svg , coatofarms_article = Coat of arms ...

Philip IV of Spain
was represented by two delegations: ** The Spanish delegation was headed by Gaspar de Bracamonte y Guzmán, and notably included the diplomats and writers
Diego de Saavedra Fajardo Diego de Saavedra Fajardo (24 August 1648) was a Spain, Spanish Diplomacy, diplomat and Intellectual, man of letters. Biography He was born in Algezares, in what is now the province of Murcia. After receiving a religious education at Salamanca ...
, and
Bernardino de Rebolledo Bernardino de Rebolledo y Villamizar, Earl of Rebolledo and Graf (Count) of the Holy Roman Empire was a Spanish poet, soldier and diplomat ( León, baptized May 31, 1597 - Madrid Madrid (, ) is the capital and most-populous city of Spain ...

Bernardino de Rebolledo
. ** The Franche Comté and the
Spanish Netherlands Spanish Netherlands es, Países Bajos Españoles; nl, Spaanse Nederlanden; french: Pays-Bas espagnols; german: Spanische Niederlande. (historically in Spanish: ''Flandes'', the name "Flanders" was used as a ''pars pro toto ''Pars pro toto'' (, ...

Spanish Netherlands
were represented by (who died before peace was concluded) and Antoine Brun. * The
papal nuncio An apostolic nuncio (also known as a papal nuncio or simply as a nuncio) is an ecclesiastical diplomat, serving as an envoy or a permanent diplomatic representative of the Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), a ...
in
Cologne Cologne ( ; german: Köln ; ksh, Kölle ) is the largest city of Germany, Germany's most populous States of Germany, state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NRW) and the List of cities in Germany by population, fourth-most populous city and one of t ...

Cologne
,
Fabio Chigi Pope Alexander VII (13 February 159922 May 1667), born Fabio Chigi, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 7 April 1655 to his death in 1667. He began his career as a vice-papal legate, and he held various diplomatic ...

Fabio Chigi
, and the Venetian envoy Alvise Contarini acted as mediators. * Various
Imperial State An Imperial State or Imperial Estate ( la, Status Imperii; german: Reichsstand, plural: ') was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet ('). Rulers of thes ...
s of the Holy Roman Empire also sent delegations. * Brandenburg sent several representatives, including Volmar. * The
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
sent a delegation of six, including two delegates from the province of Holland, including
Adriaan Pauw Slot Heemstede in 1667 by Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde.">Gerrit_Adriaenszoon_Berckheyde.html" ;"title="Slot Heemstede in 1667 by Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde">Slot Heemstede in 1667 by Gerrit Adriaenszoon Berckheyde. Adriaan Pauw, Order of S ...

Adriaan Pauw
, and Willem Ripperda from the province of Overijssel; two provinces were absent. * The
Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language, starting in the 17th century. It is a translation of t ...
was represented by .


Treaties

Three separate treaties constituted the peace settlement. * The
Peace of Münster The Peace of Münster was a treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, a ...
was signed by the Dutch Republic and the Kingdom of Spain on 30 January 1648, and was ratified in Münster on 15 May 1648. * Two complementary treaties were signed on 24 October 1648: ** The Treaty of Münster (''Instrumentum Pacis Monasteriensis'', IPM), between the Holy Roman Emperor and France, along with their respective allies ** The Treaty of Osnabrück (''Instrumentum Pacis Osnabrugensis'', IPO), between the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
and Sweden, along with their respective allies.


Results


Internal political boundaries

The power asserted by was stripped from him and returned to the rulers of the
Imperial State An Imperial State or Imperial Estate ( la, Status Imperii; german: Reichsstand, plural: ') was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet ('). Rulers of thes ...
s. The rulers of the
Imperial State An Imperial State or Imperial Estate ( la, Status Imperii; german: Reichsstand, plural: ') was a part of the Holy Roman Empire with representation and the right to vote in the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet ('). Rulers of thes ...
s could henceforth choose their own official religions. Catholics and Protestants were redefined as equal before the law, and
Calvinism Calvinism (also called the Reformed tradition, Reformed Christianity, Reformed Protestantism, or the Reformed faith) is a major branch of Protestantism Protestantism is a form of Christianity that originated with the 16th-century Refor ...
was given legal recognition as an official religion.Treaty of Münster 1648 The independence of the Dutch Republic, which practiced religious toleration, also provided a safe haven for European Jews. The
Holy See The Holy See ( lat, Sancta Sedes, ; it, Santa Sede ), also called the See of Rome or Apostolic See, is the jurisdiction of the Bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian ...
was very displeased at the settlement, with Pope
Innocent X Pope The pope ( la, papa, from el, πάππας, translit=pappas, "father"), also known as the supreme pontiff () or the Roman pontiff (), is the bishop of Diocese of Rome, Rome, chief pastor of the worldwide Catholic Church, and head of s ...
calling it "null, void, invalid, iniquitous, unjust, damnable, reprobate, inane, empty of meaning and effect for all time" in the
bull A bull is an intact (i.e., not castrated Castration (also known as orchiectomy or orchidectomy) is any action, surgical Surgery ''cheirourgikē'' (composed of χείρ, "hand", and ἔργον, "work"), via la, chirurgiae, meaning ...
''Zelo Domus Dei''.


Tenets

The main tenets of the Peace of Westphalia were: * All parties would recognise the
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, french: Charles Quint, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, ca, Carles V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 Septemb ...
of 1555, in which each prince had the right to determine the religion of his own state (the principle of ''
cuius regio, eius religio () is a Latin phrase __NOTOC__ This is a list of Wikipedia articles of Latin phrases and their translation into English. To view all phrases on a single, lengthy document, see: * List of Latin phrases (full) The list also is divided alphabetic ...
''). However, the ''ius reformandi'' was removed, subjects were no longer forced to follow the conversion of their ruler. Rulers were allowed to choose Catholicism, Lutheranism, or Calvinism. * 1 January 1624 was defined as the normative date for determining the dominant religion of a state. All ecclesiastical property was to be restored to the condition of 1624. Christians living in principalities where their denomination was ''not'' the established church were guaranteed the right to practice their faith in private, as well as in public during allotted hours. * France and Sweden were recognised as guarantors of the imperial constitution with a right to intercede. It is often argued that the Peace of Westphalia resulted in a general recognition of the exclusive sovereignty of each party over its lands, people, and agents abroad, as well as responsibility for the warlike acts of any of its citizens or agents.


Territorial adjustments

* The
Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely spoke ...
was formally recognised as independent from the Holy Roman Empire, after decades of ''de facto'' independence. * The
Dutch Republic The United Provinces of the Netherlands, or United Provinces (officially the Republic of the Seven United Netherlands), commonly referred to in historiography Historiography is the study of the methods of historian ( 484– 425 BC) was ...
, which had declared its independence from Spain in 1581, was formally recognised as a fully independent state from both Spain and the Holy Roman Empire. * France retained the Bishoprics of
Metz Metz ( , , lat, Divodurum Mediomatricorum, then ) is a city in northeast France located at the confluence of the Moselle (river), Moselle and the Seille (Moselle), Seille rivers. Metz is the Prefectures in France, prefecture of the Moselle (de ...
,
Toul Toul () is a commune A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property Property (''latin: Res Privata'') in the Abstract and concrete, abstract is what belongs to or ...
and
Verdun Verdun (, , , ; official name before 1970 ''Verdun-sur-Meuse'') is a city in the Meuse (department), Meuse departments of France, department in Grand Est, northeastern France. It is an arrondissement of the department. Verdun is the biggest ...
near
Lorraine Lorraine , also , , ; LorrainLorrain may refer to: * Claude Lorrain (1600–82), a 17th-century French artist of the baroque style * Lorrain language Lorrain is a dialect (often referred to as patois) spoken by a minority of people in Lo ...

Lorraine
, received the cities of the
Décapole The Décapole (''Dekapolis'' or german: Zehnstädtebund) was an alliance formed in 1354 by ten Imperial cities of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic ...
in Alsace (except for
Strasbourg Strasbourg (, , ; german: Straßburg ; gsw, label=Bas Rhin Bas-Rhin (; Alsatian: ''Unterelsàss'', ' or '; traditional german: links=no, Niederrhein; en, Lower Rhine) is a department Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, divi ...

Strasbourg
, the
Bishopric of Strasbourg The Prince-Bishopric of Strassburg (german: Fürstbistum Straßburg; gsw-als, Fìrschtbischofsìtz Strossburi(g)) was an ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can either be a monarchy, monarchical feudatory or a ...
, and
Mulhouse Mulhouse (; Alsatian: or , ; ; meaning ''mill Mill may refer to: Science and technology * Mill (grinding) * Milling (machining) * List of types of mill * Mill, the arithmetic unit of the Analytical Engine early computer * Textile manufacturi ...

Mulhouse
) and the city of
Pignerol Pinerolo (; pms, Pinareul ; french: Pignerol; oc, Pineròl) is a town A town is a human settlement. Towns are generally larger than villages and smaller than city, cities, though the criteria to distinguish between them vary consid ...
near the Spanish
Duchy of Milan The Duchy of Milan was an Italian state located in northern Italy Northern Italy ( it, Italia settentrionale, it, Nord Italia, label=none, it, Alta Italia, label=none or just it, Nord, label=none) is a geographical and cultural region in th ...
. * Sweden received an
indemnity In contract law, indemnity is a contractual obligation of one Party (law), party (''indemnifier'') to Financial compensation, compensate the loss incurred to the other party (''indemnity holder'') due to the acts of the indemnitor or any other p ...
of five million
thaler A thaler (; also taler, from german: Taler) is one of the large silver coins minted in the states and territories of the Holy Roman Empire and the Habsburg monarchy during the Early Modern period. A ''thaler'' size silver coin has a diameter of ...

thaler
s, which it used primarily to pay its troops. Sweden further received
Western Pomerania Historical Western Pomerania, also called Fore Pomerania, Front Pomerania or Hither Pomerania (german: Vorpommern), is the western extremity of the historic region of the Duchy of Pomerania, Duchy, later Province of Pomerania (1815–1945), ...
(thenceforth
Swedish Pomerania Swedish Pomerania ( sv, Svenska Pommern; german: Schwedisch-Pommern) was a Dominion The word Dominion was used from 1907 to 1948 to refer to one of several self-governing colonies of the British Empire. "Dominion status" was formally accorded ...
),
Wismar Wismar (; Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their us ...

Wismar
, and the Prince-Bishoprics of
Bremen Bremen (, also ; Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by t ...
and Verden as hereditary fiefs, thus gaining a seat and vote in the
Imperial DietImperial Diet means the highest representative assembly in an empire, notably: * Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) * Diet of Japan, Has been going on since 1889 (1889 ...
of the Holy Roman Empire as well as in the
Upper Saxon Upper Saxon (german: Obersächsisch, ; ) is an East Central German dialect spoken in much of the modern States of Germany, German state of Saxony and in adjacent parts of southeastern Saxony-Anhalt and eastern Thuringia. As of the early 21st cen ...
, Lower Saxon and
Westphalian Westphalian may refer to: * The culture or people of the Westphalia region of Germany * Westphalian language, one of the major dialect groups of West Low German * Westphalian sovereignty, a concept in international relations * Westphalian (stage), ...
circle diets ('' Kreistage''). However, the wording of the treaties was ambiguous: :*To escape incorporation into Swedish Bremen-Verden, the city of Bremen had claimed
Imperial immediacy Imperial immediacy (german: Reichsfreiheit or ') was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial estate An Imperial State or Imperial Estate ( la, Status Imperii; german: Reichsstand, plu ...
. The emperor had granted this request and separated the city from the surrounding Bishopric of Bremen. Sweden launched the Swedish-Bremen wars in 1653/54 in a failed attempt to take the city. :*The treaty did not decide the Swedish- Brandenburgian border in the
Duchy of Pomerania The Duchy of Pomerania (german: Herzogtum Pommern, pl, Księstwo Pomorskie) was a duchy in Pomerania Pomerania ( pl, Pomorze; german: Pommern; Kashubian: ''Pòmòrskô'') is a historical region on the southern shore of the Baltic Sea ...
. At Osnabrück, both Sweden and Brandenburg had claimed the whole duchy, which had been under Swedish control since 1630 despite legal claims of Brandenburgian succession. While the parties settled for a border in 1653, the underlying conflict continued. :*The treaty ruled that the
Dukes of Mecklenburg This list of dukes and grand dukes of Mecklenburg dates from the origins of the Germany, German princely state of Mecklenburg's royal house in the High Middle Ages to the monarchy's abolition at the end of World War I. Strictly speaking, Mecklenb ...
, owing their re-investiture to the Swedes, cede
Wismar Wismar (; Low German : : : : : , minority = (70,000) (30,000) (8,000) , familycolor = Indo-European , fam2 = Germanic Germanic may refer to: * Germanic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group identified by their us ...

Wismar
and the Mecklenburgian port tolls. While Sweden understood this to include the tolls of all Mecklenburgian ports, the Mecklenburgian dukes as well as the emperor understood this to refer to Wismar only. :*Wildeshausen, a petty exclave of Bremen-Verden and fragile basis for Sweden's seat in the Westphalian circle diet, was also claimed by the Bishopric of Münster. * Bavaria retained the Electoral Palatinate, Palatinate's vote in the Electoral College (Holy Roman Empire), Electoral College of the Holy Roman Empire, which it was granted by the imperial ban on the Elector Palatine Frederick V in 1623. The Charles I Louis, Elector Palatine, Prince Palatine, Frederick's son, was given a ''new'', eighth electoral vote. * The Palatinate was divided between the re-established Karl I Ludwig, Elector Palatine, Elector Palatine Charles Louis (son and heir of Frederick V, Elector Palatine, Frederick V) and Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, Elector-Duke Maximilian of Bavaria, and thus between the Protestants and Roman Catholic Church, Catholics. Charles Louis obtained the Lower Palatinate, along the Rhine, while Maximilian kept the Upper Palatinate, to the north of Bavaria. * Brandenburg-Prussia received Farther Pomerania, and the Bishoprics of Archbishopric of Magdeburg, Magdeburg, Bishopric of Halberstadt, Halberstadt, Bishopric of Kammin, Kammin, and Bishopric of Minden, Minden. * The succession to the United Duchies of Jülich-Cleves-Berg, Jülich-Cleves-Berg, whose last duke had died in 1609, was clarified. Jülich, Berg (state), Berg, and Ravenstein, Netherlands, Ravenstein were given to the Palatinate-Neuburg, Count Palatine of Neuburg, while Duchy of Cleves, Cleves, County of Mark, Mark, and County of Ravensberg, Ravensberg went to Brandenburg. * The
Prince-Bishopric of Osnabrück The Prince-Bishopric of OsnabrückAlso known as the Prince-Bishopric of Osnaburg) (german: link=no, Hochstift Osnabrück; Fürstbistum Osnabrück, Bistum Osnabrück) was an ecclesiastical principality A principality (or sometimes princedom) can ...
would alternate between Catholic and Lutheran bishops, with the Protestant bishops chosen from the Cadet (genealogy), cadets of the House of Hanover, House of Brunswick-Lüneburg. * Barriers to trade and commerce erected during the war were abolished, and "a degree" of free navigation was guaranteed on the Rhine.


Legacy

The treaties did not entirely end conflicts arising out of the Thirty Years' War. Fighting continued between France and Spain until the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659. The Dutch-Portuguese War had begun during the Iberian Union between Spain and Portugal, as part of the Eighty Years' War, and went on until 1663. Nevertheless, the Peace of Westphalia did settle many outstanding European issues of the time.


Westphalian sovereignty

Scholars of international relations have identified the Peace of Westphalia as the origin of principles crucial to modern
international relations International relations (IR), international affairs (IA) or international studies (IS) is the scientific study of interactions between sovereign states. In a broader sense, it concerns all activities between states—such as war, diplomacy ...
, including the inviolability of borders and non-interference in the domestic affairs of sovereign states. This system became known in the literature as
Westphalian sovereignty Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is a principle in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between na ...
. Although scholars have challenged the association with the Peace of Westphalia, the debate is still structured around the concept of Westphalian sovereignty. However, scholars have challenged the view that the modern European states system originated with the Westphalian treaties. The treaties do not contain anything in their text about religious freedom, sovereignty, or balance of power that can be construed as international law principles. Constitutional arrangements of the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
are the only context in which sovereignty and religious equality are mentioned in the text, but they are not new ideas in this context. While the treaties do not contain the basis for the modern laws of nations themselves, they do symbolize the end of a long period of religious conflict in Europe.


See also

*
Eighty Years' War The Eighty Years' War ( nl, Tachtigjarige Oorlog; es, Guerra de los Ochenta Años) or Dutch War of Independence (1568–1648) was a Dutch Revolt, revolt of the Seventeen Provinces of what are today the Netherlands, Belgium and Luxembourg a ...
* Freedom of religion * Swedish Empire, History of Sweden, 1648–1700 * List of treaties *
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, french: Charles Quint, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, ca, Carles V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 Septemb ...
*
Peace of Münster The Peace of Münster was a treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, a ...
*
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
*
Westphalian sovereignty Westphalian sovereignty, or state sovereignty, is a principle in international law International law, also known as public international law and law of nations, is the set of rules, norms, and standards generally recognized as binding between na ...
* Magna Carta


References


Further reading

* Croxton, Derek, and Anuschka Tischer. ''The Peace of Westphalia: A Historical Dictionary'' (Greenwood Publishing Group, 2002). * * Mowat, R. B. ''History of European Diplomacy, 1451–1789'' (1928) pp 104–1
online
* Historiography.


External links


Texts of the Westphalian Treaties
(full text in Latin, with translations to German, English, French, Italian, Swedish, and Spanish)
Peace Treaty of Münster
(full text, English translation)
Peace Treaty of Münster
(full text, German translation)
Peace Treaty of Osnabrück
(full text, German translation) {{DEFAULTSORT:Westphalia, Treaty Of Thirty Years' War treaties 1648 treaties Peace treaties of Sweden Thirty Years' War Treaties of the Holy Roman Empire Treaties of Flanders Treaties of the Dutch Republic Peace treaties of the Netherlands Peace treaties of Spain Treaties of the Swedish Empire Peace treaties of the Ancien Régime Treaties of the Spanish Empire Treaties of the Margraviate of Brandenburg 1648 in the Dutch Republic, Peace of Westphalia 1648 in France, Peace of Westphalia 1648 in Germany 1648 in the Holy Roman Empire, Peace of Westphalia 1648 in Sweden, Peace of Westphalia 17th century in the Old Swiss Confederacy History of the Palatinate (region) 17th-century diplomatic conferences Diplomatic conferences in Germany History of Münster, Peace of Westphalia Osnabrück, Peace of Westphalia 1648 in Christianity, Peace of Westphalia Early Modern history of Germany, Peace of Westphalia Christina, Queen of Sweden hu:Harmincéves háború#A vesztfáliai béke