1950–1959In 1950, , president of the , proposed, in an article titled, "A Proposal for a Total Peace Offensive," that the United States establish a voluntary agency for young Americans to be sent around the world to fulfill humanitarian and development objectives. Subsequently, throughout the 1950s, Reuther gave speeches to the following effect:
I have been saying for a long time that I believe the more young Americans who are trained to join with other young people in the world to be sent abroad with slide rule, textbook, and medical kit to help people help themselves with the tools of peace, the fewer young people will need to be sent with guns and weapons of war.In addition, following the end of , various members of the proposed bills to establish volunteer organizations in . In December 1951, Representative (D- ) suggested to a group that "young college graduates would find a full life in bringing technical advice and assistance to the underprivileged and backward Middle East ... In that calling, these men would follow the constructive work done by the religious missionaries in these countries over the past 100 years." In 1952 Senator (D-Connecticut) proposed an "army" of young Americans to act as "missionaries of democracy". Privately funded nonreligious organizations began sending volunteers overseas during the 1950s. While Kennedy is credited with the creation of the Peace Corps as president, the first initiative came from Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. (D- ), who introduced the first bill to create the Peace Corps in 1957—three years before Kennedy, as a presidential candidate, would raise the idea during a campaign speech at the . In his autobiography ''The Education of a Public Man'', Humphrey wrote, Only in 1959, however, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman of proposed a "Point Four Youth Corps". In 1960, he and Senator of introduced identical measures calling for a nongovernmental study of the idea's "advisability and practicability". Both the and the endorsed the study, the latter writing the Reuss proposal into the pending Mutual Security legislation. In this form it became law in June 1960. In August the Mutual Security Appropriations Act was enacted, making available US$10,000 for the study, and in November ICA contracted with Maurice Albertson, Andrew E. Rice, and Pauline E. Birky of Research Foundation for the study.
1960–1969In August 1960, following the 1960 Democratic National Convention, Walter Reuther visited John F. Kennedy at the Kennedy compound in Hyannisport to discuss Kennedy's platform and staffing of a future administration. It was there that Reuther got Kennedy to commit to creating the executive agency that would become the Peace Corps. Under Reuther's leadership, the United Auto Workers had earlier that summer put together a policy platform that included a "youth peace corps" to be sent to developing nations. Subsequently, at the urging of Reuther, John F. Kennedy announced the idea for such an organization on October 14, 1960, at a late-night campaign speech at the University of Michigan in on the steps of the . He later dubbed the proposed organization the "Peace Corps." A brass marker commemorates the place where Kennedy stood. In the weeks after the 1960 election, the study group at Colorado State University released their feasibility a few days before Kennedy's Presidential Inauguration in January 1961. Critics opposed the program. Kennedy's opponent, , predicted it would become a "cult of escapism" and "a haven for s."Teaching With Documents: Founding Documents of the Peace Corps
PoliciesThe theme of enabling Americans to volunteer in poor countries appealed to Kennedy because it fit in with his campaign themes of self-sacrifice and volunteerism, while also providing a way to redefine American relations with the Third World. Upon taking office, Kennedy issued an executive order establishing the Peace Corps. Shriver, not Kennedy, energetically lobbied Congress for approval. Kennedy proudly took the credit, and ensured that it remained free of CIA influence. He largely left its administration to Shriver. To avoid the appearance of favoritism to the Catholic Church, the Corps did not place its volunteers with any religious agencies. In the first twenty-five years, more than 100,000 Americans served in 44 countries as part of the program. Most volunteers taught English in local schools, but many became involved in activities like construction and food delivery. Shriver practiced affirmative action, and women comprised about 40 percent of the first 7000 volunteers. However given the paucity of black college graduates, racial minorities never reached five percent. The Corps developed its own training program, based on nine weeks at an American university, with a focus on conversational language, world affairs, and desired job skills. That was followed by three weeks at a Peace Corps camp in Puerto Rico, and week or two of orientation the home and the host country.
1970–1999In July 1971, President , an opponent of the program, brought the Peace Corps under the umbrella agency . President , an advocate of the program, said that his mother, who had served as a nurse in the program, had "one of the most glorious experiences of her life" in the Peace Corps. In 1979, he made it fully autonomous in an executive order. This independent status was further secured by 1981 legislation making the organization an independent federal agency. In 1976, Deborah Gardner was found murdered in her home in Tonga, where she was serving in the Peace Corps. Dennis Priven, a fellow Peace Corps worker, was later charged with the murder by the Tonga government.
2000–presentAlthough the earliest volunteers were typically thought of as generalists, the Peace Corps had requests for technical personnel from the start. For example, geologists were among the first volunteers requested by , an early volunteer host. An article in ''Geotimes'' (a trade publication) in 1963, reviewed the program, with a follow-up history of Peace Corps geoscientists appearing in that publication in 2004. During the Nixon Administration the Peace Corps included foresters, s, and advisers among its volunteers. In 1982, President appointed director , who initiated business-related programs. For the first time, a significant number of conservative and volunteers joined the Corps, as the organization continued to reflect the evolving political and social conditions in the United States. Funding cuts during the early 1980s reduced the number of volunteers to 5,380, its lowest level since the early years. Funding increased in 1985, when Congress began raising the number of volunteers, reaching 10,000 in 1992. After the 2001 , which alerted the U.S. to growing in the Middle East, President pledged to double the size of the organization within five years as a part of the . For the 2004 fiscal year, Congress increased the budget to US$325 million, US$30 million above that of 2003 but US$30 million below the President's request. As part of an package in 2008, President proposed to double the size of the Peace Corps. However, , the amount requested was insufficient to reach this goal by 2011. In fact, the number of applicants to the Peace Corps declined steadily from a high of 15,384 in 2009 to 10,118 in 2013. Congress raised the 2010 appropriation from the US$373 million requested by the President to US$400 million, and proposed bills would raise this further for 2011 and 2012. According to former director Gaddi Vasquez, the Peace Corps is trying to recruit more diverse volunteers of different ages and make it look "more like America". A ''Harvard International Review'' article from 2007 proposed to expand the Peace Corps, revisit its mission, and equip it with new technology. In 1961 only 1% of volunteers were over 50, compared with 5% today. Ethnic minorities currently comprise 34% of volunteers. 35% of the U.S. population are Hispanic or non-White. In 2009, Casey Frazee, who was sexually assaulted while serving in South Africa, created First Response Action, an for a stronger Peace Corps response for volunteers who are survivors or victims of physical and sexual violence. In 2010, concerns about the safety of volunteers were illustrated by a report, compiled from official public documents, listing hundreds of violent crimes against volunteers since 1989. In 2011, a '' 20/20'' investigation found that "more than 1,000 young American women have been raped or sexually assaulted in the last decade while serving as Peace Corps volunteers in foreign countries." In a historic first, all Peace Corps volunteers worldwide were withdrawn from their host countries on March 15, 2020, due to the . Volunteers were not eligible for unemployment or health benefits, although some Members of Congress said they should be. Legislators also called upon to hire Peace Corps volunteers until the end of their service.
International presenceDuring its history, Peace Corps volunteers have worked in the following countries: Latin America and the Caribbean (23% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1992–1994) * (since 1962) * (1962–1971, 1990–2008) * (1962–1981) * (1961–1982, 1991–1998) * (1961–1981, since 2010) * (since 1963) * (since 1961) * (since 1962) * (since 1962) * (1962–1980, 1993–2016) * (since 1961) * (since 1963) * (1966–1971, since 1995) * (1982–1987, 1990–1991, 1996–2005) * (1962–2012) * (since 1962) * (since 2004) * (1968–1979, since 1991) * (1963–1971, since 1990) * (since 1966) * (1962–1974, since 2002) * (since 1961) * (since 1961) * (1995–2013) * (1963–1973, 1991–1997) * (1962–1976) Europe and central Asia (13% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1992–1997, since 2003) * (since 1992) * (2003–2016) * (2000–2002) * (1991–2013) * (1962–1964) * (1990–1997) * (1992–2002) * (since 2001) * (1990–1997) * (1993–2011) * (1992–2002) * (1992–2002) * (since 2014) * (since 1993) * (since 1996) * (1970–1975, 1990–1998) * (since 1993) * (1990–2001) * (1991–2013) * (1992–2003) * (1990–2002) * (1993–2013) * (1962–1971) * (1992–2005) * (since 1992) Middle East and north Africa (3% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1974–1979) * (1962–1976) * (1997–2002, 2004–2015) * (1966–1969) * (since 1963) * (1973–1983) * (1962–1996, 2013) * (1973–1994) Subsaharan Africa (46% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (since 1968) * (1966–1997, since 2003) * (1967–1987, 1995-2017) * (1983–1993) * (1988–2013) * (since 1962) * (1966–1979, 1987–1998, 2003–2006) * (1988–1995, since 2015) * (1991–1997) * (1962–1981, 1990–2003) * (1972–1996) * (1970–1991) * (1988–1993) * (1995–1998) * (1969–1996, since 2003) * (1962–1977, 1995–1999, since 2007) * (1963–1968, 1973–2005) * (since 1961) * (1963–1966, 1969–1971, since 1985) * (1988–1998) * (1964–2014, since 2020) * (since 1967) * (1962–1990, since 2008) * (since 1993) * (1963–1976, since 1978) * (1971–2012, 2014–2015) * (1969–1976) * (1966–1967, 1971–2011) * (since 1998) * (since 1990) * (1962–2011) * (1961–1976, 1992–1995) * (1975–1993, since 2008) * (1990–1996) * (since 1963) * (1974–1995) * (1962–1994, 2010–2013, since 2016) * (1962–1970) * (since 1997) * (1984–1986) * (1961–1969, since 1979) * (since 1967) * (since 1962) * (1964–1972, 1991–1999, since 2001) * (since 1994) * (1991–2001) Asia (11% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1962–1979) * (1998–2006) * (since 2007) * (Under the name "U.S.-China friendship volunteers")(1993-2020) * (1961–1976) * (1963–1965, since 2010) * (1962–1983) * (since 1991) * (since 2016) * (1962–2004, since 2012) * (1961–1967, 1988–1991) * (1961–1990, since 1992) * (1966–1981) * (1962–1964, 1967–1970, 1983–1998, since 2018) * (since 1962) * (2002–2006, since 2015) Oceania (5% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1968–1998, since 2003) * (1982–1995) * (1966–1996) * (1971–2000, since 2020) * (1974–2008) * (1966–2018) * (1994–2002) * (1981–2001) * (since 1967) * (since 1967) * (1977–1997) * (since 1990) Peace Corps activities were suspended and all volunteers worldwide were evacuated on on March 15, 2020, due to the .
Application and volunteer processThe application for the Peace Corps takes up to one hour, unless one talks to a recruiter. The applicant must be at least 18 years old and a U.S. citizen and, according to a 2018 document, they should apply 6 to 9 months before they want to leave. They must go through an interview. Applicants can apply to only one placement every year. Placements can be sorted through the Peace Corps six project sectors: Agriculture, Environment, Community Economic Development, Health, Education, and Youth in Development. Applicants may also narrow down their application of choice by country they want to serve in various regions of the world. Peace Corps volunteers are expected to serve for 2 years in the foreign country, with 3 months of training before swearing in to service. This occurs in country with host country national trainers in language and assignment skills. Prior to 2014, the application process took about a year.
InitiativesThe Peace Corps aims to educate community members on the different illnesses that are present in developing countries as well as what treatments exist in order prevent these illnesses from spreading. Volunteers are also often there in order to teach community members about modern agricultural techniques in order for them to more effectively produce food for themselves and each other (Peace Corps). The Corps is also a proponent of equal education and moves to allow for equal education opportunities for girls in countries like Liberia and Ethiopia. In 2015, the organization partnered with (USAID) to implement First Lady 's Let Girls Learn initiative.
Eradicating malaria in AfricaThe Corps launched its initiative to engage volunteers in control efforts in 2011. The initiative, which grew out of malaria prevention programs in Peace Corps Senegal, now includes volunteers in 24 African countries.
EnvironmentThe Corps offers a variety of environmental programs. Needs assessments determine which programs apply to each country. Programs include effective and efficient forms of farming, recycling, park management, environmental education, and developing sources. Volunteers must have some combination of academic degrees and practical experience. The three major programs are Protected-Areas Management, Environment Education or Awareness, and Forestry. In ''Protected areas management'', volunteers work with parks or other programs to teach resource conservation. Volunteer activities include technical training, working with park staff on wildlife preservation, organizing community-based conservation programs for sustainable use of forests or marine resources, and creating activities for raising revenue to protect the environment. ''Environment Education or Awareness'' focuses on communities that have environmental issues regarding farming and income. Programs include teaching in elementary and secondary schools; environmental education to youth programs; creation of environmental groups; support forest and marine resource sustainability; ways of generating money; urban sanitation management; and educating farmers about soil conservation, forestry, and vegetable gardening. ''Forestry'' programs help communities conserve natural resources through projects such as soil conservation, flood control, creation of sustainable fuels, agroforestry (e.g., fruit and vegetable production), alley cropping, and protection of .
Peace Corps ResponsePeace Corps Response, formerly named the Crisis Corps, was created by Peace Corps Director Mark Gearan in 1996.Peace Corps Hotline. "Crisis Corps: Opportunity to serve again" by Melinda Bridges. November 1, 2002.
Education and languagesPeace Corps has created resources for teachers in the US and abroad to teach 101 languages. Resources vary by language, and include text, recordings, lesson plans and teaching notes.
Laws governing the Peace Corps
Executive ordersPeace Corps was originally established by Executive Order, and has been modified by several subsequent executive orders including: * 1961 – Executive Order 10924 – Establishment and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy) * 1962 – Executive Order 11041 – Continuance and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy) * 1963 – Executive Order 11103 – Providing for the appointment of former Peace Corps volunteers to the civilian career services (Kennedy) * 1971 – Executive Order 11603 – Assigning additional functions to the Director of ACTION (Nixon) * 1979 – Executive Order 12137 – The Peace Corps (Carter)
LawsFederal laws governing the Peace Corps are contained in – Foreign Relations and Intercourse, Chapter 34 – The Peace Corps. Public laws are passed by Congress and the President and create or modify the U.S. Code. The first public law establishing Peace Corps in the US Code was The Peace Corps Act passed by the 87th Congress and signed into law on September 22, 1961. Several public laws have modified the Peace Corps Act, including: * – The Peace Corps Act * * * * * * * – Bill to carry into effect certain provisions of the Patent Cooperation Treaty, and for other purposes. * – Peace Corps Act Amendments * – The Foreign Service Act of 1980 * – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 * – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 * – Tax Reform Act of 1986 * – A bill to amend the Peace Corps Act to authorize appropriations for the Peace Corps for FY1993 and to establish Peace Corps foreign exchange fluctuations account, and for other purposes. * – The Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction Act of 1997 * – Peace Corps Act, FY2002, 2003 Authorization Bill *
Code of Federal RegulationsThe Peace Corps is subject to Federal Regulations as prescribed by public law and executive order and contained in under Chapter 3.
Limitations on former volunteersFormer members of the Peace Corps may not be assigned to military intelligence duties for a period of 4 years following Peace Corps service. Furthermore, they are forever prohibited from serving in a military intelligence posting to any country in which they volunteered. Former members may not apply for employment with the Central Intelligence Agency for a period of 5 years following Peace Corps Service.
Time limits on employmentPeace Corps employees receive time-limited appointments, and most employees are limited to a maximum of five years of employment. This time limit was established to ensure that Peace Corps' staff remain fresh and innovative. A related rule specifies that former employees cannot be re-employed until after the same amount of time that they were employed. Volunteer service is not counted for the purposes of either rule.
Union representationNon-supervisory domestic employees are represented by the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) Local 3548. The Federal Labor Relations Agency certified the Union on May 11, 1983. About 500 domestic employees are members. The current agreement became effective on April 21, 1995.
DirectorsOn January 3, 2018, President nominated Josephine "Jody" Olsen as the 20th director of the Peace Corps. Olsen has a long history with the agency, serving as Acting Director in 2009, Deputy Director from 2002 to 2009, Chief of Staff from 1989 to 1992, Regional Director, North Africa Near East, Asia, Pacific from 1981 to 1984, and Country Director in Togo from 1979 to 1981. Olsen also served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tunisia from 1966 to 1968. She left office on January 20, 2021. Here are the following directors:
Inspector GeneralThe Peace Corps Office of is authorized by law to review all programs and operations of the Peace Corps. The OIG is an independent entity within the Peace Corps. The inspector general (IG) reports directly to the Peace Corps Director. In addition, the IG reports to Congress semiannually with data on OIG activities. The OIG serves as the law enforcement arm of the Peace Corps and works closely with the Department of State, the Department of Justice, and other federal agencies OIG has three sections to conduct its functions:
Audit – Auditors review functional activities of the Peace Corps, such as contract compliance and financial and program operations, to ensure accountability and to recommend improved levels of economy and efficiency; Evaluations – Evaluators analyze the management and program operations of the Peace Corps at both overseas posts and domestic offices. They identify best practices and recommend program improvements and ways to accomplish Peace Corps' mission and strategic goals. Investigations – Investigators respond to allegations of criminal or administrative wrongdoing by Peace Corps Volunteers, Peace Corps personnel, including experts and consultants, and by those who do business with the Peace Corps, including contractors.From 2006 to 2007, H. David Kotz was the Inspector General.
CriticismCritics and criticisms of Peace Corps include former volunteer and country director Robert L. Strauss in ''Foreign Policy'', ''The New York Times,'' ''The American Interest'' and elsewhere, an article by a former volunteer describing assaults on volunteers from 1992 to 2010, an ABC news report on ''20/20 (U.S. TV series), 20/20'', a ''Huffington Post'' article on former Peace Corps volunteers speaking out on rapes, and About.com's article on rape and assault in the Peace Corps. In the Reagan Administration, in 1986, an article in the Multinational Monitor looked critically at the Peace Corps. On a positive note, the writer praises the Corps for aspects saying that it is "not in the business of transferring massive economic resources. Rather it concentrates on increasing productivity and encouraging self-reliance in villages that are often ignored by large-scale development agencies," and notes the "heavy emphasis on basic education" by the Corps. "Many returned volunteers complain that the Peace Corps does little to promote or make use of their rich experiences once they return ... [A] Peace Corps volunteer is sent in ... [to] relieve ... the local government from having to develop policies that assure equitable distribution of health care ... During the early years there were many failures in structure and programming ... Some critics charge that the Peace Corps is only a somewhat ineffective attempt to counter damage done to the U.S. image abroad by its aggressive military and its unscrupulous businesses ... Many observers and some returned volunteers charge that, in addition to public relations for the United States, Peace Corps programs serve to legitimize dictators ... When he began evaluating the Corps in the 1960s, Charlie Peters found "they were training volunteers to be junior diplomats. Giving them a course in American studies, world affairs and communism ... Although it seems unlikely that the Peace Corps is used in covert operations, wittingly or not it is often used in conjunction with U.S. military interests ... In a review of the Peace Corps in March the House Select Committee on Hunger praised the agency for effective work in the areas of agriculture and conservation, while recommending that the Corps expand its African Food Systems Initiative, increase the number of volunteers in the field, recruit more women, and move to depoliticize country dictatorships." The author suggests that "the poor should be encouraged to organize a power base to gain more leverage with the powers-that-be" by the Peace Corps and that "The Peace Corps is the epitome of Kennedy's Camelot mythology. It is a tall order to expect a small program appended to an immense superpower, to make a difference, but it is a goal worth striving for." In December 2003, a report by the Brookings Institution praised the Peace Corps but proposed changes. These include relabeling Peace Corps volunteers in certain countries, greater host country ownership, reverse volunteers (have volunteers from the host country in the U.S.), and multilateral volunteers. The Brookings Institution wrote that a "one-year service commitment [for the Baby Boom generation] could make the Peace Corps more attractive to older Americans, possibly combined with the option of returning to the same site or country after a three-month break" and customized placement to a specific country would increase the number of people volunteering. In a critique by The Future of Freedom Foundation, James Bovard mixes history of the Peace Corps with current interpretations. He writes that in the 1980s, "The Peace Corps's world-saving pretensions were a joke on American taxpayers and Third World folks who expected real help." He goes on to criticize the difference in rhetoric and action of Peace Corps volunteers, even attacking its establishment as "the epitome of emotionalism in American politics." Using snippets of reports, accounts of those in countries affected by the Peace Corps and even concluded that at one point "some Peace Corps agricultural efforts directly hurt Third World poor." At the end of the article, Bovard noted that all Peace Corps volunteers he had talked with conceded they have not helped foreigners ... but he acknowledges that "Some Peace Corps volunteers, like some Americans who volunteer for religion missions abroad, have truly helped foreigners."
Sexual assaultThe Peace Corps has been criticized for failing to properly respond to the sexual violence that many of its female volunteers face. BoingBoing editor Xeni Jardin describes criticism of the agency's response to assault: "A growing number of ex-Peace Corps volunteers are speaking out about having survived rape and other forms of sexual assault while assigned overseas. They say the agency ignored their concerns for safety or requests for relocation, and tried to blame rape victims for their attacks. Their stories, and support from families and advocates, are drawing attention from lawmakers and promises of reform from the agency". Among 8,655 volunteers there are on average 22 Peace Corps women who reported being the victims of rape or attempted rape each year. At a meeting of the House Foreign Affairs Committee in 2011, Peace Corps volunteers shared their experiences of violence and sexual assault. At this meeting, it was found that between 2000 and 2009 there have been several cases of rape or attempted rape, and about 22 women are sexually assaulted each year. The case of murdered Peace Corps volunteer Kate Puzey was discussed. The Peace Corps has gained attention in the media and their directors have been attacked for how they handled this situation. Kate Puzey's mother was one of those to make a comment at the meeting about how badly the situation with her daughter had been handled. One woman claimed that her country's director had blamed her for getting raped, while other victims have also been similarly blamed. Criticism of how Peace Corps has responded to sexual assaults against volunteers culminated in the appointment of Kellie Green as the agency's first Director of the Office Of Victims Advocacy in 2011. Green was eventually pushed out of her position in April 2015 for purportedly "creating a hostile work environment". Greene maintains that Peace Corps retaliated against her for pressing agency officials to fully comply with their responsibilities towards volunteers who have been victims of sexual assault. A Change.org petition demanding that Green be reinstated began circulating among former volunteers in December 2015. In 2009, the most recent year reported, 69% of Peace Corps crime victims were women, 88% were under 30, and 82% were Caucasian. Worldwide, there were 15 cases of rape/attempted rape and 96 cases of sexual assault reported for a total of 111 sexual crimes committed against female Peace Corps volunteers. The majority of women who join the Peace Corps are in their mid-twenties. In 62% of the more than 2,900 assault cases since 1990, the victim was identified as being alone. In 59% of assault cases, the victim was identified as a woman in her 20s.
White saviorism and American exceptionalismSome critics say the Peace Corps is an example of white saviorism and American exceptionalism at work. In 2019, Population Works Africa, a network of Black female consultants working in international development, criticized the Peace Corps for its reliance on mostly inexperienced young people as volunteers, saying this "is rooted in the idea that Africa is such a barren wasteland that they will take just about any type of aid." According to a 2020 article in The Washington Post, "About two-thirds [of volunteers] are White, leading some critics to charge it is not a fair representation of Americans and affects how volunteers view people in the countries where they serve." The group "Decolonizing Peace Corps," established in 2020 by returned Peace Corps volunteers, questions if Peace Corps and other development efforts "personify the white man’s burden of needing to 'civilize' non-white spaces and nations" and posits that the Peace Corps benefits volunteers more than it does the people of the countries in which they serve. The group has also criticized Peace Corps for pouring resources into volunteers rather than into the people of the host country. They are calling for an overhaul to Peace Corps' training practices and the eventual phase-out of the Peace Corps altogether. Another former volunteer, Shalean Collins, criticized volunteers (and tourists) for sharing on social media photos of themselves with local people, whom they used "as props to the larger narrative of the Savior, Wanderer, or Nomad." Michael Buckler, another former volunteer, wrote in The Hill (newspaper), The Hill that "saviorism is real, pervasive and toxic" in the Peace Corps, but he believes most volunteers come to understand and move beyond any notions of saviorism they may have had at the beginning of their service.
In popular cultureFrank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention have a song named "Who Needs the Peace Corps?" on their 1968 album ''We're Only in It for the Money''. In popular culture, the Peace Corps has been used as a comedic plot device in such movies as ''Airplane!'', ''Christmas with the Kranks'', ''Shallow Hal'', and ''Volunteers (1985 film), Volunteers'' or used to set the scene for a historic era, as when Frances "Baby" Houseman tells the audience she plans to join the Peace Corps in the introduction to the movie ''Dirty Dancing''. The Peace Corps has also been documented on film and examined more seriously and in more depth. The 2006 documentary film ''Death of Two Sons,'' directed by Micah Schaffer, juxtaposes the deaths of Amadou Diallo, a Guinean-American who was gunned down by four New York City policemen with 41 bullets, and Peace Corps volunteer Jesse Thyne who lived with Amadou's family in Guinea and died in a car crash there.New York Daily News. "Disappointed Diallo ma" by Nicole Bode. November 27, 2006. Th
Further reading* Bernstein, Irving. (1991) ''Promises Kept: John F. Kennedy's New Frontier'' pp 259–79. * Latham, Michael E. ''Modernization as ideology: American social science and" nation building" in the Kennedy era.'' (U of North Carolina Press, 2000)
External links* Czernek, Andrew (2012)