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The Peace Corps is an independent agency and
volunteer Volunteering is a voluntary act of an individual or group freely giving time and labour for community service. Many volunteers are specifically trained in the areas they work, such as medicine, education, or emergency rescue. Others serve on an ...

volunteer
program run by the
United States Government The federal government of the United States (U.S. federal government or U.S. government) is the Federation#Federal governments, national government of the United States, a federal republic in North America, composed of 50 U.S. state, state ...
providing international social and economic development assistance. The program was established by Executive Order 10924 issued by President
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
in March 1961 and authorized by
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...

Congress
on September 22, 1961 with passage of the Peace Corps Act (). Volunteers are American citizens, typically with a college degree, who work abroad for a period of two years after three months of training. Volunteers work with governments, schools,
non-profit organization A nonprofit organization (NPO), also known as a non-business entity, not-for-profit organization, or nonprofit institution, is a legal entity organized and operated for a collective, public or social benefit, in contrast with an entity that op ...
s,
non-government organization upright=1.3, alt=A roomful of people, Europe-Georgia Institute head George Melashvili addresses the audience at the launch of the "Europe in a suitcase" project by two NGOs (the EGI and the Friedrich Naumann Foundation), which aims to increase ...
s, and entrepreneurs in education, youth development, community health, business, information technology, agriculture, and the environment. After 24 months of service, volunteers can request an extension of service. Since its inception, more than 240,000 Americans have joined the Peace Corps and served in 142 countries. On March 15, 2020, due to the
coronavirus pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic, also known as the coronavirus pandemic, is an ongoing global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavi ...
, Peace Corps announced it was temporarily suspending operations and that all volunteers (numbering nearly 7,000 at the time) would be evacuated from their posts. As of mid-March, 2021, there were no volunteers serving, but most Peace Corps staff were back at work with the hopes of returning some volunteers to the field in a small number of countries in early to mid 2021.


History


1950–1959

In 1950,
Walter Reuther Walter Philip Reuther (; September 1, 1907 – May 9, 1970) was an American leader of Labor unions in the United States, organized labor and Civil rights movements, civil rights activist who built the United Automobile Workers (UAW) into one of t ...
, president of the
United Auto Workers The International Union, United Automobile, Aerospace, and Agricultural Implement Workers of America, better known as the United Auto Workers (UAW), is an American labor union A trade union (or a labor union in American English), often simpl ...
, proposed, in an article titled, "A Proposal for a Total Peace Offensive," that the United States establish a voluntary agency for young Americans to be sent around the world to fulfill humanitarian and development objectives. Subsequently, throughout the 1950s, Reuther gave speeches to the following effect:
I have been saying for a long time that I believe the more young Americans who are trained to join with other young people in the world to be sent abroad with slide rule, textbook, and medical kit to help people help themselves with the tools of peace, the fewer young people will need to be sent with guns and weapons of war.
In addition, following the end of
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a that lasted from 1939 to 1945. It involved —including all of the great powers—forming two opposing s: the and the . In a total war directly involving m ...
, various members of the
United States Congress The United States Congress is the legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with ...

United States Congress
proposed bills to establish volunteer organizations in
developing countries 450px, Example of Older Classifications by the IMF and the United Nations, UN from 2008 A developing country is a country with a less developed industrial base and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries. However, ...

developing countries
. In December 1951, Representative
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
(D-
Massachusetts Massachusetts (, ), officially the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, is the most populous state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * T ...

Massachusetts
) suggested to a group that "young college graduates would find a full life in bringing technical advice and assistance to the underprivileged and backward Middle East ... In that calling, these men would follow the constructive work done by the religious missionaries in these countries over the past 100 years." In 1952 Senator
Brien McMahon Brien McMahon, born James O'Brien McMahon (October 6, 1903July 28, 1952) was an United States, American lawyer and politician who served in the United States Senate (as a United States Democratic Party, Democrat from Connecticut) from 1945 to 195 ...
(D-Connecticut) proposed an "army" of young Americans to act as "missionaries of democracy". Privately funded nonreligious organizations began sending volunteers overseas during the 1950s. While Kennedy is credited with the creation of the Peace Corps as president, the first initiative came from Senator Hubert H. Humphrey, Jr. (D-
Minnesota Minnesota () is a U.S. state, state in the Upper Midwest, upper Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 12th largest U.S. state in area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 22nd m ...

Minnesota
), who introduced the first bill to create the Peace Corps in 1957—three years before Kennedy, as a presidential candidate, would raise the idea during a campaign speech at the
University of Michigan , mottoeng = "Arts, Knowledge, Truth" , former_names = Catholepistemiad, or University of Michigania (1817–1821) , budget = $8.99 billion (2018) , endowment = $17 billion (2021)As of October 25, 2021. ...

University of Michigan
. In his autobiography ''The Education of a Public Man'', Humphrey wrote, Only in 1959, however, did the idea receive serious attention in Washington when Congressman
Henry S. Reuss
Henry S. Reuss
of
Wisconsin Wisconsin () is a in the , bordered by to the west, to the southwest, to the south, to the east, to the northeast, and to the north. Wisconsin is the and the . Three of its largest cities are situated on the southwestern shore of L ...

Wisconsin
proposed a "Point Four Youth Corps". In 1960, he and Senator
Richard L. Neuberger Richard Lewis Neuberger (December 26, 1912March 9, 1960) was an United States of America, American journalist, author, and politician during the middle of the 20th century. A native of Oregon, he wrote for ''The New York Times'' before and after a ...
of
Oregon Oregon () is a U.S. state, state in the Pacific Northwest region of the Western United States. The Columbia River delineates much of Oregon's northern boundary with Washington (state), Washington, while the Snake River delineates much of its ...

Oregon
introduced identical measures calling for a nongovernmental study of the idea's "advisability and practicability". Both the
House Foreign Affairs Committee The United States House Committee on Foreign Affairs, also known as the House Foreign Affairs Committee, is a standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons that is subordinate to a deliberative assembly. Usually, ...
and the
Senate Foreign Relations Committee The United States Senate Committee on Foreign Relations is a standing committee A committee or commission is a body of one or more persons subordinate to an assembly. A committee is not itself considered to be a form of assembly. Usually, the ...

Senate Foreign Relations Committee
endorsed the study, the latter writing the Reuss proposal into the pending Mutual Security legislation. In this form it became law in June 1960. In August the Mutual Security Appropriations Act was enacted, making available US$10,000 for the study, and in November ICA contracted with Maurice Albertson, Andrew E. Rice, and Pauline E. Birky of
Colorado State University Colorado State University (Colorado State or CSU) is a Public university, public Land-grant university, land-grant research university in Fort Collins, Colorado. It is the flagship university of the Colorado State University System. Colorado St ...
Research Foundation for the study.


1960–1969

In August 1960, following the 1960 Democratic National Convention, Walter Reuther visited John F. Kennedy at the Kennedy compound in Hyannisport to discuss Kennedy's platform and staffing of a future administration. It was there that Reuther got Kennedy to commit to creating the executive agency that would become the Peace Corps. Under Reuther's leadership, the United Auto Workers had earlier that summer put together a policy platform that included a "youth peace corps" to be sent to developing nations. Subsequently, at the urging of Reuther, John F. Kennedy announced the idea for such an organization on October 14, 1960, at a late-night campaign speech at the University of Michigan in
Ann ArborANN may refer to: Media * All Night Nippon, Japan * All-Nippon News Network, Japan * Arab News Network, exile Syrian * Asia News Network, Asia * Anime News Network, online * Adventist News Network, online Transportation * Annan railway station, fr ...

Ann Arbor
on the steps of the
Michigan Union The Michigan Union is a student union at the University of Michigan The University of Michigan (UM, U-M, U of M, UMich, or Michigan) is a public university, public research university in Ann Arbor, Michigan. Founded in 1817 in Detroit, as the ...

Michigan Union
. He later dubbed the proposed organization the "Peace Corps." A brass marker commemorates the place where Kennedy stood. In the weeks after the 1960 election, the study group at Colorado State University released their feasibility a few days before Kennedy's Presidential Inauguration in January 1961. Critics opposed the program. Kennedy's opponent,
Richard M. Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president di ...
, predicted it would become a "cult of escapism" and "a haven for
draft dodger Draft evasion is any successful attempt to elude a government-imposed obligation to serve in the military forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare ...
s."Teaching With Documents: Founding Documents of the Peace Corps
" National Archives and Records Administration.
Megan Gibson.

(September 22, 2011). ''Time''.
James Tobin.

" National Peace Corps Association/University of Michigan.
Others doubted whether recent graduates had the necessary skills and maturity for such a task. The idea was popular among students, however, and Kennedy pursued it, asking respected academics such as
Max Millikan Max Franklin Millikan (December 12, 1913 – December 14, 1969) was an American economist An economist is a practitioner in the social sciences, social science discipline of economics. The individual may also study, develop, and apply theories ...
and
Chester Bowles Chester Bliss Bowles (April 5, 1901 – May 25, 1986) was an American diplomat and ambassador, Governor of Connecticut, Congressman and co-founder of a major advertising agency, Benton & Bowles, now part of Publicis Groupe. Bowles is best kno ...
to help him outline the organization and its goals. During his inaugural address, Kennedy again promised to create the program: "And so, my fellow Americans: ask not what your country can do for you—ask what you can do for your country". President Kennedy in a speech at the White House on June 22, 1962, "Remarks to Student Volunteers Participating in Operation Crossroads Africa", acknowledged that Operation Crossroads for Africa was the basis for the development of the Peace Corps. "This group and this effort really were the progenitors of the Peace Corps and what this organization has been doing for a number of years led to the establishment of what I consider to be the most encouraging indication of the desire for service not only in this country but all around the world that we have seen in recent years". The Peace Corps website answered the question "Who Inspired the Creation of the Peace Corps?", acknowledging that the Peace Corps were based on Operation Crossroads Africa founded by Rev. James H. Robinson. On March 1, 1961, Kennedy signed
Executive Order In the United States, an executive order is a directive Directive may refer to: * Directive (European Union), a legislative act of the European Union * Directive (programming), a computer language construct that specifies how a compiler shou ...
10924 that officially started the Peace Corps. Concerned with the growing tide of revolutionary sentiment in the
Third World The term "Third World" arose during the Cold War to define countries that remained non-aligned with either NATO or the Warsaw Pact. The United States, Canada, Japan, South Korea, Western European nations and their allies represented the "First Wor ...

Third World
, Kennedy saw the Peace Corps as a means of countering the
stereotype Police officers buying doughnuts and coffee, an example of perceived stereotypical behavior in North America. Social psychology Social psychology is the Science, scientific study of how the thoughts, feelings, and behaviors of individu ...
of the " Ugly American" and " Yankee imperialism," especially in the emerging nations of post-colonial Africa and Asia. Kennedy appointed his brother-in-law,
Sargent Shriver Robert Sargent Shriver Jr. (November 9, 1915 – January 18, 2011) was an American diplomat, politician and activist. As the husband of Eunice Kennedy Shriver, he was part of the Kennedy family. Shriver was the driving force behind the creation ...
, to be the program's first director. Shriver fleshed out the organization and his
think tank A think tank, or policy institute, is a research institute A research institute, research centre, or research center is an establishment founded for doing research Research is "creativity, creative and systematic work undertaken to incre ...
outlined the organization's goals and set the initial number of volunteers. The Peace Corps began recruiting in July 1962;
Bob Hope Leslie Townes "Bob" Hope (May 29, 1903 – July 27, 2003) was a British-American British American usually refers to Americans Americans are the Citizenship of the United States, citizens and United States nationality law, natio ...

Bob Hope
recorded radio and television announcements hailing the program. A leading Peace Corps critic was
U.S. Representative The United States House of Representatives is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers of a bicameral legislature, the other chamber being the upper house. Despite its official position "below" the upper house, in many legis ...
Otto Passman Otto Ernest Passman (June 27, 1900 – August 13, 1988) was an American politician who served in the United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the lower house of the United States Congress, with t ...

Otto Passman
of
Louisiana's 5th congressional district Louisiana's 5th congressional district is a congressional district in the U.S. state of Louisiana. The 5th district encompasses rural northeastern Louisiana and much of central Louisiana, as well as the northern part of Louisiana's Florida parish ...
, based about Monroe. Critics called Passman "Otto the Terrible" for trying to thwart the program by reducing its funding to minimal levels. Ultimately, it would be President Nixon, who despite his previous skepticism rescued the Peace Corps after 1969 from Passman's congressional knife. Until about 1967, applicants had to pass a placement test of "general aptitude" (knowledge of various skills needed for Peace Corps assignments) and language aptitude. After an address from Kennedy, who was introduced by Rev. Russell Fuller of Memorial Christian Church,
Disciples of Christ A disciple is a follower and student of a mentor, teacher, or other figure. It can refer to: Religion * Disciple (Christianity), a student of Jesus Christ * Twelve Apostles of Jesus, sometimes called the Twelve Disciples * Seventy disciples in th ...
, on August 28, 1961, the first group of volunteers left for
Ghana Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The ...

Ghana
and
Tanzania Tanzania (; ), officially the United Republic of Tanzania ( sw, Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania), is a country in East Africa East Africa or Eastern Africa is the eastern subregion of the Africa Africa is the world's second-larges ...

Tanzania
, known as Tanganyika at the time. The program was formally authorized by
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...
on September 22, 1961, and within two years over 7,300 volunteers were serving in 44 countries. This number increased to 15,000 in June 1966, the largest number in the organization's history. The organization experienced controversy in its first year of operation. On October 13, 1961, a
postcard A postcard or post card is a piece of thick paper or thin Card stock, cardboard, typically rectangular, intended for writing and mailing without an envelope. Non-rectangular shapes may also be used but are rare. There are novelty exceptions, suc ...

postcard
from a volunteer named Margery Jane Michelmore in
Nigeria Nigeria (), officially the Federal Republic of Nigeria, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, C ...

Nigeria
to a friend in the U.S. described her situation in Nigeria as "squalor and absolutely primitive living conditions." However, this postcard never made it out of the country. The
University of Ibadan The University of Ibadan (UI) is a Public Research University, public research university in Ibadan, Nigeria. The university was founded in 1948 as University College Ibadan, one of many colleges within University of London. It became an independe ...

University of Ibadan
College Students Union demanded deportation and accused the volunteers of being "America's international " and the project as "a scheme designed to foster
neocolonialism Neocolonialism is the practice of using economics Economics () is the social science that studies how people interact with value; in particular, the Production (economics), production, distribution (economics), distribution, and Consumpt ...
." Soon the international press picked up the story, leading several people in the U.S. administration to question the program. Nigerian students protested the program, while the American volunteers sequestered themselves and eventually began a
hunger strike A hunger strike is a method of in which participants as an act of political , or to provoke a feeling of in others, usually with the objective to achieve a specific goal, such as a policy change. Most hunger strikers will take liquids but n ...

hunger strike
. After several days, the Nigerian students agreed to open a dialogue with the Americans.


Policies

The theme of enabling Americans to volunteer in poor countries appealed to Kennedy because it fit in with his campaign themes of self-sacrifice and volunteerism, while also providing a way to redefine American relations with the Third World. Upon taking office, Kennedy issued an executive order establishing the Peace Corps. Shriver, not Kennedy, energetically lobbied Congress for approval. Kennedy proudly took the credit, and ensured that it remained free of CIA influence. He largely left its administration to Shriver. To avoid the appearance of favoritism to the Catholic Church, the Corps did not place its volunteers with any religious agencies. In the first twenty-five years, more than 100,000 Americans served in 44 countries as part of the program. Most volunteers taught English in local schools, but many became involved in activities like construction and food delivery. Shriver practiced affirmative action, and women comprised about 40 percent of the first 7000 volunteers. However given the paucity of black college graduates, racial minorities never reached five percent. The Corps developed its own training program, based on nine weeks at an American university, with a focus on conversational language, world affairs, and desired job skills. That was followed by three weeks at a Peace Corps camp in Puerto Rico, and week or two of orientation the home and the host country.


1970–1999

In July 1971, President
Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president d ...

Richard Nixon
, an opponent of the program, brought the Peace Corps under the umbrella agency
ACTION ACTION is a bus operator in , Australia owned by the . History On 19 July 1926, the commenced operating public bus services between Eastlake (now ) in the south and in the north. The service was first known as Canberra City Omnibus Se ...
. President
Jimmy Carter James Earl Carter Jr. (born October 1, 1924) is an American politician, businessman, and philanthropist who served as the 39th president of the United States from 1977 to 1981. A member of the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Par ...

Jimmy Carter
, an advocate of the program, said that his mother, who had served as a nurse in the program, had "one of the most glorious experiences of her life" in the Peace Corps. In 1979, he made it fully autonomous in an executive order. This independent status was further secured by 1981 legislation making the organization an independent federal agency. In 1976, Deborah Gardner was found murdered in her home in Tonga, where she was serving in the Peace Corps. Dennis Priven, a fellow Peace Corps worker, was later charged with the murder by the Tonga government.
.
He was found not guilty by reason of insanity, and was sentenced to serve time in a mental institution in Washington D.C. Priven was never admitted to any institution, and the handling of the case has been heavily criticized. The main criticism has been that the Peace Corps seemingly worked to keep one of its volunteers from being found guilty of murder, due to the reflection it would have on the organization.


2000–present

Although the earliest volunteers were typically thought of as generalists, the Peace Corps had requests for technical personnel from the start. For example, geologists were among the first volunteers requested by
Ghana Ghana (), officially the Republic of Ghana, is a country in West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of Africa. The United Nations defines Western Africa as the 17 countries of Benin, Burkina Faso, Cape Verde, The ...

Ghana
, an early volunteer host. An article in ''Geotimes'' (a trade publication) in 1963, reviewed the program, with a follow-up history of Peace Corps geoscientists appearing in that publication in 2004. During the Nixon Administration the Peace Corps included foresters,
computer scientist A computer scientist is a person who has acquired the knowledge of computer science Computer science deals with the theoretical foundations of information, algorithms and the architectures of its computation as well as practical techniques ...

computer scientist
s, and
small business Small businesses are privately owned corporation A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company—authorized by the State (polity), state to act as a single entity (a legal entity recognized by private and pu ...
advisers among its volunteers. In 1982, President
Ronald Reagan Ronald Wilson Reagan ( ; February 6, 1911June 5, 2004) was an American politician who served as the 40th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Un ...

Ronald Reagan
appointed director
Loret Miller Ruppe Loret Miller Ruppe (January 3, 1936 – August 7, 1996) was a Director of the Peace Corps and US Ambassador to Norway. She was the wife of U. S. Congressman Philip Ruppe of Michigan. Early life Loret Miller was born January 3, 1936, in Milwaukee, ...
, who initiated business-related programs. For the first time, a significant number of conservative and
Republican Republican can refer to: Political ideology * An advocate of a republic, a type of government that is not a monarchy or dictatorship, and is usually associated with the rule of law. ** Republicanism, the ideology in support of republics or against ...
volunteers joined the Corps, as the organization continued to reflect the evolving political and social conditions in the United States. Funding cuts during the early 1980s reduced the number of volunteers to 5,380, its lowest level since the early years. Funding increased in 1985, when Congress began raising the number of volunteers, reaching 10,000 in 1992. After the 2001
September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, also commonly referred to as 9/11, were a series of four coordinated by the militant terrorist group against the on the morning of Tuesday, September 11, 2001. On that morning, four commercial s traveling fro ...
, which alerted the U.S. to growing in the Middle East, President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Unit ...

George W. Bush
pledged to double the size of the organization within five years as a part of the
War on Terrorism The War on Terror, also known as the Global War on Terrorism and U.S. War on Terror, is an international military campaign launched by the United States government after the September 11 attacks The September 11 attacks, often referr ...
. For the 2004 fiscal year, Congress increased the budget to US$325 million, US$30 million above that of 2003 but US$30 million below the President's request. As part of an
economic stimulus In economics, stimulus refers to attempts to use monetary policy or fiscal policy (or stabilization policy in general) to stimulate the economy. Stimulus can also refer to monetary policies such as lowering interest rates and quantitative easing. ...
package in 2008, President
Barack Obama Barack Hussein Obama II ( ; born August 4, 1961) is an American politician and attorney who served as the 44th from 2009 to 2017. A member of the , Obama was the first African-American president of the United States. He previously serv ...

Barack Obama
proposed to double the size of the Peace Corps. However, , the amount requested was insufficient to reach this goal by 2011. In fact, the number of applicants to the Peace Corps declined steadily from a high of 15,384 in 2009 to 10,118 in 2013. Congress raised the 2010 appropriation from the US$373 million requested by the President to US$400 million, and proposed bills would raise this further for 2011 and 2012. According to former director Gaddi Vasquez, the Peace Corps is trying to recruit more diverse volunteers of different ages and make it look "more like America". A ''Harvard International Review'' article from 2007 proposed to expand the Peace Corps, revisit its mission, and equip it with new technology. In 1961 only 1% of volunteers were over 50, compared with 5% today. Ethnic minorities currently comprise 34% of volunteers. 35% of the U.S. population are Hispanic or non-White. In 2009, Casey Frazee, who was sexually assaulted while serving in South Africa, created First Response Action, an
advocacy group Advocacy groups, also known as special interest groups, use various forms of advocacy Advocacy is an activity by an individual or group that aims to influence decisions within political, economic, and social institutions. Advocacy include ...
for a stronger Peace Corps response for volunteers who are survivors or victims of physical and sexual violence. In 2010, concerns about the safety of volunteers were illustrated by a report, compiled from official public documents, listing hundreds of violent crimes against volunteers since 1989. In 2011, a '' 20/20'' investigation found that "more than 1,000 young American women have been raped or sexually assaulted in the last decade while serving as Peace Corps volunteers in foreign countries." In a historic first, all Peace Corps volunteers worldwide were withdrawn from their host countries on March 15, 2020, due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...

COVID-19 pandemic
. Volunteers were not eligible for unemployment or health benefits, although some Members of Congress said they should be. Legislators also called upon
FEMA The Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) is an agency of the United States Department of Homeland Security The United States Department of Homeland Security (DHS) is the U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known ...
to hire Peace Corps volunteers until the end of their service.


International presence

During its history, Peace Corps volunteers have worked in the following countries: Latin America and the Caribbean (23% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1992–1994) * (since 1962) * (1962–1971, 1990–2008) * (1962–1981) * (1961–1982, 1991–1998) * (1961–1981, since 2010) * (since 1963) * (since 1961) * (since 1962) * (since 1962) * (1962–1980, 1993–2016) * (since 1961) * (since 1963) * (1966–1971, since 1995) * (1982–1987, 1990–1991, 1996–2005) * (1962–2012) * (since 1962) * (since 2004) * (1968–1979, since 1991) * (1963–1971, since 1990) * (since 1966) * (1962–1974, since 2002) * (since 1961) * (since 1961) * (1995–2013) * (1963–1973, 1991–1997) * (1962–1976) Europe and central Asia (13% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1992–1997, since 2003) * (since 1992) * (2003–2016) * (2000–2002) * (1991–2013) * (1962–1964) * (1990–1997) * (1992–2002) * (since 2001) * (1990–1997) * (1993–2011) * (1992–2002) * (1992–2002) * (since 2014) * (since 1993) * (since 1996) * (1970–1975, 1990–1998) * (since 1993) * (1990–2001) * (1991–2013) * (1992–2003) * (1990–2002) * (1993–2013) * (1962–1971) * (1992–2005) * (since 1992) Middle East and north Africa (3% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1974–1979) * (1962–1976) * (1997–2002, 2004–2015) * (1966–1969) * (since 1963) * (1973–1983) * (1962–1996, 2013) * (1973–1994) Subsaharan Africa (46% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (since 1968) * (1966–1997, since 2003) * (1967–1987, 1995-2017) * (1983–1993) * (1988–2013) * (since 1962) * (1966–1979, 1987–1998, 2003–2006) * (1988–1995, since 2015) * (1991–1997) * (1962–1981, 1990–2003) * (1972–1996) * (1970–1991) * (1988–1993) * (1995–1998) * (1969–1996, since 2003) * (1962–1977, 1995–1999, since 2007) * (1963–1968, 1973–2005) * (since 1961) * (1963–1966, 1969–1971, since 1985) * (1988–1998) * (1964–2014, since 2020) * (since 1967) * (1962–1990, since 2008) * (since 1993) * (1963–1976, since 1978) * (1971–2012, 2014–2015) * (1969–1976) * (1966–1967, 1971–2011) * (since 1998) * (since 1990) * (1962–2011) * (1961–1976, 1992–1995) * (1975–1993, since 2008) * (1990–1996) * (since 1963) * (1974–1995) * (1962–1994, 2010–2013, since 2016) * (1962–1970) * (since 1997) * (1984–1986) * (1961–1969, since 1979) * (since 1967) * (since 1962) * (1964–1972, 1991–1999, since 2001) * (since 1994) * (1991–2001) Asia (11% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1962–1979) * (1998–2006) * (since 2007) * (Under the name "U.S.-China friendship volunteers")(1993-2020) * (1961–1976) * (1963–1965, since 2010) * (1962–1983) * (since 1991) * (since 2016) * (1962–2004, since 2012) * (1961–1967, 1988–1991) * (1961–1990, since 1992) * (1966–1981) * (1962–1964, 1967–1970, 1983–1998, since 2018) * (since 1962) * (2002–2006, since 2015) Oceania (5% of volunteers serve here, 2019) * (1968–1998, since 2003) * (1982–1995) * (1966–1996) * (1971–2000, since 2020) * (1974–2008) * (1966–2018) * (1994–2002) * (1981–2001) * (since 1967) * (since 1967) * (1977–1997) * (since 1990) Peace Corps activities were suspended and all volunteers worldwide were evacuated on on March 15, 2020, due to the
COVID-19 pandemic The COVID-19 pandemic is an ongoing global pandemic A pandemic (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a c ...

COVID-19 pandemic
.


Application and volunteer process

The application for the Peace Corps takes up to one hour, unless one talks to a recruiter. The applicant must be at least 18 years old and a U.S. citizen and, according to a 2018 document, they should apply 6 to 9 months before they want to leave. They must go through an interview. Applicants can apply to only one placement every year. Placements can be sorted through the Peace Corps six project sectors: Agriculture, Environment, Community Economic Development, Health, Education, and Youth in Development. Applicants may also narrow down their application of choice by country they want to serve in various regions of the world. Peace Corps volunteers are expected to serve for 2 years in the foreign country, with 3 months of training before swearing in to service. This occurs in country with host country national trainers in language and assignment skills. Prior to 2014, the application process took about a year.


Initiatives

The Peace Corps aims to educate community members on the different illnesses that are present in developing countries as well as what treatments exist in order prevent these illnesses from spreading. Volunteers are also often there in order to teach community members about modern agricultural techniques in order for them to more effectively produce food for themselves and each other (Peace Corps). The Corps is also a proponent of equal education and moves to allow for equal education opportunities for girls in countries like Liberia and Ethiopia. In 2015, the organization partnered with
United States Agency for International Development The United States Agency for International Development (USAID) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in different ...
(USAID) to implement First Lady
Michelle Obama Michelle LaVaughn Robinson Obama (born January 17, 1964) is an American attorney and author who served as the First Lady of the United States, first lady of the United States from 2009 to 2017. She was the List of African-American firsts, firs ...

Michelle Obama
's Let Girls Learn initiative.


Eradicating malaria in Africa

The Corps launched its initiative to engage volunteers in
malaria Malaria is a mosquito-borne infectious disease that affects humans and other animals. Malaria causes symptoms Signs and symptoms are the observed or detectable signs, and experienced symptoms of an illness, injury, or condition. A sign fo ...

malaria
control efforts in 2011. The initiative, which grew out of malaria prevention programs in Peace Corps Senegal, now includes volunteers in 24 African countries.


Environment

The Corps offers a variety of environmental programs. Needs assessments determine which programs apply to each country. Programs include effective and efficient forms of farming, recycling, park management, environmental education, and developing
alternative fuel Alternative fuels, known as non-conventional and advanced fuel A fuel is any material that can be made to react with other substances so that it releases energy as thermal energy Thermal radiation in visible light can be seen on this hot ...
sources. Volunteers must have some combination of academic degrees and practical experience. The three major programs are Protected-Areas Management, Environment Education or Awareness, and Forestry. In ''Protected areas management'', volunteers work with parks or other programs to teach resource conservation. Volunteer activities include technical training, working with park staff on wildlife preservation, organizing community-based conservation programs for sustainable use of forests or marine resources, and creating activities for raising revenue to protect the environment. ''Environment Education or Awareness'' focuses on communities that have environmental issues regarding farming and income. Programs include teaching in elementary and secondary schools; environmental education to youth programs; creation of environmental groups; support forest and marine resource sustainability; ways of generating money; urban sanitation management; and educating farmers about soil conservation, forestry, and vegetable gardening. ''Forestry'' programs help communities conserve natural resources through projects such as soil conservation, flood control, creation of sustainable fuels, agroforestry (e.g., fruit and vegetable production), alley cropping, and protection of
biodiversity Biodiversity is the biological variety and of . Biodiversity is a measure of variation at the , , and level. Terrestrial biodiversity is usually greater near the , which is the result of the warm and high . Biodiversity is not distributed ev ...

biodiversity
.


Peace Corps Response

Peace Corps Response, formerly named the Crisis Corps, was created by Peace Corps Director Mark Gearan in 1996.Peace Corps Hotline. "Crisis Corps: Opportunity to serve again" by Melinda Bridges. November 1, 2002.
(PDF)
Gearan modeled the Crisis Corps after the National Peace Corps Association's successful Emergency Response Network (ERN) of Returned Peace Corps Volunteers willing to respond to crises when needed. ERN emerged in response to the 1994
Rwandan genocide The Rwandan genocide occurred between 7 April and 15 July 1994 during the . During this period of around 100 days, members of the minority ethnic group, as well as some moderate and , were slaughtered by armed militias. The most widely acce ...
. On November 19, 2007 Peace Corps Director Ronald Tschetter changed Crisis Corps's name to Peace Corps Response. The change to Peace Corps Response allowed Peace Corps to include projects that did not rise to the level of a crisis. The program deploys former volunteers on high-impact assignments that typically range from three to twelve months in duration. Peace Corps Response volunteers generally receive the same allowances and benefits as their Peace Corps counterparts, including round-trip transportation, living and readjustment allowances, and medical care. Minimum qualifications include completion of at least one year of Peace Corps service, including training, in addition to medical and legal clearances. The Crisis Corps title was retained as a unique branch within Peace Corps Response, designed for volunteers who are deployed to true "crisis" situations, such as disaster relief following hurricanes, earthquakes, floods, volcanic eruptions and other catastrophes.


Education and languages

Peace Corps has created resources for teachers in the US and abroad to teach 101 languages. Resources vary by language, and include text, recordings, lesson plans and teaching notes.


Laws governing the Peace Corps


Executive orders

Peace Corps was originally established by Executive Order, and has been modified by several subsequent executive orders including: * 1961 – Executive Order 10924 – Establishment and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy) * 1962 – Executive Order 11041 – Continuance and administration of the Peace Corps in the Department of State (Kennedy) * 1963 – Executive Order 11103 – Providing for the appointment of former Peace Corps volunteers to the civilian career services (Kennedy) * 1971 – Executive Order 11603 – Assigning additional functions to the Director of ACTION (Nixon) * 1979 – Executive Order 12137 – The Peace Corps (Carter)


Laws

Federal laws governing the Peace Corps are contained in
Title 22 of the United States Code Title 22 of the United States Code outlines the role of foreign relations and intercourse in the United States Code The Code of Laws of the United States of America (variously abbreviated to Code of Laws of the United States, United States Cod ...
– Foreign Relations and Intercourse, Chapter 34 – The Peace Corps. Public laws are passed by Congress and the President and create or modify the U.S. Code. The first public law establishing Peace Corps in the US Code was The Peace Corps Act passed by the 87th Congress and signed into law on September 22, 1961. Several public laws have modified the Peace Corps Act, including: * – The Peace Corps Act * * * * * * * – Bill to carry into effect certain provisions of the Patent Cooperation Treaty, and for other purposes. * – Peace Corps Act Amendments * – The Foreign Service Act of 1980 * – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1981 * – International Security and Development Cooperation Act of 1985 * – Tax Reform Act of 1986 * – A bill to amend the Peace Corps Act to authorize appropriations for the Peace Corps for FY1993 and to establish Peace Corps foreign exchange fluctuations account, and for other purposes. * – The Assisted Suicide Funding Restriction Act of 1997 * – Peace Corps Act, FY2002, 2003 Authorization Bill *


Code of Federal Regulations

The Peace Corps is subject to Federal Regulations as prescribed by public law and executive order and contained in
Title 22 of the Code of Federal Regulations CFR Title 22 – Foreign Relations is one of fifty titles comprising the United States Code of Federal Regulations The ''Code of Federal Regulations'' (''CFR'') is the codification of the general and permanent regulations published in the ''Feder ...
under Chapter 3.


Limitations on former volunteers

Former members of the Peace Corps may not be assigned to military intelligence duties for a period of 4 years following Peace Corps service. Furthermore, they are forever prohibited from serving in a military intelligence posting to any country in which they volunteered. Former members may not apply for employment with the Central Intelligence Agency for a period of 5 years following Peace Corps Service.


Time limits on employment

Peace Corps employees receive time-limited appointments, and most employees are limited to a maximum of five years of employment. This time limit was established to ensure that Peace Corps' staff remain fresh and innovative. A related rule specifies that former employees cannot be re-employed until after the same amount of time that they were employed. Volunteer service is not counted for the purposes of either rule.


Union representation

Non-supervisory domestic employees are represented by the American Federation of State, County, and Municipal Employees (AFSCME) Local 3548. The Federal Labor Relations Agency certified the Union on May 11, 1983. About 500 domestic employees are members. The current
collective bargaining Collective bargaining is a process of negotiation between employers and a group of employees aimed at agreements to regulate working salaries, working conditions, benefits, and other aspects of workers' compensation and rights for workers. The int ...
agreement became effective on April 21, 1995.


Leadership


Directors

On January 3, 2018, President
Donald Trump Donald John Trump (born June 14, 1946) is an American politician A politician is a person active in party politics A political party is an organization that coordinates candidate A candidate, or nominee, is the prospective reci ...

Donald Trump
nominated Josephine "Jody" Olsen as the 20th director of the Peace Corps. Olsen has a long history with the agency, serving as Acting Director in 2009, Deputy Director from 2002 to 2009, Chief of Staff from 1989 to 1992, Regional Director, North Africa Near East, Asia, Pacific from 1981 to 1984, and Country Director in Togo from 1979 to 1981. Olsen also served as a Peace Corps volunteer in Tunisia from 1966 to 1968. She left office on January 20, 2021. Here are the following directors:


Inspector General

The Peace Corps Office of is authorized by law to review all programs and operations of the Peace Corps. The OIG is an independent entity within the Peace Corps. The inspector general (IG) reports directly to the Peace Corps Director. In addition, the IG reports to Congress semiannually with data on OIG activities. The OIG serves as the law enforcement arm of the Peace Corps and works closely with the Department of State, the Department of Justice, and other federal agencies OIG has three sections to conduct its functions:
Audit – Auditors review functional activities of the Peace Corps, such as contract compliance and financial and program operations, to ensure accountability and to recommend improved levels of economy and efficiency; Evaluations – Evaluators analyze the management and program operations of the Peace Corps at both overseas posts and domestic offices. They identify best practices and recommend program improvements and ways to accomplish Peace Corps' mission and strategic goals. Investigations – Investigators respond to allegations of criminal or administrative wrongdoing by Peace Corps Volunteers, Peace Corps personnel, including experts and consultants, and by those who do business with the Peace Corps, including contractors.
From 2006 to 2007, H. David Kotz was the Inspector General.


Criticism

Critics and criticisms of Peace Corps include former volunteer and country director Robert L. Strauss in ''Foreign Policy'', ''The New York Times,'' ''The American Interest'' and elsewhere, an article by a former volunteer describing assaults on volunteers from 1992 to 2010, an ABC news report on ''20/20 (U.S. TV series), 20/20'', a ''Huffington Post'' article on former Peace Corps volunteers speaking out on rapes, and About.com's article on rape and assault in the Peace Corps. In the Reagan Administration, in 1986, an article in the Multinational Monitor looked critically at the Peace Corps. On a positive note, the writer praises the Corps for aspects saying that it is "not in the business of transferring massive economic resources. Rather it concentrates on increasing productivity and encouraging self-reliance in villages that are often ignored by large-scale development agencies," and notes the "heavy emphasis on basic education" by the Corps. "Many returned volunteers complain that the Peace Corps does little to promote or make use of their rich experiences once they return ... [A] Peace Corps volunteer is sent in ... [to] relieve ... the local government from having to develop policies that assure equitable distribution of health care ... During the early years there were many failures in structure and programming ... Some critics charge that the Peace Corps is only a somewhat ineffective attempt to counter damage done to the U.S. image abroad by its aggressive military and its unscrupulous businesses ... Many observers and some returned volunteers charge that, in addition to public relations for the United States, Peace Corps programs serve to legitimize dictators ... When he began evaluating the Corps in the 1960s, Charlie Peters found "they were training volunteers to be junior diplomats. Giving them a course in American studies, world affairs and communism ... Although it seems unlikely that the Peace Corps is used in covert operations, wittingly or not it is often used in conjunction with U.S. military interests ... In a review of the Peace Corps in March the House Select Committee on Hunger praised the agency for effective work in the areas of agriculture and conservation, while recommending that the Corps expand its African Food Systems Initiative, increase the number of volunteers in the field, recruit more women, and move to depoliticize country dictatorships." The author suggests that "the poor should be encouraged to organize a power base to gain more leverage with the powers-that-be" by the Peace Corps and that "The Peace Corps is the epitome of Kennedy's Camelot mythology. It is a tall order to expect a small program appended to an immense superpower, to make a difference, but it is a goal worth striving for." In December 2003, a report by the Brookings Institution praised the Peace Corps but proposed changes. These include relabeling Peace Corps volunteers in certain countries, greater host country ownership, reverse volunteers (have volunteers from the host country in the U.S.), and multilateral volunteers. The Brookings Institution wrote that a "one-year service commitment [for the Baby Boom generation] could make the Peace Corps more attractive to older Americans, possibly combined with the option of returning to the same site or country after a three-month break" and customized placement to a specific country would increase the number of people volunteering. In a critique by The Future of Freedom Foundation, James Bovard mixes history of the Peace Corps with current interpretations. He writes that in the 1980s, "The Peace Corps's world-saving pretensions were a joke on American taxpayers and Third World folks who expected real help." He goes on to criticize the difference in rhetoric and action of Peace Corps volunteers, even attacking its establishment as "the epitome of emotionalism in American politics." Using snippets of reports, accounts of those in countries affected by the Peace Corps and even concluded that at one point "some Peace Corps agricultural efforts directly hurt Third World poor." At the end of the article, Bovard noted that all Peace Corps volunteers he had talked with conceded they have not helped foreigners ... but he acknowledges that "Some Peace Corps volunteers, like some Americans who volunteer for religion missions abroad, have truly helped foreigners."


Sexual assault

The Peace Corps has been criticized for failing to properly respond to the sexual violence that many of its female volunteers face. BoingBoing editor Xeni Jardin describes criticism of the agency's response to assault: "A growing number of ex-Peace Corps volunteers are speaking out about having survived rape and other forms of sexual assault while assigned overseas. They say the agency ignored their concerns for safety or requests for relocation, and tried to blame rape victims for their attacks. Their stories, and support from families and advocates, are drawing attention from lawmakers and promises of reform from the agency". Among 8,655 volunteers there are on average 22 Peace Corps women who reported being the victims of rape or attempted rape each year. At a meeting of the House Foreign Affairs Committee in 2011, Peace Corps volunteers shared their experiences of violence and sexual assault. At this meeting, it was found that between 2000 and 2009 there have been several cases of rape or attempted rape, and about 22 women are sexually assaulted each year. The case of murdered Peace Corps volunteer Kate Puzey was discussed. The Peace Corps has gained attention in the media and their directors have been attacked for how they handled this situation. Kate Puzey's mother was one of those to make a comment at the meeting about how badly the situation with her daughter had been handled. One woman claimed that her country's director had blamed her for getting raped, while other victims have also been similarly blamed. Criticism of how Peace Corps has responded to sexual assaults against volunteers culminated in the appointment of Kellie Green as the agency's first Director of the Office Of Victims Advocacy in 2011. Green was eventually pushed out of her position in April 2015 for purportedly "creating a hostile work environment". Greene maintains that Peace Corps retaliated against her for pressing agency officials to fully comply with their responsibilities towards volunteers who have been victims of sexual assault. A Change.org petition demanding that Green be reinstated began circulating among former volunteers in December 2015. In 2009, the most recent year reported, 69% of Peace Corps crime victims were women, 88% were under 30, and 82% were Caucasian. Worldwide, there were 15 cases of rape/attempted rape and 96 cases of sexual assault reported for a total of 111 sexual crimes committed against female Peace Corps volunteers. The majority of women who join the Peace Corps are in their mid-twenties. In 62% of the more than 2,900 assault cases since 1990, the victim was identified as being alone. In 59% of assault cases, the victim was identified as a woman in her 20s.


White saviorism and American exceptionalism

Some critics say the Peace Corps is an example of white saviorism and American exceptionalism at work. In 2019, Population Works Africa, a network of Black female consultants working in international development, criticized the Peace Corps for its reliance on mostly inexperienced young people as volunteers, saying this "is rooted in the idea that Africa is such a barren wasteland that they will take just about any type of aid." According to a 2020 article in The Washington Post, "About two-thirds [of volunteers] are White, leading some critics to charge it is not a fair representation of Americans and affects how volunteers view people in the countries where they serve." The group "Decolonizing Peace Corps," established in 2020 by returned Peace Corps volunteers, questions if Peace Corps and other development efforts "personify the white man’s burden of needing to 'civilize' non-white spaces and nations" and posits that the Peace Corps benefits volunteers more than it does the people of the countries in which they serve. The group has also criticized Peace Corps for pouring resources into volunteers rather than into the people of the host country. They are calling for an overhaul to Peace Corps' training practices and the eventual phase-out of the Peace Corps altogether. Another former volunteer, Shalean Collins, criticized volunteers (and tourists) for sharing on social media photos of themselves with local people, whom they used "as props to the larger narrative of the Savior, Wanderer, or Nomad." Michael Buckler, another former volunteer, wrote in The Hill (newspaper), The Hill that "saviorism is real, pervasive and toxic" in the Peace Corps, but he believes most volunteers come to understand and move beyond any notions of saviorism they may have had at the beginning of their service.


In popular culture

Frank Zappa and The Mothers of Invention have a song named "Who Needs the Peace Corps?" on their 1968 album ''We're Only in It for the Money''. In popular culture, the Peace Corps has been used as a comedic plot device in such movies as ''Airplane!'', ''Christmas with the Kranks'', ''Shallow Hal'', and ''Volunteers (1985 film), Volunteers'' or used to set the scene for a historic era, as when Frances "Baby" Houseman tells the audience she plans to join the Peace Corps in the introduction to the movie ''Dirty Dancing''. The Peace Corps has also been documented on film and examined more seriously and in more depth. The 2006 documentary film ''Death of Two Sons,'' directed by Micah Schaffer, juxtaposes the deaths of Amadou Diallo, a Guinean-American who was gunned down by four New York City policemen with 41 bullets, and Peace Corps volunteer Jesse Thyne who lived with Amadou's family in Guinea and died in a car crash there.New York Daily News. "Disappointed Diallo ma" by Nicole Bode. November 27, 2006. Th
original link
is dead. An archival link is availabl

/ref> ''Jimi Sir'', released in 2007, is a documentary portrait of volunteer James Parks' experiences as a high school science, math and English teacher during the last 10 weeks of his service in Nepal. James speaks Nepali fluently and shows a culture where there are no roads, vehicles, electricity, plumbing, telephone or radio. The movie ''El Rey (film), El Rey'', directed and written by Antonio Dorado in 2004, attacks corrupt police, unscrupulous politicians and half-hearted revolutionaries but also depicts the urban legend of Peace Corps Volunteers "training" native Colombians how to process coca leaves into cocaine. ''Miami Herald''. "Popular film revives Peace Corps rumors: The top movie in Colombia is about the origins of the cocaine trade with an unexpected villain: the U.S. Peace Corps." by Steven Dudley. November 6, 2004
Archive link
In the 1969 film, ''Yawar Mallku/Sangre de cóndor/Blood of the Condor'', Bolivian director Jorge Sanjinés portrayed Peace Corps volunteers in the camp as arrogant, ethnocentric, and narrow-minded imperialists out to destroy Indian culture. One particularly powerful scene showed Indians attacking a clinic while the volunteers inside sterilized Indian women against their will. The film is thought to be at least partially responsible for the expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971. Peace Corps volunteer Fred Krieger who was serving in Bolivia at the time said, "It was an effective movie – emotionally very arousing – and it directly targeted Peace Corps volunteers. I thought I would be lynched before getting out of the theatre. To my amazement, people around me smiled courteously as we left, no one commented, it was just like any other movie."Amigos de Bolivia y Peru. "Sacrificial Llama? The Expulsion of the Peace Corps from Bolivia in 1971" by James F. Siekmeier. Th
original story
is a dead link. An archival copy i

In 2016, Peace Corps partnered with jewelry retailer Alex and Ani to create cord bracelets to raise money for the Peace Corps' Let Girls Learn Fund. Fictional Peace Corps volunteers * Frances "Baby" Houseman in the 1987 film Dirty Dancing plans to join the Peace Corps after graduating from Mount Holyoke. * In Boy Meets World, Jack and Rachel graduate from the fictional Pennbrook University and join the Peace Corps.se
Valerie Stimac. "Can You Believe These 8 TV / Movie Characters Did the Peace Corps?" (2016)
/ref>


See also


Documentary A Towering Task: The Story of the Peace Corps
* List of notable Peace Corps volunteers * AmeriCorps * Language education * List of language self-study programs * Peace Corps Memorial * Provincial Reconstruction Team * United States Cultural Exchange Programs * British Romanian Educational Exchange * CUSO * Doctors Without Borders * ECHO (European Commission)#EU Aid Volunteers, EU Aid Volunteers * European Voluntary Service * Fredskorpset * International Voluntary Services * JICA (Japan International Cooperation Agency) * Korea International Cooperation Agency * United Nations Volunteers * Voluntary Service Overseas * World Vision


References


Further reading

* Bernstein, Irving. (1991) ''Promises Kept: John F. Kennedy's New Frontier'' pp 259–79. * Latham, Michael E. ''Modernization as ideology: American social science and" nation building" in the Kennedy era.'' (U of North Carolina Press, 2000)
Online
* May, Gary. "Passing the Torch and Lighting Fires: The Peace Corps," in Thomas G. Paterson, ed. ''Kennedy's Quest for Victory: American Foreign Policy, 1961-1963'' (1989) pp 284–316. * ''The Annals of the American Academy of Political and Social Science'' Vol. 365, May, 1966
online at JSTOR
Contents: *** Foreword . . . . . . . . . . .. . . . . . . . . J. Norman Parmer ix *** The Peace Corps In Our Past . . . . . . . . . . Charles J. Wetzel 1 *** A Discovery Of Commitment ............... Joseph G. Colman 12 *** Selection Of Volunteers .................. Edwin R. Henry 21 *** The Preparation Of Peace Corps Volunteers For Overseas Service Donald R. Shea 29 *** The Beginnings Of Peace Corps Programming ........ George E. Carter 46 *** Volunteers In The Field: Great Expectations ......... Neil A. Boyer 55 *** The Peace Corps Volunteer In The Field: Community Development ... Kirby Jones 63 *** Volunteers In The Field: Teaching ............ . Arnold Deutchman 72 *** The Overseas Staff .................... Lewis H. Butler 83 *** The Peace Corps And The Private Sector: The Failure Of A Partnership Thomas D. Scott 93 *** The Returning Volunteer ................ Robert Calvert, Jr. 105 *** Evaluation And The Question Of Change .......... Meridan Bennett 119 *** The Future Of The Peace Corps ............... Harris Wofford 129


External links

* Czernek, Andrew (2012)

* Tarnoff, Curt (April 26, 2018)
''The Peace Corps: Current Issues.''
Congressional Research Service * In March 2011, the Special English, VOA Special English service of the Voice of America broadcast a 15-minute program on the Peace Corps and its 50th anniversary. A transcript and MP3 of the program, intended for English learners, can be found a
"Peace Corps at 50: Same Mission of Aid, Just Smaller"
*
Records of the Peace Corps in the National Archives (Record Group 490)
{{Use mdy dates, date=October 2018 Peace Corps, Appropriate technology organizations Government agencies established in 1961 International volunteer organizations Presidency of John F. Kennedy Foreign relations agencies of the United States Ramon Magsaysay Award winners Recipients of the Order of Honour (Moldova) 1961 establishments in the United States