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In
politics Politics (from , ) is the set of activities that are associated with making decisions in groups, or other forms of power relations between individuals, such as the distribution of resources or status. The branch of social science that stu ...
, a partition is a change of political borders cutting through at least one territory considered a
homeland A homeland is the concept of the place where a cultural, national, or racial identity had formed. The definition can also mean simply one's country of birth. When used as a proper noun, the Homeland, as well as its equivalents in other languag ...
by some community.Brendan O'Leary
DEBATING PARTITION: JUSTIFICATIONS AND CRITIQUES
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Arguments for:

* historicist – that partition is inevitable, or already in progress * last resort – that partition should be pursued to avoid the worst outcomes (
genocide Genocide is the intentional action to destroy a people—usually defined as an ethnic, national, racial, or religious Religion is a social system, social-cultural system of designated religious behaviour, behaviors and practices, mor ...
or large-scale ethnic expulsion), if all other means fail * cost–benefit – that partition offers a better prospect of conflict reduction than the if existing borders are not changed * better tomorrow – that partition will reduce current violence and conflict, and that the new more homogenized states will be more stable * rigorous end – heterogeneity leads to problems, hence homogeneous states should be the goal of any policy


Arguments against:

* national territorial unity will be lost * bi-nationalism and multi-nationalism are not undesirable * the impossibility of a just partition * difficult in deciding how the new border(s) will be drawn * the likelihood of disorder and violence * partitioning alone does not lead to the desired homogenization * security issues arising within the borders of the new states Daniel Posner has argued that partitions of diverse communities into homogenous communities is unlikely to solve problems of communal conflict, as the boundary changes will alter the actors' incentives and give rise to new cleavages. For example, while the Muslim and Hindu cleavages might have been the most salient amid the
Indian independence movement#REDIRECT Indian independence movement {{Rcat shell, {{R from move {{R from other capitalisation {{R unprintworthy ...
, the creation of a religiously homogenous Hindu state (India) and a religiously homogeneous Muslim state (Pakistan) created new social cleavages on lines other than religion in both of those states. Posner writes that relatively homogenous countries can be more violence-prone than countries with a large number of evenly matched ethnic groups.


Examples

Notable examples are: (See Partition) * Partition of Africa (Scramble for Africa), between 1881 and 1914 under the General Act of the Berlin Conference. * Partition, multiple times, of the into the
Eastern Roman Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It surviv ...
and the
Western Roman Empire The Western Roman Empire comprises the western provinces of the Roman Empire at any time during which they were administered by a separate independent Imperial court; in particular, this term is used in historiography to describe the period fro ...

Western Roman Empire
, following the
Crisis of the Third Century#REDIRECT Crisis of the Third Century {{Redirect category shell, 1= {{R from other capitalisation ...
. * Partition of Prussia by the Second Peace of Thorn in 1466. creating Royal Prussia, and Duchy of Prussia in 1525 * Partition of
Catalonia Catalonia (; ca, Catalunya ; Aranese, Aranese Occitan: ''Catalonha'' ; es, Cataluña ) is an Autonomous communities of Spain, autonomous community in the northeastern corner of Spain, designated as a ''nationalities and regions of Spain, nat ...
by the Treaty of the Pyrenees in 1659: Northern Catalan territories (Roussillon) were given to Kingdom of France, France by Spain. * In the Treaty of Versailles (1757), France agreed upon the partition of Prussia * Partition of the U.S. state of Virginia, twice: in 1792, nine Trans-Appalachian counties became the Kentucky, Commonwealth of Kentucky; and then in 1863 after Virginia joined the Confederate States of America, Confederacy in the American Civil War, 50 northwestern counties rejoined the Union as the West Virginia, State of West Virginia. * German occupation of Czechoslovakia: The Sudetenland was ceded to Nazi Germany under the Munich Agreement of 1938, and the country was later divided into the German-administered Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and the nominally-independent Slovak Republic (1939–1945), Slovak Republic. Later Third Czechoslovak Republic, reunified at the end of World War II. * Three Partitions of Luxembourg, the last of which in 1839, divided Luxembourg between France, Prussia, Belgium, and the independent Grand Duchy of Luxembourg. * Three Partitions of Poland in 1772, 1793, and 1795, which led to the complete annihilation of the Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth. * Partition of Bengal (1905), 1905 Partition of Bengal and Partition of Bengal (1947), 1947 Partition of Bengal. * Partition of Macedonia (region), Macedonia by the Treaty of Bucharest (1913), Treaty of Bucharest after the Second Balkan War. * Partition of German Tyrol, Tyrol by the London Pact of 1915 ratified during World War I. * Partition of the German Empire in 1919 by the Treaty of Versailles. *Partition of Prussia in 1919. * Partitioning of the Ottoman Empire, Partition of the Ottoman Empire. * Partition of the Austrian-Hungarian Empire by the Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye (1919), Treaty of Saint-Germain-en-Laye and the Treaty of Trianon. * Partition of Ireland in 1920 into the independent Irish Free State and Northern Ireland. * Treaty of Kars of 1921, which partitioned Ottoman Armenia between Turkey and the Soviet Union (Western and Eastern Armenia). * Partition of Allied-occupied Germany and Berlin after World War II ** The Morgenthau Plan proposed independent states in North and South Germany, an international zone in the Ruhr Area, and the transfer of disputed border areas to France and Poland ** The actual post-war settlement created West Germany and East Germany and included the annexation of former eastern territories of Germany by Polish People's Republic, Poland. Later, East and West Germany were German reunification, unified at the end of the Cold War. ** Partition of East Prussia between Poland and the Soviet UnionDebates of the Senate of the Dominion of Canada
/ref> * Division of Korea, Partition of Korea in 1945 into American and Soviet zones of occupation. * 1947 UN Partition Plan for Mandatory Palestine, British Mandate of Palestine; this partition was abortive, resulting only in a Israel, Jewish independent state (Israel), while the territories of the proposed Arab state were occupied by Israel, Transjordan (region), Transjordan and Kingdom of Egypt, Egypt. * Partition of India (Presidencies and provinces of British India, colonial British India) in 1947 into the independent Dominion, dominions (later republics) of India and Pakistan (which included modern-day Bangladesh). * Division of Korea, Partition of Korea in 1953 between North Korea and South Korea after the Korean War. * Patiala and East Punjab States Union, Partition of Punjab in 1966 into the states of Punjab, India, Punjab, Haryana and Himachal Pradesh. * Bangladesh Liberation War, Partition of Pakistan in 1971, when East Pakistan became the independent nation of Bangladesh after the Bangladesh Liberation War. * Partition of Vietnam in 1954 between North Vietnam and South Vietnam under the 1954 Geneva Conference, Geneva Accord after the First Indochina War. Later reunified after the Vietnam War in 1975. * The Republic of New Afrika advocates the creation of an independent Black-majority country in the Southern United States * The hypothetical partition of Quebec, partition of the Canadian province of Quebec. * Partition of Yugoslavia in the 1990s. ** Independence of Croatia, Bosnia and Herzegovina, North Macedonia and Slovenia from Socialist Federal Republic of Yugoslavia, Yugoslavia (leaving Serbia and Montenegro). ** Failed partition of the Republic of Serbian Krajina in Croatia after the Croatian War of Independence, Croatian War ** Ethno-political partition of Bosnia and Herzegovina into two entities, the Serbs of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Serb-majority Republika Srpska and the Bosniaks, Bosniak-Croats of Bosnia and Herzegovina, Croat-majority Federation of Bosnia and Herzegovina, after the Bosnian War. * Dissolution of Czechoslovakia, Partition of Czechoslovakia in 1993 into the independent entities of the Czech Republic and Slovakia. * Partition of Cyprus in 1974 (''de facto''), into Greek Cypriots, Greek-majority Cyprus and Turkish Cypriots, Turkish-majority Northern Cyprus after the Turkish invasion of Cyprus. * Possible Partition of Kosovo after International reaction to the 2008 Kosovo declaration of independence, disputed independence (partition from Serbia) in 2008. See also Kosovo independence precedent. * Partition of China (See :zh:瓜分中國, 瓜分中國), between the China, People's Republic of China on the Mainland China, Mainland and the Taiwan, Republic of China on History of Taiwan since 1945, Taiwan after the Chinese Civil War. * Partition of Sudan into two entities in 2011, the Muslim-majority Sudan and the Christian-majority South Sudan.


See also

* Separatism * Secession


References


Further reading

*Sambanis, Nicholas, and Jonah Schulhofer-Wohl. "What's in a line? Is partition a solution to civil war?." International Security 34.2 (2009): 82–118. *Berg, Eiki. "Re-examining sovereignty claims in changing territorialities: reflections from ‘Kosovo Syndrome’." Geopolitics 14.2 (2009): 219-234. *Fearon, James D. "Separatist wars, partition, and world order." Security Studies 13.4 (2004): 394–415. *Downes, Alexander B. "More Borders, Less Conflict? Partition as a Solution to Ethnic Civil Wars." SAIS Review of International Affairs 26.1 (2006): 49–61. *Kumar, Radha. "Settling Partition Hostilities: Lessons Learned, Options Ahead." The Fate of the Nation-state (2004): 247. *O'Leary, Brendan. "Debating partition: justifications and critiques." Revised version of portion of a paper presented at final conference of the Mapping frontiers, plotting pathways: routes to North-South cooperation in a divided island programme, City Hotel, Armagh, 19–20 January 2006. University College Dublin. Institute for British-Irish Studies, 2006. *Horowitz, Michael C., Alex Weisiger, and Carter Johnson. "The limits to partition." International Security 33.4 (2009): 203–210. *Kumar, Radha. "The Partition Debate: Colonialism Revisited or New Policies?." The Brown Journal of World Affairs 7.1 (2000): 3–11. {{Autonomous types of first-tier administration Partition (politics), Borders