A multistorey car park
British may refer to:
Peoples, culture, and language
* British people, nationals or natives of the United Kingdom, British Overseas Territories, and Crown Dependencies.
** Britishness, the British identity and common culture
* British English, ...
Singapore English (SgE, SE, en-SG) (similar and related to British English) is the set of varieties of the English language native to Singapore. In Singapore, English is spoken in two main forms: Singaporean Standard English (indistinguisha ...
) or parking garage (
American English, sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. English is the most widely spoken language in the United States and in most circumstances i ... [), also called a multistory,] parking building, parking structure, parkade (mainly Canadian
Canadians (french: Canadiens) are people identified with the country of Canada. This connection may be residential, legal, historical or cultural. For most Canadians, many (or all) of these connections exist and are collectively the source of ...), parking ramp, parking deck or indoor parking, is a building designed for car, motorcycle & bicycle parking and where there are a number of floors or levels on which parking takes place. It is essentially an indoor, stacked car park. The first known multistory facility was built in London in 1901, and the first underground parking was built in Barcelona
Barcelona ( , , ) is a city on the coast of northeastern Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within c ... in 1904. (See History, below.) The term multistory is almost never used in the US, since parking structures are almost all multiple levels. Parking structures may be heated if they are enclosed.
Design of parking structures can add considerable cost for planning new developments, and can be mandated by cities in new building parking requirements. Some cities such as London have abolished previously enacted minimum parking requirements. Minimum parking requirements are a hallmark of zoning and planning codes for municipalities (States don't prescribe parking requirements, while counties and cities can) in the USA. arking Structures by Mary S. Smith, et al. ISBN 0-7923-7213-11]
The earliest known multi-story car park was opened in May 1901 by City & Suburban Electric Carriage Company at 6 Denman Street, central London. The location had space for 100 vehicles over seven floors, totaling 19,000 square feet. The same company opened a second location in 1902 for 230 vehicles. The company specialized in the sale, storage, valeting and on-demand delivery of electric vehicles that could travel about 40 miles and had a top speed of 20 miles per hour.
Built between 1898 and 1906 in Barcelona, Spain, Casa Batllo is the house of the Dragon with its delightful stained-glass windows, a winding roof-back: colorful as a rainbow. Casa Batlló is known for another innovation – the first underground parking anywhere. Designed by the Iconic Architect Antoni Gaudi, it is remarkable for any parking designs for its interior below-grade circular helix built in 1904
The earliest known parking garage in the United States was built in 1918 for the Hotel La Salle at 215 West Washington Street in the West Loop area of downtown Chicago, Illinois. It was designed by Holabird and Roche. The Hotel La Salle was demolished in 1976, but the parking structure remained because it had been designated as preliminary landmark status and the structure was several blocks from the hotel. It was demolished in 2005 after failing to receive landmark status from the city of Chicago. A 49-story apartment tower, 215 West, has taken its place, also featuring a parking garage. When the Capital Garage in Washington, D.C. was built in 1927, it was reportedly the largest parking structure of its kind in the country. It was imploded in 1974.
The movement of vehicles between floors can take place by means of:
* interior inclined parking ramps and express ramps without parking – common
* interior circular/helical express ramps
* exterior ramps – which may take the form of a circular/helical ramp
* vehicle lifts (or elevators) – the least common
* automated robot systems – combination of ramp and elevator
Where the car park is built on sloping land, it may be split-level or have sloped parking.
Many parking structures are independent buildings dedicated exclusively to that use. The design loads for car parks are often less than the office building they serve (50 psf versus 80 00psf), leading to long floor spans of 55–65 feet that permit cars to park in rows without supporting columns in between alled long span Podium parking below High/Mid rise buildings are often short span 25–30 feet clear between columns, since office/residential/retail floors above require more support 00 psf per International Building Code Columns in short span structures obstruct row based parking spaces and will be less efficient than long span designs; parking efficiency is measured in cars per level square footage ar count/level area Common structural systems in the United States for long span structures are
Prestressed concrete is a form of concrete used in construction. It is substantially "prestressed" ( compressed) during production, in a manner that strengthens it against tensile forces which will exist when in service. Post-tensioned concreted ... double-tee floor systems, post-tensioned cast-in-place concrete floor systems or short span podium parking with post tensioned slabs and drop panels rop heads. Steel embeds or thicker slabs can eliminate the need for drop panels, providing higher clearances for higher profile vehicles.
In recent times, parking structures built to serve residential and some business properties have been built as part of a larger building, often underground as part of the basement, such as the parking lot at the Atlantic Station
Atlantic Station is a neighborhood on the northwestern edge of Midtown Atlanta, Georgia, United States comprising a retail district, office space, condominiums, townhomes and apartment buildings. First planned in the mid-1990s and officially op ... redevelopment in Atlanta
Atlanta ( ) is the capital and most populous city of the U.S. state of Georgia. It is the seat of Fulton County, the most populous county in Georgia, but its territory falls in both Fulton and DeKalb counties. With a population of 498,715 .... This saves land for other uses (as opposed surface parking), is cheaper and more practical in most cases than a separate structure, and is hidden from view. It protects customers and their cars from weather such as rain, snow, or hot summer sunshine that raises a vehicle's interior temperature to extremely high levels. Underground parking of only two levels was considered an innovative concept in 1964, when developer Louis Lesser
Louis Lesser (June 15, 1916 – January 29, 2013) was an American businessman. He developed property across the United States, predominantly around the Los Angeles area; he also purchased and managed property. Lesser developed Barrington Plaza, ... developed a two-level underground parking structure under six 10-storey high-rise residential halls at California State University, Los Angeles, which lacked space for horizontal expansion in the university. The simple two-level parking structure was considered unusual enough in 1964 that a separate newspaper section entitled "Parking Underground" described the parking lot as an innovative "concept" and as "subterranean spaces". [Los Angeles Times, 25 June 1963, "High Rise Developer Defends Loss of View to Convenience"] [Los Angeles Times, 15 March 1964, Tom Cameron, "$118 Million Going into Expansion at L.A. State"] In Toronto
Toronto ( ; or ) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,794,356 in 2021, it is the most populous city in Canada and the fourth most populous city in North America. The city is the anchor ..., a 2,400 space underground parking structure below Nathan Phillips Square is one of the world's largest.
Parking which serve shopping centers can be built adjacent to the center for easier access at each floor between shops and parking. One example is Mall of America in Bloomington, Minnesota
Bloomington is a suburban city in Hennepin County, Minnesota, on the north bank of the Minnesota River, above its confluence with the Mississippi River, south of downtown Minneapolis. As of the 2020 census, the city's population was 89,987, m ..., USA, which has two large parking lots attached to the building, at the eastern and western ends. A common position for parking within shopping centers in the UK is on the roof, around the various utility systems, enabling customers to take lifts straight down into the center. Examples of such are The Oracle in Reading and Festival Place in Basingstoke
Basingstoke ( ) is the largest town in the county of Hampshire. It is situated in south-central England and lies across a valley at the source of the River Loddon, at the far western edge of The North Downs. It is located north-east of South .... Parking Garages without mixed use can provide excellent uses for the Roof area: The Grove Parking Garage is the site for movies on its 8th level roof, The Grand Prix of Long Beach, CA can be viewed from the Roof level of The Aquarium of the Pacific Parking Garage and The Pike Parking Garage (opposite the Queensway Structure) were built with a thickened post tensioned roof slab to accommodate crowds of people.
These parking structures often have low ceiling clearances '-2" and 8'-4" for accessible parking which restrict access by full-size vans and other large vehicles. On 15 December 2013, a man was killed during a robbery in the parking garage at The Mall at Short Hills in Millburn, New Jersey
Millburn is a suburban township in Essex County, New Jersey, United States. As of the 2010 United States census, the township's population was 20,149, reflecting an increase of 384 (+1.9%) from the 19,765 counted in the 2000 Census, which had .... The paramedics responding to the shooting were delayed because their ambulance was too large to enter the structure.
In the United States, costs for parking garages are estimated to cost between $25,000 per space, with underground parking costing around $35,000 per space.
Parking structures are subjected to the heavy and shifting loads of moving vehicles, and must bear the associated physical stresses. Expansion joints are used between sections not only for thermal expansion but to accommodate the flexing of the structure's sections due to vehicle traffic. Parking structures are generally not subject to building inspections after being checked for their initial occupancy permit.
Seismic retrofitting is the modification of existing structures to make them more resistant to seismic activity, ground motion, or soil failure due to earthquakes. With better understanding of seismic demand on structures and with our recent ...s can be applied where earthquakes are an issue.
Some parking structures have partly collapsed, either during construction or years later. In July 2009 a fourth-floor section failed at the Centergy building in midtown Atlanta
Midtown Atlanta, or Midtown, is a high-density commercial and residential neighborhood of Atlanta, Georgia. The exact geographical extent of the area is ill-defined due to differing definitions used by the city, residents, and local business ..., pancaking down and destroying more than 30 vehicles but injuring no-one. In December 2007, a car crashed into the wall of the deck at the SouthPark Mall in Charlotte, North Carolina
Charlotte ( ) is the most populous city in the U.S. state of North Carolina. Located in the Piedmont region, it is the county seat of Mecklenburg County. The population was 874,579 at the 2020 census, making Charlotte the 16th-most populou ..., weakening it and causing a small collapse which destroyed two cars below. On the same day, one under construction in Jacksonville, Florida collapsed as concrete was being poured on the sixth floor.
In November 2008, the sudden collapse of the middle level of a deck in Montreal was preceded by warning signs some weeks before, including cracks and water leaks.
In June 2012, the Algo Centre Mall's rooftop parking deck collapsed into the building, crashing through the upper level lottery kiosk adjacent to the food court and escalators to the ground floor below, killing two people.
In October 2012 four people were killed and nine more injured when a parking structure under construction at a campus of Miami-Dade College in Florida collapsed, purportedly due to an unfinished column.
The Surfside condominium's main building's collapse that killed ninety-eight people was likely caused by the failure of the long-term degradation of reinforced concrete structural support in the basement-level parking garage.
Precast parking structures
As multi-story car parks have become more common since the middle of the twentieth century, many constructions of such structures have been using precast concrete to reduce the construction time. The design involves putting parking structure parts together. The parts of precast concrete include multi-story structural wall panels, interior and exterior columns, structural floors,
A girder () is a support beam used in construction. It is the main horizontal support of a structure which supports smaller beams. Girders often have an I-beam cross section composed of two load-bearing ''flanges'' separated by a stabilizing ...s, wall panels, stairs and slabs. The precast concrete parts are transported using flatbed semi-trailers to the sites. The structural floor modules may need to be laid tilted during the transportation in order to cover as large floor area as possible while they can be easily transported on the roadways. The modules are lifted using precast concrete lifting anchor systems at the sites for assembly. Decorations may include using of covers to close the holes in the precast concrete that contains the lifting anchors, and installing facades to the exterior of the structures.
In modern construction of the precast modules, there are other features to improve the strength of the structure. An example is to use prestressed strands on post-tensioned concrete for the construction of the shear walls. Another example is the use of carbon-fiber-reinforced polymer to replace steel wire mesh to lighten the load and yield more corrosion resistant especially for the cold-climate areas which use salt for melting snow.
These structures are not usually known for their architectural value. As ''
''Architectural Record'' is a US-based monthly magazine dedicated to architecture and interior design. "The Record," as it is sometimes colloquially referred to, is widely-recognized as an important historical record of the unfolding debates in a ...'' has noted, "In the Pantheon of Building Types, the parking garage lurks somewhere in the vicinity of prisons and toll plazas." '' The New York Times'' has labeled parking structures as "the grim afterthought of American design".
A handful of structures have received considerable praise for their design, including
* 1111 Lincoln Road, in the South Beach
South Beach, also nicknamed colloquially as SoBe, is a neighborhood in Miami Beach, Florida. It is located east of Miami between Biscayne Bay and the Atlantic Ocean. The area encompasses Miami Beach south of Dade Boulevard.
This area was the ... section of Miami Beach, Florida
Miami Beach is a coastal resort city in Miami-Dade County, Florida. It was incorporated on March 26, 1915. The municipality is located on natural and man-made barrier islands between the Atlantic Ocean and Biscayne Bay, the latter of which s ... and designed by the internationally known Swiss architectural firm of Herzog & de Meuron
Herzog & de Meuron Basel Ltd.,.
" Herzog & de Meuron. Retrieved on 11 October 2012. "Herzog & de Meuron Basel Ltd. R ...
Brutalist architecture is an architectural style that emerged during the 1950s in the United Kingdom, among the reconstruction projects of the post-war era. Brutalist buildings are characterised by minimalist constructions that showcase the ba ... Preston bus station in the United Kingdom, which incorporates a multistory car park
* Castle Terrace Car Park in Edinburgh, United Kingdom
*In the United States, several have been listed on the National Register of Historic Places, including Boston's North Terminal Garage. In more recent developments, Queensway Bay Parking Garage, Long Beach CA, has received awards for it unique facade in 1992, Designed by International Parking Design and built by Bomel Construction Company Inc.
The term ''multistorey car park'' (often abbreviated to ''multistorey'' or ''multistory'')
[ is used in the United Kingdom, Hong Kong, and many ] Commonwealth of Nations
The Commonwealth of Nations, simply referred to as the Commonwealth, is a political association of 56 member states, the vast majority of which are former territories of the British Empire. The chief institutions of the organisation are the C ... countries, and it is nowadays most commonly spelled without a hyphen. [ In the United States, the term ''parking structure'' is used,] especially when it is necessary to distinguish such a structure from the "garage" connected with a house. In some places in North America, "parking garage" refers only to an indoor, often underground, structure. Outdoor, multi-level parking facilities are referred to by a number of regional terms:
*Parking garage is used, to varying degrees, throughout the U.S. and Canada as well often referring to underground parking, and designed professionally by Structural Engineers and Architects;
*Parking Structure is used worldwide, and synonymously with Parking garage.
*Parking deck is used mostly in the Southern United States.
*Parking ramp is used in the upper Midwest
The Midwestern United States, also referred to as the Midwest or the American Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau (also known as "Region 2"). It occupies the northern central part of the United States. I ..., especially Minnesota
Minnesota () is a state in the upper midwestern region of the United States. It is the 12th largest U.S. state in area and the 22nd most populous, with over 5.75 million residents. Minnesota is home to western prairies, now given over to ... and Wisconsin
Wisconsin () is a U.S. state, state in the Upper Midwest, upper Midwestern United States. Wisconsin is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 25th-largest state by total area and the List of U.S. states and territories by populatio ..., and has been observed as far east as Buffalo, New York
Buffalo is the second-largest city in the U.S. state of New York (behind only New York City) and the seat of Erie County. It is at the eastern end of Lake Erie, at the head of the Niagara River, and is across the Canadian border from Southe ....
*Parkade is widely used in Western Canada and South Africa.
*Parking building is used in New Zealand.
Architects and structural engineer
Structural engineers analyze, design, plan, and research structural components and structural systems to achieve design goals and ensure the safety and comfort of users or occupants. Their work takes account mainly of safety, technical, economi ...s in the USA are likely to call it a parking structure since their work is all about structures and since that term is the vernacular in the United States. When constructed as the base of a high-rise, it is sometimes called a parking podium. United States building codes
A building code (also building control or building regulations) is a set of rules that specify the standards for constructed objects such as buildings and non-building structures. Buildings must conform to the code to obtain planning permissio ... use the term open parking garage to refer to a structure designed for car storage that has openings along at least 40% of the perimeter, as opposed to an enclosed parking garage that requires mechanical ventilation. Natural or mechanical ventilation provides fresh air flow to disperse car exhaust in normal conditions, or hot gas and smoke in case of fire.
Typically parking consultants in the UK describe the number of car park floors in terms of "G+x". G stands for ground and x for the number of floors above ground. For example, G+5 is a multi-story car park structure with a ground floor and 5 floors above that, i.e. a total of 6 floors. The preceding does not apply to the United States where B+x refers to basement levels ascending in number x while descending in elevation, L1 or ground level nlike European standards where ground level is below Level 1with added levels as L2, etc.
* Steel structure
* Automated (mechanical)
Structure car parks are car parks made of structural steel components connected to each other to carry the loads and provide full structural rigidity.
Steel is a high-strength material requiring less material than other types of structures like concrete and timber. Steel construction features:
* Cost savings: inexpensive to manufacture and erect, and requires less maintenance than traditional building methods.
* Speed: Allows construction/prefabrication off-site with rapid installation on-site. Some suppliers claim construction in days.
* Durability: Suppliers claim 50-plus years lifespan.
* Removability: Steel car park structure could be designed to be removed at a later date.
* Expandability: Steel car park structures can be expanded easily at a later date.
* Creativity: Steel allows for long column-free spans.
The ceiling slab of the steel structure car park is typically made of composite material such as corrugated steel sheets and concrete. The surface of the first-floor parking can be left bare or covered with epoxy or tarmac.
Foundationless and modular
Demand, steel features, and innovation have led to the development of a foundationless, modular, removable steel car park structure.
Parking demand often grows quickly, significantly and sometimes unexpectedly. Modular steel car parks could be the proper solution if the surface area available is not sufficient and can be expanded upwards, or whenever it is not feasible to build up a multi-story parking.
The development of the building concept of modular car parks came about by using the modular assembling method of vertical and horizontal elements (such as columns and beams)
Modular car park structures are versatile and can be built in phases or in different sizes and shape.
The solution makes it possible to develop a parking structure even in case of particular conditions or constraints, such as archaeological sites or city centres, because it allows:
* To virtually double the parking surface without leaving any footprint on the ground, as no settlement for excavations or traditional foundations is needed;
* To double the parking surface by means of a light steel single-deck car park system.
* Prefab modular components of the system make each project versatile and suitable for both large and small sized areas.
These parking structures are generally demountable and can be relocated to avoid making the choice of converting a surface to parking area irrevocably. They could be used as permanent structures or are conceived as temporary parking facilities for temporary parking demand needs. A number of parking decks have been demounted after a few years – to make room for the development of a permanent structure – and relocated to respond to local parking demand.
The earliest use of an automated parking system (APS) was in Paris in 1905 at the Garage Rue de Ponthieu.
[Sanders McDonald, Shanno] The APS consisted of a groundbreaking
"Cars, Parking and Sustainability"
, ''The Transportation Research Forum'' http://www.trforum.org/.Retrieved on 16 October 2012.
multi-story concrete structure with an internal elevator to transport cars to upper levels where attendants parked the cars.
A 1931 '' Popular Mechanics
''Popular Mechanics'' (sometimes PM or PopMech) is a magazine of popular science and technology, featuring automotive, home, outdoor, electronics, science, do-it-yourself, and technology topics. Military topics, aviation and transportation of ...'' article speculated about design for an underground garage where the car is taken to a parking area by a conveyor
A conveyor system is a common piece of mechanical handling equipment that moves materials from one location to another. Conveyors are especially useful in applications involving the transport of heavy or bulky materials. Conveyor systems allow ... then an elevator to shuttles mounted on rails.
The total cost of ownership of automated parking needs to be carefully considered. The actual cost of construction of automated car parks is typically higher than conventional car park structures, however, this can be offset by the higher space efficiency including reduced excavation waste from minimized footprints. The cost of the mechanical equipment needed to transport the cars needs to be added to the building cost. In addition, operation and maintenance costs of the mechanical equipment need to be added in order to determine the total cost of ownership. Other costs could be saved, for example, there is no need for an energy-intensive ventilating system, since cars are not driven inside and human cashiers or security personnel may not be needed. For naturally ventilated car parks structures, the ventilation equipment is not needed.
Automated car parks rely on similar technology to that used for mechanical handling and document retrieval. The driver leaves the car in an entrance module, and it is then transported to a parking slot by a robotic trolley. For the driver, the process of parking is reduced to leaving the car inside an entrance module.
At peak periods a wait may occur before entering or leaving, because loading passengers and luggage occurs at the entrance and exit rather than at the parking stall. This loading blocks the entrance or exit from being available to others. It is generally not recommended to use automated car parks for high peak hour volume facilities.
Additional factors that need to be taken into consideration are:
* Fear of breakdowns (How does the user get the car back)
* Maintenance contracts needed with suppliers
Automotive factories and car dealerships often use automated car parks to store inventory, which makes best use of space if they operate in urban areas, plus the car park may be decorated to promote the brand. For instance at the Autostadt there are two 60 meter/200 ft tall glass silos (AutoTürme) used as storage for new Volkswagens. The two towers are connected to the Volkswagen factory by a 700-metre tunnel. When cars arrive at the towers they are carried up at a speed of 1.5 metres per second. The render for the Autostadt shows 6 towers. When purchasing a car from Volkswagen (the main brand only, not the sub-brands) in select European countries, it is optional if the customer wants it delivered to the dealership where it was bought or if the customer wants to travel to Autostadt to pick it up. If the latter is chosen, the Autostadt supplies the customer with free entrance, meal tickets and a variety of events building up to the point where the customer can follow on screen as the automatic elevator picks up the selected car in one of the silos. The car is then transported out to the customer without having driven a single meter, and the odometer is thus on "0".
Automated car parks have been popular for multistory residential buildings in New York City and Paris
Paris () is the capital and most populous city of France, with an estimated population of 2,165,423 residents in 2019 in an area of more than 105 km² (41 sq mi), making it the 30th most densely populated city in the world in 2020. Si .... In Toronto
Toronto ( ; or ) is the capital city of the Canadian province of Ontario. With a recorded population of 2,794,356 in 2021, it is the most populous city in Canada and the fourth most populous city in North America. The city is the anchor ..., automated car parks are gradually catching in the downtown core condominium developments sine the 2010s, due to developers having to meet city-mandated minimum parking space requirements while building on increasingly smaller lots.
Modern car parks utilize a variety of technologies to help motorists find unoccupied parking spaces, car location when returning to the vehicle and improve their experience. These include adaptive lighting,
A sensor is a device that produces an output signal for the purpose of sensing a physical phenomenon.
In the broadest definition, a sensor is a device, module, machine, or subsystem that detects events or changes in its environment and sends ...s and parking space LED indicators (red for occupied, green for available and blue is reserved for the disabled; above every parking space), indoor positioning system
An indoor positioning system (IPS) is a network of devices used to locate people or objects where GPS and other satellite technologies lack precision or fail entirely, such as inside multistory buildings, airports, alleys, parking garages, and un ... (IPS), including QR code, and mobile payment
A mobile payment, also referred to as mobile money, mobile money transfer and mobile wallet, is any of various payment processing services operated under financial regulations and performed from or via a mobile device, as the cardinal class of ... options. The Santa Monica Place shopping mall in California has cameras on each stall that can help count the lot occupancy and find lost cars.
Online booking technology service providers have been created to help drivers find long-term parking in an automated manner, while also providing significant savings for those who book parking spaces ahead of time. They use real-time inventory management checking technology to display car parks with availability, sorted by price and distance from the airport.
Other recent developments in technology include Vehicles Detection and Count Systems, Point of Sale & Revenue Control Systems, Traffic & Capacity Monitoring Systems, Valet Parking Point of Sale, Management & Revenue Control Systems. These systems help in way finding for parking clients with space availability shown at every turn, space monitoring using retrofit wifi transmitters in each space to update the space availability signs and to alert parking management of bottle necks and intervention measures. Revenue Control, Capacity Management, and Valet Point of Sale is a major issue for Office and Retail parking management and is also a means of parking management intervention, where website update the status of all of these issues for exclusive use by management. Irvine Spectrum Center, Irvine CA, with 3 parking structures, uses all of these systems The City of Santa Monica uses Traffic and Capacity Monitoring with its 30 parking structures. Disneyland, in Anaheim CA uses most of these Hitech solutions on its 8 garages.
Multistory parking ship
In 1991, a 1975
Any vehicle used in or on water as well as underwater, including boats, ships, hovercraft and submarines, is a watercraft, also known as a water vessel or waterborne vessel. A watercraft usually has a propulsive capability (whether by sail, oa ... was transformed into a floating pontoon
Pontoon may refer to:
* Float (nautical), an air-filled structure providing buoyancy
* Any of various objects that float on pontoons, including:
** Pontoon (boat), a flat-bottomed boat supported by two or more pontoons
** Floatplan ... multi-storey car parking facility. The ship was given the new name P-Arken (a pun on the words '' park'' and '' ark'') and it is permanently towed in Gothenburg
Gothenburg (; abbreviated Gbg; sv, Göteborg ) is the second-largest city in Sweden, fifth-largest in the Nordic countries, and capital of the Västra Götaland County. It is situated by the Kattegat, on the west coast of Sweden, and has a p ...s harbour Lilla Bommen near Skeppsbron
Skeppsbron ( Swedish: "The Ship's Bridge") is both a street and a quay in Gamla stan, the old town of Stockholm, capital of Sweden, stretching from the bridge Strömbron in front of the Royal Palace southward to Slussen.
The quay Skeppsbrokaj ....
In November 2019, a fully-clad parking barge for automobiles was patented in the United States. Its angular sides are designed to protect against driving wind, rain, and debris.
Education and research
In October 2009, the
National Building Museum
The National Building Museum is located at 401 F Street NW in Washington, D.C. It is a museum of "architecture, design, engineering, construction, and urban planning". It was created by an act of Congress in 1980, and is a private non-profit i ... opened an exhibition solely devoted to the study of 'parking garages' and their impact on the built environment. This exhibition, titled ''House of Cars: Innovation and the Parking Garage'', was on view until 11 July 2010. Additional information on the design and building of parking structures can be found in "Parking Structures: planning, design, construction, maintenance, and repair" This resource is on its third edition, written by prominent staff of Walker Parking Consultants, a preeminent Parking Structure designer in the US.
* Auto Stacker
* Automated parking system
Automatic parking is an autonomous car-maneuvering system that moves a vehicle from a traffic lane into a parking spot to perform parallel, perpendicular, or angle parking. The automatic parking system aims to enhance the comfort and safety of d ...
* Automatic vehicle location
* Car parking system
* Car condo
* Parking guidance and information
* Trinity Square, Gateshead
"Robotic Parking Garage: No Tip Necessary "
Indoor positioning system