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Paperboard is a thick
paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition ...

paper
-based material. While there is no rigid differentiation between paper and paperboard, paperboard is generally thicker (usually over 0.30 mm, 0.012 in, or 12
points Point or points may refer to: Places * Point, Lewis, a peninsula in the Outer Hebrides, Scotland * Point, Texas, a city in Rains County, Texas, United States * Point, the NE tip and a ferry terminal of Lismore, Scotland, Lismore, Inner Hebrides, ...
) than
paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance, a material with a definite chemical composition ...

paper
and has certain superior attributes such as foldability and rigidity. According to
ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm Norm, the Norm or NORM may refer to: In academic discipline ...
standards, paperboard is a paper with a
grammage Grammage and basis weight, in the pulp and paper Image:InternationalPaper6413.jpg, frame, International Paper is the world's largest pulp and paper maker. The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce P ...
above 250 g/m2, but there are exceptions. Paperboard can be single- or multi-ply. Paperboard can be easily cut and formed, is lightweight, and because it is strong, is used in
packaging Packaging is the science Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is a disco ...

packaging
. Another end-use is high quality graphic printing, such as book and magazine covers or postcards. Paperboard is also used in
fine art In European academic traditions, fine art is developed primarily for aesthetics Aesthetics, or esthetics (), is a branch of philosophy Philosophy (from , ) is the study of general and fundamental questions, such as those about M ...

fine art
s for creating sculptures. Sometimes it is referred to as ''
cardboard Cardboard is a generic term for heavy-duty paper, paper-based products having greater thickness and superior durability or other specific mechanical attributes to paper; such as foldability, rigidity and impact resistance. The construction can ran ...
'', which is a generic, lay term used to refer to any heavy
paper pulp Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fiber Cellulose fibers () are fibers made with ethers or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants ...
–based board, however this usage is deprecated in the paper, printing and packaging industries as it does not adequately describe each product type.


History

In 1817, the first paperboard carton was produced in
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
.
Folding carton The folding carton created the packaging industry{{set category, first=Industry (economics), industries (branches of an economy), alternative=industries, topic=Industry (economics) For other meanings of "industries", see :Industries. Industry ( ...
s first emerged around the 1860s and were shipped flat to save space, ready to be set up by customers when they were required. The mechanical die cutting and creasing of blanks was developed in 1879. In 1911 the first
kraft sulphate mill
kraft sulphate mill
was built in
Florida Florida is a U.S. state, state located in the Southeastern United States, Southeastern region of the United States. Florida is bordered to the west by the Gulf of Mexico, to the northwest by Alabama, to the north by Georgia (U.S. state), Geor ...

Florida
. In 1915 the gable top milk carton was patented and in 1935 the first dairy plant was observed using them. Ovenable paperboard was introduced in 1974.


Terminology and classification

Terminology and classifications of paperboard are not always uniform. Differences occur depending on specific industry, locale, and personal choice. In general, the following are often used: * Boxboard or cartonboard: paperboard for
folding carton The folding carton created the packaging industry{{set category, first=Industry (economics), industries (branches of an economy), alternative=industries, topic=Industry (economics) For other meanings of "industries", see :Industries. Industry ( ...
s and rigid set-up boxes **
Folding boxboard Folding boxboard, also referred to as FBB or by the DIN Standard 19303 codes of GC or UC, is a paperboard grade made up of multiple layers of chemical and mechanical pulp. This grade is made up of Thermo mechanical pulp, mechanical pulp in between ...
(FBB): a bending grade capable of being scored and bending without fracture **
Chipboard Chipboard may refer to: * A type of paperboard, made from reclaimed paper stock * White lined chipboard, a grade of paperboard * Particle board, a type of engineered wood known as chipboard in some countries {{disambiguation ...
: a recycled, low quality board ***
White lined chipboard White-lined chipboard (also referred to as WLC, GD, GT or UD) is a grade of paperboard Paperboard is a thick paper Paper is a thin sheet material Material is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain o ...
(WLC): a white, often clay-coated chipboard **
Kraft The second incarnation of Kraft Foods (legal name Kraft Foods Group) is an American food manufacturing and processing conglomerate Conglomerate or conglomeration may refer to: * Conglomerate (company) * Conglomerate (geology) * Conglomerate ( ...

Kraft
board: a strong virgin fiber board often used for beverage carriers. Often clay-coated for printing ** Laminated board: a lamination of paperboards and other materials, for example
liquid packaging board Liquid packaging board is a multi-ply paperboard with high stiffness, strong wet strength, wet sizing and a high barrier coating, e.g. plastic. Only virgin pulp (paper), paper fibers are used. The barrier coating must hold the liquid and preven ...
**
Solid bleached board Solid bleached board (SBB) or solid bleached sulphate (SBS) is a virgin fibre grade of paperboard. This grade is made purely from bleached chemical pulp and usually has a mineral or synthetic pigment coated top surface in one or more layers (C1S) ...
(SBB) or solid bleached sulphate (SBS): clean white board used for foods etc. Sulphate refers to the
kraft process The kraft process (also known as kraft pulping or sulfate process) is a process for conversion of wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with ...

kraft process
**
Solid unbleached board Solid unbleached board, also known as SUB, is a grade of paperboard typically made of unbleached chemical pulp. Most often it comes with two to three layers of mineral or synthetic pigment coated paper, coating on the top and one layer on the re ...
(SUB): board made from unbleached chemical pulp *
Containerboard Containerboard (CCM or corrugated case material) is a type of paperboard specially manufactured for the production of corrugated board. It includes both linerboard and corrugating medium (or fluting), the two types of paper that make up corrugate ...
: a type of paperboard manufactured for the production of
corrugated fiberboard Corrugated fiberboard is a material consisting of a fluted corrugated The term corrugated, describing a series of parallel ridges and furrows, may refer to the following: Materials *Corrugated fiberboard, also called corrugated cardboard *Co ...
** Corrugated medium: the inner fluted portion of corrugated fiberboard ** Linerboard: a strong stiff board for one or both sides of corrugated boxes. It is the flat covering over the corrugating medium. * Other ** Binder's board: a paperboard used in
bookbinding Bookbinding is the process of physically assembling a book of codex format from an ordered stack of paper sheets that are folded together into sections or sometimes left as a stack of individual sheets. The stack (signature) is then bound toge ...
for making hardcovers.


Production

Fibrous material is turned into
pulp Pulp (fruit), Pulp is the inner flesh of fruit. Pulp may also refer to: Engineering * Dissolving pulp, highly purified cellulose used in fibre and film manufacture * Pulp (paper), the fibrous material used to make paper * Molded pulp, a packagin ...
and bleached to create one or more layers of board, which can be optionally coated for a better surface and/or improved appearance. Pulp board is produced on pulping machines that can handle higher grammage and several plies.


Raw materials

The above-mentioned fibrous material can either come from fresh (virgin) sources (e.g. wood) or from
recycled waste paper
recycled waste paper
. Around 90% of virgin paper is made from
wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. ...

wood
pulp. Today paperboard packaging in general, and especially products from
certified Certification is the formal attestation or confirmation of certain characteristics of an object, person, or organization. This confirmation is often, but not always, provided by some form of external review, education, assessment, or audit. Acc ...
sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing way across various domains of life. In the 21st century The 21st (twenty-first) century is the current century A century is a period of 100 years. Centuries are numbered nam ...

sustainable
sources, are receiving new attention, as manufacturers dealing with environmental, health, and regulatory issues look to
renewable resources A renewable resource, also known as a flow resource, is a natural resource Natural resources are resource Resource refers to all the materials available in our environment which help us to satisfy our needs and wants. Resources can bro ...
to meet increasing demand. It is now mandatory in many countries for paper-based packaging to be manufactured wholly or partially from
recycled Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. The Energy recycling, recovery of energy from waste materials is often included in this concept. The recyclability of a material depends on its ability t ...

recycled
material. Raw materials include: *
Hardwood Hardwood is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and ...

Hardwood
: C. in length e.g.
Birch A birch is a thin-leaved deciduous hardwood tree of the genus ''Betula'' (), in the family Betulaceae, which also includes alders, hazels, and hornbeams. It is closely related to the beech-oak family Fagaceae. The genus ''Betula'' contains 30 ...

Birch
which has short fibres. It is generally more difficult to work with; however, it does provide higher tensile strength, but lower tear and other strength properties. Although its fibres are not as long and strong as those in softwood, they make for a stiffer product defined by some stiffness tests. Hardwood fibres fill the sheet better and therefore make a smoother paper that is more opaque and better for printing. Hardwood makes an excellent corrugating medium. *
Softwood Scots Pine, a typical and well-known softwood Softwood is wood Wood is a porous and fibrous structural tissue found in the stems and roots of tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or t ...
: C. in length e.g.
Pine A pine is any conifer Conifers are a group of conifer cone, cone-bearing Spermatophyte, seed plants, a subset of gymnosperms. Scientifically, they make up the phylum, division Pinophyta (), also known as Coniferophyta () or Coniferae. The div ...

Pine
and
spruce A spruce is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including ...

spruce
which have typically long fibres and make superior paperboard in services where strength is important. Softwood makes excellent linerboard. *
Recycled Recycling is the process of converting waste materials into new materials and objects. The Energy recycling, recovery of energy from waste materials is often included in this concept. The recyclability of a material depends on its ability t ...
: Used paper is collected and sorted and usually mixed with virgin fibres in order to make new material. This is necessary as the recycled fibre often loses strength when reused; the added virgin fibres enhance strength. Mixed waste paper is not usually deinked (skipping the deinking stage) for paperboard manufacture and hence the
pulp Pulp (fruit), Pulp is the inner flesh of fruit. Pulp may also refer to: Engineering * Dissolving pulp, highly purified cellulose used in fibre and film manufacture * Pulp (paper), the fibrous material used to make paper * Molded pulp, a packagin ...
may contain traces of inks, adhesives, and other residues which together give it a grey colour. Products made of recycled board usually have a less predictable composition and poorer functional properties than virgin fibre-based boards. Health risks have been associated with using recycled material in direct food contact. Swiss studies have shown that recycled material can contain significant portions of mineral oil, which may migrate into packed foods. Mineral oil levels of up to 19.4 mg/kg were found in rice packed in recycled board. *
Others Others or The Others may refer to: Fictional characters * Others (A Song of Ice and Fire), supernatural creatures in the fictional world of George R. R. Martin's fantasy series ''A Song of Ice and Fire'' * Others (Lost), Others (''Lost''), myste ...
: It is also possible to use the fibres of Sugarcane Bagasse,
Straw Straw is an agricultural byproduct A by-product or byproduct is a secondary product derived from a production process, manufacturing Manufacturing is the Production (economics), production of goods through the use of Work (human activity ...

Straw
,
Hemp Hemp, or industrial hemp, is a botanical class of ''Cannabis sativa ''Cannabis sativa'' is an annual indigenous to , but now of cosmopolitan distribution due to widespread cultivation. It has been cultivated throughout , used as a source ...
,
Cotton Cotton is a soft, fluffy staple fiber Fiber or fibre (from la, fibra, links=no) is a natural Nature, in the broadest sense, is the natural, physical, material world or universe The universe ( la, universus) is all of s ...

Cotton
,
Flax Flax, also known as common flax or linseed, is a flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may ...

Flax
,
Kenaf Kenaf tymology: Persian ''Hibiscus cannabinus'', is a plant in the family Malvaceae Malvaceae, or the mallows, is a family of flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiospe ...

Kenaf
, Abaca and other plant products


Pulping

Two principal methods for extracting fibres from their sources are: *
Chemical pulp Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fiber Cellulose fibers () are fibers made with ethers or esters of cellulose, which can be obtained from the bark, wood or leaves of plants ...
ing uses chemical solutions to convert wood into pulp, yielding around 30% less than mechanical pulping; however, pulp made by the kraft process has superior strength *
Thermo mechanical pulp Pulp is a lignocellulosic fibrous material prepared by chemically or mechanically separating cellulose fiber Cellulose Cellulose is an organic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It ...
is a two-stage process which results in a very high yield of wood fibres at the expense of strength.


Bleaching

Pulp used in the manufacture of paperboard can be
bleached Bleached is an American Pop music, pop band consisting of sisters Jennifer and Jessica Clavin, formerly of Mika Miko. The band plays a style of rock, pop, rock and roll, and indie rock. Bleached was established in Los Angeles in 2011. The group ...
to decrease colour and increase purity. Virgin fibre pulp is naturally brown in colour, because of the presence of
lignin Lignin is a class of complex organic polymers that form key structural materials in the support tissues of most plants. Lignins are particularly important in the formation of cell walls, especially in wood and Bark (botany), bark, because they l ...

lignin
. Recycled paperboard may contain traces of
ink Ink is a gel, Sol (colloid), sol, or Solution (chemistry), solution that contains at least one colourant, such as a dye or pigment, and is used to color a surface to produce an image, writing, text, or design. Ink is used for drawing or writing ...

ink
s, bonding agents and other residue which colors it grey. Although
bleaching Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to remove color from a fabric or fiber or to clean or to remove stains in a process called bleaching. It often refers, specifically, to a dilute s ...
is not necessary for all end-uses, it is vital for many graphical and packaging purposes. There are various methods of
bleaching Bleach is the generic name for any chemical product which is used industrially and domestically to remove color from a fabric or fiber or to clean or to remove stains in a process called bleaching. It often refers, specifically, to a dilute s ...
, which are used according to a number of factors for example, the degree of colour change required, chemicals chosen and method of treatment. There are three categories of bleaching methods: * Bleaching by delignification using
chlorine gas Chlorine is a chemical element with the Symbol (chemistry), symbol Cl and atomic number 17. The second-lightest of the halogens, it appears between fluorine and bromine in the periodic table and its properties are mostly intermediate betw ...
, which is a method that has been largely replaced by procedures which are gentler to the environment such as the use of oxygen as a replacement for the chlorine gas. * Bleaching by
oxidation Redox (reduction–oxidation, pronunciation: or ) is a type of chemical reaction A chemical reaction is a process that leads to the chemical transformation of one set of chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter ...

oxidation
using chemicals such as
chlorine dioxide Chlorine dioxide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any substance that has mass and takes up space by havin ...

chlorine dioxide
,
hydrogen peroxide Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held together ...

hydrogen peroxide
or
sodium hypochlorite Sodium hypochlorite (commonly known in a dilute solution as bleach) is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance A chemical substance is a form of matter In classical physics and general chemistry, matter is any ...

sodium hypochlorite
. * Bleaching by
reduction
reduction
using chemicals such as sodium bisulphite.


Plies

Multi-ply paperboard generally has higher creasing and folding performance than single-ply as a result of layering different types of pulp into a single product. In cases where the same kind of pulp is being used in several layers, each separate layer is treated and shaped individually in order to create the highest possible quality.


Coating

In order to improve whiteness, smoothness and gloss of paperboard, one or more layers of
coating A coating is a covering that is applied to the surface of an object, usually referred to as the Substrate (materials science), substrate. The purpose of applying the coating may be decorative, functional, or both. Paints and lacquers are coating ...
is applied.
Coated paper Coated paper (also known as enamel paper, gloss paper, and slick paper) is paper that has been coated by a mixture of materials or a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much ...
is usually made up of: * a
pigment A pigment is a colored material that is completely or nearly insoluble in water. In contrast, dyes are typically soluble, at least at some stage in their use. Generally dyes are often organic compound , CH4; is among the simplest organic compou ...
, which could be
china clay Kaolinite ( ) is a clay mineral Clay minerals are , sometimes with variable amounts of , , s, s, and other s found on or near some s. Clay minerals form in the presence of water and have been important to life, and many theories of in ...
,
calcium carbonate Calcium carbonate is a chemical compound A chemical compound is a chemical substance composed of many identical molecules (or molecular entity, molecular entities) composed of atoms from more than one chemical element, element held togethe ...

calcium carbonate
or
titanium dioxide Titanium dioxide, also known as titanium(IV) oxide or titania , is the inorganic compound In chemistry Chemistry is the study of the properties and behavior of . It is a that covers the that make up matter to the composed of s, s a ...
, usually a combination of two * an adhesive or binder as
styrene-butadiene Styrene-butadiene or styrene-butadiene rubber (SBR) describe families of synthetic rubber A synthetic rubber is any artificial elastomer An elastomer is a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''wikt:poly-, poly-'', "many" + ''wikt:-mer, -mer'', "par ...
emulsions or
starch Starch or amylum is a polymeric A polymer (; Greek '' poly-'', "many" + '' -mer'', "part") is a substance Substance may refer to: * Substance (Jainism), a term in Jain ontology to denote the base or owner of attributes * Chemical substance ...
es and
water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an Inorganic compound, inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and Color of water, nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...

water
. Additional components could be OBA ( optical brightening agents).


Grades

The DIN Standard 19303 "Paperboard - Terms and grades" (Publication date : 2005-09) defines different grades of paperboard based on the surface treatment (first letter), the main furnish (second letter) and the colour (non-D grade) or bulk (D grade only) (numbering). Example: GC1 would be a "pigment coated", "virgin mechanical pulp" board with a "white reverse side". Often the used paperboard type would be FBB, which was coated on both sides.


Common terms

Basis weight (US): Is the weight in of paperboard. Brightness: Brightness is a technical term that is defined as the amount of blue-white light that a paper reflects. This property is very subjective and individual to each buyer and end use, as skin colour and food are better reproduced on ‘warm’ (yellow) whites and not blue whites. Grammage: The
grammage Grammage and basis weight, in the pulp and paper Image:InternationalPaper6413.jpg, frame, International Paper is the world's largest pulp and paper maker. The pulp and paper industry comprises companies that use wood as raw material and produce P ...
of the paperboard is assessed in accordance ISO 536. Grammage expresses mass per unit area and is measured in g/m2. PH: Surface is measured on a water extract and is on a scale of 0–14. 0 is
acidic An acid is a molecule A molecule is an electrically Electricity is the set of physical phenomena associated with the presence and motion Image:Leaving Yongsan Station.jpg, 300px, Motion involves a change in position In phys ...
, 7 is neutral and 14 is
alkaline In chemistry, an alkali (; from ar, القلوي ''al-qaly'' "ashes of the saltwort") is a base (chemistry), basic, ionic compound, ionic salt (chemistry), salt of an alkali metal or an alkaline earth metal. An alkali can also be defined as ...

alkaline
. Stiffness: Stiffness is one of the most important properties of paperboard as it affects the ability of cartons to run smoothly through the machine that erects, fills and closes them. Stiffness also gives strength and reduces the propensity of a carton to bulge under the weight of settling flowable contents such as cereals. Although most paper strength properties increase with increasing sheet density, stiffness does not. A rule of thumb is that stiffness is proportional to the 1.6 power of sheet caliper. The species of fiber used has an effect on stiffness, other things being equal. Northern softwood species impart superior stiffness compared to southern softwoods. Other factors which affect board stiffness include coatings and moisture content. Smoothness: Smoothness is particularly important when being used for printing, the smoother the paperboard, the better the image quality, because of better ink coverage. Smoothness is measured using air leak methods – the greater the rate of air leakage, at a specific air pressure, from under a cylindrical knife placed on the surface, the rougher the surface. Caliper/thickness: In the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
caliper is usually expressed in thousandths of an inch (0.001”) or points, where a sheet of paperboard with a thickness of 0.024” would be 24 points. In
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
it is often sold in g/m2, however the thickness of the board is measured in
micron The micrometre ( international spelling as used by the International Bureau of Weights and Measures The International Bureau of Weights and Measures (french: Bureau international des poids et mesures, BIPM) is an intergovernmental orga ...
(μm). Paperboard also tends to be referred to with thickness rather than weight. Whiteness: It refers ideally to the equal presence of all colours, because a truly white sheet will reflect all
wavelengths In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular su ...

wavelengths
of visible light equally.


Paperboard industry

The paperboard sector is mainly looked at in conjunction with the paper industry. The Paper & Paperboard market size (2007) had a value of US$630.9 billion and a volume of 320.3 million metric tons. Of that market 40.1% is European. About 50% of all produced paper is used for packaging, followed by printing and writing. According to ProCarton, the consumption of paper and paperboard seem to correlate with economic trends (GDP). Sales of carton in Europe sum up to around 8 billion Euros worth. Over 1,100 printers produce 5.4 million tonnes of cartonboard yearly. Cartons make up one third of paper and board packaging and 15% of all packaging. A bit more than half (54%) of the European carton is produced using recovered fibre or waste paper. The paper and paperboard industry is quite energy and capital intensive. Just a coated board machine itself can cost around 90 - 120 million Euros (about 125 - US$166 million in 11/2011). Economies of scale apply, because of which a few large players often dominate the market place. E.g. in North America the top 5 producers have a market share of 85%.


See also

*
Coated paper Coated paper (also known as enamel paper, gloss paper, and slick paper) is paper that has been coated by a mixture of materials or a polymer A polymer (; Greek ''poly- Poly, from the Greek :wikt:πολύς, πολύς meaning "many" or "much ...
*
Fiberboard Fiberboard (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of variety (linguistics), varieties of the English language native to the United States. Curr ...
*
Papermaking Papermaking is the manufacture of paper and cardboard, which are used widely for printing, writing, and packaging, among many other purposes. Today almost all paper is Pulp and paper industry, made using industrial machinery, while handmade pape ...
*
Slip sheet Slip sheets are thin, pallet A pallet () (also called a skid) is a flat transport structure, which supports goods in a stable fashion while being lifted by a forklift A forklift (also called lift truck, jitney, fork truck, fork hoi ...
*
Homasote Homasote is a brand name associated with the product generically known as cellulose based fiber wall board, which is similar in composition to papier-mâché, made from recycled paper that is compressed under high temperature and pressure. Homasote ...


References


Further reading

* Brody, A. L., and Marsh, K, S., ''Encyclopedia of Packaging Technology'', John Wiley & Sons, 1997, * Soroka, W., ''Fundamentals of Packaging Technology'', IoPP, 2002,


External links


TAPPI
Technical Association of the Pulp and Paper Industry {{Authority control Visual arts materials Coated paper English inventions Packaging materials Paper Pulp and paper industry es:Cartón fr:Papier cartonné it:Cartoncino ja:板紙 no:Massivpapp fi:Kartonki sv:Kartong