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A panorama (formed from
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
πᾶν "all" + ὅραμα "sight") is any
wide-angle
wide-angle
view or representation of a physical space, whether in
painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mechanics (Ancient ...

painting
,
drawing Drawing is a form of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, or solid mastic composition that, after application to a su ...

drawing
,
photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hairlessness, and int ...

photography
,
film A film, also called a movie, motion picture or moving picture, is a work of visual art The visual arts are art forms such as painting Painting is the practice of applying paint Paint is any pigmented liquid, liquefiable, ...

film
,
seismic images Geophysical imaging (also known as geophysical tomography) is a minimally destructive Geophysics, geophysical technique that investigates the subsurface of a terrestrial planet. Geophysical imaging is a noninvasive imaging technique with a high par ...
or a three-dimensional model. The word was originally coined in the 18th century by the English (Irish descent) painter Robert Barker to describe his
panoramic painting Panoramic paintings are massive artworks that reveal a wide, Panorama, all-encompassing view of a particular subject, often a landscape, military battle, or historical event. They became especially popular in the 19th century in Europe and the Un ...
s of
Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian (interchangeably Edinburghshire before 1921), it is ...

Edinburgh
and
London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowerc ...

London
. The motion-picture term ''panning'' is derived from ''panorama''. A panoramic view is also purposed for multimedia, cross-scale applications to an outline overview (from a distance) along and across repositories. This so-called "cognitive panorama" is a panoramic view over, and a combination of,
cognitive spaceA cognitive model is an approximation to animal cognition, cognitive processes (predominantly human) for the purposes of comprehension and prediction. Cognitive models can be developed within or without a cognitive architecture, though the two are no ...
s used to capture the larger scale.


History

The device of the panorama existed in painting, particularly in
mural A mural is any piece of artwork painted or applied directly on a wall, ceiling or other permanent substrate, usually a vertical one, that is to say a wall. Historically, they are especially associated with the fresco Fresco (plural ''fresc ...

mural
s, as early as 20 A.D., in those found in
Pompeii Pompeii (, ) was an ancient city located in what is now the ''comune The (; plural: ) is a of , roughly equivalent to a or . Importance and function The provides essential public services: of births and deaths, , and maintenan ...

Pompeii
, as a means of generating an immersive "
panoptic The panopticon is a type of institutional building and a system of control designed by the English philosopher and social theorist Jeremy Bentham in the 18th century. The concept of the design is to allow all prisoners of an institution to be ob ...
" experience of a
vista Vista usually refers to a distant view. Vista may also refer to: Software *Windows Vista Windows Vista is a major release of the Windows NT Windows NT is a Proprietary software, proprietary Graphical user interface, graphical operating ...
.
Cartographic Cartography (; from Greek language, Greek χάρτης ''chartēs'', "papyrus, sheet of paper, map"; and γράφειν ''graphein'', "write") is the study and practice of making and using maps. Combining science, aesthetics, and technique, ca ...
experiments during the
Enlightenment Enlightenment, enlighten or enlightened may refer to: Age of Enlightenment * Age of Enlightenment The Age of Enlightenment (also known as the Age of Reason or simply the Enlightenment); ger, Aufklärung, "Enlightenment"; it, L'Illuminis ...
era preceded European panorama painting and contributed to a formative impulse toward panoramic vision and depiction. This novel perspective was quickly conveyed to America by
Benjamin Franklin Benjamin Franklin ( April 17, 1790) was one of the Founding Fathers of the United States The Founding Fathers of the United States, or simply the Founding Fathers or Founders, were a group of American revolutionary Patriots (also ...

Benjamin Franklin
who was present for the first manned balloon flight by the
Montgolfier brothers The Montgolfier brothers – Joseph-Michel Montgolfier (26 August 1740 – 26 June 1810) and Jacques-Étienne Montgolfier (6 January 1745 – 2 August 1799) – were aviation pioneers, balloonists and paper manufacturers from the commune ...
in 1783, and by the American-born physician,
John Jeffries John Jeffries (5 February 1744 – 16 September 1819) was an American physician, scientist, and military surgeon with the British Army in Nova Scotia and New York (state), New York during the American Revolution. He is best known for accompany ...

John Jeffries
who had joined French aeronaut
Jean Pierre Blanchard Jean-Pierre rançoisBlanchard (4 July 1753 – 7 March 1809) was a French French (french: français(e), link=no) may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, R ...

Jean Pierre Blanchard
on flights over
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...

England
and the first aerial crossing of the
English Channel The English Channel,, "The Sleeve"; nrf, la Maunche, "The Sleeve" (Cotentinais Cotentinais is the dialect The term dialect (from Latin , , from the Ancient Greek word , , "discourse", from , , "through" and , , "I speak") is used in two ...

English Channel
in 1785.


As popular spectacle

In the mid-19th century,
panoramic painting Panoramic paintings are massive artworks that reveal a wide, Panorama, all-encompassing view of a particular subject, often a landscape, military battle, or historical event. They became especially popular in the 19th century in Europe and the Un ...
s and models became a very popular way to represent
landscapes A landscape is the visible features of an area of Terrestrial ecoregion, land, its landforms, and how they integrate with Nature, natural or man-made features.''New Oxford American Dictionary''. A landscape includes the physical elements of ge ...

landscapes
, topographic views and
historical events History (from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approxima ...
. Audiences of Europe in this period were thrilled by the aspect of illusion, immersed in a winding 360-degree panorama and given the impression of standing in a new environment. The ''panorama'' was a 360-degree visual medium patented under the title ''Apparatus for Exhibiting Pictures'' by the artist Robert Barker in 1787. The earliest that the word "panorama" appeared in print was on June 11, 1791, in the British newspaper ''
The Morning Chronicle ''The Morning Chronicle'' was a newspaper founded in 1769 in London and published under various owners until 1862, when its publication was suspended, with two subsequent attempts at continued publication. From 28 June 1769 to March 1789 it was p ...
'', referring to this visual spectacle. Barker created a painting, shown on a cylindrical surface and viewed from the inside, giving viewers a vantage point encompassing the entire circle of the horizon, rendering the original scene with high fidelity. The inaugural exhibition, a "View of Edinburgh" (specifically the view from the summit of
Calton Hill Calton Hill () is a hill in central Edinburgh Edinburgh (; sco, Edinburgh; gd, Dùn Èideann ) is the capital city of Scotland and one of its 32 Council areas of Scotland, council areas. Historically part of the county of Midlothian ...

Calton Hill
), was first shown in that city in 1788, then transported to London in 1789. By 1793, Barker had built "The Panorama" rotunda at the center of London's entertainment district in
Leicester Square Leicester Square ( ) is a pedestrianised town square, square in the West End of London, England. It was laid out in 1670 as Leicester Fields, which was named after the recently built Leicester House, Westminster, Leicester House, itself named a ...

Leicester Square
, where it remained attracting visitors for 70 years, then closing in 1863, before being converted into the church of
Notre Dame de France Notre Dame de France is a French Catholic church in London London is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase o ...
. Inventor Sir
Francis Ronalds Sir Francis Ronalds FRS FRS may also refer to: Government and politics * Facility Registry System, a centrally managed Environmental Protection Agency database that identifies places of environmental interest in the United States * Family Re ...
developed a machine to remove errors in perspective that were created when a sequence of planar sketches was combined into a cylinder. It also projected the cylindrical drawing onto the wall of the rotunda at much larger scale to enable its accurate painting. The apparatus was exhibited at the
Royal Polytechnic Institution The University of Westminster is a public university, public research university based in London, United Kingdom. Founded in 1838 as the Royal Polytechnic Institution, it was the first Polytechnic (United Kingdom), polytechnic to open in London. T ...

Royal Polytechnic Institution
in the early 1840s. Large scale installations enhance the illusion for an audience of being surrounded with a real landscape. The
Bourbaki Panorama The Bourbaki Panorama is a circular panoramic painting depicting the internment of the French Armée de l'Est in neutral Switzerland at the end of the 1870–71 Franco-Prussian War. The army, led by General Charles-Denis Bourbaki had been defeat ...

Bourbaki Panorama
in
Lucerne , neighboring_municipalities= Adligenswil Adligenswil is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by na ...

Lucerne
,
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
was created by
Edouard Castres
Edouard Castres
in 1881. The painting measures about 10 metres in height with a
circumference In geometry Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; ' "earth", ' "measurement") is, with , one of the oldest branches of . It is concerned with properties of space that are related with distance, shape, size, and relative position ...
of 112 meters. In the same year of 1881, the
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
marine Marine is an adjective meaning of or pertaining to the sea or ocean. Marine or marines may refer to: Ocean * Maritime (disambiguation) * Marine art * Marine biology * Marine debris * Marine habitats * Marine life * Marine pollution Military * ...

marine
painter
Hendrik Willem Mesdag Hendrik Willem Mesdag (23 February 1831 – 10 July 1915) was a Netherlands, Dutch Marine art, marine painter. Biography He was born in Groningen, the son of the banker Klaas Mesdag and his wife Johanna Wilhelmina van Giffen. Mesdag was e ...
created and established the
Panorama Mesdag ''Panorama Mesdag'' is a panorama A panorama (formed from Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located i ...

Panorama Mesdag
of
The Hague The Hague ( ; nl, Den Haag or ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd ed ...

The Hague
,
Netherlands ) , national_anthem = ( en, "William of Nassau") , image_map = EU-Netherlands.svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = BES islands location map.svg , map_caption2 = , image_map3 ...

Netherlands
, a cylindrical painting more than 14 metres high and roughly 40 meters in diameter (120 meters in circumference). In the United States of America is the
Atlanta Cyclorama
Atlanta Cyclorama
, depicting the
Civil War A civil war, also known as an intrastate war in polemology, is a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine publis ...
Battle of Atlanta The Battle of Atlanta was a battle of the Atlanta Campaign fought during the American Civil War The American Civil War (also known by Names of the American Civil War, other names) was a civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1 ...

Battle of Atlanta
. It was first displayed in 1887, and is 42 feet high by 358 feet circumference (13 x 109 metres). Also on a gigantic scale, and still extant, is the
Racławice Panorama The ''Racławice Panorama'' (Polish: ''Panorama Racławicka'') is a monumental (15 × 114 meter) cyclorama, cycloramic painting depicting the Battle of Racławice, during the Kościuszko Uprising. It is located in Wrocław, Poland. The painting is ...
(1893) located in
Wrocław Wrocław (; german: Breslau ; sli, Brassel; cs, Vratislav), ''Wratislavia''. is a city in southwestern Poland and the largest city in the historical region of Silesia. It lies on the banks of the River Oder in the Silesian Lowlands of Centra ...

Wrocław
,
Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , and has a largely Temperate climate, temperate seasonal cli ...

Poland
, which measures 15 x 120 metres. In addition to these historical examples, there have been panoramas painted and installed in modern times; prominent among these is the Velaslavasay Panorama in Los Angeles, California (2004).


Photographs

Panoramic photography soon came to displace painting as the most common method for creating wide views. Not long after the introduction of the
Daguerreotype Daguerreotype (; french: daguerréotype) was the first publicly available photographic Photography is the art, application, and practice of creating durable image An SAR radar imaging, radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on ...
in 1839, photographers began assembling multiple images of a view into a single wide image. In the late 19th century, flexible film enabled the construction of panoramic cameras using curved film holders and clockwork drives to rotate the lens in an arc and thus scan an image encompassing almost 180 degrees. Pinhole cameras of a variety of constructions can be used to make panoramic images. A popular design is the "oatmeal box", a vertical cylindrical container in which the pinhole is made in one side and the film or photographic paper is wrapped around the inside wall opposite, and extending almost right to the edge of, the pinhole. This generates an egg-shaped image with more than 180° view. Popular in the 1970s and 1980s, but now superseded by digital presentation software,
Multi-image Multi-image is the now largely obsolete practice and business of using 35mm35 mm may refer to: * 135 film, film rolls * 35 mm movie film, motion picture film stock * 35 mm format for still photography (36×24 mm) {{Letter-NumberCombD ...
(also known as multi-image slide presentations,
slide show A slide show is a presentation A presentation conveys information from a speaker to an audience An audience is a group of people who participate in a show or encounter a work of art A work of art, artwork, art piece, ...
s or diaporamas) 35mm slide projections onto one or more screens characteristically lent themselves to the wide screen panorama. They could run autonomously with silent synchronization pulses to control projector advance and fades, recorded beside an
audio Audio most commonly refers to sound In physics Physics (from grc, φυσική (ἐπιστήμη), physikḗ (epistḗmē), knowledge of nature, from ''phýsis'' 'nature'), , is the natural science that studies matter, its Motion ( ...
voice-over Voice-over (also known as off-camera or off-stage commentary) is a production technique where a voice—that is not part of the narrative (non-diegetic Diegesis (; from the Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to ...
or music
track Track or Tracks may refer to: Routes or imprints * Ancient trackway, any track or trail whose origin is lost in antiquity * Animal track, imprints left on surfaces that an animal walks across * Desire path, a line worn by people taking the shortes ...
. Precisely overlapping slides placed in slide mounts with soft-edge density masks would merge seamlessly on the screen to create the panorama. Cutting and dissolving between sequential images generated animation effects in the panorama format.


VR photographs

Digital photography of the late twentieth century greatly simplified this assembly process, which is now known as ''image stitching''. Such stitched images may even be fashioned into forms of
virtual reality Virtual reality (VR) is a simulated experience that can be similar to or completely different from the real world. Applications of virtual reality Virtual reality applications are applications that make use of virtual reality Virtual ...

virtual reality
movies, using technologies such as
Apple Inc. Apple Inc. is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinational state, ...
's
QuickTime VR QuickTime VR (also known as QTVR) is an image file format developed by Apple Inc. for QuickTime, and discontinued along with QuickTime 7. It allows the creation and viewing of VR photography, photographically captured panoramas, and the viewing ...
,
Flash Flash, flashes, or FLASH may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Fictional aliases * Flash (DC Comics character) The Flash (or simply Flash) is the name of several superhero A superhero or superheroine is a stock character that po ...
,
Java Java ( id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 147.7 million people, Java is the world's List of ...
, or even
JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated JS, is a programming language A programming language is a formal language In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), ma ...

JavaScript
. A rotating line camera such as the Panoscan allows the capture of high resolution panoramic images and eliminates the need for
image stitching Image stitching or photo stitching is the process of combining multiple photograph A photograph (also known as a photo) is an image An SAR radar image acquired by the SIR-C/X-SAR radar on board the Space Shuttle Endeavour shows the ...
, but immersive "spherical" panorama movies (that incorporate a full 180° vertical viewing angle as well as 360° around) must be made by stitching multiple images. Stitching images together can be used to create extremely high resolution
gigapixel A gigapixel image is a digital image A digital image is an image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment (biophysical ...
panoramic images.


Motion picture

On rare occasions, 360° panoramic movies have been constructed for specially designed display spaces—typically at
theme park An amusement park is a park that features various attractions, such as rides and games, as well as other events for entertainment purposes. A theme park is a type of amusement park that bases its structures and attractions around a central ...
s,
world's fair A world's fair is a large international exhibition designed to showcase achievements of nations. These exhibitions vary in character and are held in different parts of the world at a specific site for a period of time, ranging usually from ...
s, and museums. Starting in 1955,
Disney The Walt Disney Company, commonly just Disney (), is an American multinational entertainment and media conglomerate headquartered at the Walt Disney Studios (Burbank), Walt Disney Studios complex in Burbank, California. Disney was originall ...
has created 360° theaters for its parks and the
Swiss Transport Museum The Swiss Museum of Transport or Verkehrshaus der Schweiz (literally "Transportation House of Switzerland") in Lucerne opened in July 1959 and exhibits all forms of transport including trains, automobiles, ships and aircraft as well as communicati ...
in Lucerne, Switzerland, features a theatre that is a large cylindrical space with an arrangement of screens whose bottom is several metres above the floor. Panoramic systems that are less than 360° around also exist. For example,
Cinerama Cinerama is a widescreen process that originally projected images simultaneously from three synchronized 35 mm movie film, 35mm projectors onto a huge, deeply curved screen, subtending 146° of arc. The trademarked process was marketed by the C ...

Cinerama
used a very wide curved screen, with three synchronized projectors, and IMAX Dome / OMNIMAX movies are projected on a dome above the spectators.


Non-photographic representations

Panoramic representation can be generated from
digital elevation models A digital elevation model (DEM) is a 3D computer graphics representation of elevation data to represent terrain, commonly of a planet, moon, or asteroid. A "global DEM" refers to a discrete global grid. DEMs are used often in geographic informat ...
such as
SRTM The Shuttle Radar Topography Mission (SRTM) is an international research effort that obtained digital elevation model A digital elevation model (DEM) is a 3D computer graphics representation of elevation data to represent terrain, commonly of ...
. In these diagrams, a panorama from any given point can be generated and imaged from the data.Fedorov, R., Fraternali, P., & Tagliasacchi, M. (2014, November). Mountain peak identification in visual content based on coarse digital elevation models. In Proceedings of the 3rd ACM International Workshop on Multimedia Analysis for Ecological Data (pp. 7-11). ACM.


See also

* Circle-Vision * Comparison of photo stitching software *
Cyclorama A cyclorama is a panoramic image An image (from la, imago) is an artifact that depicts visual perception Visual perception is the ability to interpret the surrounding environment (biophysical), environment through photopic visi ...

Cyclorama
*
Diorama The word diorama can either refer to a 19th-century mobile theatre device, or, in modern usage, a three-dimensional full-size or miniature model, sometimes enclosed in a glass showcase for a museum. Dioramas are often built by hobbyists as par ...

Diorama
* EveryScape *
Google Street View Google Street View is a technology featured in Google Maps Google Maps is a web mapping Web most often refers to: * Spider web, a silken structure created by the animal * World Wide Web upright=1.35, A global map of the web in ...

Google Street View
*
International Panorama Council International is an adjective (also used as a noun) meaning "between nations". International may also refer to: Music Albums * International (Kevin Michael album), ''International'' (Kevin Michael album), 2011 * International (New Order album), ' ...
* Leme panoramic camera *
Moving panorama The moving panorama was an innovation on panoramic painting Panoramic paintings are massive artworks that reveal a wide, Panorama, all-encompassing view of a particular subject, often a landscape, military battle, or historical event. They bec ...

Moving panorama
*
Multi-image Multi-image is the now largely obsolete practice and business of using 35mm35 mm may refer to: * 135 film, film rolls * 35 mm movie film, motion picture film stock * 35 mm format for still photography (36×24 mm) {{Letter-NumberCombD ...
*
Omnidirectional camera In photography Photography is the art Art is a diverse range of (products of) human activities Humans (''Homo sapiens'') are the most populous and widespread species of primates, characterized by bipedality, opposable thumbs, hair ...
*
Panoramic painting Panoramic paintings are massive artworks that reveal a wide, Panorama, all-encompassing view of a particular subject, often a landscape, military battle, or historical event. They became especially popular in the 19th century in Europe and the Un ...
*
Panoramic photography Panoramic photography is a technique of photography, using specialized equipment or software, that captures images with horizontally elongated field of view, fields of view. It is sometimes known as ''wide format photography''. The term has also ...

Panoramic photography
*
Panoramic tripod head {{unreferenced, date=July 2018 A panoramic tripod head is a piece of photographic equipment, mounted to a Tripod (photography), tripod, which allows photographers to shoot a sequence of images around the entrance pupil of a Camera lens, lens that c ...

Panoramic tripod head
* Route panorama *
Widescreen Widescreen images are images that are displayed within a set of aspect ratios The aspect ratio of a geometric Geometry (from the grc, γεωμετρία; '' geo-'' "earth", '' -metron'' "measurement") is, with arithmetic Arithmetic ...


References


Further reading

* Altick, Richard (1978). ''The Shows of London''. Harvard University Press. , 9780674807310 * * Garrison, Laurie et al., editors (2013). ''Panoramas, 1787–1900 Texts and contexts'' Five volumes, 2,000pp. Pickering and Chatto. * Marsh, John L. "Drama and Spectacle by the Yard: The Panorama in America." ''Journal of Popular Culture'' 10, no. 3 (1976): 581–589. * Oettermann, Stephan (1997). ''The Panorama: History of a mass medium. ''MIT Press. , 9780942299830 * Oleksijczuk, Denise (2011). ''The First Panoramas: Visions of British Imperialism. ''University of Minnesota Press. ,


External links

*
Peak finder
{{Authority control Panorama photography Photography by genre