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Padma Shri (
IAST The International Alphabet of Sanskrit Transliteration (IAST) is a transliteration scheme that allows the lossless romanisation of Brahmic family, Indic scripts as employed by Sanskrit and related Indic languages. It is based on a scheme that ...
: ''padma śrī''), also spelled Padma Shree, is the fourth-highest civilian award in the Republic of India, after the
Bharat Ratna
Bharat Ratna
, the Padma Vibhushan and the Padma Bhushan. It is awarded by the Government of India every year on India's Republic Day.


History

Padma Awards were instituted in 1954 to be awarded to citizens of India in recognition of their distinguished contribution in various spheres of activity including the
arts The arts refers to the theory, human application and physical expression of creativity Creativity is a phenomenon whereby something somehow new and somehow valuable is formed. The created item may be intangible (such as an idea, a scienti ...
,
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, industry,
literature Literature broadly is any collection of Writing, written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considered to be an art form, especially prose fiction, drama, and poetry. In recent centuries, the definition has expande ...
,
science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and Taxonomy (general), organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the u ...
,
sports Sport pertains to any form of competitive physical activity or game with separate sliding drawer, from 1390–1353 BC, made of glazed faience, dimensions: 5.5 × 7.7 × 21 cm, in the Brooklyn Museum (New York City) ...
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medicine Medicine is the Art (skill), art, science, and Praxis (process) , practice of caring for a patient and managing the diagnosis, prognosis, Preventive medicine, prevention, therapy, treatment or Palliative care , palliation of their injury or dise ...
, social service and public affairs. It has also been awarded to some distinguished individuals who were not citizens of India but did contribute in various ways to India. The selection criteria have been criticised in some quarters with the claim that many highly deserving artists have been left out in order to favour certain individuals. India has now created an online nomination platform for the common citizens to recommend the nomination for the annually given civilian "Padma" awards. On its obverse, the words " Padma", meaning lotus in
Sanskrit Sanskrit (, attributively , ''saṃskṛta-'', nominalization, nominally , ''saṃskṛtam'') is a classical language of South Asia belonging to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia ...
, and " Shri", a Sanskrit-derived honorific equivalent to 'Mr.' or 'Ms.' (ie., "Noble One in Blossom"), appear in Devanagari above and below a Nelumbo nucifera, lotus flower. The geometrical pattern on either side is in burnished bronze. All embossing is in white gold. , 3123 people have received the award.


Refusals

Several intended recipients, including sitar player Vilayat Khan, academic and author Mamoni Raisom Goswami, journalist Kanak Sen Deka and noted Bollywood screenwriter Salim Khan, have declined the Padma Shri for various reasons. Some intended recipients, such as environmental activist Sunderlal Bahuguna and English billiards champion Michael Ferreira, have refused the honour but have subsequently accepted a more prestigious one such as the Padma Bhushan or Padma Vibhushan. Other individuals, such as author Phanishwar Nath 'Renu', Punjabi author Dalip Kaur Tiwana and noted poet Jayanta Mahapatra, have returned the honour after initially accepting it.


Awards by decade

* List of Padma Shri award recipients (1954–1959) * List of Padma Shri award recipients (1960–1969) * List of Padma Shri award recipients (1970–1979) * List of Padma Shri award recipients (1980–1989) * List of Padma Shri award recipients (1990–1999) * List of Padma Shri award recipients (2000–2009) * List of Padma Shri award recipients (2010–2019) * List of Padma Shri award recipients (2020–2029)


See also

* List of recipients of the Padma Shri in sports


References


External links

* * * {{India Honours and Decorations Awards established in 1954 Civil awards and decorations of India Recipients of the Padma Shri