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PHP is a general-purpose scripting language geared toward web development. It was originally created by Danish-Canadian programmer Rasmus Lerdorf in 1993 and released in 1995. The PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for ''Personal Home Page'', but it now stands for the recursive initialism ''PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor''. PHP code is usually processed on a web server by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module, a daemon or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. On a web server, the result of the interpreted and executed PHP code which may be any type of data, such as generated
HTML The HyperText Markup Language or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript ...
or binary image data would form the whole or part of an HTTP response. Various web template systems, web content management systems, and web frameworks exist which can be employed to orchestrate or facilitate the generation of that response. Additionally, PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside the web context, such as standalone graphical applications and robotic drone control. PHP code can also be directly executed from the command line. The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is
free software Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty, no ...
released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on a variety of
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems scheduler (computing), schedule tasks for ef ...
s and platforms. The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, with the original implementation acting as the ''
de facto ''De facto'' ( ; , "in fact") describes practices that exist in reality, whether or not they are officially recognized by laws or other formal norms. It is commonly used to refer to what happens in practice, in contrast with '' de jure'' ("by l ...
'' standard which other implementations aimed to follow. Since 2014, work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification. W3Techs reports that, , "PHP is used by 74.4% of all the websites whose server-side programming language we know." PHP version 7.4 is the most used version. Support for version 7.3 was dropped on 6 December 2021.


History


Early history

PHP development began in 1993 when Rasmus Lerdorf wrote several Common Gateway Interface (CGI) programs in C, which he used to maintain his personal homepage. He extended them to work with web forms and to communicate with
database In computing, a database is an organized collection of Data (computing), data stored and accessed electronically. Small databases can be stored on a file system, while large databases are hosted on computer clusters or cloud storage. The Databas ...
s, and called this implementation "Personal Home Page/Forms Interpreter" or PHP/FI. PHP/FI could be used to build simple, dynamic web applications. To accelerate bug reporting and improve the code, Lerdorf initially announced the release of PHP/FI as "Personal Home Page Tools (PHP Tools) version 1.0" on the Usenet discussion group ''comp.infosystems.www.authoring.cgi'' on June 8, 1995. This release already had the basic functionality that PHP has today. This included Perl-like variables, form handling, and the ability to embed
HTML The HyperText Markup Language or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript ...
. The
syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the study of how words and morphemes combine to form larger units such as phrases and sentence (linguistics), sentences. Central concerns of syntax include word order, grammatical relations, hierarchical sentence st ...
resembled that of
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. "Perl" refers to Perl 5, but from 2000 to 2019 it also referred to its redesigned "sister language", Perl 6, before the latter's name was offi ...
, but was simpler, more limited and less consistent. An example of the early PHP
syntax In linguistics, syntax () is the study of how words and morphemes combine to form larger units such as phrases and sentence (linguistics), sentences. Central concerns of syntax include word order, grammatical relations, hierarchical sentence st ...
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Early PHP was not intended to be a new

programming language A programming language is a system of notation for writing computer program, computer programs. Most programming languages are text-based formal languages, but they may also be visual programming language, graphical. They are a kind of computer ...
, and grew organically, with Lerdorf noting in retrospect: "I don't know how to stop it, there was never any intent to write a programming language ..I have absolutely no idea how to write a programming language, I just kept adding the next logical step on the way." A development team began to form and, after months of work and beta testing, officially released PHP/FI 2 in November 1997. The fact that PHP was not originally designed, but instead was developed organically has led to inconsistent naming of functions and inconsistent ordering of their parameters. In some cases, the function names were chosen to match the lower-level libraries which PHP was "wrapping", while in some very early versions of PHP the length of the function names was used internally as a hash function, so names were chosen to improve the distribution of hash values.


PHP 3 and 4

Zeev Suraski and Andi Gutmans rewrote the parser in 1997 and formed the base of PHP 3, changing the language's name to the recursive acronym ''PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor''. Afterwards, public testing of PHP 3 began, and the official launch came in June 1998. Suraski and Gutmans then started a new rewrite of PHP's core, producing the Zend Engine in 1999. They also founded Zend Technologies in Ramat Gan,
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, ; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, ), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a country in Western Asia. It is situated ...
. On 22 May 2000, PHP 4, powered by the Zend Engine 1.0, was released. By August 2008, this branch had reached version 4.4.9. PHP 4 is now no longer under development and nor are any security updates planned to be released.


PHP 5

On 1 July 2004, PHP 5 was released, powered by the new Zend Engine II. PHP 5 included new features such as improved support for
object-oriented programming Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of " objects", which can contain data In the pursuit of knowledge, data (; ) is a collection of discrete values that convey information, describing qua ...
, the PHP Data Objects (PDO) extension (which defines a lightweight and consistent interface for accessing databases), and numerous performance enhancements. In 2008, PHP 5 became the only stable version under development. Late static binding had been missing from previous versions of PHP, and was added in version 5.3. Many high-profile open-source projects ceased to support PHP 4 in new code from February 5, 2008, because of the GoPHP5 initiative, provided by a consortium of PHP developers promoting the transition from PHP 4 to PHP 5. Over time, PHP interpreters became available on most existing 32-bit and
64-bit In computer architecture, 64-bit Integer (computer science), integers, memory addresses, or other Data (computing), data units are those that are 64 bits wide. Also, 64-bit central processing unit, CPUs and arithmetic logic unit, ALUs are those ...
operating systems, either by building them from the PHP source code, or by using pre-built binaries. For PHP versions 5.3 and 5.4, the only available
Microsoft Windows Windows is a group of several proprietary graphical operating system families developed and marketed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporatio ...
binary distributions were 32-bit IA-32 builds, requiring Windows 32-bit compatibility mode while using Internet Information Services (IIS) on a 64-bit Windows platform. PHP version 5.5 made the 64-bit
x86-64 x86-64 (also known as x64, x86_64, AMD64, and Intel 64) is a 64-bit version of the x86 instruction set, first released in 1999. It introduced two new modes of operation, 64-bit mode and compatibility mode, along with a new 4-level paging mod ...
builds available for Microsoft Windows. Official security support for PHP 5.6 ended on 31 December 2018.


PHP 6 and Unicode

PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking native
Unicode Unicode, formally The Unicode Standard,The formal version reference is is an information technology standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard, ...
support at the core language level. In 2005, a project headed by Andrei Zmievski was initiated to bring native
Unicode Unicode, formally The Unicode Standard,The formal version reference is is an information technology standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard, ...
support throughout PHP, by embedding the International Components for Unicode (ICU) library, and representing text strings as UTF-16 internally. Since this would cause major changes both to the internals of the language and to user code, it was planned to release this as version 6.0 of the language, along with other major features then in development. However, a shortage of developers who understood the necessary changes, and performance problems arising from conversion to and from UTF-16, which is rarely used in a web context, led to delays in the project. As a result, a PHP 5.3 release was created in 2009, with many non-Unicode features back-ported from PHP 6, notably namespaces. In March 2010, the project in its current form was officially abandoned, and a PHP 5.4 release was prepared containing most remaining non-Unicode features from PHP 6, such as traits and closure re-binding. Initial hopes were that a new plan would be formed for Unicode integration, but by 2014 none had been adopted.


PHP 7

During 2014 and 2015, a new major PHP version was developed, PHP 7. The numbering of this version involved some debate among internal developers. While the PHP 6 Unicode experiment had never been released, several articles and book titles referenced the PHP 6 name, which might have caused confusion if a new release were to reuse the name. After a vote, the name PHP 7 was chosen. The foundation of PHP 7 is a PHP branch that was originally dubbed ''PHP next generation'' (''phpng''). It was authored by Dmitry Stogov, Xinchen Hui and Nikita Popov, and aimed to optimize PHP performance by refactoring the Zend Engine while retaining near-complete language compatibility. By 14 July 2014, WordPress-based benchmarks, which served as the main benchmark suite for the phpng project, showed an almost 100% increase in performance. Changes from phpng make it easier to improve performance in future versions, as more compact data structures and other changes are seen as better suited for a successful migration to a just-in-time (JIT) compiler. Because of the significant changes, the reworked Zend Engine was called ''Zend Engine 3'', succeeding Zend Engine 2 used in PHP 5. Because of the major internal changes in phpng, it must receive a new major version number of PHP, rather than a minor PHP 5 release, according to PHP's release process. Major versions of PHP are allowed to break backward-compatibility of code and therefore PHP 7 presented an opportunity for other improvements beyond phpng that require backward-compatibility breaks. In particular, it involved the following changes: * Many fatal or recoverable-level legacy PHP error mechanisms were replaced with modern object-oriented exceptions. * The syntax for variable dereferencing was reworked to be internally more consistent and complete, allowing the use of the operators ->, [], (),, and ::, with arbitrary meaningful left-side expressions. * Support for legacy PHP 4-style constructor methods was deprecated. * The behavior of the foreach statement was changed to be more predictable. * Constructors for the few classes built-in to PHP which returned null upon failure were changed to throw an exception instead, for consistency. * Several unmaintained or deprecated server application programming interfaces (SAPIs) and extensions were removed from the PHP core, most notably the legacy mysql extension. * The behavior of the list() operator was changed to remove support for strings. * Support was removed for legacy ASP-style delimiters <% and %> and <script language="php"> ... </script>. * An oversight allowing a switch statement to have multiple default clauses was fixed. * Support for hexadecimal number support in some implicit conversions from strings to number types was removed. * The left-shift and right-shift operators were changed to behave more consistently across platforms. * Conversions between floating-point numbers and integers were changed (e.g. infinity changed to convert to zero) and implemented more consistently across platforms. PHP 7 also included new language features. Most notably, it introduced return type declarations for functions which complement the existing parameter type declarations, and support for the scalar types (integer, float, string, and boolean) in parameter and return type declarations.


PHP 8

PHP 8 was released on November 26, 2020. PHP 8 is a major version and has breaking changes from previous versions. New features and notable changes include:


Just-in-time compilation

Just-in-time compilation is supported in PHP 8. PHP 8's JIT compiler can provide substantial performance improvements for some use cases, while PHP developer Nikita Popov stated that the performance improvements for most websites will be less substantial than the upgrade from PHP 5 to PHP 7. Substantial improvements are expected more for mathematical-type operations than for common web-development use cases. Additionally, the JIT compiler provides future potential to move some code from C to PHP, due to the performance improvements for some use cases.


Addition of the match expression

PHP 8 introduced the expression. The match expression is conceptually similar to a statement and is more compact for some use cases. Because is an expression, its result can be caught into a variable or returned from a function.


Type changes and additions

PHP 8 introduced union types, a new return type, and a new type. "Attributes", often referred to as "annotations" in other programming languages, were added in PHP 8, which allow metadata to be added to classes. was changed from being a statement to being an expression. This allows exceptions to be thrown in places that were not previously possible.


Syntax changes and additions

PHP 8 includes changes to allow alternate, more concise, or more consistent syntaxes in a number of scenarios. For example, the nullsafe operator is similar to the null coalescing operator , but used when calling methods. The following code snippet will not throw an error if returns null: $human_readable_date = $user->getBirthday()?->diffForHumans(); Constructor property promotion has been added as " syntactic sugar," allowing class properties to be set automatically when parameters are passed into a class constructor. This reduces the amount of boilerplate code that must be written. Other minor changes include support for use of on objects, which serves as an alternative for the use of ; non-capturing catches in try-catch blocks; variable syntax tweaks to resolve inconsistencies; support for named arguments; and support for trailing commas in parameter lists, which adds consistency with support for trailing commas in other contexts, such as in arrays.


Standard library changes and additions

* Weak maps were added in PHP 8. A holds references to objects, but these references do not prevent such objects from being garbage collected. This can provide performance improvements in scenarios where data is being cached; this is of particular relevance for object relational mappings (ORM). * Various adjustments to interfaces, such as adding support for creating objects from interfaces, and the addition of a interface that can be used for type hinting. * Various new functions including str_contains(), str_starts_with(), and str_ends_with(); fdiv(); get_debug_type(); and get_resource_id() * Object implementation of token_get_all()


Additional changes

* Type annotations were also added into PHP's C source code itself to allow internal functions and methods to have "complete type information in reflection." * Inheritance with private methods * Abstract methods in traits improvements


PHP 8.1

PHP 8.1 is the latest version of PHP, a popular programming language used for web development and server-side scripting. It was released on December 8, 2021 and includes a number of new features and improvements over previous versions. Here is a more detailed look at some of the key features and improvements in PHP 8.1: * Union types: This feature allows you to specify that a variable can have multiple types, such as an integer or a string. This can be useful for writing more flexible and robust code, as it allows you to handle a wider range of input values. * Nullsafe operator: This operator allows you to chain method calls without worrying about null references. For example, if you want to call a method on an object that may be null, you can use the nullsafe operator to ensure that the method is only called if the object is not null. * Match expression: This is a more concise and flexible way to perform matching on values. It allows you to specify multiple cases and their associated values, and then use the match keyword to select the appropriate case based on the value of an expression. * Improved performance: PHP 8.1 includes various performance improvements, such as faster array operations and better memory usage. These improvements can help make your code run faster and more efficiently. * New error handling features: PHP 8.1 introduces a new throws keyword that allows you to specify which exceptions a function can throw, and a new assert() function that can be used to check for certain conditions at runtime. These features can help you write more reliable and robust code. * Other new features: PHP 8.1 also includes other new features such as support for named arguments, support for attributes (similar to annotations in other languages), and improved support for Unicode. The match expression is a new feature in PHP 8.1 that allows you to perform value matching in a more concise and flexible way. It is similar to a switch statement, but with some additional features and syntax improvements. Here is an example of how you can use the match expression in PHP: $value = 3; $result = match ($value) ; echo $result; // Outputs: "The value is one, two, or three" In this example, the match expression compares the value of $value to the different cases specified in the curly braces. If $value matches one of the cases, the corresponding value is returned. If none of the cases match, the default case is used. One of the main benefits of the match expression is that it allows you to specify multiple values for a single case, as shown in the example above. This can help make your code more concise and easier to read. The match expression also allows you to specify a when clause for each case, which can be used to specify additional conditions that must be met for the case to be matched. For example: $value = 3; $result = match ($value) ; echo $result; // Outputs: "The value is two or three" Overall, the match expression is a useful addition to PHP that can make it easier to write code that performs value matching and conditional processing. Assert() Error handling The assert() function and the throws keyword are new error handling features in PHP 8.1 that can help you write more reliable and robust code. The assert() function is used to check for certain conditions at runtime. If the condition is not met, the function generates an AssertionError exception. For example: assert($x > 0, '$x must be greater than zero'); In this example, the assert() function checks whether $x is greater than zero. If it is not, an AssertionError exception is thrown with the message "$x must be greater than zero". The throws keyword, on the other hand, is used to specify which exceptions a function or method can throw. This can be helpful for documenting your code and making it easier for other developers to understand how your functions and methods behave. For example: function divide(int $a, int $b): int In this example, the divide() function uses the throws keyword to specify that it can throw a DivisionByZeroError exception if the second argument is zero. Overall, the assert() function and the throws keyword are useful tools for handling errors and exceptions in PHP, and can help you write more reliable and robust code.


Support for enumerations

Support for enumerations was one of the most prominent features of PHP 8.1. Enums allow developers to programmatically enforce states in their codebase. Below is an example of an enum:


Other PHP 8.1 features

* Support for `readonly` properties was added. * After the introduction of array unpacking in PHP 7.4 with consecutive numbered keys, PHP 8.1 introduced support for array unpacking with string keys. * PHP 8.1 added support for using `new` in initializers. * A new syntax was added for creating callables. * PHP 8.1 brought support for Pure Intersection Types, after in the introduction of union types in PHP 8.0.


PHP 8.2

PHP 8.2 includes a number of new features and improvements. Here are some of the main ones: # Union Types: Union types allow you to specify that a function or method parameter can accept multiple types, separated by the ", " symbol. This can help to improve type safety and reduce the need for type juggling. # Nullsafe Operator: The nullsafe operator (?->) allows you to chain method calls without having to check for null values at each step. This can help to reduce the need for null checks and make your code more concise. # Match Expression: The match expression allows you to perform pattern matching on values, similar to a switch statement in other languages. This can be a more concise and expressive way to handle multiple conditions. # Improved Type Variance: PHP 8.2 introduces improved type variance for generic types, allowing you to specify whether a generic type is covariant, contravariant, or invariant. This can help to improve type safety and flexibility when working with generic types. # Performance Improvements: PHP 8.2 includes various performance improvements, including faster JIT compilation, faster garbage collection, and improved handling of large arrays. These improvements can help to make PHP applications faster and more efficient. # Deprecations: Some features have been deprecated in PHP 8.2, including the assert() function when used with a string argument, and the list() construct with a single array element. It's important to be aware of these deprecations if you are upgrading from an earlier version of PHP. Here are some examples of features that have been deprecated in PHP 8.2: # assert() function with string argument: The assert() function can be used to perform runtime checks, but it has been deprecated when used with a string argument. Instead, you should use the assert() function with a boolean argument or an expression. # list() construct with a single array element: The list() construct allows you to unpack the elements of an array into separate variables. It has been deprecated when used with a single array element, as this usage was considered confusing and error-prone. # create_function(): The create_function() function has been deprecated, as it has been superseded by anonymous functions, which are more flexible and easier to use. # mb_ereg_replace_callback(): The mb_ereg_replace_callback() function has been deprecated, as it has been superseded by the preg_replace_callback() function, which provides similar functionality and is more widely used. New "Random" extension The "Random" extension provides a new object-oriented API for generating random values in PHP. It includes several classes ("Engine"s) that implement different algorithms for generating random numbers and storing their state within objects. This allows for multiple independent seedable sequences, which can be useful in certain contexts, such as testing or simulation. The \Random\Randomizer class provides a high-level interface for using the engine's randomness to generate a random integer, shuffle an array or string, select random array keys, and more. This can be a convenient way to perform these common tasks without having to directly use the lower-level engine classes. It's worth noting that the "Random" extension is not enabled by default in PHP, and you will need to install and enable it in your PHP environment in order to use its features. You can find more information about the extension in the official PHP documentation.


Release history

Beginning on 28 June 2011, the PHP Development Team implemented a timeline for the release of new versions of PHP. Under this system, at least one release should occur every month. Once per year, a minor release should occur which may include new features. Every minor release should at least be supported for two years with security and bug fixes, followed by at least one year of only security fixes, for a total of a three-year release process for every minor release. No new features, unless small and self-contained, are to be introduced into a minor release during the three-year release process.


Mascot

The mascot of the PHP project is the ''elePHPant'', a blue
elephant Elephants are the Largest and heaviest animals, largest existing land animals. Three living species are currently recognised: the African bush elephant, the African forest elephant, and the Asian elephant. They are the only surviving members ...
with the PHP logo on its side, designed by Vincent Pontier in 1998. "The (PHP) letters were forming the shape of an elephant if viewed in a sideways angle." The elePHPant is sometimes differently colored when in
plush toy A stuffed toy is a toy doll with an outer fabric sewn from a textile and stuffed with flexible material. They are known by many names, such as plush toys, plushies, stuffed animals, and stuffies; in Britain and Australia, they may also be cal ...
form. Many variations of this mascot have been made over the years. Only the elePHPants based on the original design by Vincent Pontier are considered official by the community. These are collectible and some of them are extremely rare.


Syntax

The following
"Hello, World!" program A "Hello, World!" program is generally a computer program that ignores any input and outputs or displays a message similar to "Hello, World!". A small piece of code in most general-purpose programming languages, this program is used to illustra ...
is written in PHP code embedded in an
HTML The HyperText Markup Language or HTML is the standard markup language for documents designed to be displayed in a web browser. It can be assisted by technologies such as Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) and scripting languages such as JavaScript ...
document: PHP "Hello, World!" program Hello, World!

'; ?>
However, as no requirement exists for PHP code to be embedded in HTML, the simplest version of ''Hello, World!'' may be written like this, with the closing tag ?> omitted as preferred in files containing pure PHP code. The PHP interpreter only executes PHP code within its
delimiter A delimiter is a sequence of one or more Character (computing), characters for specifying the boundary between separate, independent regions in plain text, Expression (mathematics), mathematical expressions or other Data stream, data streams. An ...
s. Anything outside of its delimiters is not processed by PHP, although non-PHP text is still subject to control structures described in PHP code. The most common delimiters are to open and ?> to close PHP sections. The shortened form also exists. This short delimiter makes script files less portable, since support for them can be disabled in the local PHP configuration and it is therefore discouraged. Conversely, there is no recommendation against the echo short tag . Prior to PHP 5.4.0, this short syntax for echo only works with the short_open_tag configuration setting enabled, while for PHP 5.4.0 and later it is always available. The purpose of all these delimiters is to separate PHP code from non-PHP content, such as
JavaScript JavaScript (), often abbreviated as JS, is a programming language that is one of the core technologies of the World Wide Web The World Wide Web (WWW), commonly known as the Web, is an information system enabling documents and oth ...
code or HTML markup. So the shortest
"Hello, World!" program A "Hello, World!" program is generally a computer program that ignores any input and outputs or displays a message similar to "Hello, World!". A small piece of code in most general-purpose programming languages, this program is used to illustra ...
written in PHP is: The first form of delimiters, and ?>, in
XHTML Extensible HyperText Markup Language (XHTML) is part of the family of XML markup languages. It mirrors or extends versions of the widely used HyperText Markup Language (HTML), the language in which Web pages are formulated. While HTML, prior to ...
and other XML documents, creates correctly formed XML processing instructions. This means that the resulting mixture of PHP code and other markup in the server-side file is itself well-formed XML. Variables are prefixed with a dollar symbol, and a type does not need to be specified in advance. PHP 5 introduced ''type declarations'' that allows functions to force their parameters to be objects of a specific class, arrays, interfaces or callback functions. However, before PHP 7, type declarations could not be used with scalar types such as integer or string. Below is an example of how PHP variables are declared and initialized. Unlike function and class names, variable names are case sensitive. Both double-quoted ("") and heredoc strings provide the ability to interpolate a variable's value into the string. PHP treats newlines as whitespace in the manner of a free-form language, and statements are terminated by a semicolon. PHP has three types of comment syntax: /* */ marks block and inline comments; // or # are used for one-line comments. The echo statement is one of several facilities PHP provides to output text. In terms of keywords and language syntax, PHP is similar to the C style syntax. if conditions, for and while loops, and function returns are similar in syntax to languages such as C, C++, C#, Java and Perl.


Data types

PHP is loosely typed. It stores integers in a platform-dependent range, either as a 32, 64 or 128-bit signed
integer An integer is the number zero (), a positive natural number (, , , etc.) or a negative integer with a minus sign (−1, −2, −3, etc.). The negative numbers are the additive inverses of the corresponding positive numbers. In the language of ...
equivalent to the C-language long type. Unsigned integers are converted to signed values in certain situations, which is different behavior to many other programming languages. Integer variables can be assigned using decimal (positive and negative),
octal The octal numeral system, or oct for short, is the base-8 number system, and uses the digits 0 to 7. This is to say that 10octal represents eight and 100octal represents sixty-four. However, English, like most languages, uses a base-10 numbe ...
,
hexadecimal In mathematics and computing, the hexadecimal (also base-16 or simply hex) numeral system is a Numeral system#Positional systems in detail, positional numeral system that represents numbers using a radix (base) of 16. Unlike the decimal system ...
, and binary notations. Floating point numbers are also stored in a platform-specific range. They can be specified using floating point notation, or two forms of scientific notation. PHP has a native Boolean type that is similar to the native Boolean types in
Java Java (; id, Jawa, ; jv, ꦗꦮ; su, ) is one of the Greater Sunda Islands in Indonesia. It is bordered by the Indian Ocean to the south and the Java Sea to the north. With a population of 151.6 million people, Java is the world's List ...
and C++. Using the Boolean type conversion rules, non-zero values are interpreted as true and zero as false, as in
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. "Perl" refers to Perl 5, but from 2000 to 2019 it also referred to its redesigned "sister language", Perl 6, before the latter's name was offi ...
and C++. The null data type represents a variable that has no value; NULL is the only allowed value for this data type. Variables of the "resource" type represent references to resources from external sources. These are typically created by functions from a particular extension, and can only be processed by functions from the same extension; examples include file, image, and database resources. Arrays can contain elements of any type that PHP can handle, including resources, objects, and even other arrays. Order is preserved in lists of values and in hashes with both keys and values, and the two can be intermingled. PHP also supports strings, which can be used with single quotes, double quotes, nowdoc or heredoc syntax. The Standard PHP Library (SPL) attempts to solve standard problems and implements efficient data access interfaces and classes.


Functions

PHP defines a large array of functions in the core language and many are also available in various extensions; these functions are well documented in the onlin
PHP documentation
However, the built-in library has a wide variety of naming conventions and associated inconsistencies, as described under
history History (derived ) is the systematic study and the documentation of the human activity. The time period of event before the invention of writing systems is considered prehistory. "History" is an umbrella term comprising past events as we ...
above. Custom functions may be defined by the developer: function myAge(int $birthYear): string echo 'I am currently ' . myAge(1995) . ' old.'; As of , the output of the above sample program is "I am currently years old." In lieu of function pointers, functions in PHP can be referenced by a string containing their name. In this manner, normal PHP functions can be used, for example, as callbacks or within function tables. User-defined functions may be created at any time without being prototyped. Functions may be defined inside code blocks, permitting a run-time decision as to whether or not a function should be defined. There is a function_exists function that determines whether a function with a given name has already been defined. Function calls must use parentheses, with the exception of zero-argument class constructor functions called with the PHP operator new, in which case parentheses are optional. Since PHP 4.0.1 create_function(), a thin wrapper around eval(), allowed normal PHP functions to be created during program execution; it was deprecated in PHP 7.2 and removed in PHP 8.0 in favor of syntax for anonymous functions or " closures" that can capture variables from the surrounding scope, which was added in PHP 5.3. Shorthand arrow syntax was added in PHP 7.4: function getAdder($x) $adder = getAdder(8); echo $adder(2); // prints "10" In the example above, getAdder() function creates a closure using passed argument (the keyword use imports a variable from the lexical context), which takes an additional argument , and returns the created closure to the caller. Such a function is a first-class object, meaning that it can be stored in a variable, passed as a
parameter A parameter (), generally, is any characteristic that can help in defining or classifying a particular system (meaning an event, project, object, situation, etc.). That is, a parameter is an element of a system that is useful, or critical, when ...
to other functions, etc. Unusually for a dynamically typed language, PHP supports type declarations on function parameters, which are enforced at runtime. This has been supported for classes and interfaces since PHP 5.0, for arrays since PHP 5.1, for "callables" since PHP 5.4, and scalar (integer, float, string and boolean) types since PHP 7.0. PHP 7.0 also has type declarations for function return types, expressed by placing the type name after the list of parameters, preceded by a colon. For example, the getAdder function from the earlier example could be annotated with types like so in PHP 7: function getAdder(int $x): Closure $adder = getAdder(8); echo $adder(2); // prints "10" echo $adder(null); // throws an exception because an incorrect type was passed $adder = getAdder([]); // would also throw an exception By default, scalar type declarations follow weak typing principles. So, for example, if a parameter's type is int, PHP would allow not only integers, but also convertible numeric strings, floats or booleans to be passed to that function, and would convert them. However, PHP 7 has a "strict typing" mode which, when used, disallows such conversions for function calls and returns within a file.


PHP Objects

Basic
object-oriented programming Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of " objects", which can contain data In the pursuit of knowledge, data (; ) is a collection of discrete values that convey information, describing qua ...
functionality was added in PHP 3 and improved in PHP 4. This allowed for PHP to gain further abstraction, making creative tasks easier for programmers using the language. Object handling was completely rewritten for PHP 5, expanding the feature set and enhancing performance. In previous versions of PHP, objects were handled like
value type In computer programming, data types can be divided into two categories: value types (or by-value types) and reference types (or by-reference types). Value types are completely represented by their meaning, while reference types are Reference (comput ...
s. The drawback of this method was that code had to make heavy use of PHP's "reference" variables if it wanted to modify an object it was passed rather than creating a copy of it. In the new approach, objects are referenced by handle, and not by value. PHP 5 introduced private and protected
member variable In object-oriented programming Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of " objects", which can contain data In the pursuit of knowledge, data (; ) is a collection of discrete values that conv ...
s and methods, along with abstract classes, final classes, abstract methods, and final methods. It also introduced a standard way of declaring constructors and destructors, similar to that of other object-oriented languages such as C++, and a standard exception handling model. Furthermore, PHP 5 added interfaces and allowed for multiple interfaces to be implemented. There are special interfaces that allow objects to interact with the runtime system. Objects implementing ArrayAccess can be used with array syntax and objects implementing Iterator or IteratorAggregate can be used with the foreach language construct. There is no virtual table feature in the engine, so static variables are bound with a name instead of a reference at compile time. If the developer creates a copy of an object using the reserved word clone, the Zend engine will check whether a __clone() method has been defined. If not, it will call a default __clone() which will copy the object's properties. If a __clone() method is defined, then it will be responsible for setting the necessary properties in the created object. For convenience, the engine will supply a function that imports the properties of the source object, so the programmer can start with a by-value replica of the source object and only override properties that need to be changed. The
visibility The visibility is the measure of the distance at which an object or light can be clearly discerned. In meteorology it depends on the Transparency and translucency, transparency of the surrounding air and as such, it is unchanging no matter the ...
of PHP properties and methods is defined using the keywords public, private, and protected. The default is public, if only var is used; var is a synonym for public. Items declared public can be accessed everywhere. protected limits access to inherited classes (and to the class that defines the item). private limits visibility only to the class that defines the item. Objects of the same type have access to each other's private and protected members even though they are not the same instance.


Example

The following is a basic example of
object-oriented programming Object-oriented programming (OOP) is a programming paradigm based on the concept of " objects", which can contain data In the pursuit of knowledge, data (; ) is a collection of discrete values that convey information, describing qua ...
in PHP 8: new Student("Alice", "Computer Science"), new Student("Bob", "Computer Science"), new Student("Charlie", "Business Studies"), $teachers = ____new_Teacher("Dan",_["Computer_Science",_"Information_Security", ____new_Teacher("Erin",_["Computer_Science",_"3D_Graphics_Programming".html" ;"title="Computer Science", "Information Security""> new Teacher("Dan", ["Computer Science", "Information Security", new Teacher("Erin", ["Computer Science", "3D Graphics Programming"">Computer Science", "Information Security""> new Teacher("Dan", ["Computer Science", "Information Security", new Teacher("Erin", ["Computer Science", "3D Graphics Programming", new Teacher("Frankie", ["Online Marketing", "Business Studies", "E-commerce"]), ]; foreach ([$students, $teachers] as $users) This program outputs the following:
Students:
Hello, my name is Alice, I learn Computer Science
Hello, my name is Bob, I learn Computer Science
Hello, my name is Charlie, I learn Business Studies
Teachers:
Hello, my name is Dan, I teach Computer Science, Information Security
Hello, my name is Erin, I teach Computer Science, 3D Graphics Programming
Hello, my name is Frankie, I teach Online Marketing, Business Studies, E-commerce


Implementations

The only complete PHP implementation is the original, known simply as PHP. It is the most widely used and is powered by the Zend Engine. To disambiguate it from other implementations, it is sometimes unofficially called "Zend PHP". The Zend Engine compiles PHP
source code In computing, source code, or simply code, is any collection of code, with or without comment (computer programming), comments, written using a human-readable programming language, usually as plain text. The source code of a Computer program, p ...
on-the-fly into an internal format that it can execute, thus it works as an interpreter. It is also the "reference implementation" of PHP, as PHP has no formal specification, and so the semantics of Zend PHP define the semantics of PHP. Due to the complex and nuanced semantics of PHP, defined by how Zend works, it is difficult for competing implementations to offer complete compatibility. PHP's single-request-per-script-execution model, and the fact that the Zend Engine is an interpreter, leads to inefficiency; as a result, various products have been developed to help improve PHP performance. In order to speed up execution time and not have to compile the PHP source code every time the web page is accessed, PHP scripts can also be deployed in the PHP engine's internal format by using an opcode cache, which works by caching the compiled form of a PHP script (opcodes) in shared memory to avoid the overhead of parsing and
compiling In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computer, computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic processes, and development of both computer hardware , hard ...
the code every time the script runs. An opcode cache, Zend Opcache, is built into PHP since version 5.5. Another example of a widely used opcode cache is the Alternative PHP Cache (APC), which is available as a PECL extension. While Zend PHP is still the most popular implementation, several other implementations have been developed. Some of these are compilers or support JIT compilation, and hence offer performance benefits over Zend PHP at the expense of lacking full PHP compatibility. Alternative implementations include the following: *
HHVM HipHop Virtual Machine (HHVM) is an Open-source software, open-source virtual machine based on Just-in-time compilation, just-in-time (JIT) compilation that serves as an execution engine for the Hack (programming language), Hack programming lang ...
(HipHop Virtual Machine) – developed at Facebook and available as open source, it converts PHP code into a high-level bytecode (commonly known as an intermediate language), which is then translated into x86-64 machine code dynamically at runtime by a just-in-time (JIT) compiler, resulting in up to 6× performance improvements. However, since version 7.2 Zend has outperformed HHVM, and HHVM 3.24 is the last version to officially support PHP. ** HipHop – developed at Facebook and available as open source, it transforms the PHP scripts into C++ code and then compiles the resulting code, reducing the server load up to 50%. In early 2013, Facebook deprecated it in favor of HHVM due to multiple reasons, including deployment difficulties and lack of support for the whole PHP language, including the create_function() and eval() constructs. * Parrot – a virtual machine designed to run dynamic languages efficiently; the cross-translator Pipp transforms the PHP source code into the Parrot intermediate representation, which is then translated into the Parrot's bytecode and executed by the virtual machine. * PeachPie – a second-generation compiler to . NET Common Intermediate Language (CIL) bytecode, built on the Roslyn platform; successor of Phalanger, sharing several architectural components * Phalanger – compiles PHP into .Net Common Intermediate Language bytecode; predecessor of PeachPie * Quercus – compiles PHP into Java bytecode


Licensing

PHP is
free software Free software or libre software is computer software distributed under terms that allow users to run the software for any purpose as well as to study, change, and distribute it and any adapted versions. Free software is a matter of liberty, no ...
released under the PHP License, which stipulates that: This restriction on use of "PHP" makes the PHP License incompatible with the General Public License (GPL), while the Zend License is incompatible due to an advertising clause similar to that of the original BSD license.


Development and community

PHP includes various free and open-source libraries in its source distribution, or uses them in resulting PHP binary builds. PHP is fundamentally an
Internet The Internet (or internet) is the global system of interconnected computer networks that uses the Internet protocol suite (TCP/IP) to communicate between networks and devices. It is a '' network of networks'' that consists of private, p ...
-aware system with built-in modules for accessing File Transfer Protocol (FTP) servers and many database servers, including PostgreSQL,
MySQL MySQL () is an Open-source software, open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter My, and "SQL", the acronym for Structured Query Language. A rel ...
,
Microsoft SQL Server Microsoft SQL Server is a relational database management system developed by Microsoft. As a database server, it is a software product with the primary function of storing and retrieving data as requested by other software applications—which ma ...
and SQLite (which is an embedded database), LDAP servers, and others. Numerous functions familiar to C programmers, such as those in the stdio family, are available in standard PHP builds. PHP allows developers to write extensions in C to add functionality to the PHP language. PHP extensions can be compiled statically into PHP or loaded dynamically at runtime. Numerous extensions have been written to add support for the Windows API, process management on
Unix-like A Unix-like (sometimes referred to as UN*X or *nix) operating system is one that behaves in a manner similar to a Unix system, although not necessarily conforming to or being certified to any version of the Single UNIX Specification. A Unix- ...
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems scheduler (computing), schedule tasks for ef ...
s, multibyte strings (
Unicode Unicode, formally The Unicode Standard,The formal version reference is is an information technology standard for the consistent encoding, representation, and handling of text expressed in most of the world's writing systems. The standard, ...
), cURL, and several popular compression formats. Other PHP features made available through extensions include integration with
Internet Relay Chat Internet Relay Chat (IRC) is a text-based chat system for instant messaging. IRC is designed for Many-to-many, group communication in discussion forums, called ''#Channels, channels'', but also allows one-on-one communication via instant messa ...
(IRC), dynamic generation of images and Adobe Flash content, ''PHP Data Objects'' (PDO) as an abstraction layer used for accessing databases, and even speech synthesis. Some of the language's core functions, such as those dealing with strings and arrays, are also implemented as extensions. The PHP Extension Community Library (PECL) project is a repository for extensions to the PHP language. Some other projects, such as ''Zephir'', provide the ability for PHP extensions to be created in a high-level language and compiled into native PHP extensions. Such an approach, instead of writing PHP extensions directly in C, simplifies the development of extensions and reduces the time required for programming and testing. By December 2018 the PHP Group consisted of ten people: Thies C. Arntzen, Stig Bakken, Shane Caraveo, Andi Gutmans, Rasmus Lerdorf, Sam Ruby, Sascha Schumann, Zeev Suraski, Jim Winstead, and Andrei Zmievski. Zend Technologies provides a PHP Certification based on PHP 7 exam (and previously based on PHP 5.5) for programmers to become certified PHP developers.


PHP Foundation

On November 26, 2021, the JetBrains blog announced the creation of the PHP Foundation, which will sponsor the design and development of PHP.


Installation and configuration

There are two primary ways for adding support for PHP to a web server – as a native web server module, or as a CGI executable. PHP has a direct module interface called server application programming interface (SAPI), which is supported by many web servers including Apache HTTP Server, Microsoft IIS and iPlanet Web Server. Some other web servers, such as OmniHTTPd, support the Internet Server Application Programming Interface (ISAPI), which is
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation producing Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at th ...
's web server module interface. If PHP has no module support for a web server, it can always be used as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) or FastCGI processor; in that case, the web server is configured to use PHP's CGI executable to process all requests to PHP files. PHP-FPM (FastCGI Process Manager) is an alternative FastCGI implementation for PHP, bundled with the official PHP distribution since version 5.3.3. When compared to the older FastCGI implementation, it contains some additional features, mostly useful for heavily loaded web servers. When using PHP for command-line scripting, a PHP
command-line interface A command-line interpreter or command-line processor uses a command-line interface (CLI) to receive command (computing), commands from a user in the form of lines of text. This provides a means of setting parameters for the environment, invokin ...
(CLI) executable is needed. PHP supports a CLI server application programming interface (SAPI) since PHP 4.3.0. The main focus of this SAPI is developing shell applications using PHP. There are quite a few differences between the CLI SAPI and other SAPIs, although they do share many of the same behaviors. PHP has a direct module interface called SAPI for different web servers; in case of PHP 5 and Apache 2.0 on Windows, it is provided in form of a DLL file called , which is a module that, among other functions, provides an interface between PHP and the web server, implemented in a form that the server understands. This form is what is known as a SAPI. There are different kinds of SAPIs for various web server extensions. For example, in addition to those listed above, other SAPIs for the PHP language include the Common Gateway Interface and command-line interface. PHP can also be used for writing desktop graphical user interface (GUI) applications, by using the PHP-GTK extension. PHP-GTK is not included in the official PHP distribution, and as an extension it can be used only with PHP versions 5.1.0 and newer. The most common way of installing PHP-GTK is compiling it from the source code. When PHP is installed and used in
cloud In meteorology, a cloud is an aerosol consisting of a visible mass of miniature liquid drop (liquid), droplets, ice crystals, frozen crystals, or other particulates, particles suspended in the atmosphere of a planetary body or similar space. ...
environments, software development kits (SDKs) are provided for using cloud-specific features. For example: * Amazon Web Services provides the AWS SDK for PHP * Microsoft Azure can be used with the Windows Azure SDK for PHP. Numerous configuration options are supported, affecting both core PHP features and extensions. Configuration file php.ini is searched for in different locations, depending on the way PHP is used. The configuration file is split into various sections, while some of the configuration options can be also set within the web server configuration.


Use

PHP is a general-purpose scripting language that is especially suited to server-side web development, in which case PHP generally runs on a web server. Any PHP code in a requested file is executed by the PHP runtime, usually to create dynamic web page content or dynamic images used on websites or elsewhere. It can also be used for command-line scripting and client-side graphical user interface (GUI) applications. PHP can be deployed on most web servers, many
operating system An operating system (OS) is system software that manages computer hardware, software resources, and provides common daemon (computing), services for computer programs. Time-sharing operating systems scheduler (computing), schedule tasks for ef ...
s and platforms, and can be used with many relational database management systems (RDBMS). Most web hosting providers support PHP for use by their clients. It is available free of charge, and the PHP Group provides the complete source code for users to build, customize and extend for their own use. Originally designed to create dynamic web pages, PHP now focuses mainly on server-side scripting, and it is similar to other server-side scripting languages that provide dynamic content from a web server to a client, such as
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation producing Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services headquartered at th ...
's ASP.NET, Sun Microsystems' JavaServer Pages, and mod_perl. PHP has also attracted the development of many software frameworks that provide building blocks and a design structure to promote rapid application development (RAD). Some of these include PRADO, CakePHP, Symfony, CodeIgniter, Laravel, Yii Framework, Phalcon and Laminas, offering features similar to other web frameworks. The LAMP architecture has become popular in the web industry as a way of deploying web applications. PHP is commonly used as the ''P'' in this bundle alongside
Linux Linux ( or ) is a family of free and open-source software, open-source Unix-like operating systems based on the Linux kernel, an kernel (operating system), operating system kernel first released on September 17, 1991, by Linus Torvalds. Linu ...
,
Apache The Apache () are a group of culturally related Native American tribes in the Southwestern United States, which include the Chiricahua, Jicarilla, Lipan, Mescalero, Mimbreño, Ndendahe (Bedonkohe or Mogollon and Nednhi or Carrizaleño ...
and
MySQL MySQL () is an Open-source software, open-source relational database management system (RDBMS). Its name is a combination of "My", the name of co-founder Michael Widenius's daughter My, and "SQL", the acronym for Structured Query Language. A rel ...
, although the ''P'' may also refer to Python,
Perl Perl is a family of two high-level, general-purpose, interpreted, dynamic programming languages. "Perl" refers to Perl 5, but from 2000 to 2019 it also referred to its redesigned "sister language", Perl 6, before the latter's name was offi ...
, or some mix of the three. Similar packages, WAMP and MAMP, are also available for Windows and
macOS macOS (; previously OS X and originally Mac OS X) is a Unix operating system developed and marketed by Apple Inc. since 2001. It is the primary operating system for Apple's Mac (computer), Mac computers. Within the market of ...
, with the first letter standing for the respective operating system. Although both PHP and Apache are provided as part of the macOS base install, users of these packages seek a simpler installation mechanism that can be more easily kept up to date. For specific and more advanced usage scenarios, PHP offers a well defined and documented way for writing custom extensions in C or C++. Besides extending the language itself in form of additional libraries, extensions are providing a way for improving execution speed where it is critical and there is room for improvements by using a true compiled language. PHP also offers well defined ways for embedding itself into other software projects. That way PHP can be easily used as an internal scripting language for another project, also providing tight interfacing with the project's specific internal data structures. PHP received mixed reviews due to lacking support for multithreading at the core language level, though using threads is made possible by the "pthreads" PECL extension. A command line interface, php-cli, and two ActiveX Windows Script Host scripting engines for PHP have been produced.


Popularity and usage statistics

PHP is used for Web content management systems including MediaWiki, WordPress, Joomla, Drupal, Moodle, eZ Publish, eZ Platform, and SilverStripe. , PHP was used in more than 240 million
website A website (also written as a web site) is a collection of web pages and related content that is identified by a common domain name and published on at least one web server. Examples of notable websites are Google Search, Google, Facebook, Amaz ...
s (39% of those sampled) and was installed on 2.1 million web servers. , PHP was used as the server-side programming language on 79.1% of websites, down from 83.5% previously, where the language could be determined, and PHP 7 is the most used version of the language with 50.3% of all websites on the web using that version.


Security

In 2019, 11% of all vulnerabilities listed by the National Vulnerability Database were linked to PHP; historically, about 30% of all vulnerabilities listed since 1996 in this database are linked to PHP. Technical security flaws of the language itself or of its core libraries are not frequent (22 in 2009, about 1% of the total although PHP applies to about 20% of programs listed). Recognizing that programmers make mistakes, some languages include taint checking to automatically detect the lack of input validation which induces many issues. Such a feature is being developed for PHP, but its inclusion into a release has been rejected several times in the past. There are advanced protection patches such as Suhosin and Hardening-Patch, especially designed for web hosting environments. Historically, old versions of PHP had some configuration parameters and default values for such runtime settings that made some PHP applications prone to security issues. Among these, magic_quotes_gpc and register_globals configuration directives were the best known; the latter made any URL parameters become PHP variables, opening a path for serious security vulnerabilities by allowing an attacker to set the value of any uninitialized global variable and interfere with the execution of a PHP script. Support for " magic quotes" and "register globals" settings has been deprecated since PHP 5.3.0, and removed from PHP 5.4.0. Another example for the potential runtime-settings vulnerability comes from failing to disable PHP execution (for example by using the engine configuration directive) for the directory where uploaded files are stored; enabling it can result in execution of malicious code embedded within the uploaded files. The best practice is to either locate the image directory outside of the document root available to the web server and serve it via intermediary script, or disable PHP execution for the directory which stores the uploaded files. Also, enabling the dynamic loading of PHP extensions (via enable_dl configuration directive) in a shared web hosting environment can lead to security issues. Implied type conversions that result in different values being treated as equal, sometimes against the programmer's intent, can lead to security issues. For example, the result of the comparison is true, because strings that are parsable as numbers are converted to numbers; in this case, the first compared value is treated as scientific notation having the value (), which is zero. Errors like this resulted in authentication vulnerabilities in Simple Machines Forum, Typo3 and phpBB when MD5 password hashes were compared. The recommended way is to us
hash_equals()
(for timing attack safety), strcmp or the identity operator (

), as results in false. In a 2013 analysis of over 170,000 website defacements, published by Zone-H, the most frequently (53%) used technique was exploitation of file inclusion vulnerability, mostly related to insecure usage of the PHP language constructs include, require, and allow_url_fopen. W3Techs reports that 64% of websites using PHP, use versions 7.2 or older (which are no longer supported by The PHP Development Team) with 35% of all PHP websites using version 5.6 or older. Version 5 is still used by 24.5% of all the websites (September 2021). It is highly recommended to migrate to PHP version 7 or 8 and use random_int() instead of rand() or mt_rand(), as the latter functions are not cryptographically-secure. There are two attacks that can be performed over PHP entropy sources: "seed attack" and "state recovery attack". With current GPU technologies an attacker can perform up to 2 MD5 calculations per second with a $250 GPU, while with an additional $500 can reach up to 2 calculations. In combination with a " birthday attack" this can lead to serious security vulnerabilities.


See also

* Comparison of programming languages * * List of AMP packages * List of PHP accelerators * List of PHP editors * PEAR (PHP Extension and Application Repository) * PHP accelerator * Template processor * XAMPP (Free and open-source cross-platform web server solution stack package) * Zend Server


References


Further reading

*


External links

* * {{Authority control 1995 software Articles with example PHP code Class-based programming languages Cross-platform software Dynamic programming languages Dynamically typed programming languages Filename extensions Free compilers and interpreters High-level programming languages Internet terminology Object-oriented programming languages PHP software Procedural programming languages Programming languages Programming languages created in 1995 Scripting languages Software using the PHP license Text-oriented programming languages