The PAD emotional state model is a
psychological Psychology is the scientific Science () is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds and organizes knowledge in the form of Testability, testable explanations and predictions about the universe."... modern science is ...

model developed by
Albert Mehrabian Albert Mehrabian, born in 1939 to an Armenian Armenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Armenia, a country in the South Caucasus region of Eurasia * Armenians, the national people of Armenia, or people of Armenian descent ** Arme ...
and James A. Russell (1974 and after) to describe and measure emotional states. PAD uses three numerical dimensions, Pleasure, Arousal and Dominance to represent all
emotion Emotions are psychological state A mental state is a state of mind that an agent is in. Most simplistically, a mental state is a mental condition. It is a relation that connects the agent with a proposition. Several of these states are a comb ...

s. Its initial use was in a theory of
environmental psychology Environmental psychology is an interdisciplinary Interdisciplinarity or interdisciplinary studies involves the combination of two or more academic disciplines into one activity (e.g., a research project). It draws knowledge from several othe ...
, the core idea being that physical environments influence people through their emotional impact. It was subsequently used by Peter Lang and colleagues to propose a physiological theory of emotion. It was also used by James A. Russell to develop a theory of emotional episodes (relatively brief emotionally charged events). The PA part of PAD was developed into a circumplex model of emotion experience, and those two dimensions were termed "core affect". The D part of PAD was re-conceptualized as part of the appraisal process in an emotional episode (a cold cognitive assessment of the situation eliciting the emotion). A more fully developed version of this approach is termed the psychological construction theory of emotion. The PAD (''Pleasure'', ''Arousal'', ''Dominance'') model has been used to study
nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at the same time. In human beings Humans (''Homo sapi ...
such as
body language Body language is a type of nonverbal communication Nonverbal communication (NVC) is the transmission of messages or signals through a nonverbal platform such as eye contact Eye contact occurs when two people look at each other's eyes at ...

body language
in psychology. It has also been applied to consumer marketing and the construction of
animated character #REDIRECT Character animation #REDIRECT Character animation Character animation is a specialized area of the animation Animation is a method in which Image, figures are manipulated to appear as moving images. In traditional animation, images ar ...
s that express emotions in
virtual world A virtual world (also called a virtual space) is a computer-simulated environment which may be populated by many users who can create a personal avatar An avatar (Sanskrit: अवतार, IAST: ; ), a concept in Hinduism that means "descent ...

The dimensional structure

PAD uses three-dimensional scales which in theory could have any numerical values. The dimensional structure is reminiscent of the 19th century work of
Wilhelm Wundt Wilhelm Maximilian Wundt (; ; 16 August 1832 – 31 August 1920) was a German physiologist, philosopher, and professor, known today as one of the fathers of modern psychology Psychology is the scientific Science (from the Latin L ...

Wilhelm Wundt
who also used a three-dimensional system and also the 20th century work of Charles E. Osgood. The ''Pleasure-Displeasure Scale'' measures how pleasant or unpleasant one feels about something. For instance both anger and fear are unpleasant emotions, and both score on the displeasure side. However joy is a pleasant emotion. The ''Arousal-Nonarousal Scale'' measures how energized or soporific one feels. It is not the intensity of the emotion -- for grief and depression can be low arousal intense feelings. While both anger and rage are unpleasant emotions, rage has a higher intensity or a higher arousal state. However boredom, which is also an unpleasant state, has a low arousal value. The ''Dominance-Submissiveness Scale'' represents the controlling and dominant versus controlled or submissive one feels. For instance while both fear and anger are unpleasant emotions, anger is a dominant emotion, while fear is a submissive emotion. A more abbreviated version of the model uses just 4 values for each dimension, providing only 64 values for possible emotions. For instance, anger is a quite unpleasant, quite aroused, and moderately dominant emotion, while boredom is slightly unpleasant, quite unaroused, and mostly non-dominant.



The abbreviated model has also been used in organizational studies where the emotions towards specific entities or products marketed by them are measured. The PAD model has been used in studying consumer behavior in stores, to determine the effects of pleasure and arousal on issues such as extra time spent in the store and unplanned spending.

Virtual emotional characters

The PAD model, and the corresponding ''PAD Space'' have been used in the construction of animated agents that exhibit emotions. For instance, Becker et al. describe how primary and secondary emotions can be mapped via the PAD space to features in the faces of animated characters to reflect happiness, boredom, frustration or annoyance. Lance et al. discuss how the PAD model can be used to study gaze behavior in animated agents. Zhang et al. describe how the PAD model can be used to assign specific emotions to the faces of
avatars An avatar (Sanskrit Sanskrit (; attributively , ; nominalization, nominally , , ) is a classical language of South Asia that belongs to the Indo-Aryan languages, Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. It arose in South Asia af ...
. In this approach the PAD model is used as a high level emotional space, and the lower level space is the
MPEG-4 MPEG-4 is a method of defining compression Compression may refer to: Physical science *Compression (physics), size reduction due to forces *Compression member, a structural element such as a column *Compressibility, susceptibility to compression ...
Facial Animation Parameters (FAP). A mid-level Partial Expression Parameters (PEP) space is then used to in a two level structure: the PAD-PEP mapping and the PEP-FAP translation model.

See also

* Affect measures


Further reading

*{{cite journal , first=P. , last=Valdez , first2=A. , last2=Mehrabian , title=Effects of color on emotions , year=1994 , journal=
Journal of Experimental Psychology The ''Journal of Experimental Psychology'' was a bimonthly Peer review, peer-reviewed academic journal published by American Psychological Association. The journal, established in 1916, contained articles relating to experimental psychology. Beginni ...
, volume=123 , issue=4 , pages=394–409 , doi= 10.1037/0096-3445.123.4.394
Emotion Emotions are subjective experiences, often associated with Mood (psychology), mood, temperament, Personality psychology, personality, and disposition. Articles about specific emotional states should be placed in :Emotions or one of its subcategorie ...
Psychological models Psychological theories