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The Oxymonads are a group of flagellated protozoa found exclusively in the intestines of termites and other wood-eating insects. Along with the similar parabasalid flagellates, they harbor the symbiotic bacteria that are responsible for breaking down cellulose. It includes ''Dinenympha'', ''Pyrsonympha'', and ''Oxymonas''.

Characteristics

Most Oxymonads are around 50 μm in size and have a single nucleus, associated with four flagella. Their basal bodies give rise to several long sheets of microtubules, which form an organelle called an axostyle, but different in structure from the axostyles of parabasalids. The cell may use the axostyle to swim, as the sheets slide past one another and cause it to undulate. An associated fiber called the preaxostyle separates the flagella into two pairs. A few oxymonads have multiple nuclei, flagella, and axostyles.

Relationship to Trimastix

The free-living flagellate ''Trimastix'' is closely related to the oxymonads. It lacks mitochondria and has four flagella separated by a preaxostyle, but unlike the oxymonads has a feeding groove. This character places the Oxymonads and ''Trimastix'' among the Excavata, and in particular they may belong to the metamonads.

Taxonomy

* Order Oxymonadida Grassé 1952 emend. Cavalier-Smith 2003 ** Family Oxymonadidae Kirby 1928 xymonadaceae*** Genus ?''Barroella'' Zeliff 1944 '[[Kirbyella''_Zeliff_1930_non_Kirkaldy_1906_non_Bolivar_1909.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Kirbyella.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="'[[Kirbyella">'[[Kirbyella'' Zeliff 1930 non Kirkaldy 1906 non Bolivar 1909">Kirbyella.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="'[[Kirbyella">'[[Kirbyella'' Zeliff 1930 non Kirkaldy 1906 non Bolivar 1909*** Genus ?''[[Metasaccinobaculus'' Freitas 1945 *** Genus ?''[[Tubulimonoides'' Krishnamurthy & Sultana 1976 *** Genus ''[[Microrhopalodina'' Grassé & Foa 1911 [''[[Proboscidiella'' Kofoid & Swezy 1926; ''Opisthomitus'' Grassé 1952 non Duboscq & Grassé 1934] *** Genus ''Oxymonas'' Janicki 1915 *** Genus ''Sauromonas'' Grassé & Hollande 1952 ** Family Polymastigidae Bütschli 1884 olymastigaceae*** Genus ?''Brachymonas'' Grassé 1952 non Hiraishi et al. 1995 *** Genus ?''Paranotila'' Cleveland 1966 *** Genus ''Monocercomonoides'' Travis 1932 *** Genus ''Polymastix'' Bütschli 1884 non Gruber 1884 ** Family Pyrsonymphidae Grassé 1892 yrsonymphaceae; Dinenymphaceae*** Genus ''Dinenympha'' Leidy 1877 *** Genus ''Pyrsonympha'' Leidy 1877 '[[Pyrsonema''_Kent_1881;_''[[Lophophora.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="Pyrsonema.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="'[[Pyrsonema">'[[Pyrsonema'' Kent 1881; ''[[Lophophora">Pyrsonema.html" style="text-decoration: none;"class="mw-redirect" title="'[[Pyrsonema">'[[Pyrsonema'' Kent 1881; ''[[Lophophora'' Comes 1910 non Coulter 1894 non Kraatz 1895 non Moeschler 1890] ** Family [[Saccinobaculidae Brugerolle & Lee 2002 ex Cavalier-Smith 2012 *** Genus ''[[Notila'' Cleveland 1950 *** Genus ''[[Saccinobaculus'' Cleveland-Hall & Sanders & Collier 1934 ** Family Streblomastigidae Kofoid & Swezy 1919 treblomastigaceae*** Genus ''Streblomastix'' Kofoid & Swezy 1920


References


{{Taxonbar|from=Q618894 Category:Flagellates Category:Metamonads