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Outer Mongolia (
Mongolian script The classical or traditional Mongolian script, also known as the , was the first writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" o ...
: or , Mongolian Cyrillic: or ,
romanization Romanization or romanisation, in linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspec ...
: ''Gadaad Mongol'' or ''Alr Mongol'';
Manchu The Manchu (; ) are an officially recognized ethnic minority in China and the people from whom Manchuria Manchuria is an exonym and endonym, exonym for a historical and geographic region of Russia and China in Northeast Asia (mostly in N ...
: ''Tülergi Monggo''; )Huhbator Borjigin. 2004. The history and political character of the name of 'Nei Menggu' (South Mongolia). Inner Asia 6: 61-80. is a name of an historical territory that consists of the modern state of
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
, sometimes called "Outer Mongolia" in China today, plus the Russian republic of
Tuva Tuva (; russian: Тува́) or Tyva ( tyv, Тыва), officially the Tyva Republic (russian: Респу́блика Тыва́, r=Respublika Tyva, p=rʲɪˈspublʲɪkə tɨˈva; tyv, Тыва Республика, translit=Tyva Respublika ...

Tuva
. From 1691 to 1911, Outer Mongolia was under the
Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last dynasty A dynasty (, ) is a sequence of rulers from the same family,''Oxford English Dictionary'', "dynasty, ''n''." Oxford University Press Oxford University Pr ...
. While the administrative Outer Mongolia only consisted of the four
Khalkha The Khalkha ( mn, Халх, ''Halh'', ) is the largest subgroup of Mongols, Mongol people in modern Mongolia since the 15th century. The Khalkha, together with Chahars, Ordos Mongols, Ordos and Tumed, were directly ruled by Borjigin khans until t ...
aimags (Setsen Khan Aimag,
Tüsheet Khan File:Mongolia 1915.jpg, 1915 map showing Tusheet Khan aimag and Tsetserleg Sain Noyon Khan aimag, 312x312px Tüsheet Khan (Mongolian language, Mongolian: Түшээт хан) refers to the territory as well as the Descent from Genghis Khan, Chingizi ...
Aimag, Sain Noyon Khan Aimag, and Zasagt Khan Aimag), in the late Qing period "Outer Mongolia" was also used to refer to Khalkha plus Oirat areas Khovd and the directly ruled
Tannu Uriankhai Tannu Uriankhai ( tyv, Таңды Урянхай, ; mn, Тагна Урианхай, ''Tagna Urianhai''; russian: Урянхайский край, ''Urjanchajskij kraj'', ; ) is a historic region of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of th ...
.


Names

The name "Outer Mongolia" is contrasted with
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
, which corresponds to the region of
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
in China. Inner Mongolia was given its name because it was more directly administered by the Qing court; Outer Mongolia (which is further from the capital
Beijing Beijing ( ), as Peking ( ), is the of the . It is the world's , with over 21 million residents within an of 16,410.5 km2 (6336 sq. mi.). It is located in , and is governed as a under the direct administration of the with .Figures ...

Beijing
) had a greater degree of autonomy within the Qing empire. There are three alternate terms including Ar Mongol, Mobei Mongol, and Outer Mongolia.


Ar Mongol

The term ''ar mongol'' or ''Mobei Mongol'' () is sometimes used in Mongolian (or Chinese) language to refer to North Mongolia when making a distinction with South Mongolia, so as to elide the history of Qing rule and rather imply a geographic unity or distinction of regions inhabited by Mongols in the
Mongolian Plateau The Mongolian Plateau is the part of the Central Asia, Central Asian Plateau lying between 37°46′-53°08′N and 87°40′-122°15′E and having an area of approximately . It is bounded by the Greater Hinggan Mountains in the east, the Yin Mo ...
. There also exists an English term ''Northern Mongolia''. Ar Mongol can also be used to refer to
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
synchronically, during that time period. In the
Mongolian language Mongolian is the official language of Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in E ...

Mongolian language
, the word ''ar'' refers to the back side of something, which has been extended to mean the northern side of any spatial entity, e.g. a mountain or a yurt. The word ''öbür'' refers to the south (and thus protected) side of a mountain.cf. Norcin, C. (1999): ''Monggol kelen-ü toli''. Ömnud monggol-un arad-un keblel-ün qoriya. Page 169, 580. ''ömnud: agula dabagan-u engger tal-a-yin gajar''. So the difference between South Mongolia and the Mongolian state is conceived as the metaphor of the backward northern side and the south side of a mountain. In contrast to Mobei Mongol (), there is also Monan Mongol (), roughly referring to the region now known as South Mongolia.


Modern usage

Today, "Outer Mongolia" is sometimes still informally used to refer to
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia
. To avoid confusion between the nation of Mongolia and China's Inner Mongolia, media in China generally refer to the former as "State of Mongolia" (); that is, the translation of the official name in Mongolian, /, instead of just "Mongolia" (), which could refer to the whole Mongolian area.


See also

*
Mongolia under Qing rule Mongolia under Qing rule was the rule of the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties in Chinese history, dynasty in the History of China#Imperial China, imperial history of China. It was es ...
*
Southern Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked autonomous region An autonomous administrative division (also referred to as an autonomous area, entity, unit, region, subdivision, or territory) is a subnati ...
*
Tannu Uriankhai Tannu Uriankhai ( tyv, Таңды Урянхай, ; mn, Тагна Урианхай, ''Tagna Urianhai''; russian: Урянхайский край, ''Urjanchajskij kraj'', ; ) is a historic region of the Mongol Empire The Mongol Empire of th ...
*
Dzungaria Dzungaria (; also transliterated as Zungaria; Dzungharia or Zungharia; Dzhungaria or Zhungaria; Djungaria or Jungaria; or literally züüngar, Mongolian for "left hand") is a geographical subregion in Northwest China that corresponds to th ...

Dzungaria
* Outer Northwest China *
Outer Manchuria Outer Manchuria (russian: Приаму́рье, translit=Priamurye; zh, t=外東北, p=Wài Dōngběi, l=Outer Northeast) or Russian Manchuria is a term for a territory in Northeast Asia that is part of Russia Russia (russian: link=no, ...
*
Inner Mongolia Inner Mongolia, officially the Inner Mongolia Autonomous Region, is a landlocked of the . Its border includes most of the length of China's with the country of . Inner Mongolia also accounts for a small section of China's with (). Its capit ...

Inner Mongolia
*
Mongolia Mongolia (, mn, Монгол Улс, Mongol Uls, Mongolian script, Traditional Mongolian: '; literal translation, lit. "Mongol Nation" or "State of Mongolia") is a landlocked country in East Asia. It is bordered by Russia Mongolia–Russia ...

Mongolia


References

{{Territorial disputes in East, South, and Southeast Asia Geography of Mongolia History of Mongolia Inner Asia . States and territories established in 1644 States and territories disestablished in 1922 1644 establishments in China 1922 disestablishments in China 17th-century establishments in Mongolia Territorial disputes of the Republic of China Historical regions of China