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In
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...

cricket
, a dismissal occurs when a batsman's period of
batting Batting may refer to: *Batting (baseball) In baseball Baseball is a bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two opposing teams who take turns batting (baseball), batting and fielding. The game proceeds when a player on t ...
is brought to an end by the opposing team. It is also known as the batsman being out, the batting side losing a wicket, and the fielding side taking a wicket. The ball becomes
dead Death is the permanent, irreversible cessation of all biological functions that sustain a living Living or The Living may refer to: Common meanings *Life, a condition that distinguishes organisms from inorganic objects and dead organi ...

dead
(so no further runs can be scored off that
delivery Delivery may refer to: *Delivery (commerce), of goods, e.g.: **Pizza delivery **Milk delivery Film and television *Delivering (film), ''Delivering'' (film), a 1993 short film by Todd Field *Delivery (film), ''Delivery'' (film), a 2005 animated sho ...
), and the dismissed batsman must leave the field of play permanently for the rest of their team's
innings An innings is one of the divisions of a cricket match during which one team takes its turn to batting (cricket), bat. Innings also means the period in which an individual player bats (acts as either striker or nonstriker). Innings, in cricket, a ...
, and is replaced by a teammate. A team's innings
ends ''Ends'' is a collection of science fiction Science fiction (sometimes shortened to sci-fi or SF) is a genre of speculative fiction which typically deals with imagination, imaginative and futuristic concepts such as advanced science and te ...
if 10 of the 11 team members are dismissed—as players bat in pairs, when only one person is undismissed it is not possible for the team to bat any longer. This is known as bowling out the batting team, who are said to be all out. The most common methods of dismissing a batsman are (in descending order of frequency):
caught Caught is a method of dismissing a batsman In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with ...

caught
,
bowled In cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action starts when the defending team throws a ba ...
,
leg before wicket Leg before wicket (lbw) is one of the ways in which a batsman In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricke ...
,
run out Run out is a method of dismissal in cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing teams, in which the action start ...
, and
stumped Stumped is a method of dismissal (cricket), dismissing a batsman in cricket, which involves the wicket-keeper putting down the wicket while the batsman is out of his Ground (cricket), ground. (The batsman leaves his ground when he has moved dow ...
. Of these, the leg before wicket and stumped methods of dismissal can be seen as related to, or being special cases of, the bowled and run out methods of dismissal respectively.


Purpose

Once dismissed, a batsman cannot score any more
runs Run(s) or RUN may refer to: Places * Run (island), one of the Banda Islands in Indonesia * Run (stream), a stream in the Dutch province of North Brabant People * Run (rapper), Joseph Simmons, now known as "Reverend Run", from the hip-hop group R ...
in that innings. Thus dismissing batsmen is a way for the fielding side to control the runs scored in an innings, and prevent the batting side from either achieving their target score or posting a large total for the fielding side to follow in the next innings. Additionally, in
Test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ''Test'' (2013 film), an American film * Test ( ...
and
first-class cricket First-class cricket is the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is one of three or more days' scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players each and is officially adjudged to b ...
, it is usually necessary for the side fielding last to dismiss ten players of the opposing team in their final innings to achieve victory (unless one or more of the batsmen have retired hurt or absent and are unable to take the field).


Adjudication

By convention, dismissal decisions are handled primarily by the players – thus if the dismissal is obvious the batsman will voluntarily leave the field without the umpire needing to dismiss him. If the batsman and fielding side disagree about a dismissal then the fielding side must
appeal In law Law is a system A system is a group of Interaction, interacting or interrelated elements that act according to a set of rules to form a unified whole. A system, surrounded and influenced by its environment, is describ ...
to the umpire who will then decide whether the batsman is out. In competitive cricket, many difficult catching and LBW decisions will be left to the umpire; if a batsman acknowledges that he is out in such cases and departs without waiting for the umpire's decision it is known as "walking", and regarded as an honourable but controversial act. If the umpire believes he has incorrectly dismissed a batsman, he may recall him to the crease if he has not already left the field of play. An example of this was in the 2007
Lord's Lord's Cricket Ground, commonly known as Lord's, is a cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch ...
test match between
England England is a Countries of the United Kingdom, country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to its west and Scotland to its north. The Irish Sea lies northwest of England and the Celtic Sea to the southwest. E ...
and
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...
when
Kevin Pietersen Kevin Peter Pietersen (born 27 June 1980) is a cricket commentator and former England international player. He is a right-handed batsman and occasional off spin Bowler (cricket), bowler who played in all three formats for England cricket team, ...

Kevin Pietersen
was initially given out caught behind, but was recalled when
television replays
television replays
showed that the ball had bounced before being taken by
Mahendra Singh Dhoni Mahendra Singh Dhoni (born 7 July 1981), is a former international cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a crick ...
.


Methods of dismissal

A batsman can be dismissed in a number of ways, the most common being bowled, caught, leg before wicket (LBW), run out and stumped. An analysis of Test match dismissals between 1877 and 2012 found that 98.2% of the 63,584 Test match dismissals in this period were one of these five types. Much rarer were retired, hit the ball twice, hit wicket, handled the ball/obstructing the field, and timed out. As it is possible to dismiss the non-striker, and possible to dismiss the striker from a no ball or wide (which do not count as a
delivery Delivery may refer to: *Delivery (commerce), of goods, e.g.: **Pizza delivery **Milk delivery Film and television *Delivering (film), ''Delivering'' (film), a 1993 short film by Todd Field *Delivery (film), ''Delivery'' (film), a 2005 animated sho ...
), this means a batsman can be dismissed without facing a single delivery. This is sometimes known as a
diamond duck
diamond duck
.
Len Hutton Sir Leonard Hutton (23 June 1916 – 6 September 1990) was an English cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cri ...
,
Desmond Haynes Desmond Leo Haynes (born 15 February 1956) is a former Barbadian cricketer and cricket coach who played for the West Indies cricket team between 1978 and 1994. Haynes favoured a more measured approach to batting and scored 7,487 runs in 116 Tes ...
, and
Steve Waugh Stephen Rodger Waugh (born 2 June 1965) is a Australian former international cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two o ...
were each dismissed in seven different ways over the course of their test career.


Common methods of dismissal


Law 32: Bowled

If a bowler's legitimate (ie. not a
No-ball In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail ...
) delivery hits the
wicket In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bai ...

wicket
and puts it down, the striker (the batsman facing the bowler) is out. The ball can either have struck the stumps directly, or have been deflected off the bat or body of the batsman. However, the batsman is not Bowled if the ball is touched by any other player or umpire before hitting the stumps. Bowled takes precedence over all other methods of dismissal. What this means is, if a batsman could be given out both Bowled and also for another reason, then the other reason is disregarded, and the batsman is out Bowled. Between 1877 and 2012, this method accounted for 21.4% of all Test match dismissals.


Law 33: Caught

If the batsman hits the ball, from a legitimate delivery (i.e. not a No-Ball), with the bat (or with the glove when the glove is in contact with the bat) and the ball is caught by the bowler or a fielder before it hits the ground, then the striker is out. "Caught behind" (an unofficial term) indicates that a player was caught by the wicket-keeper, or less commonly by the slips. "Caught and bowled" indicates the player who bowled the ball also took the catch. Caught takes precedence over all other methods of dismissal except Bowled. What this means is, if a batsman could be given out both Caught and also for another reason (except Bowled), then the other reason is disregarded, and the batsman is out Caught. Between 1877 and 2012, this method accounted for 56.9% of all Test match dismissals, with 40.6% caught by fielders, and 16.3% caught by the wicket-keeper.


Law 36: Leg before wicket (lbw)

If a bowler's legitimate (i.e., not a No-ball) delivery strikes any part of the batsman (not necessarily the leg), without first touching the bat (or glove holding the bat), and, in the
umpire An umpire is an official An official is someone who holds an office (function or Mandate (politics), mandate, regardless whether it carries an actual Office, working space with it) in an organization or government and participates in the exe ...
's judgement, the ball would have hit the
wicket In cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bai ...

wicket
but for this interception, then the striker is out. There are also further criteria that must be met, including where the ball pitched, whether the ball hit the batsman in line with the wickets, and whether the batsman was attempting to hit the ball, and these have changed over time. Between 1877 and 2012, this method accounted for 14.3% of all Test match dismissals.


Law 38: Run out

A batsman is Run out if at any time while the ball is in play, the wicket in the
ground Ground may refer to: * Soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body ...
closest to him is fairly put down by the opposing side while no part of the batsman's bat or body is grounded behind the
popping crease In the sport of cricket, the crease is a certain area demarcated by white lines painted or chalked on the field of play, and pursuant to the rules of cricket they help determine legal play in different ways for the fielding and batting side. They ...
. This usually happens while the batsmen are running between the wickets, attempting to score a run. Either the striker or non-striker can be Run out. The batsman nearest the safe territory of the wicket that has been put down, but not actually in safe territory, is out. On the line is considered as out; frequently it is a close call whether or not a batsman ''gained his
ground Ground may refer to: * Soil File:Stagnogley.JPG, Surface-water-Gley soil, gley developed in glacial till, Northern Ireland. Soil is a mixture of organic matter, minerals, gases, liquids, and organisms that together support life. Earth's body ...
'' before the bails were removed, with the decision referred to the
Decision Review System The Umpire Decision Review System (UDRS or simply DRS) is a technology-based system used in cricket to assist the match officials with their decision-making. On-field Umpire (cricket), umpires may choose to consult with the third umpire (known as a ...
. The difference between ''stumped'' and ''run out'' is that the wicket-keeper may stump a batsman who goes too far forward to play the ball (assuming he is not attempting a run), whilst any fielder, including the keeper, may run out a batsman who goes too far for any other purpose, including for taking a run. A special form of run out is when the batsman at the
non-striker In cricket, batting is the act or skill of hitting the cricket ball, ball with a cricket bat, bat to score runs (cricket), runs and prevent the dismissal (cricket), loss of one's wicket. Any player who is currently batting is denoted as a batsm ...
's end attempts to gain an advantage by leaving the crease before the next ball has been bowled (a common practice known as "backing up", but against the laws of cricket). The bowler may then dislodge the bails at his/her end without completing the run-up and dismiss the batsman. This form of run-out is sometimes called the Mankad (the dismissed batsman is said to have been "Mankaded"), in reference to
Vinoo Mankad Mulvantrai Himmatlal "Vinoo" Mankad (12 April 1917 – 21 August 1978) was an Indian cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of w ...
, the first bowler to dismiss a batsman in this manner in a Test match, running out Bill Brown in 1947. With changes in the Laws of Cricket, a bowler cannot Mankad a batsman once they reach the point in their delivery where they would normally release the ball. It is considered good etiquette to warn a batsman that he is leaving his crease early, before attempting a Mankad run out on a subsequent ball. A run out cannot occur if no fielder has touched the ball. As such, if a batsman plays a straight drive which breaks the non-striker's stumps whilst he is outside his crease, he is not out. However, if a fielder (usually the bowler, in this case) touches the ball at all before it breaks the stumps at the non-striker's end, then it is a run out, even if the fielder never has any control of the ball. Between 1877 and 2012, this method accounted for 3.5% of all Test match dismissals.


Law 39: Stumped

If the striker steps in front of the
crease Crease may refer to: * A line (geometry) or mark made by folding or doubling any pliable substance * Crease (band), American hard rock band that formed in Ft. Lauderdale, Florida in 1994 * Crease pattern, origami diagram type that consists of all o ...
to play the ball, leaving no part of his body or the bat on the ground behind the crease, and the wicket-keeper is able to put down the wicket with the ball, then the striker is out. A stumping is most likely to be effected off slow bowling, or (less frequently) medium-paced bowling when the wicket-keeper is standing directly behind the stumps. As wicket-keepers stand several yards back from the stumps to fast bowlers, stumpings are hardly ever effected off fast bowlers. The ball can bounce off a keeper (but not external non-usual wicketkeeping protective equipment, like a helmet) and break the stumps and still be considered a stumping. Stumped takes precedence over Run out. What this means is, if a batsman could be given out both Stumped and Run out, then Run out is disregarded, and the batsman is out Stumped. Between 1877 and 2012, this method accounted for 2.0% of all Test match dismissals.


Rare methods of dismissal


Law 25.4: Retired

If any batsman leaves the field of play without the Umpire's consent for any reason other than injury or incapacity, he may resume the innings only with the consent of the opposing captain. If he fails to resume his innings, he is out. For the purposes of calculating a
batting average Batting average is a statistic in cricket, baseball, and softball that measures the performance of batsmen in cricket and batters in baseball and softball. The development of the baseball statistic was influenced by the cricket statistic. Cricket ...
, retired out is considered a dismissal. Only two players in Test history have ever been given out in this manner:
Marvan Atapattu Deshabandu Marvan Samson Atapattu (born 22 November 1970) is a Sri Lankan cricket coach and former cricketer who played Tests and ODIs for seventeen years for Sri Lanka. Considered as one of the most technically sound batsman in his era, Atapatt ...
(for 201) and
Mahela Jayawardene Denagamage Praboth Mahela de Silva Jayawardene ( si, දෙනගමගේ ප්‍රබෝත් මහේල ද සිල්වා ජයවර්ධන; born 27 May 1977) is a former Sri Lankan cricketer who is also the current consultant ...

Mahela Jayawardene
(for 150), both in the same
innings An innings is one of the divisions of a cricket match during which one team takes its turn to batting (cricket), bat. Innings also means the period in which an individual player bats (acts as either striker or nonstriker). Innings, in cricket, a ...
playing for
Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ; si, ශ්‍රී ලංකාව, Śrī Laṅkā, translit-std=ISO (); ta, இலங்கை, Ilaṅkai, translit-std=ISO ()), formerly known as Ceylon, and officially the Democratic Socialist Republic of Sri Lanka, is ...
against
Bangladesh Bangladesh (, bn, বাংলাদেশ, ), officially the People's Republic of Bangladesh, is a country in South Asia South Asia is the southern region of Asia, which is defined in both geography, geographical and culture, ethno-c ...
in September 2001. Apparently, this was done in order to give the other players batting practice, but was considered unsportsmanlike and drew criticism. In May 1983,
Gordon Greenidge Sir Cuthbert Gordon Greenidge (born 1 May 1951) is a Barbadian former first-class cricketer, who represented the West Indies in Test and One day Cricket for 17 years. Greenidge is widely regarded as one of the greatest and destructive opening b ...
of the West Indies retired out on 154 to visit his daughter, who was ill and who died two days later; he was subsequently judged to have retired not out, the only such decision in Test history. There are numerous other recorded instances of batsmen retiring out in
first-class cricket First-class cricket is the highest-standard international or domestic matches in the sport of cricket. A first-class match is one of three or more days' scheduled duration between two sides of eleven players each and is officially adjudged to b ...
, particularly in tour matches and warm-up matches; since these matches are generally treated as practice matches, retiring out in these matches is not considered unsportsmanlike. In 1993
Graham Gooch Graham Alan Gooch, (born 23 July 1953) is a former English first-class cricketer who captained Essex and England cricket team, England. He was one of the most successful international batsman, batsmen of his generation, and through a career ...
, immediately after completing his hundredth first-class century with a six, retired on 105. A player who and does not return to bat by the end of the innings is not considered out for statistical purposes, though, as substitutes are not permitted to bat, the impact on play is effectively the same as if they had retired out.


Law 34: Hit the ball twice

If the batsman "hits" the ball twice, he is out. The first hit is the ball striking the batsman or his bat whilst the second hit is the batsman intentionally making separate contact with the ball, not necessarily with the bat (it is therefore possible to be out hitting the ball twice whilst not actually hitting the ball with the bat either time). The batsman is allowed to hit the ball a second time with his bat or body (but not a hand that is not in contact with the bat) if this is performed in order to stop the ball from hitting the stumps. No batsman has been out ''hitting the ball twice'' in
Test cricket Test cricket is the form of the sport of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wi ...
.


Law 35: Hit wicket

If the batsman dislodges his own stumps with his body or bat, while in the process of taking a shot or beginning his first run, then he is out. This law does not apply if he avoided a ball thrown back to the wicket by a fielder, or broke the wicket in avoiding a run out. This law also applies if part of the batsman's equipment is dislodged and hits the stumps:
Dwayne Bravo Dwayne John Bravo (born 7 October 1983) is a Trinidadian cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch w ...

Dwayne Bravo
hit
Kevin Pietersen Kevin Peter Pietersen (born 27 June 1980) is a cricket commentator and former England international player. He is a right-handed batsman and occasional off spin Bowler (cricket), bowler who played in all three formats for England cricket team, ...

Kevin Pietersen
in the head with a bouncer and his helmet hit the stumps during the 2007 England vs West Indies Test match at Old Trafford; a topspinner from
Richie Benaud Richard Benaud (; 6 October 1930 – 10 April 2015) was an Australian cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposi ...

Richie Benaud
once knocked off
Joe Solomon Joseph Stanislaus Solomon (born 26 August 1930) is a former West Indian cricketer Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two oppos ...
's cap, and the cap landed on Solomon's stumps. Being out hit-wicket is often seen as a comic method of dismissal. In 1991
Jonathan Agnew Jonathan Philip Agnew, (born 4 April 1960) is an English cricket broadcaster and a former professional cricketer. He was born in Macclesfield, Cheshire, and educated at Uppingham School. He is nicknamed "Aggers", and, less commonly, "Spiro" ...

Jonathan Agnew
and
Brian Johnston Brian Alexander Johnston (24 June 1912 – 5 January 1994), nicknamed Johnners, was a British cricket commentator, author, and television presenter. He was most prominently associated with the BBC during a career which lasted from 1946 until hi ...

Brian Johnston
, commentators on BBC Radio's ''
Test Match Special ''Test Match Special'' (also known as ''TMS'') is a British sports radio Sports radio (or sports talk radio) is a radio format A radio format or programming format (not to be confused with broadcast programming Broadcast programming is the ...
'', got themselves into difficulty while commentating on
Ian Botham Sir Ian Terence Botham, Baron Botham, (born 24 November 1955) is an English cricket commentator, member of the House of Lords and a former cricketer who has been chairman of Durham County Cricket Club since 2017. Hailed as one of the greatest ...
's dismissal (Botham dislodged his leg bail whilst trying to step over the stumps, having lost his balance in missing a
hook shot In basketball, a hook shot is a play in which the offensive player, usually turned perpendicular to the basket, gently throws the ball with a sweeping motion of the arm farther from the basket in an upward arc with a follow-through which ends ove ...
against
Curtly Ambrose Sir Curtly Elconn Lynwall Ambrose KCN (born 21 September 1963) is an Antigua Antigua ( ), also known as Waladli or Wadadli by the native population, is an island in the Lesser Antilles The Lesser Antilles ( es, link=no, Pequeñas A ...
), Agnew commenting that he "couldn't quite get his leg over". A more recent example of a comic hit-wicket dismissal was during the
Headingley Headingley is a suburb A suburb (or suburban area or suburbia) is a commercial Commercial may refer to: * a dose of advertising conveyed through media (such as - for example - radio or television) ** Radio advertisement ** Televis ...
Test match in the 2006 test series between England and
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...
, when Pakistan captain
Inzamam-ul-Haq Inzamam-ul-Haq ( ur, ; born 3 March 1970), also known as Inzi, is a Pakistani professional cricket coach and former Pakistan cricketer. He was the leading run scorer for Pakistan in one-day internationals, and the third-highest run scorer for ...

Inzamam-ul-Haq
missed a sweep against
Monty Panesar Mudhsuden Singh "Monty" Panesar ( Punjabi: ਮਧੁਸੂਦਨ ਸਿੰਘ ਪਨੇਸਰ, born 25 April 1982) is a former English international cricketer. A left-arm spinner, Panesar made his Test cricket'' Test cricket is the form o ...

Monty Panesar
, was hit in the midriff by the ball, lost his balance and collapsed on to his stumps (and nearly into wicket-keeper
Chris Read Christopher Mark Wells Read (born 10 August 1978) is a former English cricketer Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two opposing ...
).


Law 37: Obstructing the field

If the batsman, by action or by words, obstructs or distracts the fielding side, then he is out. This law now encompasses transgressions that would previously have been covered by ''
handled the ball Handled the ball was formerly one of the methods of dismissal (cricket), dismissing a batsman in the sport of cricket, but was integrated into the Law on obstructing the field when the Laws of Cricket were rewritten in 2017. It dictated that eit ...
'', which has now been removed from the Laws. Only one player has ever been out ''obstructing the field'' in a Test match: England's
Len Hutton Sir Leonard Hutton (23 June 1916 – 6 September 1990) was an English cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cri ...
, playing against South Africa at
The Oval The Oval, known for Naming rights#Stadium naming, sponsorship reasons as the Kia Oval, is an international cricket ground in Kennington, in the London Borough of Lambeth, in south London. The Oval has been the home ground of Surrey County Cri ...

The Oval
in London in 1951, knocked a ball away from his stumps, but in doing so prevented the South African wicket-keeper
Russell Endean William Russell Endean (31 May 1924 – 28 June 2003) was a South Africa South Africa, officially the Republic of South Africa (RSA), is the southernmost country in Africa. With over 60 million people, it is the world's 23rd-most p ...
from completing a catch. By coincidence, Endean was one of the few people to be given out ''handled the ball'' in a Test match. In One Day International cricket, eight batsmen have been given out obstructing the field.


Law 40: Timed out

An incoming batsman is "timed out" if he willfully takes more than three minutes to be ready to face the next delivery (or be at the other end if not on strike). If a not out batsman is not ready after a break in play, they can also be given out timed out on appeal. In the case of extremely long delays, the umpires may forfeit the match to either team. So far, this method of taking a wicket has never happened in the history of Test cricket and there have been only five occasions in all forms of first-class cricket.


Obsolete dismissal types


Handled the ball

Before the amendments of the Laws in 2017, there was a separate dismissal type of ''Handled the ball'' which is now covered by ''Obstructing the field''. If the batsman touched the ball with a hand not in contact with the bat for any purpose other than to prevent themselves being injured or, with the approval of the fielding team, to return the ball to a fielder, he was out on appeal. It was considered good etiquette for the fielding team not to appeal if the handling of the ball did not affect the play of the game, although there have been occasions when this etiquette was ignored. Only seven batsmen have been out ''handled the ball'' in the history of Test cricket, and two in One Day Internationals.


See also

*
List of cricket terms This is a general glossary of the terminology used in the sport of cricket. Where words in a sentence are also defined elsewhere in this article, they appear in italics. Certain aspects of cricket terminology are explained in more detail in cri ...
*
List of unusual dismissals in international cricket In cricket, a player is Dismissal (cricket), dismissed when they lose their wicket. At this point, the batsman must discontinue Batting (cricket), batting and leave the field permanently. A batsman can be dismissed in a number of ways, the most co ...


References


External links


The Laws of Cricket

Ten ways of getting out – BBC


* ttps://wisdomtalkies.com/Sports/video-book/Cricket/Rules-and-Regulations/video/440/Rules-&-regulations-of-cricket Rules and regulations of cricket video – WisdomTalkies {{DEFAULTSORT:Dismissal (Cricket) Cricket laws and regulations Cricket terminology