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The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )
info page on book
at
Martin Luther University Martin Luther University of Halle-Wittenberg (german: Martin-Luther-Universität Halle-Wittenberg), also referred to as MLU, is a public, research-oriented university in the cities of Halle, Saxony-Anhalt, Halle and Wittenberg in the State of Ger ...
) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338).
was an empire that controlled much of
Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the ...

Southeastern Europe
,
Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion of the larger geographical region of Asia, as defined by some academics, UN bodies and other institutions. It is almost entirely a part of the Middle East, and includes Anat ...

Western Asia
, and
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Northern Africa
between the 14th and early 20th centuries. It was founded at the end of the 13th century in northwestern
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
in the town of
Söğüt Söğüt () (Turkish for "willow") (Greek: Θηβάσιον or Θηβάσιο) is a town and Districts of turkey, district in Bilecik Province, Turkey. It is in the Marmara Region, Turkey, Marmara region in the north-west of the country, with an ...

Söğüt
(modern-day
Bilecik Province Bilecik Province ( tr, ) is a province in midwest Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλά ...
) by the Turkoman Osman I, also called Osman Gazi, (born c. 1258—died 1324 or 1326), ruler of a Turkmen principality in northwestern Anatolia who is regarded as the founder of the Ottoman Turkish state. tribal leader
Osman I Osman I or Osman Ghazi ( ota, عثمان غازى, translit= ʿOsmān Ġāzī; tr, I. Osman or ''Osman Gazi''; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Kayi tribe and the founder of the Ottoman dynas ...

Osman I
. After 1354, the Ottomans crossed into Europe and with the
conquest Conquest is the act of military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, g ...
of the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
, the Ottoman beylik was transformed into a transcontinental empire. The Ottomans ended the
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
with the
conquest of Constantinople Conquest is the act of military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, wi ...
in 1453 by
Mehmed the Conqueror Mehmed II ( ota, محمد ثانى, translit=Meḥmed-i sānī; tr, II. Mehmed, ; 30 March 14323 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror ( ota, ابو الفتح, Ebū'l-Fetḥ, lit=The Father of Conquest; tr, Fatih Sultan Mehmed), ...

Mehmed the Conqueror
. Under the reign of
Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I ( ota, سليمان اول, Süleyman-ı Evvel; tr, I. Süleyman; 6 November 14946 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( ota, قانونى سلطان سليمان, Ḳā ...

Suleiman the Magnificent
, the Ottoman Empire marked the peak of its power and prosperity, as well as the highest development of its governmental, social, and economic systems. At the beginning of the 17th century, the empire contained 32 provinces and numerous
vassal states A vassal state is any state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in ...
. Some of these were later absorbed into the Ottoman Empire, while others were granted various types of autonomy over the course of centuries.The empire also temporarily gained authority over distant overseas lands through declarations of allegiance to the Ottoman Sultan and Caliph, such as the declaration by the Sultan of Aceh in 1565, or through temporary acquisitions of islands such as
Lanzarote Lanzarote (, , ) is a Spanish island, the northernmost and easternmost of the autonomous Canary Islands The Canary Islands (; es, Islas Canarias, ), also known informally as ''the Canaries'', is a Spanish archipelago in the Atlantic Oc ...

Lanzarote
in the Atlantic Ocean in 1585
Turkish Navy Official Website: "Atlantik'te Türk Denizciliği"
/ref> With
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...
(modern-day
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
) as its capital and control of lands around the
Mediterranean Basin In biogeography, the Mediterranean Basin (also known as the Mediterranean region or sometimes Mediterranea) is the region of lands around the Mediterranean Sea The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by ...
, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the
Middle East The Middle East ( ar, الشرق الأوسط, ISO 233 The international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repeatable technical task whi ...

Middle East
and
Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large region In geography Geography (from Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of scienc ...

Europe
for six centuries. While the empire was once thought to have entered a period of decline following the death of Suleiman the Magnificent, this view is no longer supported by the majority of academic historians. * * The newer academic consensus posits that the empire continued to maintain a flexible and strong economy, society and military throughout the 17th and for much of the 18th century. However, during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768, the Ottoman military system fell behind that of their European rivals, the
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
empires. The Ottomans consequently suffered severe military defeats in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. The successful
Greek War of Independence The Greek War of Independence, also known as the Greek Revolution of 1821 or Greek Revolution ( el, Ελληνική Επανάσταση, ''Elliniki Epanastasi''; referred to by Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''É ...
concluded with
decolonization Decolonization (American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, from, or related to the United States of America, commonly known as the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States ( ...
of Greece following the
London Protocol (1830) The London Protocol of 3 February 1830 was an agreement between the three Great Powers ( The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, The Kingdom of France and the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . was a historical empire that extended ...
and
Treaty of Constantinople (1832) 400px, Map showing the original territory of the Kingdom of Greece as laid down in the Treaty of 1832 (in dark blue) The Treaty of Constantinople was the product of the London Conference of 1832The London Conference of 1832 was an international ...
. This and other defeats prompted the Ottoman state to initiate a comprehensive process of reform and modernization known as the
Tanzimat The Tanzimat (; ota, تنظيمات, translit=Tanzimāt, lit=Reorganization, ''see'' nizām) was a period of reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word i ...
. Thus, over the course of the 19th century, the Ottoman state became vastly more powerful and organized internally, despite suffering further territorial losses, especially in the Balkans, where a number of new states emerged. The
Committee of Union and Progress The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) ( ota, إتحاد و ترقى جمعيتی, translit=İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti), later the Union and Progress Party ( ota, إتحاد و ترقى فرقه‌ سی, translit=İttihad ve Terakki Fırkas ...
(CUP) established the
Second Constitutional Era The Second Constitutional Era ( ota, ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; tr, İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was established after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II, Abdulhamid II to restore t ...
in the
Young Turk Revolution The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', me ...
in 1908, turning the Empire into a constitutional monarchy, which conducted competitive multi-party elections. However, after the disastrous
Balkan Wars The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War. In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original comb ...

Balkan Wars
, the now radicalized and nationalistic CUP took over the government in the , creating a one party regime. The CUP allied the Empire with
Germany ) , image_map = , map_caption = , map_width = 250px , capital = Berlin Berlin (; ) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Germany by population, largest city of Germany by both area and population. Its 3,769,495 inh ...
hoping to escape from the diplomatic isolation which had contributed to its recent territorial losses, and thus joined
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
on the side of the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World W ...
. While the Empire was able to largely hold its own during the conflict, it was struggling with internal dissent, especially with the
Arab Revolt The Arab Revolt ( ar, الثورة العربية, ; tr, Arap İsyanı) or the Great Arab Revolt (, ) was a military uprising of Arab forces against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. On the basis of the McMahon– ...

Arab Revolt
in its Arabian holdings. During this time,
genocide Genocide is the attempted destruction of a people, usually defined as an ethnic An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that distinguish t ...
was committed by the Ottoman government against the
Armenians Armenians ( hy, հայեր, ''Romanization of Armenian, hayer'' ) are an ethnic group native to the Armenian Highlands of Western Asia. Armenians constitute the main population of Armenia and the ''de facto'' independent Republic of Artsakh, A ...

Armenians
,
Assyrians Assyrian may refer to: * Assyria, a major Mesopotamian kingdom and empire * Assyrian people, an ethnic group indigenous to the Middle East * Assyrian Church (disambiguation) * Assyrian language (disambiguation) * SS Assyrian, SS ''Assyrian'', seve ...

Assyrians
, and
Greeks The Greeks or Hellenes (; el, Έλληνες, ''Éllines'' ) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people A people is any plurality of person A person (plural people or persons) is a being that has cer ...
. The Empire's defeat and the occupation of part of its territory by the Allied Powers in the
aftermath of World War I The aftermath of World War I saw drastic political, cultural, economic, and social change across Eurasia Eurasia () is the largest continent A continent is any of several large landmass A landmass, or land mass, is a large r ...
resulted in its partitioning and the loss of its Middle Eastern territories, which were divided between the United Kingdom and France. The successful
Turkish War of Independence The Turkish War of Independence "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as ''İstiklâl Harbi'' "Independence War" or ''Millî Mücadele'' "National Struggle" (19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was a series of military and ethnic cleansing ...
led by
Mustafa Kemal Atatürk Kemal Atatürk (or alternatively written as Kamâl Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal Pasha Pasha or Paşa ( ota, پاشا; tr, paşa; sq, Pashë; ar, باشا), in older works sometimes anglicized as bashaw, was a higher rank in the Ottoman O ...

Mustafa Kemal Atatürk
against the occupying Allies led to the emergence of the
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...

Republic of Turkey
in the Anatolian heartland and the abolition of the Ottoman monarchy.


Name

The word ''Ottoman'' is a historical
anglicisation Linguistic anglicisation (or anglicization, occasionally anglification, anglifying, or Englishing) is the practice of modifying foreign words, names, and phrases to make them easier to spell, pronounce, or understand in English English usually ...
of the name of
Osman I Osman I or Osman Ghazi ( ota, عثمان غازى, translit= ʿOsmān Ġāzī; tr, I. Osman or ''Osman Gazi''; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Kayi tribe and the founder of the Ottoman dynas ...

Osman I
, the founder of the Empire and of the ruling House of Osman (also known as the Ottoman dynasty). Osman's name in turn was the Turkish form of the Arabic name '' ʿUthmān'' (). In
Ottoman Turkish Ottoman Turkish ( ota, لِسانِ عُثمانى, , ; tr, Osmanlı Türkçesi) was the standardized register A register is an authoritative list of one kind of information. Register or registration may refer to: Arts entertainment, and ...
, the empire was referred to as (), literally "The Supreme Ottoman State", or alternatively (). In
Modern Turkish Turkish ( , ), also referred to as Istanbul Turkish (''İstanbul Türkçesi'') or Turkey Turkish (''Türkiye Türkçesi''), is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages The Turkic languages are a language family of at least 35 documente ...

Modern Turkish
, it is known as ("The Ottoman Empire") or ("The Ottoman State"). The Turkish word for "Ottoman" () originally referred to the tribal followers of Osman in the fourteenth century. The word subsequently came to be used to refer to the empire's military-administrative elite. In contrast, the term "Turk" () was used to refer to the Anatolian peasant and tribal population and was seen as a disparaging term when applied to urban, educated individuals. In the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
, an educated, urban-dwelling Turkish-speaker who was not a member of the military-administrative class would often refer to himself neither as an nor as a , but rather as a (), or "Roman", meaning an inhabitant of the territory of the former
Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire The Roman Empire ( la, Imperium Rōmānum ; grc-gre, Βασιλεία τῶν Ῥωμαίων, Basileía tôn ...

Byzantine Empire
in the Balkans and Anatolia. The term was also used to refer to Turkish speakers by the other Muslim peoples of the empire and beyond. As applied to Ottoman Turkish-speakers, this term began to fall out of use at the end of the seventeenth century, and instead of the word increasingly became associated with the Greek population of the empire, a meaning that it still bears in Turkey today. In Western Europe, the names Ottoman Empire, Turkish Empire and Turkey were often used interchangeably, with Turkey being increasingly favoured both in formal and informal situations. This dichotomy was officially ended in 1920–1923, when the newly established
Ankara Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over ...

Ankara
-based
Turkish government The Government of Turkey ( tr, Türkiye Cumhuriyeti Hükûmeti) is a unitary government established by the Constitution of Turkey as a constituted governing authority of a Parliamentary democracy, parliamentary democratic Presidential republic, r ...

Turkish government
chose Turkey as the sole official name. At present, most scholarly historians avoid the terms "Turkey", "Turks", and "Turkish" when referring to the Ottomans, due to the empire's multinational character.


History


Rise (c. 1299–1453)

As the declined well into the 13th century,
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
was divided into a patchwork of independent Turkish principalities known as the
Anatolian Beyliks Anatolian beyliks ( tr, Anadolu beylikleri, Ottoman Turkish: ''Tavâif-i mülûk'', ''Beylik'' ) were small principalities (or petty kingdoms) in Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as A ...
. One of these beyliks, in the region of
Bithynia Bithynia (; Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Greek language, ...
on the frontier of the Byzantine Empire, was led by the Turkish tribal leader Osman I (d. 1323/4), a figure of obscure origins from whom the name Ottoman is derived. Osman's early followers consisted both of Turkish tribal groups and Byzantine renegades, with many but not all converts to Islam. Osman extended the control of his principality by conquering Byzantine towns along the
Sakarya River The Sakarya ( tr, Sakarya Irmağı; gr, Σαγγάριος, translit=Sangarios; Latin: ''Sangarius'') is the third longest river in Turkey. It runs through the region known in ancient times as Phrygia. It was considered one of the principal rive ...

Sakarya River
. A Byzantine defeat at the
Battle of Bapheus The Battle of Bapheus occurred on 27 July 1302, between an Military of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman army under Osman I and a Byzantine army under George Mouzalon. The battle ended in a crucial Ottoman Empire, Ottoman victory, cementing the Ottoma ...
in 1302 contributed to Osman's rise as well. It is not well understood how the early Ottomans came to dominate their neighbors, due to the lack of sources surviving from this period. The Ghaza thesis popular during the twentieth century credited their success to their rallying of religious warriors to fight for them in the name of
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
, but it is no longer generally accepted. No other hypothesis has attracted broad acceptance. In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule had begun to extend over Anatolia and the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...
. The earliest conflicts began during the Byzantine–Ottoman wars, waged in
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
in the late 13th century before entering Europe in the mid-14th century, followed by the
Bulgarian–Ottoman wars The Bulgarian–Ottoman wars were fought between the kingdoms remaining from the disintegrating Second Bulgarian Empire, and the Ottoman Empire, in the second half of the 14th century. The wars resulted with the collapse and subordination of the ...
and the Serbian–Ottoman wars waged beginning in the mid 14th century. Much of this period was characterised by Ottoman expansion into the Balkans. Osman's son,
Orhan Orhan Ghazi ( ota, اورخان غازی; tr, Orhan Gazi, also spelled Orkhan, 1281 – March 1362) was the second bey "Bey" ( ota, بك “''Beik''”, chg, بك “''Bek''”, tk, beg, uz, bek, kz, бек, tt, bäk, sq, beu, bs ...

Orhan
, captured the northwestern Anatolian city of
Bursa (ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient Greek wa ...

Bursa
in 1326, making it the new capital of the Ottoman state and supplanting Byzantine control in the region. The important port city of
Thessaloniki Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica () is the second-largest city in Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in So ...

Thessaloniki
was captured from the
Venetians Venetian often means from or related to: * Venice, a city in Italy * Veneto, a region of Italy * Republic of Venice (697–1797), a historical nation in that area Venetian and the like may also refer to: * Venetian language, a Romance language sp ...
in 1387 and sacked. The Ottoman victory in effectively marked the end of Serbian power in the region, paving the way for Ottoman expansion into Europe. The
Battle of Nicopolis The Battle of Nicopolis took place on 25 September 1396 and resulted in the rout of an allied crusader army of , , , n, , , , and assorted troops (assisted by the navy) at the hands of an force, raising the siege of the fortress of and le ...

Battle of Nicopolis
for the
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
Tsardom of Vidin The Tsardom of Vidin ( bg, Видинско царство, ''Vidinsko Tsarstvo'') was a medieval Bulgarians, Bulgarian state centred in the city of Vidin. Early history In 1257 the Hungarian lord Rostislav Mikhailovich attacked the Second Bulgari ...
in 1396, widely regarded as the last large-scale
crusade The Crusades were a series of religious wars initiated, supported, and sometimes directed by the Latin Church in the medieval period. The term refers especially to the Eastern Mediterranean campaigns in the period between 1095 and 1271 that h ...

crusade
of the
Middle Ages In the history of Europe The history of Europe concerns itself with the discovery and collection, the study, organization and presentation and the interpretation of past events and affairs of the people of Europe since the beginning of ...
, failed to stop the advance of the victorious Ottoman Turks. As the Turks expanded into the Balkans, the
conquest of Constantinople Conquest is the act of military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare. It is typically officially authorized and maintained by a sovereign state, wi ...
became a crucial objective. The Ottomans had already wrested control of nearly all former Byzantine lands surrounding the city, but the strong defense of Constantinople's strategic position on the
Bosphorus File:Bosphorus aerial view.jpg, Aerial view of the Bosporus taken from its northern end near the Black Sea (bottom), looking south (top) toward the Marmara Sea, with the city center of Istanbul visible along the strait's hilly banks. The Bosp ...

Bosphorus
Strait made it difficult to conquer. In 1402, the Byzantines were temporarily relieved when the
Turco-Mongol The Turko-Mongol tradition was an ethnocultural An ethnoreligious group (or ethno-religious group) is an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes that dis ...
leader
Timur Timur ; chg, ''Aqsaq Temür'', 'Timur the Lame') or as ''Sahib-i-Qiran'' ( 'Lord of the Auspicious Conjunction'), his epithet. ( chg, ''Temür'', 'Iron'; 9 April 133617–19 February 1405), later Timūr Gurkānī ( chg, ''Temür Kür ...

Timur
, founder of the
Timurid Empire The Timurid Empire ( fa, ), self-designated as Gurkani ( fa, , ''Gūrkāniyān''), was a Persianate A Persianate society is a society that is based on or strongly influenced by the Persian language Persian (), also known by its endonym ...
, invaded Ottoman Anatolia from the east. In the
Battle of Ankara The Battle of Ankara or Angora was fought on 20 July 1402 at the Çubuk, Ankara, Çubuk plain near Ankara, between the forces of the Ottoman Sultan Bayezid I and the Emir of the Timurid Empire, Timur. The battle was a major victory for Timur, and ...

Battle of Ankara
in 1402, Timur defeated the Ottoman forces and took Sultan
Bayezid I Bayezid I ( ota, بايزيد اول, tr, I. Bayezid, nicknamed Yıldırım, ota, یلدیرم, "Lightning, Thunderbolt", often "Bajazet"; – 8 March 1403) was the List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Sultan from 1389 to 1402. He was ...
as a prisoner, throwing the empire into disorder. The ensuing civil war, also known as the ''Fetret Devri'', lasted from 1402 to 1413 as Bayezid's sons fought over succession. It ended when
Mehmed I Mehmed I (1389 – 26 May 1421), also known as Mehmed Çelebi ( ota, چلبی محمد, "the noble-born") or Kirişçi ( el, Κυριτζής, Kyritzis, "lord's son"), was the Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine give ...

Mehmed I
emerged as the sultan and restored Ottoman power. The Balkan territories lost by the Ottomans after 1402, including Thessaloniki, Macedonia, and Kosovo, were later recovered by
Murad II Murad II ( ota, مراد ثانى, Murād-ı sānī, tr, II. Murad, 16 June 1404 – 3 February 1451) was the sultan of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. ...

Murad II
between the 1430s and 1450s. On 10 November 1444, Murad repelled the
Crusade of Varna The Crusade of Varna was an unsuccessful military campaign mounted by several European leaders to check the expansion of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. ...
by defeating the Hungarian, Polish, and
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found ...
n armies under
Władysław III of Poland Władysław III (31 October 1424 – 10 November 1444), also known as Władysław of Varna, was King of Poland and the Union of Horodło, Supreme Duke (''Supremus Dux'') of Grand Duchy of Lithuania from 1434 and King of Hungary and Croatia from ...
(also King of Hungary) and
John Hunyadi John Hunyadi ( hu, Hunyadi János, sr, / , ro, Ioan de Hunedoara; 1406 – 11 August 1456) was a leading HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 100 ...
at the
Battle of Varna The Battle of Varna took place on 10 November 1444 near Varna, Bulgaria, Varna in eastern Bulgaria. The Military of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman Army under Murad II, Sultan Murad II (who did not actually rule the sultanate at the time) defeated th ...

Battle of Varna
, although Albanians under
Skanderbeg , reign = 28 November 1443 – 17 January 1468 , predecessor = Gjon Kastrioti Gjon Kastrioti (1380 or earlier – 4 May 1437), was a member of the Albanian nobilityThe Albanian nobility was an elite hereditary ruling clas ...

Skanderbeg
continued to resist. Four years later, John Hunyadi prepared another army of Hungarian and Wallachian forces to attack the Turks, but was again defeated at the Second Battle of Kosovo in 1448.


Expansion and peak (1453–1566)

The son of Murad II,
Mehmed the Conqueror Mehmed II ( ota, محمد ثانى, translit=Meḥmed-i sānī; tr, II. Mehmed, ; 30 March 14323 May 1481), commonly known as Mehmed the Conqueror ( ota, ابو الفتح, Ebū'l-Fetḥ, lit=The Father of Conquest; tr, Fatih Sultan Mehmed), ...

Mehmed the Conqueror
, reorganized both state and military, and on 29 May 1453 conquered
Constantinople la, Constantinopolis ota, قسطنطينيه , alternate_name = Byzantion (earlier Greek name), Nova Roma ("New Rome"), Miklagard/Miklagarth (Old Norse Old Norse, Old Nordic, or Old Scandinavian is a stage of development of North Germa ...
, ending the Byzantine Empire. Mehmed allowed the
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
to maintain its autonomy and land in exchange for accepting Ottoman authority. Due to tension between the states of western Europe and the later Byzantine Empire, the majority of the Orthodox population accepted Ottoman rule as preferable to Venetian rule. Albanian resistance was a major obstacle to Ottoman expansion on the Italian peninsula. In the 15th and 16th centuries, the Ottoman Empire entered a period of expansion. The Empire prospered under the rule of a line of committed and effective
Sultans Sultan (; ar, سلطان ', ) is a position with several historical meanings. Originally, it was an Arabic abstract noun A noun () is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes ...
. It also flourished economically due to its control of the major overland trade routes between Europe and Asia.A lock-hold on trade between western Europe and Asia is often cited as a primary motivation for
Isabella I of Castile Isabella I ( es, Isabel I, 22 April 1451 – 26 November 1504) was Queen of Castile This is a list of kings and queens of the Kingdom and Crown of Castile The Crown of Castile was a medieval polity in the Iberian Peninsula that fo ...
to fund
Christopher Columbus Christopher Columbus * lij, Cristoffa C(or)ombo * es, Cristóbal Colón * pt, Cristóvão Colombo * ca, Cristòfor (or ) * la, Christophorus Columbus. (; born between 25 August and 31 October 1451, died 20 May 1506) was an Italian ...

Christopher Columbus
's westward journey to find a sailing route to Asia and, more generally, for European seafaring nations to explore alternative trade routes (e.g., K.D. Madan, ''Life and travels of Vasco Da Gama'' (1998), 9; I. Stavans, ''Imagining Columbus: the literary voyage'' (2001), 5; W.B. Wheeler and S. Becker, ''Discovering the American Past. A Look at the Evidence: to 1877'' (2006), 105). This traditional viewpoint has been attacked as unfounded in an influential article by A.H. Lybyer ("The Ottoman Turks and the Routes of Oriental Trade", ''English Historical Review'', 120 (1915), 577–588), who sees the rise of Ottoman power and the beginnings of Portuguese and Spanish explorations as unrelated events. His view has not been universally accepted (cf. K.M. Setton, ''The Papacy and the Levant (1204–1571), Vol. 2: The Fifteenth Century (Memoirs of the American Philosophical Society, Vol. 127)'' (1978), 335).
Sultan
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire fr ...

Selim I
(1512–1520) dramatically expanded the Empire's eastern and southern frontiers by defeating
Shah Ismail Ismail I ( fa, اسماعیل, Esmāʿīl, ; July 17, 1487 – May 23, 1524), also known as Shah Ismail I (), was the founder of the Safavid dynasty The Safavid dynasty (; fa, دودمان صفوی, Dudmâne Safavi, ) was one of the most ...

Shah Ismail
of
Safavid Iran Safavid Iran or Safavid Persia (), also referred to as the Safavid Empire, '. was one of the greatest Iranian empires after the 7th-century Muslim conquest of Persia The Muslim conquest of Persia, also known as the Arab conquest of Iran, le ...

Safavid Iran
, in the
Battle of Chaldiran The Battle of Chaldiran ( fa, جنگ چالدران; tr, Çaldıran Savaşı) took place on 23 August 1514 and ended with a decisive victory for the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther U ...
. Selim I established Ottoman rule in Egypt by defeating and annexing the
Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt The Mamluk Sultanate ( ar, سلطنة المماليك, translit=Salṭanat al-Mamālīk) was a medieval realm spanning Egypt Egypt ( ; ar, مِصر ), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country spanning the N ...
and created a naval presence on the
Red Sea The Red Sea ( ar, البحر الأحمر, translit=al-Baḥr al-ʾAḥmar; or ; Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a North ...

Red Sea
. After this Ottoman expansion, competition began between the
Portuguese Empire The Portuguese Empire ( pt, Império Português), also known as the Portuguese Overseas (''Ultramar Português'') or the Portuguese Colonial Empire (''Império Colonial Português''), was composed of the overseas colonies In political scie ...
and the Ottoman Empire to become the dominant power in the region.
Suleiman the Magnificent Suleiman I ( ota, سليمان اول, Süleyman-ı Evvel; tr, I. Süleyman; 6 November 14946 September 1566), commonly known as Suleiman the Magnificent in the West and Suleiman the Lawgiver ( ota, قانونى سلطان سليمان, Ḳā ...

Suleiman the Magnificent
(1520–1566) captured
Belgrade Belgrade ( ; sr-cyr, Београд, Beograd, lit='White City', ; Names of European cities in different languages: B, names in other languages) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities in Serbia, largest city of Serbia. It is located ...

Belgrade
in 1521, conquered the southern and central parts of the
Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a monarchy A monarchy is a form of government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, an ...

Kingdom of Hungary
as part of the Ottoman–Hungarian Wars, and, after his historic victory in the
Battle of Mohács The Battle of Mohács (; hu, Mohácsi csata, tr, Mohaç Muharebesi) was one of the most consequential battles in Central European history. It was fought on 29 August 1526 near Mohács, Kingdom of Hungary The Kingdom of Hungary was a mon ...

Battle of Mohács
in 1526, he established Ottoman rule in the territory of present-day Hungary (except the western part) and other Central European territories. He then laid siege to Vienna in 1529, but failed to take the city. In 1532, he made another
attack Attack may refer to: Warfare and combat * Offensive (military) * Charge (warfare) * Attack (fencing) * Strike (attack) * Attack (computing) * Attack aircraft Books and publishing * The Attack (novel), ''The Attack'' (novel), a book * ''Attack No. ...
on Vienna, but was repulsed in the Siege of Güns. Transylvania, Wallachia and, intermittently, Moldavia, became tributary principalities of the Ottoman Empire. In the east, the Ottoman Turks Ottoman–Safavid War (1532–1555), took Baghdad from the Persians in 1535, gaining control of Mesopotamia and naval access to the Persian Gulf. In 1555, the Caucasus became officially partitioned for the first time between the Safavids and the Ottomans, a ''status quo'' that would remain until the end of the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774). By this partitioning of the Caucasus as signed in the Peace of Amasya, Western Armenia, western Kurdistan, and Kingdom of Imereti, Western Georgia (incl. western Samtskhe-Atabagate, Samtskhe) fell into Ottoman hands, while southern Dagestan, Eastern Armenia, Eastern Georgia, and Azerbaijan remained Persian. In 1539, a 60,000-strong Ottoman army besieged the Habsburg Spain, Spanish garrison of Siege of Castelnuovo, Castelnuovo on the Adriatic coast; the successful siege cost the Ottomans 8,000 casualties, but Republic of Venice, Venice agreed to terms in 1540, surrendering most of its empire in the Aegean Sea, Aegean and the Morea. Early Modern France, France and the Ottoman Empire, united by mutual opposition to Habsburg rule, became strong allies. The French conquests of Siege of Nice, Nice (1543) and Invasion of Corsica (1553), Corsica (1553) occurred as a joint venture between the forces of the French king Francis I of France, Francis I and Suleiman, and were commanded by the Ottoman admirals Barbarossa Hayreddin Pasha and Turgut Reis. A month before the siege of Nice, France supported the Ottomans with an artillery unit during the 1543 Ottoman siege of Esztergom (1543), conquest of Esztergom in northern Hungary. After further advances by the Turks, the Habsburg ruler Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor, Ferdinand officially recognized Ottoman ascendancy in Hungary in 1547. Suleiman the Magnificent, Suleiman I died of natural causes in his tent during the Siege of Szigetvár in 1566. By the end of Suleiman the Magnificent, Suleiman's reign, the Empire spanned approximately , extending over three continents. In addition, the Empire became a dominant naval force, controlling much of the Mediterranean Sea. By this time, the Ottoman Empire was a major part of the European political sphere. The Ottomans became involved in multi-continental religious wars when Spain and Portugal were united under the Iberian Union. The Ottomans were holders of the Caliph title, meaning they were the leaders of all Muslims worldwide. The Iberians were leaders of the Christian crusaders, and so the two were locked in a worldwide conflict. There were zones of operations in the Mediterranean Sea and Indian Ocean, where Iberians circumnavigated Africa to reach India and, on their way, wage war upon the Ottomans and their local Muslim allies. Likewise, the Iberians passed through newly-Christianized Latin America and Juan de Salcedo, had sent expeditions that traversed the Pacific in order to Christianize the formerly Muslim Philippines and use it as a base to further attack the Muslims in the Far East. In this case, the Ottomans sent armies to aid its easternmost vassal and territory, the Sultanate of Aceh in Southeast Asia. During the 1600s, the worldwide conflict between the Ottoman Caliphate and Iberian Union was a stalemate List of countries by population in 1600, since both powers were at similar population, technology and economic levels. Nevertheless, the success of the Ottoman political and military establishment was compared to the Roman Empire, despite the difference in the size of their respective territories, by the likes of the contemporary Italian scholar Francesco Sansovino and the French political philosopher Jean Bodin.


Stagnation and reform (1566–1827)


Revolts, reversals, and revivals (1566–1683)

In the second half of the sixteenth century, the Ottoman Empire came under increasing strain from inflation and the rapidly rising costs of warfare that were impacting both Europe and the Middle East. These pressures led to a series of crises around the year 1600, placing great strain upon the Ottoman system of government. The empire underwent a series of transformations of its political and military institutions in response to these challenges, enabling it to successfully adapt to the new conditions of the seventeenth century and remain powerful, both militarily and economically. Historians of the mid-twentieth century once characterised this period as one of stagnation and decline, but this view is now rejected by the majority of academics. The discovery of new maritime trade routes by Western European states allowed them to avoid the Ottoman trade monopoly. The Kingdom of Portugal, Portuguese discovery of the Cape of Good Hope in 1488 initiated Ottoman naval expeditions in the Indian Ocean, a series of Ottoman-Portuguese naval wars in the Indian Ocean throughout the 16th century. Despite the growing European presence in the Indian Ocean, Ottoman trade with the east continued to flourish. Cairo, in particular, benefitted from the rise of Yemeni coffee as a popular consumer commodity. As coffeehouses appeared in cities and towns across the empire, Cairo developed into a major center for its trade, contributing to its continued prosperity throughout the seventeenth and much of the eighteenth century. Under Ivan IV (1533–1584), the Tsardom of Russia expanded into the Volga and Caspian region at the expense of the Tatar khanates. In 1571, the Crimean khan Devlet I Giray, commanded by the Ottomans, Fire of Moscow (1571), burned Moscow. The next year, the invasion was repeated but repelled at the Battle of Molodi. The Ottoman Empire continued to invade Eastern Europe in a series of Tatar invasions, slave raids, and remained a significant power in Eastern Europe until the end of the 17th century. The Ottomans decided to conquer Venetian Cyprus and on 22 July 1570, Nicosia was besieged; 50,000 Christians died, and 180,000 were enslaved. On 15 September 1570, the Ottoman cavalry appeared before the last Venetian stronghold in Cyprus, Famagusta. The Venetian defenders would hold out for 11 months against a force that would come to number 200,000 men with 145 cannons; 163,000 cannonballs struck the walls of Famagusta before it fell to the Ottomans in August 1571. The Siege of Famagusta claimed 50,000 Ottoman casualties. Meanwhile, the Holy League (1571), Holy league consisting of mostly Spanish and Venetian fleets won a victory over the Ottoman fleet at the Battle of Lepanto (1571), off southwestern Greece; Catholic forces killed over 30,000 Turks and destroyed 200 of their ships. It was startling, if mostly symbolic, blow to the image of Ottoman invincibility, an image which the victory of the Knights of Malta against the Ottoman invaders in the 1565 Great Siege of Malta, Siege of Malta had recently set about eroding. The battle was far more damaging to the Ottoman navy in sapping experienced manpower than the loss of ships, which were rapidly replaced. The Ottoman navy recovered quickly, persuading Venice to sign a peace treaty in 1573, allowing the Ottomans to expand and consolidate their position in North Africa. By contrast, the Habsburg frontier had settled somewhat, a stalemate caused by a stiffening of the Habsburg defenses. The Long Turkish War against Habsburg Austria (1593–1606) created the need for greater numbers of Ottoman infantry equipped with firearms, resulting in a relaxation of recruitment policy. This contributed to problems of indiscipline and outright rebelliousness within the corps, which were never fully solved. Irregular sharpshooters (Sekban) were also recruited, and on demobilisation turned to brigandage in the Jelali revolts (1590–1610), which engendered widespread anarchy in
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
in the late 16th and early 17th centuries. With the Empire's population reaching 30 million people by 1600, the shortage of land placed further pressure on the government. In spite of these problems, the Ottoman state remained strong, and its army did not collapse or suffer crushing defeats. The only exceptions were campaigns against the Safavid dynasty of Persia, where many of the Ottoman eastern provinces were lost, some permanently. This Ottoman-Safavid War (1603-1618), 1603–1618 war eventually resulted in the Treaty of Nasuh Pasha, which ceded the entire Caucasus, except westernmost Georgia, back into Iranian Safavid possession. The treaty ending the Cretan War (1645–1669) cost Venice much of Venetian Dalmatia, Dalmatia, its Aegean island possessions, and Kingdom of Candia, Crete. (Losses from the war totalled 30,985 Venetian soldiers and 118,754 Turkish soldiers.) During his brief majority reign, Murad IV (1623–1640) reasserted central authority and recaptured Iraq (1639) from the Safavids. The resulting Treaty of Zuhab of that same year decisively divided the Caucasus and adjacent regions between the two neighbouring empires as it had already been defined in the 1555 Peace of Amasya. The Sultanate of Women (1533–1656) was a period in which the mothers of young sultans exercised power on behalf of their sons. The most prominent women of this period were Kösem Sultan and her daughter-in-law Turhan Hatice, whose political rivalry culminated in Kösem's murder in 1651. During the Köprülü Era (1656–1703), effective control of the Empire was exercised by a sequence of Grand Viziers from the Köprülü family. The Köprülü Vizierate saw renewed military success with authority restored in Transylvania, the conquest of Crete completed in 1669, and expansion into History of Ukraine#Polish–Lithuanian Commonwealth, Polish southern Ukraine, with the strongholds of Khotyn, and Kamianets-Podilskyi and the territory of Podolia ceding to Ottoman control in 1676. This period of renewed assertiveness came to a calamitous end in 1683 when Grand Vizier Kara Mustafa Pasha led a huge army to attempt a second Ottoman siege of History of Vienna, Vienna in the Great Turkish War of 1683–1699. The final assault being fatally delayed, the Ottoman forces were swept away by allied Habsburg, German, and Polish forces spearheaded by the Polish king John III Sobieski at the Battle of Vienna. The alliance of the Holy League (1684), Holy League pressed home the advantage of the defeat at Vienna, culminating in the Treaty of Karlowitz (26 January 1699), which ended the Great Turkish War. The Ottomans surrendered control of significant territories, many permanently. Mustafa II (1695–1703) led the counterattack of 1695–1696 against the Habsburgs in Hungary, but was undone at the disastrous defeat at Battle of Zenta, Zenta (in modern Serbia), 11 September 1697.


Military defeats

Aside from the loss of the Banat and the temporary loss of History of Belgrade, Belgrade (1717–1739), the Ottoman border on the Danube and Sava remained stable during the eighteenth century. Expansion of Russia 1500–1800, Russian expansion, however, presented a large and growing threat. Accordingly, King Charles XII of Sweden was welcomed as an ally in the Ottoman Empire following his defeat by the Russians at the Battle of Poltava of 1709 in central Ukraine (part of the Great Northern War of 1700–1721). Charles XII persuaded the Ottoman Sultan Ahmed III to declare war on Russia, which resulted in an Ottoman victory in the Pruth River Campaign of 1710–1711, in Moldavia. After the Austro-Turkish War of 1716–1718, the Treaty of Passarowitz confirmed the loss of the Banat, Serbia, and Oltenia, "Little Walachia" (Oltenia) to Austria. The Treaty also revealed that the Ottoman Empire was on the defensive and unlikely to present any further aggression in Europe. The Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739), Austro-Russian–Turkish War (1735–1739), which was ended by the Treaty of Belgrade in 1739, resulted in the Ottoman recovery of northern Bosnia, Kingdom of Serbia (1718–1739), Habsburg Serbia (including Belgrade), Oltenia and the southern parts of the Banat of Temeswar; but the Empire lost the port of Azov, north of the Crimean Peninsula, to the Russians. After this treaty the Ottoman Empire was able to enjoy a generation of peace, as Austria and Russia were forced to deal with the rise of Prussia. Science and Technology in the Ottoman Empire#Education, Educational and technological reforms came about, including the establishment of higher education institutions such as the Istanbul Technical University. In 1734 an artillery school was established to impart Western-style artillery methods, but the Islamic clergy successfully objected under the grounds of theodicy. In 1754 the artillery school was reopened on a semi-secret basis. In 1726, Ibrahim Muteferrika convinced the Grand Vizier Nevşehirli Damat İbrahim Pasha, the Grand Mufti, and the clergy on the efficiency of the printing press, and Muteferrika was later granted by Sultan Ahmed III permission to publish non-religious books (despite opposition from some Islamic calligraphy, calligraphers and religious leaders). Muteferrika's press published its first book in 1729 and, by 1743, issued 17 works in 23 volumes, each having between 500 and 1,000 copies. In Ottoman North Africa, Spain Spanish conquest of Oran (1732), conquered Oran from the Ottoman Empire (1732). The bey received an Ottoman army from Algiers, but it failed to recapture Oran; the siege caused the deaths of 1,500 Spaniards, and even more Algerians. The Spanish also massacred many Muslim soldiers. In 1792, Spain abandoned Oran, selling it to the Ottoman Empire. In 1768 Russian-backed Ukrainian Haidamakas, pursuing Polish confederates, entered Balta, Odessa Oblast, Balta, an Ottoman-controlled town on the border of Bessarabia in Ukraine, massacred its citizens, and burned the town to the ground. This action provoked the Ottoman Empire into the Russo-Turkish War (1768–1774), Russo-Turkish War of 1768–1774. The Treaty of Küçük Kaynarca of 1774 ended the war and provided freedom of worship for the Christian citizens of the Ottoman-controlled provinces of Wallachia and Moldavia. By the late 18th century, after a number of defeats in the wars with Russia, some people in the Ottoman Empire began to conclude that the reforms of Peter the Great had given the Russians an edge, and the Ottomans would have to keep up with Western technology in order to avoid further defeats. Selim III (1789–1807) made the first major attempts to Ottoman military reform efforts, modernise the army, but his reforms were hampered by the religious leadership and the Janissary corps. Jealous of their privileges and firmly opposed to change, the Janissary Janissary revolts, revolted. Selim's efforts cost him his throne and his life, but were resolved in spectacular and bloody fashion by his successor, the dynamic Mahmud II, who The Auspicious Incident, eliminated the Janissary corps in 1826. The Serbian revolution (1804–1815) marked the beginning of an era of Rise of nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, national awakening in the
Balkans The Balkans ( ), also known as the Balkan Peninsula, are a geographic area in southeastern Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rathe ...

Balkans
during the Eastern Question. In 1811, the fundamentalist Wahhabis of Arabia, led by the al-Saud family, revolted against the Ottomans. Unable to defeat the Wahhabi rebels, the Sublime Porte had Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha of Kavala, the ''wali, vali'' (governor) of the Egypt Eyalet, Eyalet of Egypt, tasked with retaking Arabia, which ended with the destruction of the Emirate of Diriyah in 1818. The suzerainty of Serbia as a hereditary monarchy under its own Obrenović dynasty, dynasty was acknowledged ''de jure'' in 1830. In 1821, the Ottoman Greece, Greeks Greek War of Independence, declared war on the Sultan. A rebellion that originated in Moldavia as a diversion was followed by the main revolution in the Peloponnese, which, along with the northern part of the Gulf of Corinth, became the first parts of the Ottoman Empire to achieve independence (in 1829). In 1830, the French invaded Ottoman Algeria, which was lost to the empire; between 500,000 and 1,000,000 Algerians were killed, while French forces suffered only 3,336 killed in action. In 1831, Muhammad Ali of Egypt, Muhammad Ali Pasha revolted against Sultan Mahmud II due to the latter's refusal to grant him the governorships of Syria (region), Greater Syria and Crete, which the Sultan had promised him in exchange for sending military assistance to put down the Greek War of Independence, Greek revolt (1821–1829) that ultimately ended with the formal London Protocol (1830), independence of Greece in 1830. It was a costly enterprise for Muhammad Ali Pasha, who had lost his fleet at the Battle of Navarino in 1827. Thus began the first Egyptian–Ottoman War (1831–1833), during which the French-trained army of Muhammad Ali Pasha, under the command of his son Ibrahim Pasha of Egypt, Ibrahim Pasha, defeated the Ottoman Army as it marched into
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
, reaching the city of Kütahya within of the capital, Constantinople. In desperation, Sultan Mahmud II appealed to the empire's traditional arch-rival Russia for help, asking Emperor Nicholas I of Russia, Nicholas I to send an expeditionary force to assist him.Karsh, Effraim ''Islamic Imperialism A History'', New Haven: Yale University Press, 2006 p. 96. In return for signing the Treaty of Hünkâr İskelesi, the Russians sent the expeditionary force which deterred Ibrahim Pasha from marching any further towards Constantinople. Under the terms of the Convention of Kütahya, signed on 5 May 1833, Muhammad Ali Pasha agreed to abandon his campaign against the Sultan, in exchange for which he was made the ''wali, vali'' (governor) of the ''vilayets'' (provinces) of Crete, Aleppo, Tripoli, Lebanon, Tripoli, Damascus and Sidon (the latter four comprising modern Syria and Lebanon), and given the right to collect taxes in Adana. Had it not been for the Russian intervention, Sultan Mahmud II could have faced the risk of being overthrown and Muhammad Ali Pasha could have even become the new Sultan. These events marked the beginning of a recurring pattern where the Sublime Porte needed the help of foreign powers to protect itself. In 1839, the Sublime Porte attempted to take back what it lost to the ''de facto'' autonomous, but ''de jure'' still Ottoman Egypt Eyalet, Eyalet of Egypt, but its forces were initially defeated, which led to the Oriental Crisis of 1840. Muhammad Ali Pasha had close relations with July Monarchy, France, and the prospect of him becoming the Sultan of Egypt was widely viewed as putting the entire Levant into the French sphere of influence. As the Sublime Porte had proved itself incapable of defeating Muhammad Ali Pasha, the British Empire and Austrian Empire provided military assistance, and the second Egyptian–Ottoman War (1839–1841) ended with Ottoman victory and the restoration of Ottoman suzerainty over Egypt Eyalet and the Levant. By the mid-19th century, the Ottoman Empire was called the "sick man of Europe". Three suzerain states – the Principality of Serbia,
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found ...
and Moldavia – moved towards ''de jure'' independence during the 1860s and 1870s.


Decline and modernisation (1828–1908)

During the
Tanzimat The Tanzimat (; ota, تنظيمات, translit=Tanzimāt, lit=Reorganization, ''see'' nizām) was a period of reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word i ...
period (1839–1876), the government's series of constitutional reforms led to a fairly modern Conscription in the Ottoman Empire, conscripted army, banking system reforms, the decriminalization of homosexuality, the replacement of religious law with secular law and guilds with modern factories. The Ottoman Ministry of Post was established in Istanbul in 1840. American inventor Samuel Morse received an Ottoman patent for the telegraph in 1847, which was issued by Sultan Abdülmecid I, Abdülmecid who personally tested the new invention. The reformist period peaked with the Constitution, called the ''Kanûn-u Esâsî''. The empire's First Constitutional Era (Ottoman Empire), First Constitutional era was short-lived. The parliament survived for only two years before the sultan suspended it. The Christian population of the empire, owing to their higher educational levels, started to pull ahead of the Muslim majority, leading to much resentment on the part of the latter. In 1861, there were 571 primary and 94 secondary schools for Ottoman Christians with 140,000 pupils in total, a figure that vastly exceeded the number of Muslim children in school at the same time, who were further hindered by the amount of time spent learning Arabic and Islamic theology. Author Norman Stone further suggests that the Arabic alphabet, in which Turkish was written Turkish alphabet reform, until 1928, was very ill-suited to reflect the sounds of the Turkish language (which is a Turkic as opposed to Semitic language), which imposed a further difficulty on Turkish children. In turn, the higher educational levels of the Christians allowed them to play a larger role in the economy, with the rise in prominence of groups such as the Sursock family indicative of this shift in influence. In 1911, of the 654 wholesale companies in Istanbul, 528 were owned by ethnic Greeks. In many cases, Christians and also Jews were able to gain protection from European consuls and citizenship, meaning they were protected from Ottoman law and not subject to the same economic regulations as their Muslim counterparts. The Crimean War (1853–1856) was part of a long-running contest between the major European powers for influence over territories of the Decline of the Ottoman Empire, declining Ottoman Empire. The financial burden of the war led the Ottoman state to issue Ottoman public debt, foreign loans amounting to 5 million pounds sterling on 4 August 1854. The war caused an exodus of the Crimean Tatars, about 200,000 of whom moved to the Ottoman Empire in continuing waves of emigration. Toward the end of the Caucasian Wars, 90% of the Circassians were Ethnic cleansing of Circassians, ethnically cleansed and exiled from their homelands in the Caucasus and fled to the Ottoman Empire, resulting in the settlement of 500,000 to 700,000 Circassians in Turkey. Some Circassian organisations give much higher numbers, totalling 1–1.5 million deported or killed. Crimean Tatar refugees in the late 19th century played an especially notable role in seeking to modernise Ottoman education and in first promoting both Pan-Turkism and a sense of Turkish nationalism.Stone, Norman "Turkey in the Russian Mirror" pp. 86–100 from ''Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy'' edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London, 2004 p. 95. In this period, the Ottoman Empire spent only small amounts of public funds on education; for example in 1860–1861 only 0.2 percent of the total budget was invested in education. As the Ottoman state attempted to modernize its infrastructure and army in response to threats from the outside, it also opened itself up to a different kind of threat: that of creditors. Indeed, as the historian Eugene Rogan has written, "the single greatest threat to the independence of the Middle East" in the nineteenth century "was not the armies of Europe but its banks". The Ottoman state, which had begun taking on debt with the Crimean War, was forced to declare bankruptcy in 1875. By 1881, the Ottoman Empire agreed to have its debt controlled by an institution known as the Ottoman Public Debt Administration, a council of European men with presidency alternating between France and Britain. The body controlled swaths of the Ottoman economy, and used its position to ensure that European capital continued to penetrate the empire, often to the detriment of local Ottoman interests. The Ottoman bashi-bazouks brutally suppressed the April Uprising, Bulgarian uprising of 1876, massacring up to 100,000 people in the process. The Russo-Turkish War (1877–1878) ended with a decisive victory for Russia. As a result, Ottoman holdings in Europe declined sharply: Principality of Bulgaria, Bulgaria was established as an independent principality inside the Ottoman Empire; United Principalities, Romania achieved full independence; and History of Serbia, Serbia and Montenegro finally gained complete independence, but with smaller territories. In 1878, Austria-Hungary unilaterally occupied the Ottoman provinces of Bosnia Vilayet, Bosnia-Herzegovina and Sanjak of Novi Pazar, Novi Pazar. British Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli advocated for restoring the Ottoman territories on the Balkan Peninsula during the Congress of Berlin, and in return, Britain assumed the administration of Cyprus in 1878. Britain later sent troops to Egypt in 1882 to put down the Urabi Revolt – Sultan Abdul Hamid II was too paranoid to mobilize his own army, fearing this would result in a coup d'état – effectively gaining control in both territories. Abdul Hamid II, popularly known as "Abdul Hamid the Damned" on account of his cruelty and paranoia, was so fearful of the threat of a coup that he did not allow his army to conduct war games, lest this serves as the cover for a coup, but he did see the need for military mobilization. In 1883, a German military mission under General Baron Colmar Freiherr von der Goltz, Colmar von der Goltz arrived to train the Ottoman Army, leading to the so-called "Goltz generation" of German-trained officers who were to play a notable role in the politics of the last years of the empire. From 1894 to 1896, between 100,000 and 300,000 Armenians living throughout the empire were killed in what became known as the Hamidian massacres. In 1897 the population was 19 million, of whom 14 million (74%) were Muslim. An additional 20 million lived in provinces that remained under the sultan's nominal suzerainty but were entirely outside his actual power. One by one the Porte lost nominal authority. They included Egypt, Tunisia, Bulgaria, Cyprus, Bosnia-Herzegovina, and Lebanon. As the Ottoman Empire gradually shrank in size, some 7–9 million Muslims from its former territories in the Caucasus, Crimea, Balkans, and the Mediterranean islands migrated to Anatolia and Eastern Thrace. After the Empire lost the First Balkan War (1912–1913), it lost all its Balkan peninsula, Balkan territories except East Thrace (European Turkey). This resulted in around 400,000 Muslims fleeing with the retreating Ottoman armies (with many dying from cholera brought by the soldiers), and with some 400,000 non-Muslims fleeing territory still under Ottoman rule. Justin McCarthy (American historian), Justin McCarthy estimates that during the period 1821 to 1922, 5.5 million Muslims died in southeastern Europe, with the expulsion of 5 million.


Defeat and dissolution (1908–1922)


Young Turk movement

The defeat and dissolution of the Ottoman Empire (1908–1922) began with the
Second Constitutional Era The Second Constitutional Era ( ota, ايکنجى مشروطيت دورى; tr, İkinci Meşrûtiyyet Devri) of the Ottoman Empire was established after the 1908 Young Turk Revolution which forced Sultan Abdul Hamid II, Abdulhamid II to restore t ...
, a moment of hope and promise established with the
Young Turk Revolution The Young Turk Revolution (July 1908) of the Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ota, دولت عليه عثمانيه ', literally "The Sublime Ottoman State"; Modern Turkish: ' or '; french: Empire ottoman) (''Osmanean Têrut´iwn'', me ...
. It restored the Ottoman constitution of 1876 and brought in List of political parties in the Ottoman Empire, multi-party politics with a Elections in the Ottoman Empire, two-stage electoral system (Ottoman electoral law, electoral law) under the General Assembly of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman parliament. The constitution offered hope by freeing the empire's citizens to modernise the state's institutions, rejuvenate its strength, and enable it to hold its own against outside powers. Its guarantee of liberties promised to dissolve inter-communal tensions and transform the empire into a more harmonious place. Instead, this period became the story of the twilight struggle of the Empire. Members of Young Turks movement who had once gone underground now established their parties. Among them "
Committee of Union and Progress The Committee of Union and Progress (CUP) ( ota, إتحاد و ترقى جمعيتی, translit=İttihad ve Terakki Cemiyeti), later the Union and Progress Party ( ota, إتحاد و ترقى فرقه‌ سی, translit=İttihad ve Terakki Fırkas ...
", and "Freedom and Accord Party" were major parties. On the other end of the spectrum were ethnic parties, which included Jewish Social Democratic Labour Party in Palestine (Poale Zion), Poale Zion, Al-Fatat, and Armenian national movement organised under Armenian Revolutionary Federation. Profiting from the civil strife, Austria-Hungary officially annexed Bosnia and Herzegovina in 1908. The last of the Census in the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman censuses was performed in 1914 population statistics for the Ottoman Empire, 1914. Despite Ottoman military reforms, military reforms which reconstituted the Ottoman Modern Army, the Empire lost its North African territories and the Dodecanese in the Italo-Turkish War (1911) and almost all of its European territories in the
Balkan Wars The Balkan Wars consisted of two conflicts that took place in the Balkan Peninsula in 1912 and 1913. Four Balkan states defeated the Ottoman Empire in the First Balkan War. In the Second Balkan War, Bulgaria fought against all four original comb ...

Balkan Wars
(1912–1913). The Empire faced continuous unrest in the years leading up to
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
, including the 31 March Incident and two further coups in 1912 Ottoman coup d'état, 1912 and 1913 Ottoman coup d'état, 1913.


World War I

The Ottoman Empire entered
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
on the side of the
Central Powers The Central Powers, also known as the Central Empires,german: Mittelmächte; hu, Központi hatalmak; tr, İttifak Devletleri / ; bg, Централни сили, translit=Tsentralni sili was one of the two main coalitions that fought World W ...
and was ultimately defeated. The Ottoman participation in the war began with the combined Black Sea Raid, German-Ottoman surprise attack on the Black Sea coast of the Russian Empire on 29 October 1914. Following the attack, the Russian Empire (2 November 1914) and its allies French Third Republic, France (5 November 1914) and the British Empire (5 November 1914) declared war on the Ottoman Empire (also on 5 November 1914, the British government changed the status of the Khedivate of Egypt and Cyprus Convention, Cyprus, which were de jure Ottoman territories prior to the war, as British protectorates.) The Ottomans successfully defended the Dardanelles strait during the Gallipoli campaign (1915–1916) and achieved initial victories against British forces in the first two years of the Mesopotamian campaign, such as the Siege of Kut (1915–1916); but the
Arab Revolt The Arab Revolt ( ar, الثورة العربية, ; tr, Arap İsyanı) or the Great Arab Revolt (, ) was a military uprising of Arab forces against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. On the basis of the McMahon– ...

Arab Revolt
(1916–1918) turned the tide against the Ottomans in the Middle East. In the Caucasus campaign, however, the Russian forces had the upper hand from the beginning, especially after the Battle of Sarikamish (1914–1915). Russian forces advanced into northeastern
Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and the westernmost protrusion of the Asian continent. It makes up the majority of modern-day Turkey. The region ...
and controlled the major cities there until retreating from World War I with the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk following the Russian Revolution in 1917.


=Genocides

= In 1915 the Ottoman government and Kurdish tribes in region started the extermination of its ethnic Armenian population, resulting in the death of up to 1.5 million Armenians in the Armenian genocide. The genocide was carried out during and after World War I and implemented in two phases: the wholesale killing of the able-bodied male population through massacre and subjection of army conscripts to forced labour, followed by the deportation of women, children, the elderly and infirm on death marches leading to the Syrian desert. Driven forward by military escorts, the deportees were deprived of food and water and subjected to periodic robbery, Rape during the Armenian Genocide, rape, and systematic massacre. Large-scale massacres were also committed against the Empire's Greek genocide, Greek and Assyrian genocide, Assyrian minorities as part of the same campaign of ethnic cleansing.


=Arab Revolt

= The
Arab Revolt The Arab Revolt ( ar, الثورة العربية, ; tr, Arap İsyanı) or the Great Arab Revolt (, ) was a military uprising of Arab forces against the Ottoman Empire in the Middle Eastern theatre of World War I. On the basis of the McMahon– ...

Arab Revolt
began in 1916 with British support. It turned the tide against the Ottomans on the Middle Eastern front, where they seemed to have the upper hand during the first two years of the war. On the basis of the McMahon–Hussein Correspondence, an agreement between the British government and Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca, the revolt was officially initiated at Mecca on 10 June 1916. The Arab nationalist goal was to create a single unified and independent Arab state stretching from Aleppo in Syria to Aden in Yemen, which the British had promised to recognise. The Sharifian Army led by Hussein and the Hashemites, with military backing from the British Egyptian Expeditionary Force, successfully fought and expelled the Ottoman military presence from much of the Hejaz and Transjordan (region), Transjordan. The rebellion eventually took Damascus and set up a short-lived monarchy led by Faisal I of Iraq, Faisal, a son of Hussein. Following the Sykes-Picot Agreement, the Middle East was later partitioned by the British and French into League of Nations mandate, mandate territories. There was no unified Arab state, much to the anger of Arab nationalists.


=Treaty of Sèvres and Turkish War of Independence

= Defeated on every front, the Ottoman Empire signed the Armistice of Mudros on 30 October 1918. Occupation of Constantinople, Constantinople was occupied by combined British, French, Italian, and Greek forces. In May 1919, Greece also occupation of İzmir, took control of the area around Smyrna (now İzmir). The partition of the Ottoman Empire was finalized under the terms of the 1920 Treaty of Sèvres. This treaty, as designed in the Conference of London (1920), Conference of London, allowed the Sultan to retain his position and title. The status of Anatolia was problematic given the occupied forces. There arose a nationalist opposition in the Turkish national movement. It won the
Turkish War of Independence The Turkish War of Independence "War of Liberation", also known figuratively as ''İstiklâl Harbi'' "Independence War" or ''Millî Mücadele'' "National Struggle" (19 May 1919 – 24 July 1923) was a series of military and ethnic cleansing ...
(1919–1923) under the leadership of Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, Mustafa Kemal (later given the surname "Atatürk"). The sultanate was abolished on 1 November 1922, and the last sultan, Mehmed VI (reigned 1918–1922), left the country on 17 November 1922. The
Republic of Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia and ...

Republic of Turkey
was History of Turkey#Republic of Turkey, established in its place on 29 October 1923, in the new capital city of
Ankara Ankara, historically known as Ancyra and Angora, is the list of national capitals, capital of Turkey. Located in the Central Anatolia Region, central part of Anatolia, the city has a population of 4.5 million in its urban centre and over ...

Ankara
. The Ottoman Caliphate, caliphate was abolished on 3 March 1924.


Historiographical debate on the Ottoman state

Several historians such as British historian Edward Gibbon and the Greek historian Dimitri Kitsikis have argued that after the fall of Constantinople, the Ottoman state took over the machinery of the Byzantine (Roman) state and that in essence, the Ottoman Empire was a continuation of the Eastern Roman Empire under a Turkish people, Turkish Muslims, Muslim guise. The American historian Speros Vryonis wrote that the Ottoman state was centered on "a Byzantine-Balkan base with a veneer of the Turkish language and the
Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
ic religion".Stone, pp. 86–100 The American historian Heath Lowry and Kitsikis posit that the early Ottoman state was predatory confederacy open to both Byzantine Christians and Turkish Muslims, whose primary goal was attaining booty and slaves, rather than spreading Islam, and that only later Islam became the primary characteristic of the empire. Other historians have followed the lead of the Austrian historian Paul Wittek who emphasized the Islamic character of the early Ottoman state, seeing the Ottoman state as a "Jihad state" dedicated to expanding the Muslim world. Many historians led in 1937 by the Turkish historian Mehmet Fuat Köprülü championed the ''Ghazi thesis'' that saw the early Ottoman state as a continuation of the way of life of the nomadic Turkic peoples, Turkic tribes who had come from East Asia to Anatolia via Central Asia and the Middle East on a much larger scale. They argued that the most important cultural influences on the Ottoman state came from Iran, Persia. The British historian Norman Stone suggested many continuities between the Eastern Roman and Ottoman empires such as the ''zeugarion'' tax of Byzantium becoming the Ottoman ''Resm-i çift'' tax, the ''pronoia'' land-holding system that linked the amount of land one owned with one's ability to raise cavalry becoming the Ottoman ''timar'' system, and the Ottoman measurement for land the ''dönüm'' was the same as the Byzantine ''stremma''. Stone also pointed out that despite the fact that Sunni Islam was the state religion, the
Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
was supported and controlled by the Ottoman state, and in return to accepting that control became the largest land-holder in the Ottoman Empire. Despite the similarities, Stone argued that a crucial difference was that the land grants under the ''timar'' system were not hereditary at first. Even after land grants under the ''timar'' system became inheritable, land ownership in the Ottoman Empire remained highly insecure, and the sultan could and did revoke land grants whenever he wished. Stone argued this insecurity in land tenure strongly discouraged ''Timariots'' from seeking long-term development of their land, and instead led the ''timariots'' to adopt a strategy of short-term exploitation, which ultimately had deleterious effects on the Ottoman economy. Most of the Ottoman Sultans adhered to Sufism and followed Sufi orders, and believed Sufism is the correct way to reach God. Because the matters of jurisprudence and shariah were state matters, the state-sponsored Sufi religious dominance came into play. Non-Sufi Muslims and Arabs were neglected and not given any position in the Hejaz.


Government

Before the reforms of the 19th and 20th centuries, the state organisation of the Ottoman Empire was a system with two main dimensions, the military administration, and the civil administration. The Sultan was in the highest position in the system. The civil system was based on local administrative units based on the region's characteristics. The state had control over the clergy. Certain pre-Islamic Turkish traditions that had survived the adoption of administrative and legal practices from Islamic Iran remained important in Ottoman administrative circles. According to Ottoman understanding, the state's primary responsibility was to defend and extend the land of the Muslims and to ensure security and harmony within its borders in the overarching context of Sunni, orthodox Islamic practice and dynastic sovereignty. The Ottoman Empire, or as a dynastic institution, the House of Osman, was unprecedented and unequaled in the Islamic world for its size and duration. In Europe, only the House of Habsburg had a similarly unbroken line of sovereigns (kings/emperors) from the same family who ruled for so long, and during the same period, between the late 13th and early 20th centuries. The Ottoman dynasty was Turkish in origin. On eleven occasions, the sultan was deposed (replaced by another sultan of the Ottoman dynasty, who were either the former sultan's brother, son or nephew) because he was perceived by his enemies as a threat to the state. There were only two attempts in Ottoman history to unseat the ruling Ottoman dynasty, both failures, which suggests a political system that for an extended period was able to manage its revolutions without unnecessary instability. As such, the last Ottoman sultan Mehmed VI (r. 1918–1922) was a List of sultans of the Ottoman Empire, direct patrilineal (male-line) descendant of the first Ottoman sultan
Osman I Osman I or Osman Ghazi ( ota, عثمان غازى, translit= ʿOsmān Ġāzī; tr, I. Osman or ''Osman Gazi''; died 1323/4), sometimes transliterated archaically as Othman, was the leader of the Kayi tribe and the founder of the Ottoman dynas ...

Osman I
(d. 1323/4), which was unparalleled in both Europe (e.g., the male line of the House of Habsburg became extinct in 1740) and in the Islamic world. The primary purpose of the Imperial Harem was to ensure the birth of male heirs to the Ottoman throne and secure the continuation of the direct patrilineal (male-line) power of the Ottoman sultans in the future generations The highest position in Islam, ''caliphate'', was claimed by the sultans starting with Murad I, which was established as the Ottoman Caliphate. The Ottoman sultan, ''Padishah, pâdişâh'' or "lord of kings", served as the Empire's sole regent and was considered to be the embodiment of its government, though he did not always exercise complete control. The Imperial Harem was one of the most important powers of the Ottoman court. It was ruled by the Valide Sultan. On occasion, the Valide Sultan would become involved in state politics. For a time, the women of the Harem effectively controlled the state in what was termed the "Sultanate of the women, Sultanate of Women". New sultans were always chosen from the sons of the previous sultan. The strong educational system of the palace school was geared towards eliminating the unfit potential heirs and establishing support among the ruling elite for a successor. The palace schools, which would also educate the future administrators of the state, were not a single track. First, the Madrasa (') was designated for the Muslims, and educated scholars and state officials according to Islamic tradition. The financial burden of the Medrese was supported by vakifs, allowing children of poor families to move to higher social levels and income. The second track was a free boarding school for the Christians, the ''Enderûn'', which recruited 3,000 students annually from Christian boys between eight and twenty years old from one in forty families among the communities settled in Rumelia or the Balkans, a process known as Devshirme in the Ottoman Palace School, Devshirme ('). Though the sultan was the supreme monarch, the sultan's political and executive authority was delegated. The politics of the state had a number of advisors and ministers gathered around a council known as Divan. The Divan, in the years when the Ottoman state was still a ''Beylik'', was composed of the elders of the tribe. Its composition was later modified to include military officers and local elites (such as religious and political advisors). Later still, beginning in 1320, a Grand Vizier was appointed to assume certain of the sultan's responsibilities. The Grand Vizier had considerable independence from the sultan with almost unlimited powers of appointment, dismissal, and supervision. Beginning with the late 16th century, sultans withdrew from politics and the Grand Vizier became the ''de facto'' head of state. Throughout Ottoman history, there were many instances in which local governors acted independently, and even in opposition to the ruler. After the Young Turk Revolution of 1908, the Ottoman state became a constitutional monarchy. The sultan no longer had executive powers. A parliament was formed, with representatives chosen from the provinces. The representatives formed the Imperial Government of the Ottoman Empire. This eclectic administration was apparent even in the diplomatic correspondence of the Empire, which was initially undertaken in the Greek language to the west. The Tughra were calligraphic monograms, or signatures, of the Ottoman Sultans, of which there were 35. Carved on the Sultan's seal, they bore the names of the Sultan and his father. The statement and prayer, "ever victorious", was also present in most. The earliest belonged to Orhan Gazi. The ornately stylized ''Tughra'' spawned a branch of Ottoman-Turkish calligraphy.


Law

The Ottoman legal system accepted the religious law over its subjects. At the same time the ''Qanun (law), Qanun'' (or ''Kanun''), dynastic law, co-existed with religious law or Sharia. The Ottoman Empire was always organized around a system of local jurisprudence. Legal administration in the Ottoman Empire was part of a larger scheme of balancing central and local authority. Ottoman power revolved crucially around the administration of the rights to land, which gave a space for the local authority to develop the needs of the local Millet (Ottoman Empire), millet. The jurisdictional complexity of the Ottoman Empire was aimed to permit the integration of culturally and religiously different groups. The Ottoman system had three court systems: one for Muslims, one for non-Muslims, involving appointed Jews and Christians ruling over their respective religious communities, and the "trade court". The entire system was regulated from above by means of the administrative ''Qanun'', i.e., laws, a system based upon the Turkic ''Yassa'' and ''Töre (law), Töre'', which were developed in the pre-Islamic era. These court categories were not, however, wholly exclusive; for instance, the Islamic courts, which were the Empire's primary courts, could also be used to settle a trade conflict or disputes between litigants of differing religions, and Jews and Christians often went to them to obtain a more forceful ruling on an issue. The Ottoman state tended not to interfere with non-Muslim religious law systems, despite legally having a voice to do so through local governors. The Islamic ''Sharia'' law system had been developed from a combination of the Qur'an; the Hadith, Hadīth, or words of the prophet Muhammad in Islam, Muhammad; ''ijma, ijmā''', or consensus of the members of the Ummah, Muslim community; qiyas, a system of analogical reasoning from earlier precedents; and local customs. Both systems were taught at the Empire's law schools, which were in
Istanbul ) , postal_code_type = Postal code A postal code (also known locally in various English-speaking countries throughout the world as a postcode, post code, PIN or ZIP Code) is a series of letters or digits or both, sometimes ...

Istanbul
and
Bursa (ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the used in and the from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: (), Dark Ages (), the period (), and the period (). Ancient Greek wa ...

Bursa
. The Ottoman Islamic legal system was set up differently from traditional European courts. Presiding over Islamic courts would be a ''Qadi'', or judge. Since the closing of the ''ijtihad'', or ''Gate of Interpretation, Qadis ''throughout the Ottoman Empire focused less on legal precedent, and more with local customs and traditions in the areas that they administered. However, the Ottoman court system lacked an appellate structure, leading to jurisdictional case strategies where plaintiffs could take their disputes from one court system to another until they achieved a ruling that was in their favour. In the late 19th century, the Ottoman legal system saw substantial reform. This process of legal modernisation began with the Edict of Gülhane of 1839. These reforms included the "fair and public trial[s] of all accused regardless of religion", the creation of a system of "separate competences, religious and civil", and the validation of testimony on non-Muslims. Specific land codes (1858), civil codes (1869–1876), and a code of civil procedure also were enacted. These reforms were based heavily on French models, as indicated by the adoption of a three-tiered court system. Referred to as Nizamiye, this system was extended to the local magistrate level with the final promulgation of the Mecelle, a civil code that regulated marriage, divorce, alimony, will, and other matters of personal status. In an attempt to clarify the division of judicial competences, an administrative council laid down that religious matters were to be handled by religious courts, and statute matters were to be handled by the Nizamiye courts.


Military

The first military unit of the Ottoman State was an army that was organized by Osman I from the tribesmen inhabiting the hills of western Anatolia in the late 13th century. The military system became an intricate organization with the advance of the Empire. The Ottoman military was a complex system of recruiting and fief-holding. The main corps of the Ottoman Army included Janissary, Sipahi, Akinji, Akıncı and Ottoman military band, Mehterân. The Ottoman army was once among the most advanced fighting forces in the world, being one of the first to use muskets and cannons. The Ottoman Turks began using ''Falconet (cannon), falconets'', which were short but wide cannons, during the Siege of Constantinople (1422), Siege of Constantinople. The Ottoman cavalry depended on high speed and mobility rather than heavy armor, using bows and short swords on fast Turkoman horse, Turkoman and Arabian horse, Arabian horses (progenitors of the Thoroughbred#Foundation stallions, Thoroughbred racing horse), and often applied tactics similar to those of the Mongol Empire, such as pretending to retreat while surrounding the enemy forces inside a crescent-shaped formation and then making the real attack. The Ottoman army continued to be an effective fighting force throughout the seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, falling behind the empire's European rivals only during a long period of peace from 1740 to 1768. The modernization of the Ottoman Empire in the 19th century started with the military. In 1826 Sultan Mahmud II abolished the Janissary corps and established the modern Ottoman army. He named them as the Nizam-ı Cedid (New Order). The Ottoman army was also the first institution to hire foreign experts and send its officers for training in western European countries. Consequently, the Young Turks movement began when these relatively young and newly trained men returned with their education. The Ottoman Navy vastly contributed to the expansion of the Empire's territories on the European continent. It initiated the conquest of North Africa, with the addition of Algeria and Egypt to the Ottoman Empire in 1517. Starting with the loss of Greece in 1821 and Algeria in 1830, Ottoman naval power and control over the Empire's distant overseas territories began to decline. Sultan Abdülaziz (reigned 1861–1876) attempted to reestablish a strong Ottoman navy, building the largest fleet after those of Britain and France. The shipyard at Barrow, England, built its first submarine in 1886 for the Ottoman Empire. However, the collapsing Ottoman economy could not sustain the fleet's strength for long. Sultan Abdülhamid II distrusted the admirals who sided with the reformist Midhat Pasha and claimed that the large and expensive fleet was of no use against the Russians during the Russo-Turkish War. He locked most of the fleet inside the Golden Horn, where the ships decayed for the next 30 years. Following the Young Turk Revolution in 1908, the Committee of Union and Progress sought to develop a strong Ottoman naval force. The ''Ottoman Navy Foundation'' was established in 1910 to buy new ships through public donations. The establishment of Ottoman Air Force, Ottoman military aviation dates back to between June 1909 and July 1911. The Ottoman Empire started preparing its first pilots and planes, and with the founding of the Aviation School (''Tayyare Mektebi'') in Yeşilköy on 3 July 1912, the Empire began to tutor its own flight officers. The founding of the Aviation School quickened advancement in the military aviation program, increased the number of enlisted persons within it, and gave the new pilots an active role in the Ottoman Army and Navy. In May 1913, the world's first specialized Reconnaissance Training Program was started by the Aviation School, and the first separate reconnaissance division was established. In June 1914 a new military academy, the Naval Aviation School (''Bahriye Tayyare Mektebi'') was founded. With the outbreak of World War I, the modernization process stopped abruptly. The Aviation Squadrons (Ottoman Empire), Ottoman aviation squadrons fought on many fronts during World War I, from Galicia (Central Europe), Galicia in the west to the Caucasus in the east and Yemen in the south.


Administrative divisions

The Ottoman Empire was first subdivided into provinces, in the sense of fixed territorial units with governors appointed by the sultan, in the late 14th century. The Eyalet (also ''Pashalik'' or ''Beylerbeylik'') was the territory of office of a Beylerbey ("lord of lords" or governor), and was further subdivided in Sanjaks. The Vilayets were introduced with the promulgation of the "Vilayet Law" () in 1864, as part of the Tanzimat reforms. Unlike the previous eyalet system, the 1864 law established a hierarchy of administrative units: the vilayet, liva (sanjak), liva/sanjak, qadaa, kaza and Town council, village council, to which the 1871 Vilayet Law added the nahiye.


Economy

Ottoman government deliberately pursued a policy for the development of Bursa, Edirne, and Istanbul, successive Ottoman capitals, into major commercial and industrial centers, considering that merchants and artisans were indispensable in creating a new metropolis. To this end, Mehmed and his successor Bayezid, also encouraged and welcomed migration of the Jews from different parts of Europe, who were settled in Istanbul and other port cities like Salonica. In many places in Europe, Jews were suffering persecution at the hands of their Christian counterparts, such as in Spain, after the conclusion of Reconquista. The tolerance displayed by the Turks was welcomed by the immigrants. The Ottoman economic mind was closely related to the basic concepts of state and society in the Middle East in which the ultimate goal of a state was consolidation and extension of the ruler's power, and the way to reach it was to get rich resources of revenues by making the productive classes prosperous. The ultimate aim was to increase the state revenues without damaging the prosperity of subjects to prevent the emergence of social disorder and to keep the traditional organization of the society intact. The Ottoman economy greatly expanded during the early modern period, with particularly high growth rates during the first half of the eighteenth century. The empire's annual income quadrupled between 1523 and 1748, adjusted for inflation. The organization of the treasury and chancery were developed under the Ottoman Empire more than any other Islamic government and, until the 17th century, they were the leading organization among all their contemporaries. This organisation developed a scribal bureaucracy (known as "men of the pen") as a distinct group, partly highly trained ulama, which developed into a professional body. The effectiveness of this professional financial body stands behind the success of many great Ottoman statesmen. Modern Ottoman studies indicate that the change in relations between the Ottoman Turks and central Europe was caused by the opening of the new sea routes. It is possible to see the decline in the significance of the land routes to the East as Western Europe opened the ocean routes that bypassed the Middle East and the Mediterranean as parallel to the decline of the Ottoman Empire itself. The Anglo-Ottoman Treaty, also known as the Treaty of Balta Liman that opened the Ottoman markets directly to English and French competitors, would be seen as one of the staging posts along with this development. By developing commercial centers and routes, encouraging people to extend the area of cultivated land in the country and international trade through its dominions, the state performed basic economic functions in the Empire. But in all this, the financial and political interests of the state were dominant. Within the social and political system they were living in, Ottoman administrators could not see the desirability of the dynamics and principles of the capitalist and mercantile economies developing in Western Europe. Economic historian Paul Bairoch argues that free trade contributed to deindustrialisation in the Ottoman Empire. In contrast to the protectionism of China, Japan, and Spain, the Ottoman Empire had a Economic liberalism, liberal trade policy, open to foreign imports. This has origins in capitulations of the Ottoman Empire, dating back to the first commercial treaties signed with France in 1536 and taken further with Capitulation (treaty), capitulations in 1673 and 1740, which lowered Duty (economics), duties to 3% for imports and exports. The liberal Ottoman policies were praised by British economists, such as J. R. McCulloch in his ''Dictionary of Commerce'' (1834), but later criticized by British politicians such as Prime Minister Benjamin Disraeli, who cited the Ottoman Empire as "an instance of the injury done by unrestrained competition" in the 1846 Corn Laws debate.


Demographics

A population estimate for the empire of 11,692,480 for the 1520–1535 period was obtained by counting the households in Ottoman tithe registers, and multiplying this number by 5. For unclear reasons, the population in the 18th century was lower than that in the 16th century. An estimate of 7,230,660 for the first census held in 1831 is considered a serious undercount, as this census was meant only to register possible conscripts. Censuses of Ottoman territories only began in the early 19th century. Figures from 1831 onwards are available as official census results, but the censuses did not cover the whole population. For example, the 1831 census only counted men and did not cover the whole empire. For earlier periods estimates of size and distribution of the population are based on observed demographic patterns. However, it began to rise to reach 25–32  million by 1800, with around 10  million in the European provinces (primarily in the Balkans), 11  million in the Asiatic provinces, and around 3  million in the African provinces. Population densities were higher in the European provinces, double those in Anatolia, which in turn were triple the population densities of Iraq and Syria and five times the population density of Arabia. Towards the end of the empire's existence life expectancy was 49 years, compared to the mid-twenties in Serbia at the beginning of the 19th century. Epidemic diseases and famine caused major disruption and demographic changes. In 1785 around one-sixth of the Egyptian population died from the plague and Aleppo saw its population reduced by twenty percent in the 18th century. Six famines hit Egypt alone between 1687 and 1731 and the last famine to hit Anatolia was four decades later. The rise of port cities saw the clustering of populations caused by the development of steamships and railroads. Urbanization increased from 1700 to 1922, with towns and cities growing. Improvements in health and sanitation made them more attractive to live and work in. Port cities like Salonica, in Greece, saw its population rise from 55,000 in 1800 to 160,000 in 1912 and İzmir which had a population of 150,000 in 1800 grew to 300,000 by 1914. Some regions conversely had population falls—Belgrade saw its population drop from 25,000 to 8,000 mainly due to political strife. Economic and political migrations made an impact across the empire. For example, the
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
and Austria-Habsburg annexation of the Crimean and Balkan regions respectively saw large influxes of Muslim refugees—200,000 Crimean Tartars fleeing to Dobruja. Between 1783 and 1913, approximately 5–7 million refugees flooded into the Ottoman Empire, at least 3.8 million of whom were from Russia. Some migrations left indelible marks such as political tension between parts of the empire (e.g., Turkey and Bulgaria), whereas centrifugal effects were noticed in other territories, simpler demographics emerging from diverse populations. Economies were also impacted by the loss of artisans, merchants, manufacturers, and agriculturists. Since the 19th century, a large proportion of Muslim peoples from the Balkans emigrated to present-day Turkey. These people are called ''Muhacir''. By the time the Ottoman Empire came to an end in 1922, half of the urban population of Turkey was descended from Muslim refugees from Russia.


Language

Ottoman Turkish was the official language of the Empire. It was an Oghuz languages, Oghuz Turkic languages, Turkic language highly influenced by Persian language, Persian and Arabic, though lower registries spoken by the common people had fewer influences from other languages compared to higher varieties used by upper classes and governmental authorities. Turkish, in its Ottoman variation, was a language of military and administration since the nascent days of the Ottomans. The Ottoman constitution of 1876 did officially cement the official imperial status of Turkish. The Ottomans had several influential languages: Turkish, spoken by the majority of the people in Anatolia and by the majority of Muslims of the Balkans except in History of Albania, Albania, History of Bosnia, Bosnia and the Megleno-Romanians, Megleno-Romanian-inhabited Nânti; Persian, only spoken by the educated; Arabic, spoken mainly in Egypt, the Levant, History of Arabia, Arabia, Iraq, North Africa, History of Kuwait, Kuwait and parts of the Horn of Africa and Berber language, Berber in North Africa. In the last two centuries, usage of these became limited, though, and specific: Persian served mainly as a literary language for the educated, while Arabic was used for Islamic prayers. In the post-
Tanzimat The Tanzimat (; ota, تنظيمات, translit=Tanzimāt, lit=Reorganization, ''see'' nizām) was a period of reform Reform ( lat, reformo) means the improvement or amendment of what is wrong, corrupt, unsatisfactory, etc. The use of the word i ...
period French became the common Western language among the educated. Because of a low literacy rate among the public (about 2–3% until the early 19th century and just about 15% at the end of the 19th century), ordinary people had to hire scribes as "special request-writers" (''arzuhâlci''s) to be able to communicate with the government. Some ethnic groups continued to speak within their families and neighborhoods (mahalles) with their own languages, though many non-Muslim minorities such as Greeks and Armenians only spoke Turkish. In villages where two or more populations lived together, the inhabitants would often speak each other's language. In cosmopolitan cities, people often spoke their family languages; many of those who were not ethnic Turkish people, Turks spoke Turkish as a second language.


Religion

In the Ottoman imperial system, even though there existed a hegemonic power of Muslim control over the non-Muslim populations, non-Muslim communities had been granted state recognition and protection in the Islamic tradition. The officially accepted state Dīn ''(Madh'hab)'' of the Ottomans was Sunni ''(Hanafi jurisprudence).''Gunduz, Sinas
Change And Essence: Dialectical Relations Between Change And Continuity in the Turkish Intellectual Traditions
Cultural Heritage and Contemporary Change. Series IIA, Islam, V. 18, pp. 104–05
Until the second half of the 15th century, the empire had a Christian majority, under the rule of a Muslim minority. In the late 19th century, the non-Muslim population of the empire began to fall considerably, not only due to secession but also because of migratory movements. The proportion of Muslims amounted to 60% in the 1820s, gradually increasing to 69% in the 1870s and then to 76% in the 1890s. By 1914, only 19.1% of the empire's population was non-Muslim, mostly made up of Jews and Christian Greeks, Assyrians, and Armenians.


Islam

Turkic peoples practiced a variety of shamanism before adopting Islam. Abbasid influence in Central Asia was ensured through a process that was greatly facilitated by the Muslim conquest of Transoxiana. Many of the various Turkic tribes—including the Oghuz Turks, who were the ancestors of both the Seljuks and the Ottomans—gradually converted to Islam, and brought the religion with them to Anatolia beginning in the 11th century. Since the founding of the Ottoman Empire, the Ottomans followed the Maturidi Islamic theology, creed (school of Islamic theology) and the Hanafi madhab (school of Islamic jurisprudence). Muslim sects regarded as heretical, such as the Druze, Ismailis, Alevis, and Alawites, ranked below Jews and Christians. Druze have been persecuted by Ottomans, and Ottomans have often relied on Ibn Taymiyya religious ruling to justify their persecution of Druze. In 1514, Sultan Selim I ordered the massacre of 40,000 Anatolian Alevis (''Qizilbash''), whom he considered a fifth column for the rival Safavid empire. Selim was also responsible for an unprecedented and rapid expansion of the Ottoman Empire into the Middle East, especially through his Ottoman–Mamluk War (1516–1517), conquest of the entire Mamluk Sultanate of Egypt. With these conquests, Selim further solidified the Ottoman claim for being an Islamic caliphate, although Ottoman sultans had been claiming the title of caliph since the 14th century starting with Murad I (reigned 1362 to 1389). The caliphate would remain held by Ottoman sultans for the rest of the office's duration, which ended with its abolition on 3 March 1924 by the Grand National Assembly of Turkey and the exile of the last caliph, Abdülmecid II, to France.


Christianity and Judaism

In the Ottoman Empire, in accordance with the Muslim ''dhimmi'' system, Christians were guaranteed limited freedoms (such as the right to worship). They were forbidden to carry weapons or ride on horseback; their houses could not overlook those of Muslims, in addition to various other legal limitations. Many Christians and Jews converted in order to secure full status in the society. Most, however, continued to practice their old religions without restriction. Under the system, non-Muslim people were considered subjects of the Empire but were not subject to the Muslim faith or Muslim law. The Orthodox millet, for instance, was still officially legally subject to Corpus Juris Civilis, Justinian's Code, which had been in effect in the Byzantine Empire for 900 years. Also, as the largest group of non-Muslim subjects (or ) of the Islamic Ottoman state, the Orthodox millet was granted a number of special privileges in the fields of politics and commerce and had to pay higher taxes than Muslim subjects. Similar millets were established for the Ottoman Jewish community, who were under the authority of the ''Hakham Bashi, Haham Başı'' or Ottoman Chief Rabbi; the Armenian Apostolic Church, Armenian Apostolic community, who were under the authority of a head bishop; and a number of other religious communities as well. Some argue that the millet system is an example of pre-modern religious pluralism.


Social-political-religious structure

Society, government, and religion were inter-related in complex ways after about 1800, in a complex overlapping, inefficient system that Atatürk systematically dismantled after 1922. In Constantinople, the Sultan ruled two distinct domains: the secular government and the religious hierarchy. Religious officials formed the Ulama, who had control of religious teachings and theology, and also the Empire's judicial system, giving them a major voice in day-to-day affairs in communities across the Empire (but not including the non-Muslim millets). They were powerful enough to reject the military reforms proposed by Sultan Selim III. His successor Sultan Mahmud II (r. 1808–1839) first won ulama approval before proposing similar reforms. The secularisation program brought by Atatürk ended the ulema and their institutions. The caliphate was abolished, madrasas were closed down, and the sharia courts were abolished. He replaced the Arabic alphabet with Latin letters, ended the religious school system, and gave women some political rights. Many rural traditionalists never accepted this secularisation, and by the 1990s they were reasserting a demand for a larger role for Islam. The Janissaries were a highly formidable military unit in the early years, but as Western Europe modernized its military organization technology, the Janissaries became a reactionary force that resisted all change. Steadily the Ottoman military power became outdated, but when the Janissaries felt their privileges were being threatened, or outsiders wanted to modernize them, or they might be superseded by the cavalrymen, they rose in rebellion. The rebellions were highly violent on both sides, but by the time the Janissaries were suppressed, it was far too late for Ottoman military power to catch up with the West. The political system was transformed by the destruction of the Janissaries in the Auspicious Incident of 1826, who was a very powerful military/governmental/police force that revolted. Sultan Mahmud II crushed the revolt executed the leaders and disbanded the large organization. That set the stage for a slow process of modernization of government functions, as the government sought, with mixed success, to adopt the main elements of Western bureaucracy and military technology. The Janissaries had been recruited from Christians and other minorities; their abolition enabled the emergence of a Turkish elite to control the Ottoman Empire. The problem was that the Turkish element was very poorly educated, lacking higher schools of any sort, and locked into the Turkish language that used the Arabic alphabet that inhibited wider learning. A large number of ethnic and religious minorities were tolerated in their own separate segregated domains called millets. They were primarily Ottoman Greeks, Greek, Ottoman Armenians, Armenian, or Ottoman Jews, Jewish. In each locality, they governed themselves, spoke their own language, ran their own schools, cultural and religious institutions, and paid somewhat higher taxes. They had no power outside the millet. The Imperial government protected them and prevented major violent clashes between ethnic groups. However, the millets showed very little loyalty to the Empire. Ethnic nationalism, based on distinctive religion and language, provided a centripetal force that eventually destroyed the Ottoman Empire. In addition, Muslim ethnic groups, which were not part of the millett system, especially the Arabs and the Kurds, were outside the Turkish culture and developed their own separate nationalism. The British sponsored Arab nationalism in the First World War, promising an independent Arab state in return for Arab support. Most Arabs supported the Sultan, but those near Mecca believed in and supported the British promise. At the local level, power was held beyond the control of the Sultan by the Ottoman Ayan, "ayan" or local notables. The ayan collected taxes, formed local armies to compete with other notables, took a reactionary attitude toward political or economic change, and often defied policies handed down by the Sultan. The economic system made little progress. Printing was forbidden until the 18th century, for fear of defiling the secret documents of Islam. The millets, however, were allowed their own presses, using Greek, Hebrew, Armenian and other languages that greatly facilitated nationalism. The religious prohibition on charging interest foreclosed most of the entrepreneurial skills among Muslims, although it did flourish among the Jews and Christians. After the 18th century, the Ottoman Empire was clearly shrinking, as Russia put on heavy pressure and expanded to its south; Egypt became effectively independent in 1805, and the British later took it over, along with Cyprus. Greece became independent, and Serbia and other Balkan areas became highly restive as the force of nationalism pushed against imperialism. The French took over Algeria and Tunisia. The Europeans all thought that the empire was a sick man in rapid decline. Only the Germans seemed helpful, and their support led to the Ottoman Empire joining the central powers in 1915, with the result that they came out as one of the heaviest losers of the First World War in 1918.


Culture

The Ottomans absorbed some of the traditions, art, and institutions of cultures in the regions they conquered and added new dimensions to them. Numerous traditions and cultural traits of previous empires (In fields such as architecture, cuisine, music, leisure, and government) were adopted by the Ottoman Turks, who developed them into new forms, resulting in a new and distinctively Ottoman cultural identity. Although the predominant literary language of the Ottoman Empire was Turkish, Persian was the preferred vehicle for the projection of an imperial image. Slavery (Ottoman Empire), Slavery was a part of Ottoman society, with most slaves employed as domestic servants. Agricultural slavery, such as that which was widespread in the Americas, was relatively rare. Unlike systems of chattel slavery, slaves under Islamic law were not regarded as movable property, and the children of female slaves were born legally free. Female slaves were still sold in the Empire as late as 1908. During the 19th century the Empire came under pressure from Western European countries to outlaw the practice. Policies developed by various Sultans throughout the 19th century attempted to curtail the Ottoman slave trade but slavery had centuries of religious backing and sanction and so slavery was never abolished in the Empire. Plague (disease), Plague remained a major scourge in Ottoman society until the second quarter of the 19th century. "Between 1701 and 1750, 37 larger and smaller plague epidemics were recorded in Istanbul, and 31 between 1751 and 1801." Ottomans adopted Persian bureaucratic traditions and culture. The sultans also made an important contribution in the development of Persian literature.


Education

In the Ottoman Empire, each Millet (Ottoman Empire), millet established a schooling system serving its members.Strauss, Johann. "Language and power in the Late Ottoman Empire" (Chapter 7). In: Murphey, Rhoads (editor). ''Imperial Lineages and Legacies in the Eastern Mediterranean: Recording the Imprint of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Rule'' (Volume 18 of Birmingham Byzantine and Ottoman Studies). Routledge, 7 July 2016. , 9781317118442. Google Books]
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Education, therefore, was largely divided on ethnic and religious lines: few non-Muslims attended schools for Muslim students and vice versa. Most institutions that did serve all ethnic and religious groups taught in French or other languages.Strauss, Johann. "Language and power in the late Ottoman Empire" (Chapter 7). In: Murphey, Rhoads (editor). ''Imperial Lineages and Legacies in the Eastern Mediterranean: Recording the Imprint of Roman, Byzantine and Ottoman Rule'' (Volume 18 of Birmingham Byzantine and Ottoman Studies). Routledge, 7 July 2016. , 9781317118442. Google Books]
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Literature

The two primary streams of Ottoman written literature are poetry and prose. Poetry was by far the dominant stream. Until the 19th century, Ottoman prose did not contain any examples of fiction: there were no counterparts to, for instance, the European Romance (heroic literature), romance, short story, or novel. Analog genres did exist, though, in both Turkish folk literature and in Divan poetry. Ottoman Divan poetry was a highly ritualized and symbolic art form. From the Persian poetry that largely inspired it, it inherited a wealth of symbols whose meanings and interrelationships—both of similitude (مراعات نظير mura'ât-i nazîr / تناسب tenâsüb) and opposition (تضاد tezâd) were more or less prescribed. Divan poetry was composed through the constant juxtaposition of many such images within a strict metrical framework, thus allowing numerous potential meanings to emerge. The vast majority of Divan poetry was Lyric poetry, lyric in nature: either gazels (which make up the greatest part of the repertoire of the tradition), or kasîdes. There were, however, other common genres, most particularly the mesnevî, a kind of Courtly romance, verse romance and thus a variety of narrative poetry; the two most notable examples of this form are the Leyli and Majnun of Fuzûlî and the Hüsn ü Aşk of Şeyh Gâlib. The Seyahatnâme of Evliya Çelebi (1611–1682) is an outstanding example of travel literature. Until the 19th century, Prose of the Ottoman Empire, Ottoman prose did not develop to the extent that contemporary Divan poetry did. A large part of the reason for this was that much prose was expected to adhere to the rules of sec (سجع, also transliterated as seci), or rhymed prose, a type of writing descended from the Arabic saj' and which prescribed that between each adjective and noun in a string of words, such as a sentence, there must be a rhyme. Nevertheless, there was a tradition of prose in the literature of the time, though exclusively non-fictional in nature. One apparent exception was Muhayyelât ("Fancies") by Giritli Ali Aziz Efendi, a collection of stories of the fantastic written in 1796, though not published until 1867. The first novel published in the Ottoman Empire was by an Armenian named Vartan Pasha. Published in 1851, the novel was entitled The Story of Akabi (Turkish: Akabi Hikyayesi) and was written in Turkish but with Armenian language, Armenian script. Due to historically close ties with France, French literature came to constitute the major Western influence on Ottoman literature throughout the latter half of the 19th century. As a result, many of the same movements prevalent in France during this period also had their Ottoman equivalents; in the developing Ottoman prose tradition, for instance, the influence of Romanticism can be seen during the Tanzimat period, and that of the Realism (arts), Realist and Naturalism (literature), Naturalist movements in subsequent periods; in the poetic tradition, on the other hand, it was the influence of the Symbolism (arts), Symbolist and Parnassian poets, Parnassian movements that became paramount. Many of the writers in the Tanzimat period wrote in several different genres simultaneously; for instance, the poet Namık Kemal also wrote the important 1876 novel İntibâh ("Awakening"), while the journalist İbrahim Şinasi is noted for writing, in 1860, the first modern Turkish play, the One act play, one-act comedy "Şair Evlenmesi" ("The Poet's Marriage"). An earlier play, a farce entitled "Vakâyi'-i 'Acibe ve Havâdis-i Garibe-yi Kefşger Ahmed" ("The Strange Events and Bizarre Occurrences of the Cobbler Ahmed"), dates from the beginning of the 19th century, but there remains some doubt about its authenticity. In a similar vein, the novelist Ahmed Midhat Efendi wrote important novels in each of the major movements: Romanticism (Hasan Mellâh yâhud Sırr İçinde Esrâr, 1873; "Hasan the Sailor, or The Mystery Within the Mystery"), Realism (Henüz on Yedi Yaşında, 1881; "Just Seventeen Years Old"), and Naturalism (Müşâhedât, 1891; "Observations"). This diversity was, in part, due to the Tanzimat writers' wish to disseminate as much of the new literature as possible, in the hopes that it would contribute to a revitalization of Ottoman social structures.


Media


Architecture

Ottoman architecture was influenced by Persian Architecture, Persian, Byzantine architecture, Byzantine Greek and Islamic architecture, Islamic architectures. During the Rise of the Ottoman Empire, Rise period (The early or first Ottoman architecture period), Ottoman art was in search of new ideas. The Growth of the Ottoman Empire, growth period of the Empire became the Classical Ottoman architecture, classical period of architecture when Ottoman art was at its most confident. During the years of the Stagnation of the Ottoman Empire, Stagnation period, Ottoman architecture moved away from this style, however. During the Tulip Era in the Ottoman Empire, Tulip Era, it was under the influence of the highly ornamented styles of Western Europe; Baroque, Rococo, Empire (style), Empire and other styles intermingled. Concepts of Ottoman architecture concentrate mainly on the Mosque#Architecture, mosque. The mosque was integral to society, Urban planning, city planning, and communal life. Besides the mosque, it is also possible to find good examples of Ottoman architecture in soup kitchens, theological schools, hospitals, Turkish baths, and tombs. File:Dolmabahce_Tor-2008-31-07.jpg, The main entrance of Dolmabahçe Palace that is built in 1862 File:Istanbul_Erkek_Lisesi.jpg, Istanbul High School File:Dolmabahce,_Istanbul,_Turchia.JPG, Dolmabahçe Palace File:P1020390.JPG, Sultan Ahmed Mosque, Blue Mosque File:Wooden_building_on_the_Bosphorus.jpg, Yalı is a house or mansion constructed at immediate waterside on the Bosphorus strait in Istanbul File:Istanbul_asv2020-02_img23_Topkapı_Palace.jpg, Interior of the Imperial Council in Topkapı Palace File:Nuruosmaniye_Mosque_Mars_2013.jpg, Nuruosmaniye Mosque File:Yıldız_Mh.,_Çırağan_Cd._No-32,_34349_Beşiktaş-İstanbul,_Turkey_-_panoramio.jpg, Çırağan Palace File:Inside_the_Harem,_Topkapi_Palace,_Istanbul,_Turkey_(Nov_2009).jpg, Topkapı Palace File:AbacıKonakHotel_(2).jpg, Odunpazarı in Eskişehir has the best examples of the civil Ottoman architecture Examples of Ottoman architecture of the classical period, besides Istanbul and Edirne, can also be seen in Egypt, Eritrea, Tunisia, Algiers, the Balkans, and Romania, where mosques, bridges, fountains, and schools were built. The art of Ottoman decoration developed with a multitude of influences due to the wide ethnic range of the Ottoman Empire. The greatest of the court artists enriched the Ottoman Empire with many pluralistic artistic influences, such as mixing traditional Byzantine art with elements of Chinese art.


Decorative arts

The tradition of Ottoman miniatures, painted to illustrate manuscripts or used in dedicated albums, was heavily influenced by the Persian miniature, Persian art form, though it also included elements of the Byzantine art, Byzantine tradition of manuscript illumination, illumination and painting. A Greek academy of painters, the ''Nakkashane-i-Rum'', was established in the Topkapi Palace in the 15th century, while early in the following century a similar Persian academy, the ''Nakkashane-i-Irani'', was added. Surname-i Hümayun (Imperial Festival Books) were albums that commemorated celebrations in the Ottoman Empire in pictorial and textual detail. Ottoman illumination covers non-figurative painted or drawn decorative art in books or on sheets in ''muraqqa'' or albums, as opposed to the figurative images of the Ottoman miniature. It was a part of the Ottoman Book Arts together with the Ottoman miniature (''taswir''), calligraphy (''hat''), Islamic calligraphy, bookbinding (''cilt'') and paper marbling (''ebru''). In the Ottoman Empire, Illuminated manuscript, illuminated and illustrated manuscripts were commissioned by the Sultan or the administrators of the court. In Topkapi Palace, these manuscripts were created by the artists working in ''Nakkashane'', the atelier of the miniature and illumination artists. Both religious and non-religious books could be illuminated. Also, sheets for albums ''levha'' consisted of illuminated calligraphy (''hat'') of ''tughra'', religious texts, verses from poems or proverbs, and purely decorative drawings. The art of carpet weaving was particularly significant in the Ottoman Empire, carpets having an immense importance both as decorative furnishings, rich in religious and other symbolism and as a practical consideration, as it was customary to remove one's shoes in living quarters. The weaving of such carpets originated in the nomadic cultures of central Asia (carpets being an easily transportable form of furnishing), and eventually spread to the settled societies of Anatolia. Turks used carpets, rugs, and kilims not just on the floors of a room but also as a hanging on walls and doorways, where they provided additional insulation. They were also commonly donated to mosques, which often amassed large collections of them.


Music and performing arts

Ottoman classical music was an important part of the education of the Ottoman elite. A number of the Ottoman sultans have accomplished musicians and composers themselves, such as Selim III, whose compositions are often still performed today. Ottoman classical music arose largely from a confluence of Byzantine music, Armenian music, Arabic music, and Persian traditional music, Persian music. Compositionally, it is organized around rhythmic units called Usul (music), usul, which are somewhat similar to Metre (music), meter in Western music, and Melody, melodic units called makam, which bear some resemblance to Western musical modes. The Musical instrument, instruments used are a mixture of Anatolian and Central Asian instruments (the baglama, saz, the Baglama, bağlama, the Kemenche, kemence), other Middle Eastern instruments (the Oud, ud, the tanbur, the Qanun (instrument), kanun, the ney), and—later in the tradition—Western instruments (the violin and the piano). Because of a geographic and cultural divide between the capital and other areas, two broadly distinct styles of music arose in the Ottoman Empire: Ottoman classical music and folk music. In the provinces, several different kinds of folk music were created. The most dominant regions with their distinguished musical styles are Balkan-Thracian Türküs, North-Eastern (Laz people, Laz) Türküs, Aegean Türküs, Central Anatolian Türküs, Eastern Anatolian Türküs, and Caucasian Türküs. Some of the distinctive styles were: Ottoman military band, Janissary Music, Roma music, Belly dance, Turkish folk music. The traditional shadow play called Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire and featured characters representing all of the major ethnic and social groups in that culture. It was performed by a single puppet master, who voiced all of the characters, and accompanied by tambourine (''def''). Its origins are obscure, deriving perhaps from an older Egyptian tradition, or possibly from an Asian source. File:Surname 171b.jpg, Miniature from ''Abdulcelil Levni, Surname-i Vehbi'' showing the Mehteran, the music band of the Janissaries File:Karagoz figures.jpg, The shadow play Karagöz and Hacivat was widespread throughout the Ottoman Empire. File:Musicians_and_dancers_from_ottoman_empire.jpg, Musicians and dancers entertain the crowds, from Surname-i Hümayun, 1720. File:A_Musical_Gathering_-_Ottoman,_18th_century.jpg, A Musical Gathering - 18th century File:Surname-ı_Hümayun_acrobacy.png, Acrobacy in Surname-i Hümayun


Cuisine

Ottoman cuisine refers to the cuisine of the capital, Istanbul, Constantinople (
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Istanbul
), and the regional capital cities, where the melting pot of cultures created a common cuisine that most of the population regardless of ethnicity shared. This diverse cuisine was honed in the Imperial Palace's kitchens by chefs brought from certain parts of the Empire to create and experiment with different ingredients. The creations of the Ottoman Palace's kitchens filtered to the population, for instance through Ramadan events, and through the cooking at the Yalıs of the Pashas, and from there on spread to the rest of the population. Much of the cuisine of former Ottoman territories today is descended from a shared Ottoman cuisine, especially Turkish cuisine, Turkish, and including Greek cuisine, Greek, Balkan cuisine, Balkan, Armenian cuisine, Armenian, and Middle Eastern cuisine, Middle Eastern cuisines.Bert Fragner, "From the Caucasus to the Roof of the World: a culinary adventure", in Sami Zubaida and Richard Tapper, ''A Taste of Thyme: Culinary Cultures of the Middle East'', London, Prague and New York, p. 52 Many common dishes in the region, descendants of the once-common Ottoman cuisine, include yogurt, döner kebab/Gyro (food), gyro/shawarma, cacık/tzatziki, ayran, pita bread, feta cheese, baklava, lahmacun, moussaka, yuvarlak, köfte/keftés/kofta, börek/boureki, rakı/rakia/tsipouro/tsikoudia, meze, dolma, Sarma (food), sarma, rice pilaf, Turkish coffee, sujuk, kashk, keşkek, Manti (dumpling), manti, lavash, kanafeh, and more.


Science and technology

Over the course of Ottoman history, the Ottomans managed to build a large collection of libraries complete with translations of books from other cultures, as well as original manuscripts. A great part of this desire for local and foreign manuscripts arose in the 15th century. Mehmet II, Sultan Mehmet II ordered Georgios Amiroutzes, a Greek scholar from Trabzon, to translate and make available to Ottoman educational institutions the geography book of Ptolemy. Another example is Ali Qushji – an Islamic astronomy, astronomer, Islamic mathematics, mathematician and Islamic physics, physicist originally from Samarkand – who became a professor in two madrasas and influenced Ottoman circles as a result of his writings and the activities of his students, even though he only spent two or three years in Constantinople before his death. Taqi al-Din Muhammad ibn Ma'ruf, Taqi al-Din built the Constantinople observatory of Taqi al-Din in 1577, where he carried out observations until 1580. He calculated the Orbital eccentricity, eccentricity of the Sun's orbit and the annual motion of the apogee. However, the observatory's primary purpose was almost certainly astrology, astrological rather than astronomical, leading to its destruction in 1580 due to the rise of a clerical faction that opposed its use for that purpose. He also experimented with steam power in Ottoman Egypt in 1551, when he described a steam jack driven by a rudimentary steam turbine. In 1660 the Ottoman scholar Ibrahim Efendi al-Zigetvari Tezkireci translated Noël Duret's French astronomical work (written in 1637) into Arabic. Şerafeddin Sabuncuoğlu was the author of the first surgical atlas and the last major Medicine in medieval Islam, medical encyclopaedia from the Islamic world. Though his work was largely based on Abu al-Qasim al-Zahrawi's ''Al-Tasrif'', Sabuncuoğlu introduced many innovations of his own. Female surgeons were also illustrated for the first time. Since, the Ottoman Empire is credited with the invention of several surgical instruments in use such as forceps, catheters, scalpels, scalpels and lancets as well as Pincers (tool), pincers. An example of a watch that measured time in minutes was created by an Ottoman watchmaker, Meshur Sheyh Dede, in 1702. In the early 19th century, Egypt under Muhammad Ali began using steam engines for industrial manufacturing, with industries such as ironworks, textile manufacturing, paper mills and hulling mills moving towards steam power. Economic historian Jean Batou argues that the necessary economic conditions existed in Egypt for the adoption of oil as a potential energy source for its steam engines later in the 19th century. In the 19th century, Ishak Efendi is credited with introducing the then current Western scientific ideas and developments to the Ottoman and wider Muslim world, as well as the invention of a suitable Turkish and Arabic scientific terminology, through his translations of Western works.


Sports

The main sports Ottomans were engaged in were Turkish wrestling, hunting, Turkish archery, horseback riding, Cirit, equestrian javelin throw, arm wrestling, and swimming. European model sports clubs were formed with the spreading popularity of association football, football matches in 19th century Constantinople. The leading clubs, according to timeline, were Beşiktaş J.K., Beşiktaş Gymnastics Club (1903), Galatasaray S.K., Galatasaray Sports Club (1905), Fenerbahçe S.K., Fenerbahçe Sports Club (1907), MKE Ankaragücü, MKE Ankaragücü (formerly Turan Sanatkaragücü) (1910) in Constantinople. Football clubs were formed in other provinces too, such as Karşıyaka S.K., Karşıyaka Sports Club (1912), Altay S.K., Altay Sports Club (1914) and Ülküspor, Turkish Fatherland Football Club (later Ülküspor) (1914) of İzmir.


See also

* Bibliography of the Ottoman Empire * Gunpowder empires * Historiography of the fall of the Ottoman Empire * Index of Ottoman Empire-related articles * List of battles involving the Ottoman Empire * List of Ottoman conquests, sieges and landings * List of Turkic dynasties and countries * List of wars involving the Ottoman Empire * Outline of the Ottoman Empire * Ottoman Tunisia * Ottoman wars in Europe * ''16 Great Turkic Empires''


References


Footnotes


Citations


Sources

* * * popular history espouses old "decline" thesis * * *


Further reading


General surveys


''The Cambridge History of Turkey'' online
** Volume 1: Kate Fleet ed., "Byzantium to Turkey 1071–1453." Cambridge University Press, 2009. ** Volume 2: Suraiya N. Faroqhi and Kate Fleet eds., "The Ottoman Empire as a World Power, 1453–1603." Cambridge University Press, 2012. ** Volume 3: Suraiya N. Faroqhi ed., "The Later Ottoman Empire, 1603–1839." Cambridge University Press, 2006. ** Volume 4: Reşat Kasaba ed., "Turkey in the Modern World." Cambridge University Press, 2008. * Agoston, Gabor and Bruce Masters, eds. ''Encyclopedia of the Ottoman Empire'' (2008) * Suraiya Faroqhi, Faroqhi, Suraiya. ''The Ottoman Empire: A Short History'' (2009) 196pp * * * * * Koller, Markus (2012)
''Ottoman History of South-East Europe''EGO - European History Online
Mainz
Institute of European History
retrieved: March 25, 2021
pdf
. * * Two volumes. * Kia, Mehrdad, ed. ''The Ottoman Empire: A Historical Encyclopedia'' (2 vol 2017) * McCarthy, Justin. ''The Ottoman Turks: An Introductory History to 1923.'' (1997
online[ * Mikaberidze, Alexander. ''Conflict and Conquest in the Islamic World: A Historical Encyclopedia'' (2 vol 2011) * Miller, William. ''The Ottoman Empire and its successors, 1801–1922'' (2nd ed 1927
online
strong on foreign policy * Donald Quataert, Quataert, Donald
. ''The Ottoman Empire, 1700–1922.'' 2005. . * Şahin, Kaya. "The Ottoman Empire in the Long Sixteenth Century." ''Renaissance Quarterly'' (2017) 70#1: 220–23
online
* Somel, Selcuk Aksin. ''Historical Dictionary of the Ottoman Empire'' (2003). pp. 39
excerpt
* L. S. Stavrianos, Stavrianos, L. S. ''The Balkans since 1453'' (1968; new preface 1999
online
* Tabak, Faruk. ''The Waning of the Mediterranean, 1550–1870: A Geohistorical Approach'' (2008)


Early Ottomans

* * *


Diplomatic and military

* * * Aksan, Virginia H. "Ottoman Military Matters." ''Journal of Early Modern History'' 6.1 (2002): 52–62, historiography
online
* Aksan, Virginia H. "Mobilization of Warrior Populations in the Ottoman Context, 1750–1850." in ''Fighting for a Living: A Comparative Study of Military Labour: 1500–2000'' ed. by Erik-Jan Zürcher (201
online
* Aksan, Virginia. "Breaking the spell of the Baron de Tott: Reframing the question of military reform in the Ottoman Empire, 1760–1830." ''International History Review'' 24.2 (2002): 253–27
online
* Aksan, Virginia H. "The Ottoman military and state transformation in a globalizing world." ''Comparative Studies of South Asia, Africa and the Middle East'' 27.2 (2007): 259–27
online
* Aksan, Virginia H. "Whatever happened to the Janissaries? Mobilization for the 1768–1774 Russo-Ottoman War." ''War in History'' 5.1 (1998): 23–3
online
* Albrecht-Carrié, René. ''A Diplomatic History of Europe Since the Congress of Vienna'' (1958), 736pp; a basic introduction, 1815–195
online free to borrow
* Çelik, Nihat. "Muslims, Non-Muslims and Foreign Relations: Ottoman Diplomacy." ''International Review of Turkish Studies'' 1.3 (2011): 8–30
online
* Fahmy, Khaled. '' All the Pasha's Men: Mehmed Ali, His Army and the Making of Modern Egypt'' (Cambridge University Press. 1997) * Gürkan, Emrah Safa (2011)
''Christian Allies of the Ottoman Empire''EGO - European History Online
Mainz
Institute of European History
retrieved: March 25, 2021
pdf
. * Hall, Richard C. ed. ''War in the Balkans: An Encyclopedic History from the Fall of the Ottoman Empire to the Breakup of Yugoslavia'' (2014) * Hurewitz, Jacob C. "Ottoman diplomacy and the European state system." ''Middle East Journal'' 15.2 (1961): 141–152
online
* Merriman, Roger Bigelow. ''Suleiman the Magnificent, 1520–1566'' (Harvard University Press, 1944
online
* Miller, William. ''The Ottoman Empire and its successors, 1801–1922'' (2nd ed 1927
online
strong on foreign policy * Nicolle, David. ''Armies of the Ottoman Turks 1300–1774'' (Osprey Publishing, 1983) * Palmer, Alan. ''The Decline and Fall of the Ottoman Empire'' (1994). * * *


Specialty studies

* Baram, Uzi and Lynda Carroll, editors. ''A Historical Archaeology of the Ottoman Empire: Breaking New Ground'' (Plenum/Kluwer Academic Press, 2000) * Barkey, Karen. ''Empire of Difference: The Ottomans in Comparative Perspective.'' (2008) 357p
Amazon.com
excerpt and text search * Davison, Roderic H. ''Reform in the Ottoman Empire, 1856–1876'' (New York: Gordian Press, 1973) * Deringil, Selim. ''The well-protected domains: ideology and the legitimation of power in the Ottoman Empire, 1876–1909'' (London: IB Tauris, 1998) * Findley, Carter V. ''Bureaucratic Reform in the Ottoman Empire: The Sublime Porte, 1789–1922'' (Princeton University Press, 1980) * McMeekin, Sean. ''The Berlin-Baghdad Express: The Ottoman Empire and Germany's Bid for World Power'' (2010) * Mikhail, Alan. ''God's Shadow: Sultan Selim, His Ottoman Empire, and the Making of the Modern World'' (2020
excerpt
on
Selim I Selim I ( ota, سليم الأول; tr, I. Selim; 10 October 1470 – 22 September 1520), known as Selim the Grim or Selim the Resolute ( tr, links=no, Yavuz Sultan Selim), was the Sultan of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire fr ...

Selim I
(1470–1529) * Pamuk, Sevket. ''A Monetary History of the Ottoman Empire'' (1999). pp. 276 * Stone, Norman "Turkey in the Russian Mirror" pp. 86–100 from ''Russia War, Peace and Diplomacy'' edited by Mark & Ljubica Erickson, Weidenfeld & Nicolson: London, 2004 . * Yaycioglu, Ali. ''Partners of the empire: The crisis of the Ottoman order in the age of revolutions'' (Stanford University Press, 2016), covers 1760–182
online review


Historiography

* Aksan, Virginia H. "What's Up in Ottoman Studies?" ''Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association'' 1.1–2 (2014): 3–21
online
*
comment by Ehud R. Toledano
an
reply by Aksan
* Aksan, Virginia H. "Ottoman political writing, 1768–1808." ''International Journal of Middle East Studies'' 25.1 (1993): 53–6
online
* Finkel, Caroline. "Ottoman history: whose history is it?." ''International Journal of Turkish Studies'' 14.1/2 (2008). * Gerber, Haim. "Ottoman Historiography: Challenges of the Twenty-First Century." ''Journal of the American Oriental Society,'' 138#2 (2018), p. 369+
online
* Hartmann, Daniel Andreas. "Neo-Ottomanism: The Emergence and Utility of a New Narrative on Politics, Religion, Society, and History in Turkey" (PhD Dissertation, Central European University, 2013
online
* Eissenstat, Howard. "Children of Özal: The New Face of Turkish Studies" ''Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association'' 1#1 (2014), pp. 23–35 DOI: 10.2979/jottturstuass.1.1-2.2
online
* * Lieven, Dominic. ''Empire: The Russian Empire and its rivals'' (Yale University Press, 2002), comparisons with Russian, British, & Habsburg empires
excerpt
* Mikhail, Alan; Philliou, Christine M. "The Ottoman Empire and the Imperial Turn," ''Comparative Studies in Society & History'' (2012) 54#4 pp. 721–745. Comparing the Ottomans to other empires opens new insights about the dynamics of imperial rule, periodisation, and political transformation * Olson, Robert, "Ottoman Empire" in * Donald Quataert, Quataert, Donald. "Ottoman History Writing and Changing Attitudes towards the Notion of 'Decline.'" ''History Compass'' 1 (2003): 1–9. * Yaycıoğlu, Ali. "Ottoman Early Modern." ''Journal of the Ottoman and Turkish Studies Association'' 7.1 (2020): 70–7
online
* Yılmaz, Yasir. "Nebulous Ottomans vs. Good Old Habsburgs: A Historiographical Comparison." ''Austrian History Yearbook'' 48 (2017): 173–190
Online


External links


Ottoman Text Archive Project – University of Washington

Searchable Ottoman texts - Wikilala

American Travelers to the Holy Land in the 19th Century
Shapell Manuscript Foundation


Turkey in Asia
1920 {{Authority control Ottoman Empire, Historical Turkic states 1299 establishments in Asia 1923 disestablishments in Asia 1923 disestablishments in Europe Overseas empires States and territories established in 1299 States and territories disestablished in 1922 States and territories disestablished in 1923 Former countries in the Middle East Former countries in the Balkans Former countries in Africa Former monarchies of Europe Former polities of the interwar period Historical transcontinental empires