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The Oslo Accords are a pair of agreements between the Government of
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
and the
Palestine Liberation Organization The Palestine Liberation Organization (PLO; ar, منظمة التحرير الفلسطينية, ') is an organization founded in 1964 with the purpose of the Arab unity and the liberation of Palestine. It is recognized as the sole legitimat ...
(PLO): the
Oslo I Accord The Oslo I Accord or Oslo I, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or short Declaration of Principles (DOP), was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of th ...
, signed in Washington, D.C., in 1993;''Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements''
(DOP), 13 September 1993. From the Knesset website
and the
Oslo II Accord The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip commonly known as Oslo II or Oslo 2, was a key and complex agreement in the Israeli–Palestinian peace process The Israeli–Palestinian peace process refers to the intermittent disc ...
, signed in
Taba, Egypt Taba ( ar, طابا ', ) is an Egyptian town near the northern tip of the Gulf of Aqaba. Taba is the location of Egypt's busiest Taba Border Crossing, border crossing with neighboring Eilat, Israel . Taba was originally developed as a tourist dest ...
, in 1995. The Oslo Accords marked the start of the Oslo process, a peace process aimed at achieving a
peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreement Agreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement, not enforceable by law * Trade agreement, between countries * Consensus, a decision-making process * Contract, enforceab ...
based on United Nations Security Council Resolutions 242 and
338 __NOTOC__ Year 338 (Roman numerals, CCCXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Julian calendar. At the time, it was known as the Year of the Consulship of Ursus and Polemius (or, less frequent ...
, and at fulfilling the "right of the Palestinian people to self-determination." The Oslo process started after secret negotiations in
Oslo Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and small ...

Oslo
, resulting in the recognition by the PLO of the State of Israel and the recognition by Israel of the PLO as the representative of the Palestinian people and as a partner in negotiations. The Oslo Accords created a
Palestinian Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية ') is the interim self-government body that exercises partial civil control over the Gaza Strip and West Bank bantustans, 167 islands in the Wes ...

Palestinian Authority
tasked with limited self-governance of parts of the
West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضفة الغربية '; he, הגדה המערבית ' or ') is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan and the Dead Sea to the east and by Israel to the south, west a ...
and
Gaza Strip The Gaza Strip (;The New Oxford Dictionary of English (1998) – p.761 "Gaza Strip /'gɑːzə/ a strip of territory under the control of the Palestinian National Authority and Hamas, on the SE Mediterranean coast including the town of Gaza.. ...
; and acknowledged the PLO as Israel's partner in permanent-status negotiations about remaining questions. The most important questions relate to the borders of Israel and Palestine,
Israeli settlement Israeli settlements, or Israeli colonies, are civilian communities inhabited by Israeli citizens, almost exclusively of Jewish ethnicity, built International law and Israeli settlements, in violation of international law on Israeli-occupied te ...
s, the
status of Jerusalem The status of Jerusalem is disputed in both international law and diplomatic practice, with both the Israelis and Palestinians claiming Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Bib ...
, Israel's military presence in and control over remaining territories after Israel's recognition of Palestinian autonomy, and the
Palestinian right of return The Palestinian right of return is the political position or principle that Palestinian refugees, both Immigrant generations#First generation, first-generation refugees (c. 30,000 to 50,000 people still alive )"According to the United Nations Re ...
. The Oslo Accords, however, did not create a Palestinian state.''Mideast accord: the overview; Rabin and Arafat sign accord ending Israel's 27-year hold on Jericho and the Gaza Strip''
Chris Hedges, New York Times, 5 May 1994.
Quote of Yitzhak Rabin: "We do not accept the Palestinian goal of an independent Palestinian state between Israel and Jordan. We believe there is a separate Palestinian entity short of a state."
The Accords were strongly opposed by a large portion of the Palestinian population; philosopher
Edward Said Edward Wadie Said (; ar, إدوارد وديع سعيد , '; 1 November 1935 – 24 September 2003) was a professor of literature at Columbia University Columbia University (also known as Columbia, and officially as Columbia University in ...

Edward Said
famously described them as a "Palestinian Versailles".


The Oslo process

The Oslo process is the "peace process" that started in 1993 with secret talks between Israel and the PLO. It became a cycle of negotiations, suspension, mediation, restart of negotiations and suspension again. A number of agreements were reached, until the Oslo process ended after the failure of the Camp David Summit in 2000 and the outbreak of the
Second Intifada The Second Intifada ( ar, الانتفاضة الثانية ''Al-Intifada al-Thaniya''; he, האינתיפאדה השנייה ''Ha-Intifāda ha-Shniya''), also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada ( ar, انتفاضة الأقصى '), was a Pales ...
.MEDEA
''Oslo peace process''
Retrieved December 2013
During the ''Second Intifada'', the
Roadmap for Peace 250px, Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas, United States President">Mahmoud_Abbas.html" ;"title="Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas">Palestinian Prime Minister Mahmoud Abbas, United States President George W. Bush, and Israeli Prime ...
was introduced, which explicitly aimed at a two-state solution and the establishment of an independent Palestinian state. The Roadmap, however, soon entered a cycle similar to the Oslo process, but without producing any agreement.


Background

The Oslo Accords are based on the 1978
Camp David Accords The Camp David Accords were a pair of political agreements signed by President of Egypt, Egyptian President Anwar Sadat and Prime Minister of Israel, Israeli Prime Minister Menachem Begin on 17 September 1978, following twelve days of secret ne ...
and show therefore considerable similarity with those Accords.From the Framework for Peace in the Middle East, part of the 1978 Camp David Accords and blueprint for the Oslo Accords: * ''Egypt and Israel agree that, ... there should be transitional arrangements for the West Bank and Gaza for a period not exceeding five years. In order to provide full autonomy to the inhabitants, under these arrangements the Israeli military government and its civilian administration will be withdrawn as soon as a self-governing authority has been freely elected by the inhabitants of these areas to replace the existing military government.'' * ''Egypt, Israel, and Jordan will agree on the modalities for establishing elected self-governing authority in the West Bank and Gaza. The delegations of Egypt and Jordan may include Palestinians from the West Bank and Gaza or other Palestinians as mutually agreed. The parties will negotiate an agreement which will define the powers and responsibilities of the self-governing authority to be exercised in the West Bank and Gaza. A withdrawal of Israeli armed forces will take place and there will be a redeployment of the remaining Israeli forces into specified security locations. The agreement will also include arrangements for assuring internal and external security and public order. A strong local police force will be established, which may include Jordanian citizens. In addition, Israeli and Jordanian forces will participate in joint patrols and in the manning of control posts to assure the security of the borders.'' * ''When the self-governing authority (administrative council) in the West Bank and Gaza is established and inaugurated, the transitional period of five years will begin. As soon as possible, but not later than the third year after the beginning of the transitional period, negotiations will take place to determine the final status of the West Bank and Gaza and its relationship with its neighbors and to conclude a peace treaty between Israel and Jordan by the end of the transitional period. These negotiations will be conducted among Egypt, Israel, Jordan and the elected representatives of the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza.''
(See JimmyCarterLibrary
''The Framework for Peace in the Middle East''
(1978). Accessed December 2013)
The Camp David's "Framework for Peace in the Middle East" envisioned autonomy for the local, and ''only'' for the local, (Palestinian) inhabitants of West Bank and Gaza. At the time, there lived some 7,400 settlers in the West Bank (excluding East Jerusalem),''By Hook and by Crook—Israeli Settlement Policy in the West Bank''
p. 90. B’Tselem, July 2010
and 500 in Gaza,''Israeli Settlements in Occupied Arab Lands: Conquest to Colony''
p. 29. Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. 11, No. 2 (Winter, 1982), pp. 16-54. Published by: University of California Press on behalf of the Institute for Palestine Studies
with the number in the West Bank, however, rapidly growing. As Israel regarded the PLO a terrorist organisation, it refused to talk with the sole representative of the Palestinian people. Instead, Israel preferred to negotiate with Egypt and Jordan, and "elected representatives of the inhabitants of the West Bank and Gaza". While the final goal in Camp David was a "peace treaty between Israel and Jordan, taking into account the agreement reached in the final status of the West Bank and Gaza", the Oslo negotiations were directly between Israel and the PLO and aimed at a peace treaty directly between these groups. The Oslo Accords, like the 1978 Camp David Accords, merely aimed at an interim agreement that allowed first steps. This was intended to be followed by negotiation of a complete settlement within five years. When, however, an
Israel–Jordan peace treaty The Israel–Jordan peace treaty A peace treaty is an agreementAgreement may refer to: Agreements between people and organizations * Gentlemen's agreement A gentlemen's agreement, or gentleman's agreement, is an informal and legally non-bi ...
was concluded on 26 October 1994, it was without the Palestinians.


Negotiation partners


Mutual recognition of sides

Only after Israel's acceptance of the PLO as negotiation partner could serious negotiations start. In their Letters of Mutual Recognition of 9 September 1993, days before the signing of the
Oslo I Accord The Oslo I Accord or Oslo I, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or short Declaration of Principles (DOP), was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of th ...
, each party agreed to accept the other as a negotiation partner. The PLO recognized the State of Israel. Israel recognized the PLO as "the representative of the Palestinian people"; no more, no less.


Principal participants

Palestine Liberation Organization *
Yasser Arafat Mohammed Yasser Abdel Rahman Abdel Raouf Arafat al-Qudwa al-Husseini ( , ; ar, محمد ياسر عبد الرحمن عبد الرؤوف عرفات القدوة الحسيني; 4 / 24 August 1929 – 11 November 2004), popularly known as Yass ...

Yasser Arafat
– PLO leader during the Oslo peace process *
Ahmed Qurei Ahmed Ali Mohammed Qurei (or Qureia; ar, أحمد علي محمد قريع, ), also known by his ''kunya (Arabic), Arabic ''kunya' Abu Alaa (, ) (born March 26, 1938) is a former Prime Minister of the Palestinian National Authority. First appo ...
(a.k.a. Abu Ala) – PLO negotiator during the Oslo peace process Israel *
Yossi Beilin Yosef "Yossi" Beilin ( he, יוסף "יוסי" ביילין, born 12 June 1948) is an Israeli politician and scholar who has served in multiple ministerial and leadership positions in the Israeli government. Much of his political career was in the ...

Yossi Beilin
– Israeli negotiator during the Oslo peace process *
Yair Hirschfeld Prof. Yair Hirschfeld is an Israeli lecturer at the University of Haifa. Prof. Hirschfeld was a key architect of the Oslo Accords in 1993. He was born in Vienna and has been a strong supporter of the two-state solution, and has urged the Palestini ...
– Israeli negotiator during the Oslo peace process *
Shimon Peres Shimon Peres (; he, שמעון פרס ; born Szymon Perski; 2 August 1923 – 28 September 2016) was an Israeli politician who served as the ninth In music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, ...

Shimon Peres
– Israeli Foreign Minister during the Oslo peace process *
Ron Pundak Ron Pundak ( he, רון פונדק; 14 May 1955 – 11 April 2014) was an Israeli historian and journalist. He played an important role in starting the Oslo peace process The Oslo Accords are a pair of agreements between the Government of Israel ...
– formed first Israeli negotiating team with Hirschfeld, before official Israeli involvement *
Yitzhak Rabin Yitzhak Rabin (; he, יִצְחָק רַבִּין, ; 1 March 1922 – 4 November 1995) was an Israeli politician, statesman and general. He was the fifth Prime Minister of Israel, serving two terms in office, 1974–77, and from 1992 until h ...

Yitzhak Rabin
– Israeli Prime Minister during the Oslo peace process *
Uri Savir Uri Savir ( he, אורי סביר; born 7 January 1953) is an Israeli politician and diplomat. He is currently the honorary president of the Shimon Peres Center for Peace and a former peace negotiator and Knesset member. As Director-General of th ...
– former Director General of the
Israeli Foreign Ministry The Israeli Ministry of Foreign Affairs ( he, מִשְׂרַד הַחוּץ, translit. ''Misrad HaHutz''; ar, وزارة الخارجية الإسرائيلية) is one of the most important ministries in the Israeli government. The ministry's r ...
, head of the Israeli negotiating team Norway (facilitating) *
Jan Egeland Jan Egeland (born 12 September 1957) is a Norwegian diplomat, political scientist, humanitarian leader and former Labour Party (Norway), Labour Party politician who has been Secretary General of the Norwegian Refugee Council since 2013. He served ...
– Norwegian Deputy Foreign Minister, provided political cover, facilities and finances for the negotiations * Johan Jørgen Holst – Norwegian Minister of Foreign Affairs *
Terje Rød-Larsen Terje Rød-Larsen (born 22 November 1947) is a Norway, Norwegian diplomat, politician, and sociologist. Rød-Larsen came to wide international prominence as a key figure in the 1990s negotiations that led to the Oslo Accords—the first-ever agree ...
- Norwegian facilitator during the negotiations *
Mona Juul Mona Juul (born 10 April 1959) is an official in the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs The Royal Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs (Bokmål, Norwegian (Bokmål): ''Det kongelige utenriksdepartement''; Norwegian (Nynorsk): ''Det kongelege ...
– Norwegian facilitator during the negotiations


Outline of the peace plan

Stated goals of the Oslo Accords were among other things, Palestinian ''interim'' Self-Government (not the
Palestinian Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية ') is the interim self-government body that exercises partial civil control over the Gaza Strip and West Bank bantustans, 167 islands in the Wes ...

Palestinian Authority
, but the
Palestinian Legislative Council The Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) is the unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and med ...
)Tom Lansford
''Political Handbook of the World 2014''
pp. 1627, 1630-1631. CQ Press, March 2014.
pp.1629-1630: ", and 18 months after the election of the Palestinian Council, which was designated to succeed the PNA as the primary Palestinian governmental body."
and a permanent settlement of unresolved issues within five years, based on Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338. Although the agreements recognize the Palestinian "legitimate and political rights," they remain silent about their fate after the interim period. The Oslo Accords neither define the nature of the post-Oslo Palestinian self-government and its powers and responsibilities, nor do they define the borders of the territory it eventually would govern. A core issue of the Oslo Accords was the withdrawal of the Israeli military from Palestinian territories. The plan was a withdrawal in phases and a simultaneous transfer of responsibilities to the Palestinian authorities for maintaining security. Oslo II, Article X.2 reads: "Further redeployments of Israeli military forces to specified military locations will commence after the inauguration of the Council and will be gradually implemented commensurate with the assumption of responsibility for public order and internal security by the Palestinian Police ..." And Article XI.2.e: "During the further redeployment phases to be completed within 18 months from the date of the inauguration of the Council, powers and responsibilities relating to territory will be transferred gradually to Palestinian jurisdiction that will cover West Bank and Gaza Strip territory, except for the issues that will be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations." The first phase included the withdrawal from the Areas A and B. Redeployments from
Area C Area is the quantity that expresses the extent of a two-dimensional Region (mathematics), region, shape, or planar lamina, in the Plane (geometry), plane. Surface area is its analog on the two-dimensional Surface (topology), surface of a solid ...
would follow in subsequent phases. Article XI.3 states: "″Area C″ means areas of the West Bank outside Areas A and B, which, except for the issues that will be negotiated in the permanent status negotiations, will be gradually transferred to Palestinian jurisdiction in accordance with this Agreement." The issues that will be negotiated, according to Article XVII.1, are: "Jerusalem, settlements, specified military locations, Palestinian refugees, borders, foreign relations and Israelis; and ... powers and responsibilities not transferred to the Council." By excluding Jerusalem and the settlements from the areas to be transferred to the Palestinians, Israeli presence, including the military to protect them, would not change without a negotiated agreement. The Accords also preserve Israel's exclusive control of the borders, the airspace and the territorial Gaza waters. Oslo II, Article XII: "In order to guarantee public order and internal security for the Palestinians of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, the Council shall establish a strong police force as set out in Article XIV below. Israel shall continue to carry the responsibility for defense against external threats, including the responsibility for protecting the Egyptian and Jordanian borders, and for defense against external threats from the sea and from the air, as well as the responsibility for overall security of Israelis and Settlements, for the purpose of safeguarding their internal security and public order, and will have all the powers to take the steps necessary to meet this responsibility." The first step was a partial Israeli withdrawal from Gaza and Jericho and transfer of some powers and responsibilities on civil matters to the interim Palestinian Authority. All to agree upon within two months from October 1993 (Oslo I, Annex II). Then, Israeli troops to withdraw from populated Palestinian areas to pave the way for Palestinian elections to establish the Council. The Council would replace the PA, and the
Israeli Civil Administration The Civil Administration ( he, המנהל האזרחי, '; ar, الإدارة المدنية الإسرائيلية) is the Israeli governing body that operates in the West Bank. It was established by the government of Israel in 1981, in order ...
in the West Bank would be dissolved (Oslo II, Article I). Further redeployments of Israeli troops would follow upon the inauguration of the Council, as detailed in the Protocol, Annex I of the Accord.''Annex I: Protocol Concerning Redeployment and Security Arrangements''
Article I ''Redeployment of Israeli Military Forces and Transfer of Responsibility''. Annex I to the Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip (Oslo II)
Article I, 5. of Oslo II reads: "After the inauguration of the Council, the Civil Administration in the West Bank will be dissolved, and the Israeli military government shall be withdrawn...."''1995 Oslo Interim Agreement''
28 September 1995. On ProCon website.
Twenty years later, however, the withdrawal of Israeli troops did not take place, and the
Civil AdministrationCivil authority or civil government is the practical implementation of a State (polity), state on behalf of its citizens, other than through military units (martial law), that enforces law and order (politics), law and order and is used to distinguis ...
still has permanent military presence in more than 80% of the West Bank ( Area B and C).''What is Area C?''
B'Tselem, 9 October 2013
Permanent status negotiations about remaining issues would start not later than May 1996 (two years after the signing of the
Gaza–Jericho Agreement The Gaza–Jericho Agreement, officially called Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, was a follow-up treaty to the Oslo I Accord in which details of Palestinian autonomy were concluded. The agreement is commonly known as the 1994 Cairo ...
; Oslo I, Article V) and be concluded before May 1999 (end of 5 year interim period). A peace treaty would end the
Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring conflicts, with the Israeli occupation of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip reaching years of conflict. Various attempts have been made to resolve the conflict as part of th ...
.


Palestinian Authority and Legislative Council

When the Oslo I Accord was signed in 1993, neither a government, nor a parliament existed for the
Palestinian territories The term "Palestinian territories" has been used for many years to describe the territories occupied by Israel since 1967 within the former Mandatory Palestine, British Mandate for Palestine, namely the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and t ...

Palestinian territories
. The
Palestinian Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية ') is the interim self-government body that exercises partial civil control over the Gaza Strip and West Bank bantustans, 167 islands in the Wes ...

Palestinian Authority
(PA or PNA) was created by the 1994
Gaza–Jericho Agreement The Gaza–Jericho Agreement, officially called Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, was a follow-up treaty to the Oslo I Accord in which details of Palestinian autonomy were concluded. The agreement is commonly known as the 1994 Cairo ...
. Article III.1 reads: "Israel shall transfer authority as specified in this Agreement from the Israeli military government and its Civil Administration to ''the Palestinian Authority, hereby established'', in accordance with Article V of this Agreement, except for the authority that Israel shall continue to exercise as specified in this Agreement." The PA temporarily executed some powers and responsibilities until the establishment of the
Council A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions. A council may function as a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political ...
. Article I.1-2 of the Oslo II Accord read: "1. Israel shall transfer powers and responsibilities as specified in this Agreement from the Israeli military government and its Civil Administration to the Council in accordance with this Agreement. Israel shall continue to exercise powers and responsibilities not so transferred. 2. Pending the inauguration of the Council, the powers and responsibilities transferred to the Council shall be exercised by the Palestinian Authority established in accordance with the Gaza-Jericho Agreement, which shall also have all the rights, liabilities and obligations to be assumed by the Council in this regard. Accordingly, the term 'Council' throughout this Agreement shall, pending the inauguration of the Council, be construed as meaning the Palestinian Authority." The first elections for the Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) were on 20 January 1996. The governments elected by the PLC retained the name "Palestinian National Authority."


Transitional Period

The Transitional Period is commonly known as the interim period (Oslo I, Article V) or interim phase.''4 May 1999 and Palestinian Statehood: To Declare or Not to Declare?''
Azmi Bishara, Journal of Palestine Studies Vol. 28, No. 2 (Winter, 1999), pp. 5-16
Hence the name "Interim Agreement" for the
Oslo II Accord The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip commonly known as Oslo II or Oslo 2, was a key and complex agreement in the Israeli–Palestinian peace process The Israeli–Palestinian peace process refers to the intermittent disc ...
and the term "Interim Self-Government Authority" (Oslo I, Article I). The interim period was designed to bridge the period between the establishment of the Palestinian Interim Self-Government Authority and the
Palestinian Legislative Council The Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) is the unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and med ...
, and the end of the permanent status negotiations, "leading to a permanent settlement based on Security Council Resolutions 242 and 338" (Oslo I, Article I). The permanent settlement was not defined. The interim period ended on 4 May 1999, five years after the signing of the
Gaza–Jericho Agreement The Gaza–Jericho Agreement, officially called Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, was a follow-up treaty to the Oslo I Accord in which details of Palestinian autonomy were concluded. The agreement is commonly known as the 1994 Cairo ...
. Article V of the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements (DOP or Oslo I) reads: Transitional Period and Permanent Status Negotiations 1. The five-year transitional period will begin upon the withdrawal from the Gaza Strip and Jericho area. 2. Permanent status negotiations will commence as soon as possible, but not later than the beginning of the third year of the interim period, between the Government of Israel and the Palestinian people's representatives. 3. It is understood that these negotiations shall cover remaining issues, including: Jerusalem, refugees, settlements, security arrangements, borders, relations and cooperation with other neighbors, and other issues of common interest. 4. The two parties agree that the outcome of the permanent status negotiations should not be prejudiced or preempted by agreements reached for the interim period.


End of the interim period

In May 1999, the five years interim period ended without reaching a comprehensive peace agreement, but elements of the Oslo Accords remained. The interim Palestinian Authority became permanent, and a dominant factor of the PLO. The West Bank remained divided into Areas A, B and C. Area C, covering some 60% of the West Bank, is under exclusive Israeli military and civilian control. Less than 1% of area C is designated for use by Palestinians, who are also unable to build in their own existing villages in area C due to Israeli restrictions. The Israeli Civil Administration, part of a larger entity known as
Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories The Coordinator of Government Activities in the Territories (COGAT) is a Military unit, unit in the Israeli Ministry of Defense (Israel), Ministry of Defense that engages in coordinating civilian issues between the Cabinet of Israel, Government o ...
(COGAT), which is a unit in the Defense Ministry of Israel, is still functioning in full. The
Israeli–Palestinian Joint Water Committee The Israeli–Palestinian Joint Water Committee (JWC) is a joint Israeli–Palestinian authority, created in 1995 by the Oslo II Accord. Its purpose is to manage water and sewage related infrastructure in the West Bank, particularly to take decisio ...
also still exists. At the
2000 Camp David Summit The 2000 Camp David Summit was a summit meeting A summit meeting (or just summit) is an international meeting of Head of state, heads of state or Head of government, government, usually with considerable media exposure, tight security, and a prea ...
, the US tried to save the Accords by reviving the negotiations. After the failure of the Summit, the
Second Intifada The Second Intifada ( ar, الانتفاضة الثانية ''Al-Intifada al-Thaniya''; he, האינתיפאדה השנייה ''Ha-Intifāda ha-Shniya''), also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada ( ar, انتفاضة الأقصى '), was a Pales ...
broke out and the "peace process" reached deadlock.


Implementation of the Israeli withdrawal

Following the
Gaza–Jericho Agreement The Gaza–Jericho Agreement, officially called Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, was a follow-up treaty to the Oslo I Accord in which details of Palestinian autonomy were concluded. The agreement is commonly known as the 1994 Cairo ...
and prior to the first Palestinian Authority elections, Israel withdrew in 1994 from Jericho and from most of the Gaza Strip. In accordance with the Hebron Protocol, Israel withdrew from 80% of Hebron in January 1997. With stalled negotiations, further redeployments did not take place. By March 1998, none of the withdrawals had occurred In October 1998, the parties signed the
Wye River Memorandum The Wye River Memorandum was an agreement negotiated between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת ...
, promising resumption of the redeployments, but only the first stage was implemented. While Netanyahu faced opposition within his cabinet, additional withdrawals were delayed. During the
Second Intifada The Second Intifada ( ar, الانتفاضة الثانية ''Al-Intifada al-Thaniya''; he, האינתיפאדה השנייה ''Ha-Intifāda ha-Shniya''), also known as the Al-Aqsa Intifada ( ar, انتفاضة الأقصى '), was a Pales ...
, in 2002, the Israeli military re-occupied many of the areas previously turned over to Palestinian control.


Key agreements

Key agreements in the Oslo process were: *'' Israel–PLO letters of recognition'' (1993). Mutual recognition of Israel and the PLO. *The
Oslo I Accord The Oslo I Accord or Oslo I, officially called the Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements or short Declaration of Principles (DOP), was an attempt in 1993 to set up a framework that would lead to the resolution of th ...
(1993). The "Declaration of Principles on Interim Self-Government Arrangements" (DOPOISGA or DOP), which declared the aim of the negotiations and set forth the framework for the interim period. Dissolution of the
Israeli Civil Administration The Civil Administration ( he, המנהל האזרחי, '; ar, الإدارة المدنية الإسرائيلية) is the Israeli governing body that operates in the West Bank. It was established by the government of Israel in 1981, in order ...
upon the inauguration of the Palestinian Legislative Council (Article VII). *The
Gaza–Jericho Agreement The Gaza–Jericho Agreement, officially called Agreement on the Gaza Strip and the Jericho Area, was a follow-up treaty to the Oslo I Accord in which details of Palestinian autonomy were concluded. The agreement is commonly known as the 1994 Cairo ...
or Cairo Agreement (1994). Partial Israeli withdrawal within three weeks from Gaza Strip and Jericho area, being the start of the five-year transitional period (Article V of ''Oslo I''). Simultaneously transfer of limited power to the
Palestinian Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية ') is the interim self-government body that exercises partial civil control over the Gaza Strip and West Bank bantustans, 167 islands in the Wes ...

Palestinian Authority
(PA), which was established in the same agreement. Part of the Agreement was the
Protocol on Economic Relations The Protocol on Economic Relations, also called the Paris Protocol, was an agreement between Israel and the PLO, signed on 29 April 1994, and incorporated with minor amendations into the Oslo II Accord of September 1995. Position in the agreeme ...
(Paris Protocol), which regulates the economic relationship between Israel and the Palestinian Authority, but in effect integrated the Palestinian economy into the Israeli one. This agreement was superseded by the Oslo II Accord, except for Article XX (Confidence-Building Measures). Article XX dictated the release or turn over of Palestinian detainees and prisoners by Israel. The Paris Protocol was incorporated in Article XXIV of Oslo II. *The
Oslo II Accord The Interim Agreement on the West Bank and the Gaza Strip commonly known as Oslo II or Oslo 2, was a key and complex agreement in the Israeli–Palestinian peace process The Israeli–Palestinian peace process refers to the intermittent disc ...
(1995). Division of the West Bank into
Areas Area is the quantity Quantity or amount is a property that can exist as a multitude Multitude is a term for a group of people who cannot be classed under any other distinct category, except for their shared fact of existence. The term has a ...
, in effect fragmenting it into numerous enclaves and banning the Palestinians from some 60% of the West Bank. Redeployment of Israeli troops from Area A and from other areas through "Further Re-deployments." Election of the
Palestinian Legislative Council The Palestinian Legislative Council (PLC) is the unicameral In government A government is the system or group of people governing an organized community, generally a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and med ...
(Palestinian parliament, PLC), replacing the PA upon its inauguration. Deployment of Palestinian Police replacing Israeli military forces in Area A. Safe passage between West Bank and Gaza. Most importantly, start of negotiations on a final settlement of remaining issues, to be concluded before 4 May 1999. All later agreements had the purpose to implement the former three key agreements.


Additional agreements

Additional Israeli-Palestinian agreements related to the Oslo Accords are: *'' Agreement on Preparatory Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities Between Israel and the PLO (August 1994)'' :This agreement was signed on 29 August 1994 at the
Erez Crossing The Erez Crossing ( he, מעבר ארז) also Beit Hanoun Crossing ( ar, معبر بيت حانون) is a border crossing on the Gaza–Israel barrier, Gaza–Israel border at the northern end of the Gaza Strip, between the Israeli kibbutz of ...
. It is also known as ''Early Empowerment Agreement'' (the term is used on the Israel MFA website). Superseded by Oslo II. *'' Protocol on Further Transfer of Powers and Responsibilities (August 1995)'' :This agreement was signed on 27 August 1995 at
Cairo Cairo ( ; ar, القاهرة, al-Qāhirah, , Coptic Coptic may refer to: Afro-Asia * Copts, an ethnoreligious group mainly in the area of modern Egypt but also in Sudan and Libya * Coptic language, a Northern Afro-Asiatic language spoken in E ...

Cairo
. It is also known as ''Further Transfer Protocol''. Superseded by Oslo II. *''
Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron The Protocol Concerning the Redeployment in Hebron, also known as the Hebron Protocol or Hebron Agreement, was signed on 17 January 1997 by Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, ...
'' (January 1997) *''
Wye River Memorandum The Wye River Memorandum was an agreement negotiated between Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת ...
'' (October 1998) *'' Sharm el-Sheikh Memorandum'' (September 1999) *''
Agreement on Movement and Access The Agreement on Movement and Access (AMA) is an agreement between Israel and the Palestinian Authority (PA), signed on 15 November 2005. The treaty aimed improvement of Palestinian freedom of movement and economic activity within the Palestin ...
'' (November 2005)


Criticism


Continued settlement expansion

While Peres had limited settlement construction at the request of US Secretary of State,
Madeleine Albright Madeleine Jana Korbel Albright (born Marie Jana Korbelová; May 15, 1937) is an American politician and diplomat who served as the 64th United States Secretary of State The United States secretary of state is an officer of the United State ...

Madeleine Albright
, Netanyahu continued construction within existing Israeli settlements, and put forward plans for the construction of a new neighborhood,
Har Homa Har Homa ( he, הר חומה, lit ''Wall Mountain''), officially Homat Shmuel, is an Israeli settlement in southern East Jerusalem, near Beit Sahour. The settlement is also referred to as "Jabal Abu Ghneim" (also "Jabal Abu Ghunaym") which ...

Har Homa
, in
East Jerusalem East Jerusalem or Eastern Jerusalem (, ; , ) is the sector of Jerusalem Jerusalem (; he, יְרוּשָׁלַיִם ; ar, القُدس, ', , (combining the Biblical and common usage Arabic names); grc, Ἱερουσαλήμ/ ...

East Jerusalem
. However, he fell far short of the Shamir government's 1991–92 level and refrained from building new settlements, although the Oslo agreements stipulated no such ban. Construction of Housing Units Before Oslo: 1991–92: 13,960, After Oslo: 1994–95: 3,840, 1996–1997: 3,570.


Norway's role

Norwegian academics, including Norway's leading authority on the negotiations,
Hilde Henriksen Waage Hilde Henriksen Waage (born 18 August 1959, in Drammen) is a Norwegian historian and peace researcher. She is Professor of History at the University of Oslo and was acting Director of Peace Research Institute Oslo from 1992 to 1993. Waage is an exp ...
, have focused on the flawed role of Norway during the Oslo process. In 2001, the Norwegian Ministry of Foreign Affairs, who had been at the heart of the Oslo process, commissioned Waage to produce an official, comprehensive history of the Norwegian-mediated back channel negotiations. In order to do the research, she was given privileged access to all relevant, classified files in the ministry's archives. Waage was surprised to discover "not a single scrap of paper for the entire period from January to September 1993—precisely the period of the back channel talks." Involved persons kept documents privately and refused to hand them over. Waage concluded that "there seems no doubt that the missing documents ... would have shown the extent to which the Oslo process was conducted on Israel’s premises, with Norway acting as Israel’s helpful errand boy." Norway played a mediating role as a small state between vastly unequal parties and had to play by the rules of the stronger party, acting on its premises. "Israel’s red lines were the ones that counted, and if the Palestinians wanted a deal, they would have to accept them, too.... The missing documents would almost certainly show why the Oslo process probably never could have resulted in a sustainable peace. To a great extent, full documentation of the back channel would explain the disaster that followed Oslo."''Postscript to Oslo: The Mystery of Norway's Missing Files''
Hilde Henriksen Waage, Journal of Palestine Studies, Vol. XXXVIII, No. 1 (Autumn 2008), pp. 54–65; ISSN 1533-8614
"Had the missing documents ... been accessible at the time of writing, there seems no doubt that the findings of my report would have shown even more starkly the extent to which the Oslo process was conducted on Israel’s premises, with Norway acting as Israel’s helpful errand boy .... Given the overwhelming imbalance of power between the Israelis and the Palestinians, Norway probably could not have acted otherwise if it wanted to reach a deal—or even if it wanted to play a role in the process at all. Israel’s red lines were the ones that counted, and if the Palestinians wanted a deal, they would have to accept them, too .... The missing documents would almost certainly show why the Oslo process probably never could have resulted in a sustainable peace. To a great extent, full documentation of the back channel would explain the disaster that followed Oslo."


Undermining Israeli security

Israeli academic
Efraim Karsh Efraim Karsh ( he, אפרים קארש; born 1953) is an Israeli–British historian, the founding director and emeritus professor of Middle East and Mediterranean Studies at King's College London. Since 2013, he serves as professor of Political S ...
described the Accords as "the starkest strategic blunder in srael'shistory," creating the conditions for "the bloodiest and most destructive confrontation between Israelis and Palestinians since 1948" and radicalizing "a new generation of Palestinians" living under the rule of the
Palestinian National Authority The Palestinian National Authority (PA or PNA; ar, السلطة الوطنية الفلسطينية '), commonly known as the Palestinian Authority and officially the State of Palestine,
and
Hamas Hamas (, ; , ; an acronym An acronym is a word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning ...

Hamas
with "vile anti-Jewish (and anti-Israel) incitement unparalleled in scope and intensity since
Nazi Germany Nazi Germany, (lit. "National Socialist State"), ' (lit. "Nazi State") for short; also ' (lit. "National Socialist Germany") officially known as the German Reich from 1933 until 1943, and the Greater German Reich from 1943 to 1945, was ...

Nazi Germany
." Karsh notes: "All in all, more than 1,600 Israelis have been murdered and another 9,000 wounded since the signing of the DOP eclaration of Principlesnearly four times the average death toll of the preceding twenty-six years."


Alternatives to the Oslo Accords

Although not an alternative to the accords themselves, a
one-state solution The one-state solution, sometimes also called a bi-national state, is a proposed approach to resolving the Israeli–Palestinian conflict The Israeli–Palestinian conflict is one of the world's most enduring conflicts, with the Israeli oc ...
would be an alternative to the
two-state solution The two-state solution to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict envisions an independent State of Palestine alongside the Israel, State of Israel, west of the Jordan River. The boundary between the two states is still subject to dispute and neg ...
envisaged in the accords. This would combine Israel and the Palestinian territories into a single state with one government. An argument for this solution is that neither side can justly claim a state on all of the land. An argument against it is that it would endanger the safety of the Jewish minority.


See also

* ''
Oslo Oslo ( , , or ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and small ...
'', 2016 drama by J.T. Rogers, premiere production July 2016 in London


Notes


References


Further reading

* Weiner, Justus R. "An Analysis of the Oslo II Agreement in Light of the Expectations of Shimon Peres and Mahmoud Abbas." ''Michigan Journal of International Law'' 17.3 (1996): 667-704
online
{{Arab–Israeli diplomacy Israeli–Palestinian peace process Israel–United States relations 1995 in Israel Treaties of Israel Treaties of the State of Palestine 1995 in the Palestinian territories 1995 in Egypt State of Palestine–United States relations 1993 in Israel 1993 in the Israeli Civil Administration area 1993 in Norway 1990s in Oslo