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Orthoptera () is an
order Order, ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is a quality that is characterized by a person’s interest in keeping their surroundings and themselves well organized, and is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness a ...
of
insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''communicare'', meaning "to share" or "to be in ...

insect
s that comprises the
grasshopper Grasshoppers are a group of insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''comm ...

grasshopper
s,
locust Locusts (derived from the Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considere ...

locust
s, and
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...
s, including closely related insects, such as the
bush crickets or katydids
bush crickets or katydids
and
wētā Wētā (also spelled weta) is the common name Common may refer to: Places * Common, a townland in County Tyrone, Northern Ireland * Boston Common Boston Common (also known as the Common) is a central public park in downtown Boston, Massa ...
. The order is subdivided into two suborders:
Caelifera The Caelifera are a suborder of orthopteran insects. They include the grasshoppers and grasshopper-like insects, as well as other Taxonomic rank#Ranks in zoology, superfamilies classified with them: the ground-hoppers (Tetrigoidea) and pygmy mo ...

Caelifera
– grasshoppers, locusts, and close relatives; and
Ensifera Ensifera is a Order (biology), suborder of insects that includes the various types of crickets and their allies including: cricket (insect), true crickets, Rhaphidophoridae, camel crickets, Tettigoniidae, bush crickets or katydids, Prophalangops ...

Ensifera
– crickets and close relatives. More than 20,000 species are distributed worldwide. The insects in the order have incomplete metamorphosis, and produce
sound In physics Physics is the that studies , its , its and behavior through , and the related entities of and . "Physical science is that department of knowledge which relates to the order of nature, or, in other words, to the regular ...

sound
(known as a "
stridulation Stridulation is the act of producing sound by rubbing together certain body parts. This behavior is mostly associated with insects, but other animals are known to do this as well, such as a number of species of fish, snakes and spiders. The mech ...
") by rubbing their wings against each other or their legs, the wings or legs containing rows of corrugated bumps. The tympanum, or
ear The ear is the organ of hearing and, in mammals, balance. In mammals, the ear is usually described as having three parts—the outer ear The outer ear, external ear, or auris externa is the external part of the ear, which consists ...

ear
, is located in the front tibia in
cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a wicket at each end, each comprising two Bail (cricket), bai ...
s,
mole cricket Mole crickets are members of the insect family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or so ...

mole cricket
s, and
bush crickets or katydids
bush crickets or katydids
, and on the first abdominal segment in the grasshoppers and locusts. These organisms use vibrations to locate other individuals. Grasshoppers and other orthopterans are able to fold their
wing A wing is a type of fin A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure. Fins typically function as foils that produce lift or thrust Thrust is a reaction (physics), reaction force (physics), force describ ...

wing
s (i.e. they are members of
Neoptera Neoptera (Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language used in ancient Greece and the classical antiquity, ancient world from around 1500 BC to 300 BC. It is often roughly divided into the following periods: Mycena ...
).


Etymology

The name is derived from the
Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is approximately 10.7 million as of ...
ὀρθός ''orthos'' meaning "straight" and πτερόν ''pteron'' meaning "wing".


Characteristics

Orthopterans have a generally
cylindrical A cylinder (from ) has traditionally been a Solid geometry, three-dimensional solid, one of the most basic of curvilinear geometric shapes. Geometrically, it can be considered as a Prism (geometry), prism with a circle as its base. This traditi ...

cylindrical
body, with elongated hindlegs and musculature adapted for
jumping Jumping or leaping is a form of locomotion or movement in which an organism In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical ...

jumping
. They have
mandibulate Mandibulata, termed "mandibulates", is a clade A clade (), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are monophyly, monophyletic – that is, composed of a common ancestor and all its lineage (evolutio ...
mouthparts for biting and chewing and large
compound eye A compound eye is a visual organ found in arthropod An arthropod (, (gen. ποδός)) is an invertebrate animal having an exoskeleton, a Segmentation (biology), segmented body, and paired jointed appendages. Arthropods form the phylum Euart ...

compound eye
s, and may or may not have
ocelli A simple eye (sometimes called a pigment pit) refers to a form of eye or an optical arrangement composed of a single lens and without an elaborate retina such as occurs in most vertebrates. In this sense "simple eye" is distinct from a multi-lense ...
, depending on the species. The
antennae Antenna (pl. antennas or antennae) may refer to: Science and engineering * Antenna (radio), also known as an aerial, a transducer designed to transmit or receive electromagnetic (e.g., TV or radio) waves * Antennae Galaxies, the name of two coll ...
have multiple joints and filiform type, and are of variable length. The first and third segments on the
thorax The thorax or chest is a part of the anatomy Anatomy (Greek ''anatomē'', 'dissection') is the branch of biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Bioc ...
are larger, while the second segment is much smaller. They have two pairs of
wings A wing is a type of fin A fin is a thin component or appendage attached to a larger body or structure. Fins typically function as foils that produce lift or thrust Thrust is a reaction (physics), reaction force (physics), force describ ...

wings
, which are held overlapping the
abdomen The abdomen (colloquially called the belly, tummy, midriff or stomach) is the part of the body between the thorax (chest) and pelvis, in humans and in other vertebrates. The abdomen is the front part of the abdominal segment of the Trunk (anatomy) ...

abdomen
at rest. The forewings, or tegmina, are narrower than the hindwings and hardened at the base, while the hindwing is membranous, with straight veins and numerous cross-veins. At rest, the hindwings are held folded fan-like under the forewings. The final two to three segments of the abdomen are reduced, and have single-segmented cerci.


Life cycle

Orthopterans have a paurometabolous lifecycle or incomplete metamorphosis. The use of sound is generally crucial in courtship, and most species have distinct songs. Most grasshoppers lay their
eggs Egg An egg is the organic vessel containing the in which an develops until it can survive on its own, at which point the animal hatches. An egg results from of an . Most s, (excluding s), and lay eggs, although some, such as s, do ...
in the ground or on vegetation. The eggs hatch and the young
nymphs A nymph ( grc, νύμφη, nýmphē, el, script=Latn, nímfi, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the dialects of the Gree ...
resemble adults, but lack wings and at this stage are often called 'hoppers'. They may often also have a radically different coloration from the adults. Through successive moults, the nymphs develop wings until their final moult into a mature adult with fully developed wings. The number of moults varies between species; growth is also very variable and may take a few weeks to some months depending on food availability and weather conditions.


Evolution

This order evolved with a division into two suborders -
Caelifera The Caelifera are a suborder of orthopteran insects. They include the grasshoppers and grasshopper-like insects, as well as other Taxonomic rank#Ranks in zoology, superfamilies classified with them: the ground-hoppers (Tetrigoidea) and pygmy mo ...

Caelifera
and
Ensifera Ensifera is a Order (biology), suborder of insects that includes the various types of crickets and their allies including: cricket (insect), true crickets, Rhaphidophoridae, camel crickets, Tettigoniidae, bush crickets or katydids, Prophalangops ...

Ensifera
- occurring .Chang H, Qiu Z, Yuan H, Wang X, Li X, Sun H, Guo X, Lu Y, Feng X, Majid M, Huang Y (2020) Evolutionary rates of and selective constraints on the mitochondrial genomes of Orthoptera insects with different wing types. Mol Phylogenet Evol


Phylogeny

The Orthoptera is divided into two suborders,
Caelifera The Caelifera are a suborder of orthopteran insects. They include the grasshoppers and grasshopper-like insects, as well as other Taxonomic rank#Ranks in zoology, superfamilies classified with them: the ground-hoppers (Tetrigoidea) and pygmy mo ...

Caelifera
and
Ensifera Ensifera is a Order (biology), suborder of insects that includes the various types of crickets and their allies including: cricket (insect), true crickets, Rhaphidophoridae, camel crickets, Tettigoniidae, bush crickets or katydids, Prophalangops ...

Ensifera
(crickets) which have been shown to be
monophyletic In cladistics for a group of organisms, monophyly is the condition of being a clade—that is, a group of taxa composed only of a common ancestor (or more precisely an ancestral population) and all of its lineal descendants. Monophyletic grou ...

monophyletic
.Zhou Z, Ye H, Huang Y, Shi F. (2010) The phylogeny of Orthoptera inferred from mtDNA and description of ''Elimaea cheni'' (Tettigoniidae: Phaneropterinae) mitogenome. ''J. Genet. Genomics.'' 37(5):315-324


Taxonomy

Taxonomists classify members of the Caelifera and Ensifera into infraorders and superfamilies as follows: * Suborder
Caelifera The Caelifera are a suborder of orthopteran insects. They include the grasshoppers and grasshopper-like insects, as well as other Taxonomic rank#Ranks in zoology, superfamilies classified with them: the ground-hoppers (Tetrigoidea) and pygmy mo ...

Caelifera
– grasshoppers, pygmy mole crickets and allies ** Infraorder
Acrididea Acrididea including the Acridomorpha is an infraorder In biological classification In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemic ...
*** Superfamily
Acridoidea Acridoidea is the largest superfamily SUPERFAMILY is a database and search platform of structural and functional annotation for all proteins and genomes. It classifies amino acid sequences into known structural domains, especially into SCOP s ...
– grasshoppers, locusts *** Superfamily
Eumastacoidea Eumastacoidea is a superfamily within the order Orthoptera. The family has a mainly tropical distribution. Some of the characters of the members of the superfamily are the lack of an abdominal tympanum, wings if present widen towards the tip, the ...
– monkey or matchstick grasshoppers and allies *** Superfamily Locustopsoidea† *** Superfamily
Pneumoroidea The Pneumoridae are a family (biology), family of nocturnal short-horned grasshoppers in the order Orthoptera, commonly known as the bladder grasshoppers and the sole representative of the superfamily Pneumoroidea. Their centre of diversity is in ...
– bladder grasshoppers *** Superfamily
Pyrgomorphoidea Pyrgomorphidae is a family In human society A society is a Social group, group of individuals involved in persistent Social relation, social interaction, or a large social group sharing the same spatial or social territory, typical ...
– gaudy grasshoppers *** Superfamily Tanaoceroidea – desert long-horned grasshoppers *** Superfamily Tetrigoidea – ground-hoppers or grouse locusts *** Superfamily Trigonopterygoidea – leaf grasshoppers ** Infraorder Tridactylidea *** Superfamily Dzhajloutshelloidea† *** Superfamily Regiatoidea† *** Superfamily Tridactyloidea – pygmy mole crickets and allies * Suborder
Ensifera Ensifera is a Order (biology), suborder of insects that includes the various types of crickets and their allies including: cricket (insect), true crickets, Rhaphidophoridae, camel crickets, Tettigoniidae, bush crickets or katydids, Prophalangops ...

Ensifera
– crickets ** Superfamily Grylloidea – crickets, mole crickets ** Superfamily Hagloidea – grigs and allies ** Superfamily Phasmomimoidea† ** Superfamily Rhaphidophoroidea – camel crickets, cave crickets, cave wētā ** Superfamily Schizodactyloidea – dune crickets ** Superfamily Stenopelmatoidea – wētā and allies ** Superfamily Tettigonioidea – katydids / bush crickets


Relationships with humans


As pests

Several species of Orthoptera are considered pests of crops and rangelands or seeking warmth in homes by humans. The two species of Orthoptera that cause the most damage are
grasshopper Grasshoppers are a group of insect Insects (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin ''comm ...

grasshopper
s and
locust Locusts (derived from the Vulgar Latin Vulgar Latin, also known as Popular or Colloquial Latin, is non-literary Literature broadly is any collection of written work, but it is also used more narrowly for writings specifically considere ...

locust
s. Locust are historically known for wiping out fields of crops in a day. Locust have the ability to eat up to their own body weight in a single day. Individuals gather in large groups called swarms, these swarms can range up to 80 million individuals that stretch 460 square miles. Grasshoppers can cause major agricultural damage but not to the documented extent as locust historically have. These insects mainly feed on weeds and grasses, however, during times of drought and high population density they will feed on crops. They are known pest in soybean fields and will likely feed on these crops once preferred food sources have become scarce.


As food

The Orthoptera include the only insects considered kosher in Judaism. The list of dietary laws in the book of Leviticus forbids all flying insects that walk, but makes an exception for certain locusts. Strangely, the dragonfly and cranefly are not kosher, but they are helpless when unable to fly. The Torah states the only kosher flying insects with four walking legs have knees that extend above their feet so that they hop.


As creators of biofuel

With new research showing promise in locating alternative biofuel sources in the gut of insects, grasshoppers are one species of interest. The insect's ability to break down cellulose and lignin without producing greenhouse gases has aroused scientific interest.


See also

* List of Orthoptera recorded in Britain * Orthopterida * Female sperm storage


References


External links


Orthoptera Species File OnlineOrthoptera Image Gallery (Iowa State University Entomology Department)Australian Plague Locust CommissionThe Orthopterists' SocietyAcridAfrica, les acridiens d'Afrique de l'Ouest
*
Birdwing Grasshoppers in BelizeSound recordings of Orthoptera at BioAcoustica
{{Authority control Orthoptera, Insect orders Edible insects Carboniferous first appearances Taxa named by Pierre André Latreille