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The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓama at-Taʿāwun al-ʾIslāmiyy; french: Organisation de la coopération islamique), formerly the Organisation of the Islamic Conference, is an international organization founded in 1969, consisting of 57 member states, with a collective population of over 1.8 billion as of 2015 with 49 countries being Muslim-majority countries. The organisation states that it is "the collective voice of the
Muslim world The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the Islamic Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in English, differing in whether the first or second syllable has the stress, whether the ''s'' is or , and whether ...

Muslim world
" and works to "safeguard and protect the interests of the Muslim world in the spirit of promoting
international peace World peace, or peace on Earth, is the concept of an ideal Ideal may refer to: Philosophy * Ideal (ethics), values that one actively pursues as goals * Platonic ideal, a philosophical idea of trueness of form, associated with Plato Mathema ...
and harmony". The OIC has permanent delegations to the
United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign states (referred to as ''member states''), or of other organizations through formal ...

United Nations
and the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. The official languages of the OIC are Arabic, English, and French.


History

On 21 August 1969 a fire was started in the in Jerusalem.
Amin al-Husseini Mohammed Amin al-Husseini ( ar, محمد أمين الحسيني; 1897 – 4 July 1974) was a Palestinian Arab nationalist and Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam, a Monotheism, monotheistic Abrahamic religions, Abra ...
, the former Mufti of Jerusalem, called the arson a "Jewish crime" and called for all Muslim heads of state to convene a summit. The fire, which "destroyed part of the old wooden roof and a 800-year-old pulpit" was blamed on the mental illness of the perpetrator – Australian Christian fundamentalist
Denis Michael Rohan Denis Michael Rohan (born 1 July 1941) was a Christian Australia Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a Sovereign state, sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australia (continent), Australian continent, t ...
— by Israel, and on Zionists and Zionism in general by the Islamic conference. On 25 September 1969, an Islamic Conference, a summit of representatives of 24 Muslim majority countries (most of the representatives being heads of state), was held in
Rabat Rabat (, also , ; ar, الرباط, ar-ribāṭ; ber, ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ, aṛṛbaṭ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in large ...

Rabat
, Morocco.About OIC
Oic-oci.org. Retrieved 7 November 2014.
A resolution was passed stating that
"Muslim government would consult with a view to promoting among themselves close cooperation and mutual assistance in the economic, scientific, cultural and spiritual fields, inspired by the immortal teachings of Islam."
Six months later in March 1970, the First Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers was held in
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cit ...

Jeddah
, Saudi Arabia. In 1972, the Organisation of the Islamic Conference (OIC, now the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation) was founded.Esposito, 1998, p.164. While the fire is regarded as one of the catalysts for the formation of the OIC, many
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
have aspired to a pan-Islamic institution that would serve the common political, economic, and social interests of the ''
ummah ' ( ar, أمة ) is an Arabic Arabic (, ' or , ' or ) is a Semitic language The Semitic languages are a branch of the Afroasiatic language family originating in the Middle East The Middle East is a list of transcontinental cou ...
'' (Muslim community) since the 19th century. In particular, the collapse of the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
and the
Caliphate A caliphate ( ar, خِلَافَة, ) is an Islamic state under the leadership of an Islamic steward with the title of caliph (; ar, خَلِيفَة ', ), a person considered a politico-religious successor to the Islamic prophet Muhammad ...
after
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
left a vacuum. According to its charter, the OIC aims to preserve Islamic social and economic values; promote solidarity amongst member states; increase cooperation in social, economic, cultural, scientific, and political areas; uphold international peace and security; and advance education, particularly in the fields of science and technology. The emblem of the OIC contains three main elements that reflect its vision and mission as incorporated in its new Charter. These elements are: the
Kaaba The Kaaba (, ), also spelled Ka'bah or Kabah, sometimes referred to as al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah ( ar, ٱلْكَعْبَة ٱلْمُشَرَّفَة, lit=Honored Ka'bah, links=no, translit=al-Kaʿbah al-Musharrafah), is a building at the cent ...

Kaaba
, the Globe, and the Crescent. On 5 August 1990, 45 foreign ministers of the OIC adopted the
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓ ...
to serve as a guidance for the member states in the matters of human rights in as much as they are compatible with the
Sharia Sharia (; ar, شريعة, sharīʿa ) is a religious law Religious law includes ethical Ethics or moral philosophy is a branch of philosophy that "involves systematizing, defending, and recommending concepts of right and wrong action ...
, or Quranic Law. In March 2008, the OIC conducted a formal revision of its charter. The revised charter set out to promote human rights, fundamental freedoms, and good governance in all member states. The revisions also removed any mention of the Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam. Within the revised charter, the OIC has chosen to support the
Charter of the United Nations The Charter of the United Nations (also known as the UN Charter) is the foundational treaty A treaty is a formal, legally binding written agreement between actors in international law International law, also known as public internation ...
and international law, without mentioning the
Universal Declaration of Human Rights The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
. On 28 June 2011 during the 38th Council of Foreign Ministers meeting (CFM) in Astana, Kazakhstan, the organisation changed its name from Organisation of the Islamic Conference ( ar, منظمة المؤتمر الإسلامي; french: Organisation de la Conférence Islamique) to its current name. The OIC also changed its logo at this time. In December 2020 a coalition of American Muslim groups criticized the Organization of Islamic Cooperation for failing to speak up to prevent the abuse of the Uyghurs and accused member states of being influenced by Chinese power. The groups included the
Council on American-Islamic Relations A council is a group of people who come together to consult, deliberate, or make decisions. A council may function as a legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the ...
.


Refugees

According to the
UNHCR The United Nations High Commissioner for Refugees (UNHCR) is a UN agency mandated to aid and protect refugee A refugee, generally speaking, is a displaced person Forced displacement (also forced migration) is an involuntary or coerced ...

UNHCR
, OIC countries hosted 18 million refugees by the end of 2010. Since then OIC members have absorbed refugees from other conflicts, including the uprising in Syria. In May 2012, the OIC addressed these concerns at the "Refugees in the Muslim World" conference in
Ashgabat Ashgabat ( tk, Aşgabat; Ашгабат, , fa, عشق آباد; russian: Ашхабад), formerly named Poltoratsk ( rus, Полтора́цк, p=pəltɐˈratsk) between 1919 and 1927, is the capital city, capital and the largest city of Tur ...

Ashgabat
,
Turkmenistan Turkmenistan ( or ; tk, Türkmenistan, ), also known as Turkmenia, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basin, endorheic basins. There ar ...

Turkmenistan
.


Member states

The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation has 57 members, 56 of which are also
member states of the United Nations Member may refer to: * Military jury A United States military "jury" (or "Members", in military parlance) serves a function similar to an American civilian jury, but with several notable differences. Only a Courts-martial in the United States, Ge ...

member states of the United Nations
, the exception being
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
. Some members, especially in West Africa and South America, are – though with large Muslim populations – not necessarily
Muslim majority countries The terms Muslim world and Islamic world commonly refer to the ''Islamic community'', which is also known as the Ummah. This consists of all those who adhere to the religion of Islam Islam (;There are ten pronunciations of ''Islam'' in ...

Muslim majority countries
. A few countries with significant Muslim populations, such as
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
and
Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
, sit as Observer States. The collective population of OIC member states is over 1.9 billion as of 2018.


Africa


Asia


Europe


South America


Positions

The Parliamentary Union of the OIC Member States (PUOICM) was established in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
in 1999, and its head office is situated in
Tehran Tehran (; fa, تهران ) is the Capital city, capital of Iran and Tehran Province. With a population of around 8.7 million in the city and 15 million in the larger metropolitan area of Greater Tehran, Tehran is the List of largest cities o ...

Tehran
. Only OIC members are entitled to membership in the union. On 27 June 2007, then-United States President
George W. Bush George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is an American politician and businessman who served as the 43rd president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the Un ...

George W. Bush
announced that the United States would establish an envoy to the OIC. Bush said of the envoy, "Our special envoy will listen to and learn from representatives from Muslim states, and will share with them America's views and values." , Arsalan Suleman is acting special envoy. He was appointed on 13 February 2015. In an investigation of the accuracy of a series of chain emails,
Snopes.com Snopes , formerly known as the Urban Legends Reference Pages, is a Fact checking, fact-checking website. It has been described as a "well-regarded reference for sorting out myths and rumors" on the Internet. The site has also been seen as a so ...
reported that during the October 2003April 2004 session of the General Assembly, 17 individual members of the OIC voted against the United States 88% of the time. The OIC, on 28 March 2008, joined the criticism of the film '' Fitna'' by
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...

Dutch
lawmaker
Geert Wilders Geert Wilders (; born 6 September 1963) is a Dutch businessman and politician. He has been Leader of the Party for Freedom The Party for Freedom ( nl, Partij voor de Vrijheid, PVV) is a Nationalism, nationalist, Right-wing populism, right-wi ...

Geert Wilders
, which features disturbing images of violent acts juxtaposed with alleged verses from the
Quran The Quran (, ; ar, القرآن , "the recitation"), also romanized Qur'an or Koran, is the central religious text Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious t ...

Quran
. In March 2015, the OIC announced its support for the
Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen The Saudi Arabian-led intervention in Yemen is an intervention launched by Saudi Arabia (''Shahada The ''Shahada'' ( ar, ٱلشَّهَادَةُ ' , "the testimony"), also spelled Shahadah, is an Islamic oath, one of the Fiv ...
against the Shia Houthis.


Israeli–Palestinian conflict

The OIC supports a
two-state solution 250px, Map of the West Bank and the Gaza Strip, 2011. Agreeing on acceptable borders is a major difficulty with the two-state solution.">Gaza_Strip.html" ;"title="West Bank and the Gaza Strip">West Bank and the Gaza Strip, 2011. Agreeing on ac ...
to the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. The OIC has called for boycott of Israeli products in effort to pressure Israel into ending the occupation of the
Palestinian territories The term "Palestinian territories" has been used for many years to describe the territories occupied by Israel since 1967 within the former Mandatory Palestine, British Mandate for Palestine, namely the West Bank (including East Jerusalem) and t ...

Palestinian territories
. There was a meeting in
Conakry Conakry (; ; sus, Kɔnakiri; N'Ko script, N’ko: ߞߐߣߊߞߙߌ߫, Fula language, Fula: ''Konaakiri'' 𞤑𞤮𞤲𞤢𞥄𞤳𞤭𞤪𞤭) is the Capital city, capital and largest city of Guinea. A port city, it serves as the economic, financ ...

Conakry
in 2013. Secretary-General Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said that foreign ministers would discuss the possibility of cutting ties with any state that recognised Jerusalem as the capital of Israel or that moves its embassy to its environs. In December 2017, the extraordinary meeting held to response Donald Trump's decision on recognizing Jerusalem, resulting "Istanbul Declaration on Freedom for Al Quds." In September 2019, the OIC condemned
Benjamin Netanyahu Benjamin Netanyahu (; ; born 21 October 1949) is an Israeli politician serving as the since 2009, previously serving that role from 1996 to 1999. Netanyahu is also the . He is the Israeli prime minister in history and the first to be after ...

Benjamin Netanyahu
's plans to annex the eastern portion of the occupied
West Bank The West Bank ( ar, الضفة الغربية '; he, הגדה המערבית ' or ') is a landlocked territory near the Mediterranean coast of Western Asia, bordered by Jordan and the Dead Sea to the east and by Israel to the south, west a ...
known as the
Jordan Valley The Jordan Valley ( ar, غور الأردن, ''Ghor al-Urdun''; he, עֵמֶק הַיַרְדֵּן, ''Emek HaYarden'') forms part of the larger Jordan Rift Valley. Unlike most other river valleys, the term "Jordan Valley" often applies just to ...
.


Relationship with India

Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", "ah gawd"; see interjection An interjection is a word or ex ...
is the second-largest
religion in India Religion in India is characterized by a diversity of religious beliefs and practices. The Indian subcontinent is the birthplace of four of the Major religious groups, world's major religions: namely Hinduism, Buddhism, Jainism, and Sikhism. Re ...

religion in India
after
Hinduism Hinduism () is an Indian religion Indian religions, sometimes also termed Dharmic religions or Indic religions, are the religions that originated in the Indian subcontinent. These religions, which include Hinduism, Jainism, Buddhism, ...

Hinduism
, with over 200 million
Muslims Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...
making up approximately 15% of the country's total population;
India India, officially the Republic of India (Hindi Hindi (Devanagari: , हिंदी, ISO 15919, ISO: ), or more precisely Modern Standard Hindi (Devanagari: , ISO 15919, ISO: ), is an Indo-Aryan language spoken chiefly in Hindi Belt, ...

India
has the largest Muslim population outside of . However, India's relationship with Pakistan, the latter being an
Islamic state , caption = , active = {{Collapsible list , title = 1999–present , 1 = 1999: Established under the name of Jama'at al-Tawhid wal-Jihad , 2 = October 2004: Joined al-Qaeda , 3 = 13 October 2006: Declaration of an Islamic ...
, has been riddled with hostilities and armed conflict since the . The poor relationship between the two states has had a direct impact on India–OIC relations due to
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
's status as a founding member of the organization. India has pushed for the OIC to accept it as a member state, arguing that
Indian Muslims Islam is India#Demographics, languages, and religion, the second-largest religion in India, with 14.9% of the country's population, approximately 195 million people identifying as adherents of Islam in 2015. India is the country with the secon ...

Indian Muslims
comprise 11% of the world's total Muslim population; Pakistan has staunchly opposed the entry of India into the organization. Pakistan has cited as the reason for its opposition, and frequently accuses India of perpetrating widespread human rights abuses against Kashmiris in the Indian-administered territory of
Jammu and Kashmir Jammu is the winter capital of the Indian union territory of Jammu and Kashmir (union territory), Jammu and Kashmir. It is the headquarters and the largest city in Jammu district of the union territory. Lying on the banks of the river Tawi River ...
, which has witnessed an ongoing militant uprising since the 1980s. The OIC has been urged to press India on the Kashmir dispute, and has faced pushback from Indian officials for occasional references to Jammu and Kashmir as territory that is militarily occupied by India. Historically, the Muslim world has largely lent its support to Pakistan over India during any armed conflicts between the two states. Despite these issues, the first OIC summit held in 1969 in
Rabat Rabat (, also , ; ar, الرباط, ar-ribāṭ; ber, ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ, aṛṛbaṭ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in large ...

Rabat
did not address the Kashmir dispute, and granting India membership in the organization was discussed nonetheless. The head of the Indian delegation, the then ambassador to
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
, also addressed the gathering at the summit. The erstwhile
President of Pakistan The President of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=s̤adr-i Pākiṣṭān), officially the President of the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is the ceremonial head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (p ...
,
Yahya Khan Agha Muhammad Yahya Khan ( ur, ; 4 February 1917 – 10 August 1980), commonly known as Yahya Khan, was a Pakistani general who served as the third president of Pakistan The President of Pakistan ( ur, , translit=s̤adr-i Pākiṣṭān) ...
, reportedly expressed mixed views towards the induction of India into the OIC as a full member. The Indian delegation, led by the then Indian President Fakhruddin Ali Ahmad, was scheduled to arrive at the summit but ultimately was not allowed in due to threats by Pakistan to boycott the event, leading to controversy. Differences between the two states led Pakistan to keep India out for the final session of the 1969 conference and all OIC summits thereafter.


2019 Pulwama attack and India–Pakistan standoff

On 14 February 2019, a suicide-bombing attack by a Muslim militant in Jammu and Kashmir killed over 40 Indian soldiers, and was claimed by
Jaish-e-Mohammed Jaish-e-Mohammed ( ur, , literally "The Army of Muhammad ) , birth_date = , birth_place = , death_date = , death_place = , resting_place = , resting_place_coordinates = , nationality ...
, a Pakistan-based terrorist group. In March 2019, India conducted airstrikes in Pakistani territory, which subsequently led to the 2019 India–Pakistan military standoff. After these events,
Indian Foreign Minister Indian or Indians refers to people or things related to India India (Hindi: ), officially the Republic of India (Hindi: ), is a country in South Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, second-most populous country, ...
Sushma Swaraj Sushma Swaraj () (née Sharma; 14 February 1952 – 6 August 2019) was an Indian politician and a Supreme Court of India, Supreme Court lawyer. A senior leader of Bharatiya Janata Party, Swaraj served as the Ministry of External Affairs (India ...

Sushma Swaraj
was invited to participate in an OIC summit. However, Pakistan protested this development and demanded that India be blocked from the event, accusing the latter of an unprovoked violation of Pakistani airspace while Indian officials claimed that the strike was carried out on terrorist-training camps within Pakistan. Following requests by Pakistan shortly after the 14 February attack, the OIC held an emergency meeting on 26 February to discuss the Kashmir dispute. The organization subsequently condemned India's military response to the attack and advised both sides to exercise restraint. For the first time in five decades, the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
invited India as a "guest of honour" to attend the inaugural plenary 46th meeting of OIC foreign ministers in
Abu Dhabi Abu Dhabi (, ; ar, أَبُو ظَبْيٍ ' ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more fo ...

Abu Dhabi
on 1 and 2 March 2019, overruling protests by Pakistan. Shortly afterwards, Pakistan boycotted the meeting objecting to the invitation of India. Indian Foreign Minister Swaraj served as the head for the Indian delegation and attended the summit. On 18 April 2020, the OIC had issued a statement, urging the Modi administration of India to take urgent steps to "stop the growing tide of
Islamophobia Islamophobia is the fear of, hatred of, or prejudice against the religion of Islam or Muslims in general, especially when seen as a geopolitical force or a source of terrorism. The scope and precise definition of the term ''Islamophobia'' is ...
", citing attacks by Hindu nationalists against Indian Muslims and the allegation against Muslims of spreading
COVID-19 Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is a contagious disease A contagious disease is a disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arrangement and organization o ...

COVID-19
in the country (see
violence against Muslims in India There have been several instances of religious violence against Muslims since the Partition of India The Partition of India of 1947 was the division of British India The provinces of India, earlier presidencies of British India and st ...
).


Cartoons of Muhammad

Cartoons of Muhammad, published in a Danish newspaper in September 2005, were found offensive by a number of Muslims. Third Extraordinary Session of the Islamic Summit Conference in December 2005 condemned publication of the cartoons, resulting in broader coverage of the issue by news media in Muslim countries. Subsequently, violent demonstrations throughout the Islamic world resulted in several deaths.


Human rights

OIC created the
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓ ...
. While proponents claim it is not an alternative to the
UDHR The Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR) is an international document adopted by the United Nations General Assembly The United Nations General Assembly (UNGA or GA; french: link=no, Assemblée générale, AG) is one of the six p ...
, but rather complementary to it, Article 24 states that "all the rights and freedoms stipulated in this Declaration are subject to the Islamic Shari'ah" and Article 25 follows with "the Islamic Shari'ah is the only source of reference for the explanation or clarification of any of the articles of this Declaration." Attempts to have it adopted by the
United Nations Human Rights Council The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), CDH is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign st ...
have met increasing criticism, because of its contradiction of the UDHR, including from liberal Muslim groups. Critics of the CDHR state bluntly that it is "manipulation and hypocrisy," "designed to dilute, if not altogether eliminate, civil and political rights protected by international law" and attempts to "circumvent these principles f freedom and equality"
Human Rights Watch Human Rights Watch (HRW) is an international non-governmental organization A non-governmental organization, or simply an NGO, is an that is, generally, formed independent from . They are typically s, and many of them are active in or t ...
says that OIC has "fought doggedly" and successfully within the United Nations Human Rights Council to shield states from criticism, except when it comes to
criticism of Israel Criticism of the Israeli government, often referred to simply as criticism of Israel, is an ongoing subject of journalistic and scholarly commentary and research within the scope of international relations theory, expressed in terms of political ...
. For example, when independent experts reported violations of human rights in the
2006 Lebanon War The 2006 Lebanon War, also called the 2006 Israel–Hezbollah War and known in Lebanon as the July War ( ar, حرب تموز, ''Ḥarb Tammuz (Hebrew month)#Other uses, Tammūz'') and in Israel as the Second Lebanon War ( he, מלחמת לב ...
, "state after state from the OIC took the floor to denounce the experts for daring to look beyond Israeli violations to discuss
Hezbollah Hezbollah (; ar, حزب الله ', literally "Party of Allah" or "Party of God", also Romanization of Arabic, transliterated Hizbullah or Hizballah, among others) is a Lebanese Shia Islam, Shia Islamist political party and militant group, ...
's as well." OIC demands that the council "should work cooperatively with abusive governments rather than condemn them." HRW responds that this works with those who are willing to cooperate; others exploit the passivity. The OIC has been criticised for failing to discuss the treatment of ethnic minorities within member countries, such as the oppression of the
Kurds in Syria The Kurdish population of Syria Syria ( ar, سُورِيَا, ''Sūriyā''), officially the Syrian Arab Republic ( ar, ٱلْجُمْهُورِيَّةُ ٱلْعَرَبِيَّةُ ٱلسُّورِيَّةُ, al-Jumhūrīyah al-ʻAr ...
and
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...
, the
Ahwaz Ahvaz ( fa, , translit=Ahvāz), is a city in the southwest of Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran ( fa, جمهوری اسلامی ایران ), is a country in Western Asia. It ...
in
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
, the
Hazaras The Hazaras ( fa, هزاره, Hazāra; haz, آزره, Āzra) are a Persian-speaking ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people who identity (social science), identify with each other on the basis of shared attributes ...

Hazaras
in
Afghanistan Afghanistan (; Pashto Pashto (,; / , ), sometimes spelled Pukhto or Pakhto, is an Eastern Iranian language The Eastern Iranian languages are a subgroup of the Iranian languages The Iranian or Iranic languages are a branch of t ...

Afghanistan
, the '
Al-Akhdam Al-Akhdam, Akhdam or Achdam ( ar, الأخدام) ("the servants", singular Khadem, meaning "servant" in Arabic; also called ''Al-Muhamasheen'' ( ar, المهمشين, link=yes), "the marginalized ones"), is an Arabic-speaking ethnical group who li ...
' in
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
, or the
Berbers Berbers or ''Imazighen'' ( ber, translit=Imaziɣen, ⵉⵎⴰⵣⵉⵖⵏ, ⵎⵣⵗⵏ; singular: , ) are an ethnic group mostly concentrated in North Africa, specifically Morocco, Algeria, Tunisia, Libya, the Canary Islands, and to a lesser ...

Berbers
in
Algeria ) , image_map = Algeria (centered orthographic projection).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Algiers , coordinates = , largest_city = capital , religion = , official_languages = , languages_type = Oth ...

Algeria
. Along with the revisions of the OIC's charter in 2008, the member states created the Independent Permanent Human Rights Commission (IPHRC). The IPHRC is an advisory body, independent from the OIC, composed of eighteen individuals from a variety of educational and professional backgrounds. The IPHRC has the power to monitor human rights within the member states and facilitates the integration of human rights into all OIC mandates. The IPHRC also aids in the promotion of political, civil, and economic rights in all member states. In September 2017, the Independent Human Rights Commission (IPHRC) of the OIC strongly condemned the
human rights violations Human rights are Morality, moral principles or Norm (social), normsJames Nickel, with assistance from Thomas Pogge, M.B.E. Smith, and Leif Wenar, 13 December 2013, Stanford Encyclopedia of PhilosophyHuman Rights Retrieved 14 August 2014 for c ...
against the Rohingya Muslims in
Myanmar Myanmar, ); UK pronunciations: US pronunciations incl. . Note: Wikipedia's IPA conventions require indicating /r/ even in British English although only some British English speakers pronounce r at the end of syllables. As John C. Wells, John ...

Myanmar
. In December 2018, the OIC tentatively raised the issue of
China China (), officially the People's Republic of China (PRC; ), is a country in East Asia East Asia is the eastern region of Asia Asia () is Earth's largest and most populous continent, located primarily in the Eastern Hemisphere ...

China
's
Xinjiang re-education camps The Xinjiang internment camps, officially called Xinjiang Vocational Education and Training Centers ( Chinese: 新疆职业技能教育培训中心) by the government of China, are internment camps operated by the Xinjiang, Xinjiang Uygur Au ...
and human rights abuses against the
UyghurUyghur may refer to: * Uyghurs, a Turkic ethnic group living in Eastern and Central Asia * Uyghur language, a Turkic language spoken primarily by the Uyghurs ** Uyghur alphabets, any of four systems used to write the language * Uyghur Khaganate, a T ...
Muslim Muslims () are people who follow or practice Islam Islam (; ar, اَلْإِسْلَامُ, al-’Islām, "submission o God Oh God may refer to: * An exclamation; similar to "oh no", "oh yes", "oh my", "aw goodness", "ah gosh", ...

Muslim
minority. The OIC reversed its position after a visit to Xinjiang, and in March 2019, the OIC issued a report on human rights for Muslim minorities that praised China for "providing care to its Muslim citizens" and looked forward to greater cooperation with the PRC.


LGBT rights

In March 2012, the
United Nations Human Rights Council The United Nations Human Rights Council (UNHRC), CDH is a United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization An intergovernmental organization (IGO) is an organization composed primarily of sovereign st ...
held its first discussion of
discrimination Discrimination is the act of making unjustified distinctions between people based on the groups, classes, or other categories to which they belong or are perceived to belong. People may be discriminated on the basis of Racial discrimination, r ...
based on
sexual orientation Sexual orientation is an enduring pattern of romantic Romantic may refer to: Genres and eras * The Romantic era, an artistic, literary, musical and intellectual movement of the 18th and 19th centuries ** Romantic music, of that era ** Romantic ...
and gender identity, following the 2011 passage of a resolution supporting LGBT rights proposed by the Republic of South Africa. Pakistan's representative addressed the session on behalf of the OIC, denouncing the discussion and questioning the concept of sexual orientation, which he said was being used to promote "licentious behaviour ... against the fundamental teachings of various religions, including Islam". He stated that the council should not discuss the topic again. Most Arab countries and some African ones later walked out of the session. Nonetheless, OIC members
Albania Albania ( ; sq, Shqipëri or Shqipëria), officially the Republic of Albania ( sq, Republika e Shqipërisë), is a country in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a par ...

Albania
,
Gabon Gabon (; ), officially the Gabonese Republic (french: République gabonaise), is a country on the west coast of Central Africa Central Africa is a subregion of the Africa, African continent comprising various countries according to dif ...

Gabon
,
Guinea-Bissau Guinea-Bissau (; pt, Guiné-Bissau, ff, 𞤘𞤭𞤲𞤫 𞤄𞤭𞤧𞤢𞥄𞤱𞤮 Gine-Bisaawo, Mandinka language, Mandinka: ߖߌߣߍ ߺ ߓߌߛߊߥߏ߫ ''Gine-Bisawo''), officially the Republic of Guinea-Bissau ( pt, República da Gu ...
, and
Sierra Leone Sierra Leone (, also , ), officially the Republic of Sierra Leone, informally Salone, is a country on the southwest coast of West Africa West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of . The defines Western Africa as the 17 co ...

Sierra Leone
have signed a UN Declaration supporting LGBT rights in the General Assembly. Whilst
Bahrain Bahrain ( ; ar, البحرين, al-Baḥrayn, , locally ), officially the Kingdom of Bahrain ( ar, مملكة البحرين, links=no '), is a country in the Arab states of the Persian Gulf, Persian Gulf. The Island country, island nation c ...

Bahrain
,
Iraq Iraq ( ar, الْعِرَاق, translit=al-ʿIrāq; ku, عێراق, translit=Êraq), officially the Republic of Iraq ( ar, جُمْهُورِيَّة ٱلْعِرَاق '; ku, کۆماری عێراق, translit=Komarî Êraq), is a country i ...

Iraq
,
Jordan Jordan ( ar, الأردن; tr. ' ), officially the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan,; tr. ') is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In ge ...

Jordan
and
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
had legalized homosexuality. In May 2016, 57 countries including
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
,
Pakistan Pakistan, . Pronounced variably in English as , , , and . officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world's List of countries and dependencies by population, fifth-most populous country, with a popul ...

Pakistan
,
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
and the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
from the Organization of Islamic Cooperation requested the removal of LGBT associations from 2016 High Level Meeting on Ending AIDS, sparking protests by the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
,
Canada Canada is a country in the northern part of North America North America is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, ...

Canada
, the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
and LGBT communities.


Science and technology

The Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) held its first science and technology summit at the level of head of state and government in Astana, Republic of Kazakhstan, on 10–11 September 2017.


Astana Declaration

The Astana Declaration is a policy guidance adopted by OIC members at the Astana Summit. The Astana Declaration commits members to increase investment in science and technology, education, eradicate extreme poverty, and implement UN
Sustainable Development Goals The Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs) or Global Goals are a collection of 17 interlinked global goals designed to be a "blueprint to achieve a better and more sustainable Sustainability is the capacity to endure in a relatively ongoing w ...

Sustainable Development Goals
.


Non-state terrorism

In 1999, OIC adopted the OIC Convention on Combatting International Terrorism. Human Rights Watch has noted that the definition of terrorism in article 1 describes "any act or threat of violence carried out with the aim of, among other things, imperiling people’s honour, occupying or seizing public or private property, or threatening the stability, territorial integrity, political unity or sovereignty of a state." HRW views this as vague, ill-defined and including much that is outside the generally accepted understandings of the concept of terrorism. In HRW's view, it labels, or could easily be used to label, as terrorist actions, acts of peaceful expression, association, and assembly.Organisation of the Islamic Conference: Improve and Strengthen the 1999 OIC Convention on Combating International Terrorism
Human Rights Watch 11 March 2008.
Legal scholar
Ben Saul Ben Saul is the current Challis Professor The Challis Professorship are professorships at the University of Sydney named in honour of John Henry Challis, an Anglo-Australian merchant, landowner and philanthropist, whose bequests to the Univers ...
of University of Sydney argues that the definition is subjective and ambiguous and concludes that there is "serious danger of the abusive use of terrorist prosecutions against political opponents" and others. Furthermore, HRW is concerned by OIC's apparent unwillingness to recognise as terrorism acts that serve causes endorsed by their member states. Article 2 reads: "Peoples' struggle including armed struggle against foreign occupation, aggression, colonialism, and hegemony, aimed at liberation and self-determination." HRW has suggested to OIC that they embrace "longstanding and universally recognised international human rights standards", a request that has as yet not led to any results. Contradictions between OIC's and other UN members' understanding of terrorism has stymied efforts at the UN to produce a comprehensive convention on international terrorism. During a meeting in Malaysia in April 2002, delegates discussed terrorism but failed to reach a definition of it. They rejected, however, any description of the Arab–Israeli conflict, Palestinian fight with Israel as terrorism. Their declaration was explicit: "We reject any attempt to link terrorism to the struggle of the Palestinian people in the exercise of their inalienable right to establish their independent state with Al-Quds Al-Shrif (Jerusalem) as its capital." In fact, at the outset of the meeting, the OIC countries signed a statement praising the Palestinians and their "blessed Wikt:intifada, intifada." The word terrorism was restricted to describe Israel, whom they condemned for "state terrorism" in their war with the Palestinian people. At the 34th Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers (ICFM), an OIC section, in May 2007, the foreign ministers termed
Islamophobia Islamophobia is the fear of, hatred of, or prejudice against the religion of Islam or Muslims in general, especially when seen as a geopolitical force or a source of terrorism. The scope and precise definition of the term ''Islamophobia'' is ...
"the worst form of terrorism".


Dispute with Thailand

Thailand Thailand ( th, ประเทศไทย), historically known as Siam, () officially the Kingdom of Thailand, is a country in Southeast Asia. It is located at the centre of the Mainland Southeast Asia, Indochinese Peninsula, spanning , wi ...

Thailand
has responded to OIC criticism of human rights abuses in the Islam in Thailand, Muslim majority provinces of Pattani, Yala Province, Yala, and Narathiwat Province, Narathiwat in the south of the country. In a statement issued on 18 October 2005, secretary-general Ihsanoglu vocalised concern over the continuing conflict in the south that "claimed the lives of innocent people and forced the migration of local people out of their places". He also stressed that the Thai government's security approach to the crisis would aggravate the situation and lead to continued violence. On 18–19 April 2009, the exiled Patani leader Abu Yasir Fikri (see Patani United Liberation Organisation) was invited to the OIC to speak about the conflict and present a solution to end the violence between the Thai government and the ethnically Malay Muslims living in the socioeconomically neglected south, that has been struggling against Thai assimilation policy and for self governance since it became annexed by Thailand in 1902. Fikri presented a six-point solution at the conference in Jiddah that included obtaining the same basic rights as other groups when it came to right of language, religion, and culture. He also suggested that Thailand give up its discriminatory policies against the Patani people and allow Patani to at least be allowed the same self-governing rights as other regions in Thailand already have, citing that this does not go against the Thai constitution since it has been done in other parts of Thailand and that it is a matter of political will. He also criticised the Thai government's escalation of violence by arming and creating Buddhist militia groups and questioned their intentions. He added Thai policies of not investigating corruption, murder, and human rights violations perpetrated by Bangkok-led administration and military personnel against the Malay Muslim population was an obstacle for achieving peace and healing the deep wounds of being treated as third-class citizens. Thailand responded to this criticism over its policies. The Thailand, Thai foreign minister, Kantathi Suphamongkhon, said: "We have made it clear to the OIC several times that the violence in the deep South is not caused by religious conflict and the government grants protection to all of our citizens no matter what religion they embrace." The Foreign Ministry issued a statement dismissing the OIC's criticism and accusing it of disseminating misperceptions and misinformation about the situation in the southern provinces. "If the OIC secretariat really wants to promote the cause of peace and harmony in the three southern provinces of Thailand, the responsibility falls on the OIC secretariat to strongly condemn the militants, who are perpetrating these acts of violence against both Thai Muslims and Thai Buddhists." HRW and Amnesty International have echoed the same concerns as OIC, rebuffing Thailand's attempts to dismiss the issue.


Notable meetings

A number of OIC meetings have attracted global attention.


Ninth meeting of PUOICM

The ninth meeting of Parliamentary Union of the OIC member states (PUOICM) was held on 15 and 16 February 2007 in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The speaker of Malaysia's Dewan Rakyat, House of Representatives, Ramli bin Ngah Talib, delivered a speech at the beginning of the inaugural ceremony. OIC secretary-general Ekmeleddin Ihsanoglu said prior to the meeting that one main agenda item was stopping Israel from continuing its excavation at the Western Wall#Recent damage to plaza, Western Wall near the , Islam's third holiest site. The OIC also discussed how it might send peacekeeping troops to Muslim states, as well as the possibility of a change in the name of the body and its charter. Additionally, return of the sovereignty right to the Iraqi people along with withdrawal of foreign troops from Iraq was another one of the main issues on the agenda. Pakistani Foreign Minister Khurshid Mahmud Kasuri told reporters on 14 February 2007 that the secretary general of OIC and foreign ministers of seven "like-minded Muslim countries" would meet in Islamabad on 25 February 2007 following meetings of Pervez Musharraf, President Musharraf with heads of key Muslim countries to discuss "a new initiative" for the resolution of the Israeli–Palestinian conflict. Kasuri said this would be a meeting of foreign ministers of key Muslim countries to discuss and prepare for a summit in Mecca, Makkah Al Mukarramah to seek the resolution of the Arab–Israeli conflict.


IPHRC Trip to Washington DC

In December 2012, the IPHRC met in Washington, DC for the first time. The IPHRC held meetings at the National Press Club, Capitol Hill and Freedom House discussing the issues of human rights defense in the OIC member states. During their roundtable discussion with Freedom House the IPHRC emphasised the adoption of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and the rejection of the Cairo Declaration by the OIC.


Observer Status dispute

The September 2014's high-level Summit of the OIC, in New York, ended without adopting any resolutions or conclusions, for the first time in several years in the modern history of the organization, due to a dispute regarding the status of one of its Observer states.
Egypt Egypt ( ar, مِصر, Miṣr), officially the Arab Republic of Egypt, is a transcontinental country This is a list of countries located on more than one continent A continent is one of several large landmasses. Generally identi ...

Egypt
,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
and the
United Arab Emirates The United Arab Emirates (UAE; ar, الإمارات العربية المتحدة ) or the Emirates ( ar, الإمارات ), is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregio ...

United Arab Emirates
have demanded that the OIC remove the term 'Turkish Cypriot State' in reference to the unrecognized Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus, Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus (TRNC), which has observer status within the organization. Egypt's president Abdel Fattah el-Sisi insisted that any reference to the "Turkish Republic of Northern Cyprus or Turkish Cypriot State" was unacceptable and was ultimately the reason for the OIC not adopting any resolutions or conclusions in the 2014 summit.


Structure and organisation

The OIC system consists of:


Islamic Summit

The largest meeting, attended by the kings and the heads of state and government of the member states, convenes every three years. The Islamic Summit takes policy decisions and provide guidance on all issues pertaining to the realisation of the objectives as provided for in the Charter and consider other issues of concern to the Member States and the Ummah.


Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers

Islamic Conference of Foreign Ministers meets once a year to examine a progress report on the implementation of its decisions taken within the framework of the policy defined by the Islamic Summit.


Secretary General

The Secretary General is elected by the Council of Foreign Ministers for a period of five years, renewable once. The Secretary-General is elected from among nationals of the Member States in accordance with the principles of equitable geographical distribution, rotation and equal opportunity for all Member States with due consideration to competence, integrity and experience.


Permanent Secretariat

The Permanent Secretariat is the executive organ of the Organisation, entrusted with the implementation of the decisions of the two preceding bodies, and is located in
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cit ...

Jeddah
,
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
. The Secretary General of the Organization of Islamic Cooperation (OIC) is Dr. Yousef A. Al-Othaimeen. He received his office on, Tuesday, 29 November 2016


Subsidiary organisations

* The Statistical, Economic and Social Research and Training Centre for Islamic Countries, in Ankara,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
* The Research Centre for Islamic History, Art and Culture (IRCICA), located in Istanbul,
Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country located mainly on Anatolia Anatolia,, tr, Anadolu Yarımadası), and the Anatolian plateau. also known as Asia Minor, is a large peninsula in Western Asia an ...

Turkey
* The Islamic University of Technology, located in Dhaka, Bangladesh * The Islamic Centre for the Development of Trade, located in Casablanca,
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
* The International Islamic Fiqh Academy, Jeddah, Islamic Fiqh Academy, located in
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cit ...

Jeddah
,
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
* The Islamsate Islamic Network, located at Riyadh,
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
* The Executive Bureau of the Islamic Solidarity Fund and its Waqf, located in
Jeddah Jeddah ( ), also spelled Jedda, Jiddah or Jidda ( ; ar, جِدَّة, Jidda, ), is a city in the Hejaz The Hejaz (, also ; ar, ٱلْحِجَاز, al-Ḥijāz, lit=the Barrier, ) is a region in the west of Saudi Arabia. It includes the cit ...

Jeddah
,
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
* The Islamic University in Niger, located in Say, Niger. * The Islamic University in Uganda, located in Mbale, Uganda. * The Tabriz Islamic Arts University, located in Tabriz,
Iran Iran ( fa, ایران ), also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia Western Asia, West Asia, or Southwest Asia, is the westernmost subregion A subregion is a part of a larger regio ...

Iran
.


Specialised institutions

* The Islamic Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organisation (ISESCO), located in
Rabat Rabat (, also , ; ar, الرباط, ar-ribāṭ; ber, ⴰⵕⴱⴰⵟ, aṛṛbaṭ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in large ...

Rabat
,
Morocco ) , image_map = Morocco (orthographic projection, WS claimed).svg , map_caption = Location of Morocco in northwest Africa.Dark green: Undisputed territory of Morocco.Lighter green: Western Sahara, a United Nations lis ...

Morocco
. * The Islamic States Broadcasting Organisation (ISBO) and the International Islamic News Agency (IINA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia


Affiliated institutions

* Islamabad Chamber of Commerce & Industry (ICCI), located in Karachi, Pakistan. * World Islamic Economic Forum (WIEF), located in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. * Organisation of Islamic Capitals and Cities (OICC), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * Sports Federation of Islamic Solidarity Games, located in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. * Islamic Committee of the International Crescent (ICIC), located in Benghazi, Libya. * Islamic Shipowners Association (ISA), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * World Federation of International Arab-Islamic Schools, located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * International Association of Islamic Banks (IAIB), located in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia. * Islamic Conference Youth Forum for Dialogue and Cooperation (ICYF-DC), located in Istanbul, Turkey. * General Council for Islamic Banks and Financial Institutions (CIBAFI), located in Manama, Bahrain. * Standards and Metrology Institute for Islamic Countries (SMIIC), located in Istanbul, Turkey.


Criticism

OIC has been criticised by many Muslims for its lack of real engagement and solutions for Muslim countries in crisis. It is said to have made progress in social and academic terms but not politically. In 2020, Pakistan's Minister of Foreign Affairs Shah Mahmood Qureshi, SM Qureshi criticized OIC for its stand with regards to Kashmir dispute, Kashmir issue, stating with Pakistan might consider to call a meeting of Islamic countries that are ready to stand with them on the issue. This comment invited immediate retaliation from Saudi Arabia, where the latter forced Pakistan to repay 1 Billion dollars from the 3 Billion dollars loan it had taken in 2018 and by also ending its oil supply credit.


Secretaries-General


List of Summits


See also

* Azerbaijan-the OIC relations *
Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam The Cairo Declaration on Human Rights in Islam (CDHRI) is a declaration of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation The Organisation of Islamic Cooperation (OIC; ar, منظمة التعاون الإسلامي, Munaẓẓ ...
* D-8 Organization for Economic Cooperation * Flag of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation * Islamic Military Counter Terrorism Coalition * Islamic Reporting Initiative * Islamic University of Technology * List of largest cities in Organisation of Islamic Cooperation member countries * Demographics of the member states of the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation * Pakistan and the Organisation of Islamic Cooperation


References


Further reading

* Ankerl, Guy Coexisting Contemporary Civilisations: Arabo-Muslim, Bharati, Chinese, and Western. Geneva, INUPress, 2000, . * Al-Huda, Qamar. "Organisation of the Islamic Conference." ''Encyclopedia of Islam and the Muslim World''. Edited by Martin, Richard C. Macmillan Reference, 2004. vol. 1 p. 394, 20 April 2008.


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Organisation Of The Islamic Conference Organisation of Islamic Cooperation Organizations established in 1969 United Nations General Assembly observers Al-Aqsa Mosque Intergovernmental organizations established by treaty Islamic conferences 1960s in Islam Islamic organisations based in Saudi Arabia International political organizations International diplomatic organizations Political organisations based in Saudi Arabia