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In written languages, an ordinal indicator is a
character Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set of character sketches attributed to Theophrastus M ...
, or group of characters, following a numeral denoting that it is an
ordinal number In set theory Set theory is the branch of that studies , which can be informally described as collections of objects. Although objects of any kind can be collected into a set, set theory, as a branch of , is mostly concerned with those that ...
, rather than a
cardinal number 150px, Aleph null, the smallest infinite cardinal In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number theory), mathematical structure, structure (algebra), space (geometry), and ca ...
. In correct typography, the ordinal indicators and should be distinguishable from other characters. In
English orthography English orthography is the system of writing conventions used to represent spoken English in written form that allows readers to connect spelling to sound to meaning. Like the orthography of most world languages, English orthography has a broad ...
, this corresponds to the suffixes ''-st'', ''-nd'', ''-rd'', ''-th'' in written ordinals (represented either on the line ''1st'', ''2nd'', ''3rd'', ''4th'' or as superscript, ). Also commonly encountered are the
superscript A subscript or superscript is a character (such as a number or letter) that is set slightly below or above the normal line of type, respectively. It is usually smaller than the rest of the text. Subscripts appear at or below the baseline, whil ...
or
superior Superior may refer to: *Superior (hierarchy) In a hierarchy A hierarchy (from the Greek: , from , 'president of sacred rites') is an arrangement of items (objects, names, values, categories, etc.) in which the items are represented as being "ab ...
(and often underlined) masculine ordinal indicator, , and feminine ordinal indicator, , originally from
Romance Romance (from Vulgar Latin , "in the Roman language", i.e., "Latin") may refer to: Common meanings * Romance (love) Romance or Romantic love is an emotional feeling of love for, or a strong attraction towards another person, and the Court ...

Romance
, but via the cultural influence of
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
by the 18th century, widely used in the wider cultural sphere of Western Europe, as in '' primo'' and '' prima''. The practice of underlined (or doubly underlined) superscripted abbreviations was common in 19th-century writing (not limited to ordinal indicators in particular, and also extant in the
numero sign The numero sign or numero symbol, №, (also represented as Nº, No, No. or no.), is a typographic 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case">composing_stick.html" ;"title="Mo ...

numero sign
), and was also found in handwritten English until at least the late 19th century (e.g. "first" abbreviated or ''1'').


Usage

In
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
,
Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
,
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
, and
GalicianGalician may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Galicia (Spain) ** Galician language ** Galician people ** Gallaeci, a large Celtic tribal federation who inhabited Gallaecia (currently Galicia (Spain) * Something of, from, or related to ...
, the ordinal indicators and are appended to the numeral depending on whether the
grammatical gender In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
is masculine or feminine. The indicator may be given an
underline 215px, Underscored or underlined text. An underscore, also called an underline, low line, or low dash, is a line drawn under a segment of text. Underscoring/underlining is a proofreading Proofreading is the reading (activity), reading of a g ...
but this is not ubiquitous (in
digital typography Desktop publishing (DTP) is the creation of documents using page layout software on a personal ("desktop") personal computer, computer. It was first used almost exclusively for print publications, but now it also assists in the creation of variou ...
this depends on the font:
Cambria Cambria is a name for Wales, being the Latinised form of the Welsh language, Welsh name for the country, . The term was not in use during the Roman Britain, Roman period (when Wales had not come into existence as a distinct entity). It emerged lat ...
and
Calibri Calibri () is a sans-serif typeface family designed by Luc(as) de Groot in 2002–2004 and released to the general public in 2007, with Microsoft Office 2007 and Windows Vista. In Office 2007, it replaced Times New Roman as the default typeface in ...

Calibri
, for example, have underlined ordinal indicators; most other fonts do not). Examples of the usage of ordinal indicators in Italian are: *; ('first'), *; ('second') *; ('third') Galician also forms its ordinal numbers this way. Portuguese follows a similar method, but a period may additionally be placed before the indicator.Numerais ordinais
Museu Língua Portuguesa
. In Spanish, using the final two or three letters of the word as it is spelled is not formally allowed, except in the cases of and (
apocope In phonology, apocope () is the loss (elision) of a word-final vowel. In a broader sense, it can refer to the loss of any final sound (including consonants) from a word. Etymology ''Apocope'' comes from the Greek language, Greek () from () "cut ...
s of and before masculine singular nouns), which are not abbreviated as and but as and , as well as their derived compound ordinal numbers. For instance, "twenty-first" is before a masculine singular noun, and its abbreviation is . Since none of these words are shortened before feminine nouns, their correct forms for those cases are and . These can be represented as and . As with other abbreviations in Spanish, the ordinal numbers have a period ".", which is placed ''before'' the indicator.


Origins

The practice of indicating ordinals with superscript suffixes may originate with the practice of writing a superscript ''o'' to indicate a Latin ablative in pre-modern scribal practice. This ablative
desinence In linguistics, a suffix (sometimes termed postfix ) is an affix which is placed after the Stem (linguistics), stem of a word. Common examples are case endings, which indicate the grammatical case of nouns, adjectives, and verb endings, which f ...
happened to be frequently combined with ordinal numerals indicating dates (as in ''tertio die'' (written ''iiio die'') "on the third day" or in
Anno Domini The terms (AD) and before Christ (BC) are used to label or number years in the Julian and Gregorian calendar The Gregorian calendar is the used in most of the world. It was introduced in October 1582 by as a modification of the , r ...
years, as in (written or similarly) "in the thousandth ..year after the incarnation of our lord Jesus Christ"). The usage of terminals in the
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
languages of Europe derives from Latin usage, as practised by scribes in monasteries and chanceries before writing in the vernacular became established. The terminal letters used depend on the gender of the item to be ordered and the case in which the ordinal adjective is stated, for example ("the first day", nominative case, masculine), but ("on the first day", ablative case masculine), shown as Io or io. As monumental inscriptions often refer to days on which events happened, e.g. "he died on the tenth of June", the ablative case is generally used: Xo () with the month stated in the genitive case. Examples: *Io , "on the first day of July" *Xo *XXo *Lo *Co *Mo


Design

The masculine ordinal indicator may be confused with the
degree sign The degree symbol or degree sign, , is a typographical symbol This is a list of the most common typographical symbols and punctuation marks used in western European languages. For a far more comprehensive list of symbols and signs, see List of U ...
(U+00B0), which looks very similar and which is provided on the
Italian Italian may refer to: * Anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Italy ** Italians, an ethnic group or simply a citizen of the Italian Republic ** Italian language, a Romance language *** Regional Italian, regional variants of the ...

Italian
and Latin American keyboard layouts. It was common in the early days of computers to use the same character for both. The degree sign is a uniform circle and is never underlined. The masculine ordinal indicator is the shape of a lower-case letter , and thus may be
oval An oval () is a closed curve In mathematics, a curve (also called a curved line in older texts) is an object similar to a line (geometry), line, but that does not have to be Linearity, straight. Intuitively, a curve may be thought of as the ...

oval
or
elliptical
elliptical
, and may have a varying line thickness. Ordinal indicators may also be underlined. It is not mandatory in Portugal nor in Brazil, but it is preferred in some fonts to avoid confusion with the degree sign. Also, the ordinal indicators should be distinguishable from superscript characters. The top of the ordinal indicators (i.e., the top of the elevated letter and letter ) must be aligned with the
cap height In typography Typography is the art and technique of arranging type to make written language A written language is the representation of a spoken or gestural language A language is a structured system of communication used by hum ...
of the font. The alignment of the top of superscripted letters and will depend on the font. The line thickness of the ordinal indicators is always proportional to the line thickness of the other characters of the font. Many fonts just shrink the characters (making them thinner) to draw superscripts.


Encoding

The Romance feminine and masculine ordinal indicators were adopted into the 8-bit
ECMA-94 ISO/IEC 8859 is a joint ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for ...
encoding in 1985 and the
ISO 8859-1 ISO/IEC 8859-1:1998, ''Information technology — 8-bit In computer architecture In computer engineering, computer architecture is a set of rules and methods that describe the functionality, organization, and implementation of compu ...
encoding in 1987 (both based on DEC's
Multinational Character Set The Multinational Character Set (DMCS or MCS) is a character encoding In computing Computing is any goal-oriented activity requiring, benefiting from, or creating computing machinery. It includes the study and experimentation of algorithmic pr ...
designed for
VT220 The VT220 is a computer terminal A computer terminal is an electronic or electromechanical In engineering Engineering is the use of scientific principles to design and build machines, structures, and other items, including bri ...
), at positions 170 (xAA) and 186 (xBA), respectively. ISO 8859-1 was incorporated as the first 256 code points of
ISO/IEC 10646 ISO/IEC JTC 1 is a joint technical committee (JTC) of the International Organization for Standardization The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard-setting body composed of representatives from var ...
and
Unicode Unicode, formally the Unicode Standard, is an information technology Technical standard, standard for the consistent character encoding, encoding, representation, and handling of Character (computing), text expressed in most of the world's wri ...

Unicode
in 1991. The Unicode characters are thus: * * The named html entities ª and º were introduced in
HTML 3.2 The HyperText Markup Language, or HTML is the standard markup language #REDIRECT Markup language In computer text processing, a markup language is a system for annotation, annotating a document in a way that is Syntax (logic), syntacticall ...
(1996). There are superscript versions of the letters and in Unicode, these are different characters and should not be used as ordinal indicators. The majority of character sets intended to support Galician, Portuguese and/or Spanish have those two characters encoded. In detail (in hexadecimal):


Typing

Portuguese Portuguese may refer to: * anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Portugal ** Portuguese cuisine, traditional foods ** Portuguese language, a Romance language *** Portuguese dialects, variants of the Portuguese language ** Portug ...

Portuguese
,
Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambiguation), the name of several ...

Spanish
and keyboard layouts are the only ones on which the characters are directly accessible: or for "º" and or for "ª". On other keyboard layouts these characters are accessible only through a set of keystrokes. On
Windows Microsoft Windows, commonly referred to as Windows, is a group of several proprietary {{Short pages monitor may refer to anything pertaining to the Faroe Islands, e.g.: *the Faroese language * the Faroese people {{Disambiguation Language and nationality disambiguation pages ...
,
Finnish Finnish may refer to: * Something or someone from, or related to Finland * Finnish culture * Finnish people or Finns, the primary ethnic group in Finland * Finnish language, the national language of the Finnish people * Finnish cuisine See also

...
,
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
,
HungarianHungarian may refer to: * Hungary, a country in Central Europe * Kingdom of Hungary, state of Hungary, existing between 1000 and 1946 * Hungarians, ethnic groups in Hungary * Hungarian algorithm, a polynomial time algorithm for solving the assignmen ...
,
Icelandic Icelandic refers to anything of, from, or related to Iceland and may refer to: *Icelandic people *Icelandic language *Icelandic alphabet *Icelandic cuisine See also

* Icelander (disambiguation) * Icelandic Airlines, a predecessor of Icelandai ...
, Latvian,
Norwegian Norwegian, Norwayan, or Norsk may refer to: *Something of, from, or related to Norway, a country in northwestern Europe *Norwegians, both a nation and an ethnic group native to Norway *Demographics of Norway *The Norwegian language, including the t ...
,
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
,
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
,
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
, among other languages, a period or
full stop The full stop (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the ...

full stop
is written after the numeral. In
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland ( pl, Polska ), officially the Republic of Poland ( pl, Rzeczpospolita Polska, links=no ), is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Pol ...
the period can be omitted if there is no ambiguity whether a given numeral is ordinal or cardinal. The only exception are variables in mathematics ("k+1-szy" — "(k+1)st"). Writing out the endings for various cases, as sometimes happens in Czech and Slovak, is considered incorrect and uneducated. Should a follow this dot, it is omitted. In Czech and Slovak, numerals with ordinal dot are mostly used only in tables, lists etc., or in case of large (or long) numbers; within a sentence it is recommended to write out the form with letters in full. Serbian language (unlike Croatian and Bosnian) uses the dot in role of the ordinal indicator only past Arabic numerals, while Roman numerals are used without a dot. There is a problem with autocorrection, mobile editors etc. which often forces a capital initial letter to the word following the ordinal number.


Other suffixes


English

* ''-st'' is used with numbers ending in ''1'' (e.g. ''1st'', pronounced ''first'') * ''-nd'' is used with numbers ending in ''2'' (e.g. ''92nd'', pronounced ''ninety-second'') * ''-rd'' is used with numbers ending in ''3'' (e.g. ''33rd'', pronounced ''thirty-third'') * As an exception to the above rules, all the "teen" numbers ending with ''11'', ''12'' or ''13'' use ''-th'' (e.g. ''11th'', pronounced ''eleventh'', ''112th'', pronounced ''one hundred th'') * ''-th'' is used for all other numbers (e.g. 9th, pronounced ''ninth''). * One archaic variant uses a singular ''-d'' for numbers ending in 2 or 3 (e.g. ''92d'' or ''33d'') In 19th-century handwriting, these terminals were often elevated, that is to say written as superscripts (e.g. ). With the gradual introduction of the
typewriter A typewriter is a mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system A machine is any physical system with ordered structural and functional properties. It may represent human-made or naturally occurring device molecular ...

typewriter
in the late 19th century, it became common to write them on the baseline in typewritten texts, and this usage even became recommended in certain 20th-century style guides. Thus, the 17th edition of ''
The Chicago Manual of Style ''The Chicago Manual of Style'' (abbreviated in writing as ''CMOS'' or ''CMS'', or sometimes as ''Chicago'') is a style guide for American English published since 1906 by the University of Chicago Press. Its 17 editions have prescribed writi ...
'' states: "The letters in ordinal numbers should not appear as superscripts (e.g., 122nd not )", as do the ''
Bluebook ''The Bluebook: A Uniform System of Citation'' is a style guide A style guide or manual of style is a set of standards for the writing, formatting and design of documents. It is often called a style sheet, although that term also has other ...
'' and style guides by the ''
Council of Science Editors The Council of Science Editors (CSE), formerly the Council of Biology Editors (CBE; 1965-2000) and originally the Conference of Biology Editors (CBE) (1957-1965), is a United States-based nonprofit organization that supports editorial practice amo ...
'',
Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational corporation, multinational technology company, technology corporation which produces Software, computer software, consumer electronics, personal computers, and related services. Its best-know ...
, and
Yahoo Yahoo (, styled as yahoo''!'') is an American web services The term Web service (WS) is either: * a service offered by an electronic device to another electronic device, communicating with each other via the World Wide Web, or * a server run ...
. Two problems are that superscripts are used "most often in citations" and are "tiny and hard to read". Some
word processor A word processor (WP) is a device or computer program that provides for input, editing, formatting, and output of text, often with some additional features. Early word processors were stand-alone devices dedicated to the function, but current ...
s format ordinal indicators as superscripts by default (e.g.
Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a word processing software developed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * ...
). Style guide author Jack Lynch (
Rutgers Rutgers University (RU; ), officially known as Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, is a Public university, public land-grant research university based in New Brunswick, New Jersey. Chartered in 1766, Rutgers was originally called Queen' ...
) recommends turning off automatic superscripting of ordinals in
Microsoft Word Microsoft Word is a word processing software developed by Microsoft Microsoft Corporation is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * ...
, because "no professionally printed books use superscripts".


French

uses the ordinal indicators (), in feminine (), (). French also uses the indicator for the variant ; in feminine this indicator becomes : . In plural, all these indicators take a : (), (), (), (), (). These indicators use superscript formatting whenever it is available.


Catalan

The rule in
Catalan Catalan may refer to: Catalonia From, or related to Catalonia: * Catalan language, a Romance language * Catalans, an ethnic group formed by the people from, or with origins in, Catalonia * Països Catalans, territories where Catalan is spoken * C ...
is to follow the number with the last letter in the singular and the last two letters in the plural. Most numbers follow the pattern exemplified by "20" ( '' '', '' '', '' '', '' ''), but the first few ordinals are irregular, affecting the abbreviations of the masculine forms. Superscripting is not standard.


Dutch

Unlike other
Germanic languages The Germanic languages are a branch of the Indo-European The Indo-European languages are a language family native to western and southern Eurasia. It comprises most of the languages of Europe together with those of the northern Indian su ...

Germanic languages
,
Dutch Dutch commonly refers to: * Something of, from, or related to the Netherlands * Dutch people () * Dutch language () *Dutch language , spoken in Belgium (also referred as ''flemish'') Dutch may also refer to:" Castle * Dutch Castle Places * ...
is similar to
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
in this respect: the French layout with ' used to be popular, but the recent spelling changes now prescribe the suffix . Optionally and may be used, but this is more complex:  (),  (),  (),  ()...


Finnish

In
Finnish orthography Finnish orthography is based on the Latin script, and uses an alphabet derived from the Swedish alphabet, officially comprising 29 letters but also has two additional letters found in some loanwords. The Finnish orthography strives to represent ...
, when the numeral is followed by its
head Head Sport GmbH is an American-Austrian manufacturing company Manufacturing is the creation or production Production may be: Economics and business * Production (economics) * Production, the act of manufacturing goods * Production, in th ...
noun (which indicates the
grammatical case Grammatical case is a term regarding a manner of categorizing s, s, s, s, and s according to their traditionally corresponding s within a given , , or . In some languages, nouns, pronouns, adjectives, s, participles, prepositions, numerals, art ...
of the ordinal), it is sufficient to write a period or
full stop The full stop (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the ...

full stop
after the numeral: "In the competition, I finished in 2nd place". However, if the head noun is omitted, the ordinal indicator takes the form of a morphological suffix, which is attached to the numeral with a
colon Colon commonly refers to: * Colon (punctuation) (:), a punctuation mark * Major part of large intestine, the final section of the digestive system Colon may also refer to: Places * Colon, Michigan, US * Colon, Nebraska, US * Kowloon, Hong Kong, s ...

colon
. In the
nominative case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
, the suffix is for 1 and 2, and for larger numerals: "I came 2nd, and my brother came 3rd". This is derived from the endings of the spelled-out ordinal numbers: , , '', '', , , ... The system becomes rather complicated when the ordinal needs to be inflected, as the ordinal suffix is adjusted according to the case ending: (nominative case, which has no ending), (
genitive case In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
with ending ), (
partitive case The partitive case ( abbreviated , , or more ambiguously ) is a grammatical case Grammatical case is a linguistics Linguistics is the science, scientific study of language. It encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as well a ...
with ending ), (
inessive case In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The te ...
with ending ), (
illative case In grammar In linguistics, the grammar (from Ancient Greek ''grammatikḗ'') of a natural language is its set of structure, structural constraints on speakers' or writers' composition of clause (linguistics), clauses, phrases, and words. The te ...
with ending ), etc. Even native speakers sometimes find it difficult to exactly identify the ordinal suffix, as its borders with the
word stem In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequence of phonemes that can be uttered in isolation with semantic, objective or pragmatics, practical meaning (linguistics), meaning. In many languages, words also corres ...
and the case ending may appear blurred. In such cases it may be preferable to write the ordinal word entirely with
letters Letter, letters, or literature may refer to: Characters typeface * Letter (alphabet) A letter is a segmental symbol A symbol is a mark, sign, or word that indicates, signifies, or is understood as representing an idea, Object (philosophy ...
and particularly is rare even in the nominative case, as it is not significantly shorter than the full word .


Irish

Numerals from ''3'' up form their ordinals uniformly by adding the suffix : , etc. When the ordinal is written out, the suffix adheres to the spelling restrictions imposed by the broad/slender difference in consonants and is written after slender consonants; but when written as numbers, only the suffix itself () is written. In the case of ''4'' (), the final syllable is
syncopated Syncopation is a musical term meaning a variety of rhythms played together to make a piece of music, making part or all of a tune or piece of music off-beat. More simply, syncopation is "a disturbance or interruption of the regular flow of rhy ...
before the suffix, and in the case of ''9'' (), ''20'' (), and ''1000'' (), the final vowel is assimilated into the suffix. Most multiples of ten end in a vowel in their cardinal form and form their ordinal form by adding the suffix to their genitive singular form, which ends in ; this is not reflected in writing. Exceptions are ''20'' () and ''40'' (), both of whom form their ordinals by adding the suffix directly to the cardinal ( and ). When counting objects (2) becomes and (4) becomes . As in French, the vigesimal system is widely used, particularly in people's ages. – 95. The numbers ''1'' () and ''2'' () both have two separate ordinals: one regularly formed by adding , and one
suppletiveIn linguistics and etymology, suppletion is traditionally understood as the use of one word as the inflection, inflected form of another word when the two words are not cognate. For those learning a language, suppletive forms will be seen as "irregul ...
form (). The regular forms are restricted in their usage to actual numeric contexts, when counting. The latter are also used in counting, especially , but are used in broader, more abstract senses of 'first' and 'second' (or 'other'). In their broader senses, and are not written as and , though and may in a numeric context be read aloud as and (e.g., may be read as or as ).


Russian

One or two letters of the spelled-out numeral are appended to it (either with a hyphen or, rarely, in superscript). The rule is to take the minimal number of letters that include at least one consonant phoneme. Examples: 2-му второму , 2-я вторая , 2-й второй (note that in the second example the vowel letter я represents two phonemes, one of which () is a consonant).


Swedish

The general rule is that (for 1 and 2) or (for all other numbers, except , et cetera, but including and ) is appended to the numeral. The reason is that and respectively end the ordinal number words. The ordinals for 1 and 2 may however be given an form ( and instead of and ) when used about a male person (masculine natural gender), and if so they are written and . When indicating dates, suffixes are never used. Examples: (first grade (in elementary school)), (third edition), but . Furthermore, suffixes can be left out if the number obviously is an ordinal number, example: (3rd ed). Using a
full stop The full stop (Commonwealth English The use of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the ...

full stop
as an ordinal indicator is considered
archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found or used currently: *List of archaeological periods **Archaic Sumerian language, spoken between 31st - 26th centu ...
, but still occurs in military contexts. Example: (5th company).


Representation as prefix

Numbers in
Malay Malay may refer to: Languages * Malay language or Bahasa Melayu, a major Austronesian language spoken in Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei and Singapore ** History of the Malay language#Old Malay, the Malay language from the 4th to the 14th century ** ...
and
Indonesian Indonesian is anything of, from, or related to Indonesia, an archipelagic country in Southeast Asia. It may refer to: * Indonesians, citizens of Indonesia ** Native Indonesians, diverse groups of local inhabitants of the archipelago ** Indonesian ...

Indonesian
are preceded by the ordinal prefix ; for example, , "seventh". The exception is which means "first". Numbers in
Filipino Filipino may refer to: * Something from or related to the Philippines The Philippines (; fil, Pilipinas or ''Filipinas'' ), officially the Republic of the Philippines ( fil, Republika ng Pilipinas), * bik, Republika kan Filipinas * ceb, ...
are preceded by the ordinal prefix or (the latter subject to
sandhi Sandhi ( sa, सन्धि ' , "joining") is a cover term for a wide variety of sound In physics Physics is the natural science that studies matter, its Elementary particle, fundamental constituents, its Motion (physics), motion an ...
; for example, or , "seventh". The exception is , which means "first". In
Chinese Chinese can refer to: * Something related to China China, officially the People's Republic of China (PRC), is a country in East Asia. It is the List of countries and dependencies by population, world's most populous country, with a populat ...
and
Japanese Japanese may refer to: * Something from or related to Japan Japan ( ja, 日本, or , and formally ) is an island country An island country or an island nation is a country A country is a distinct territory, territorial body or ...

Japanese
, an ordinal number is prefixed by / ; for example, "first", "second". In
Korean Korean may refer to: People and culture * Koreans, ethnic group originating in the Korean Peninsula * Korean cuisine * Korean culture * Korean language **Korean alphabet, known as Hangul or Chosŏn'gŭl **Korean dialects and the Jeju language **S ...
, an ordinal number is prefixed by or suffixed by ; for example, "first", "second".


See also

*
Numero sign The numero sign or numero symbol, №, (also represented as Nº, No, No. or no.), is a typographic 225px, Movable type being assembled on a composing stick using pieces that are stored in the type case">composing_stick.html" ;"title="Mo ...

Numero sign
*
Superior letter In typography and handwriting, a superior letter is a lower-case letter placed above the baseline and made smaller than ordinary script. The style has traditionally been distinct from Subscript and superscript, superscript. Formerly quite common ...


References


External links

* .
Windows keyboard layouts

Apple keyboard layouts
{{navbox punctuation Typographical symbols