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A One Day International (ODI) is a form of
limited overs cricket Limited overs cricket, also known as one-day cricket, is a version of the sport of cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played b ...
, played between two teams with international status, in which each team faces a fixed number of
overs In cricket, an over consists of six consecutive legal delivery (cricket), deliveries bowling (cricket), bowled from one end of a cricket pitch to the player batting at the other end, almost always by a single bowler. A maiden over is an over in ...
, currently 50, with the game lasting up to 9 hours. The
Cricket World Cup The Cricket World Cup (officially known as ICC Men's Cricket World Cup) is the international championship The International Championship is a professional Snooker world rankings, ranking snooker tournament. The reigning champion is Judd Trump. ...
, generally held every four years, is played in this format. One Day International matches are also called Limited Overs Internationals (LOI), although this generic term may also refer to
Twenty20 International A Twenty20 International (T20I) is a form of cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, pitch with a w ...
matches. They are major matches and considered the highest standard of
List A List A cricket is a classification of the limited-overs (one-day) form of the sport of cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played ...
, limited-overs competition. The international one day game is a late-twentieth-century development. The first ODI was played on 5 January 1971 between Australia and England at the
Melbourne Cricket Ground The Melbourne Cricket Ground (MCG), also known locally as "The 'G", is an Australian sports stadium located in Yarra Park Yarra Park (35.469 hectares) is part of the Melbourne Sports and Entertainment Precinct, the premier sporting precin ...

Melbourne Cricket Ground
. When the first three days of the third
Test Test(s), testing, or TEST may refer to: * Test (assessment), an educational assessment intended to measure the respondents' knowledge or other abilities Arts and entertainment * Test (2013 film), ''Test'' (2013 film), an American film * Test ( ...
were washed out officials decided to abandon the match and, instead, play a one-off one day game consisting of 40 eight-ball overs per side. Australia won the game by 5 wickets. ODIs were played in white-coloured kits with a red-coloured ball. In the late 1970s,
Kerry Packer Kerry Francis Bullmore Packer (17 December 1937 – 26 December 2005) was an Australian media tycoon, and was considered one of Australia's most powerful media proprietors of the twentieth century. The Packer family The Packer family has p ...
established the rival
World Series Cricket World Series Cricket (WSC) was a commercial professional cricket Cricket is a Bat-and-ball games, bat-and-ball game played between two teams of eleven players each on a cricket field, field at the centre of which is a cricket pitch, p ...
competition, and it introduced many of the features of One Day International cricket that are now commonplace, including coloured uniforms, matches played at night under floodlights with a white ball and dark sight screens, and, for television broadcasts, multiple camera angles, effects microphones to capture sounds from the players on the pitch, and on-screen graphics. The first of the matches with coloured uniforms was the WSC Australians in wattle gold versus WSC West Indians in coral pink, played at
VFL Park Waverley Park (originally VFL Park) was an Australian rules football stadium in Mulgrave, Victoria, Australia. For most of its history, its purpose was as a neutral venue and used by all Victoria (Australia), Victorian-based Australian Football ...
in
Melbourne Melbourne ( ) is the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller ...

Melbourne
on 17 January 1979. This led not only to Packer's Channel 9 getting the TV rights to cricket in Australia but also led to players worldwide being paid to play, and becoming international professionals, no longer needing jobs outside cricket. Matches played with coloured kits and a white ball became more commonplace over time, and the use of white flannels and a red ball in ODIs ended in 2001. The
ICC ICC may refer to: Buildings * International Commerce Centre, a skyscraper in Hong Kong * International Commercial Center, a skyscraper in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia * International Convention Centre (disambiguation), any of several convention centers * ...
, international cricket's governing body, maintains the ICC ODI Rankings for teams (see table on the right)
batsmen, bowlers and all rounders
Currently, New Zealand are the top ranked ODI side.


Rules

In the main the
laws of cricket The ''Laws of Cricket'' is a code which specifies the rules of the game of cricket Cricket is a bat-and-ball gameBat-and-ball may refer to: *Bat-and-ball games Bat-and-ball games (or safe haven games) are field games played by two oppos ...
apply. However, in ODIs, each team bats for a fixed number of
over Over may refer to: Places *Over, Cambridgeshire, England *Over, Cheshire, England *Over, Gloucestershire, near Gloucester, England **Over Bridge *Over, South Gloucestershire, England *Over, Seevetal, Germany Music Albums *Over (album), ''Over' ...
s. In the early days of ODI cricket, the number of overs was generally 60 overs per side, and matches were also played with 40, 45 or 55 overs per side, but now it has been uniformly fixed at 50 overs. Simply stated, the game works as follows: *An ODI is contested by two teams of 11 players each. *The Captain of the side winning the
toss
toss
chooses to either bat or
bowl A bowl is a round dish or container typically used to prepare and serve food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional Nutrition is the biochemical Biochemistry or biological chemistry, is the study of chemical processes ...
(field) first. *The team batting first sets the target score in a single
innings An innings is one of the divisions of a cricket match during which one team takes its turn to batting (cricket), bat. Innings also means the period in which an individual player bats (acts as either striker or nonstriker). Innings, in cricket, a ...
. The innings lasts until the batting side is "all out" (i.e., 10 of the 11 batting players are "out") or all of the first side's allotted overs are completed. *Each bowler is restricted to bowling a maximum of 10 overs (fewer in the case of rain-reduced matches and in any event generally no more than one fifth or 20% of the total overs per innings). Therefore, each team must comprise at least five competent bowlers (either dedicated bowlers or all-rounders). *The team batting second tries to score more than the target score in order to win the match. Similarly, the side bowling second tries to bowl out the second team or make them exhaust their overs before they reach the target score in order to win. *If the number of runs scored by both teams is equal when the second team loses all its wickets or exhausts all its overs, then the game is declared a ''tie'' (regardless of the number of wickets lost by either team). Where a number of overs are lost, for example, due to inclement weather conditions, then the total number of overs may be reduced. In the early days of ODI cricket, the team with the better run rate won (see
Average Run Rate method The Average Run Rate (ARR) method was a mathematical formulation designed to calculate the target score for the team batting second in a limited overs cricket Limited overs cricket, also known as one-day cricket, is a version of the sport of c ...
), but this favoured the second team. For the 1992 World Cup, an alternative method was used of simply omitting the first team's worst overs (see
Most Productive Overs method The Most Productive Overs (MPO) method was a mathematical formulation designed to calculate the target score for the team batting second in a limited overs cricket match interrupted by weather or other circumstances. It was used from 1991, when it ...
), but that favoured the first team. Since the late 1990s, the target or result has usually been determined by the Duckworth-Lewis-Stern method (DLS, formerly known as the Duckworth–Lewis method), which is a method with statistical approach. It takes into consideration the fact that the wickets in hand plays a crucial role in pacing the Run rate, run-rate and that a team with more wickets in hand can play way more aggressively than the team with fewer wickets in hand. When insufficient overs are played (usually 20 overs) to apply the DLS, a match is declared no result. Important one-day matches, particularly in the latter stages of major tournaments, may have two days set aside, such that a result can be achieved on the "reserve day" if the first day is washed out—either by playing a new game, or by resuming the match which was rain-interrupted. Because the game uses a white ball instead of the red one used in first-class cricket, the ball can become discolored and hard to see as the innings progresses, so the ICC has used various rules to help keep the ball playable. Most recently, ICC has made the use of two new balls (one from each end), the same strategy that was used in the 1992 and 1996 Cricket World Cup, 1996 World Cups so that each ball is used for only 25 overs. Previously, in October 2007, the ICC sanctioned that after the 34th over, the ball would be replaced with a cleaned previously-used ball. Before October 2007 (except 1992 and 1996 World Cups), only one ball would be used during an innings of an ODI and it was up to the umpire to decide whether to change the ball.


Fielding restrictions and powerplays

The bowling side is subjected to Fielding restrictions (cricket), fielding restrictions during an ODI, in order to prevent teams from setting wholly defensive fields. Fielding restrictions dictate the maximum number of fielders allowed to be outside the thirty-yard circle. Under current ODI rules, there are three levels of fielding restrictions: * In the first 10 overs of an innings (the ''mandatory powerplay (cricket), powerplay''), the fielding team may have at most two fielders outside the 30-yard circle. * Between 11 and 40 overs four fielders will be allowed to field outside the 30-yard circle. * In the final 10 overs five fielders will be allowed to field outside the 30-yard circle.


History

Fielding restrictions were first introduced in the Australian 1980–81 season. By 1992, only two fielders were allowed outside the circle in the first fifteen overs, then five fielders allowed outside the circle for the remaining overs. This was shortened to ten overs in 2005, and two five-over powerplays were introduced, with the bowling team having discretion over the timing for both. In 2008, the batting team was given discretion for the timing of one of the two powerplays. In 2011, the teams were restricted to completing the discretionary powerplays between the 16th and 40th overs; previously, the powerplays could take place at any time between the 11th and 50th overs. Finally, in 2012, the bowling powerplay was abandoned, and the number of fielders allowed outside the 30-yard circle during non-powerplay overs was reduced from five to four.


Trial regulations

The trial regulations also introduced a substitution rule that allowed the introduction of a replacement player at any stage in the match and until he was called up to play he assumed the role of 12th man. Teams nominated their replacement player, called a ''Supersub'', before the toss. The Supersub could bat, bowl, field or keep wicket once a player was replaced; the replaced player took over the role of 12th man. Over the six months it was in operation, it became very clear that the Supersub was of far more benefit to the side that won the toss, unbalancing the game. Several international captains reached "gentleman's agreements" to discontinue this rule late in 2005. They continued to name Supersubs, as required, but they did not field them by simply using them as a normal 12th man. On 15 February 2006, the ICC announced their intention to discontinue the Supersub rule on 21 March 2006. 2 balls were trialed in ODI for 2 years but it was rejected.


Teams with ODI status

The International Cricket Council (ICC) determines which teams have ODI status (meaning that any match played between two such teams under standard one-day rules is classified as an ODI).


Permanent ODI status

The twelve Test cricket, Test-playing nations (which are also the twelve full members of the ICC) have permanent ODI status. The nations are listed below with the date of each nation's ODI debut after gaining full ODI status shown in brackets (Sri Lanka, Zimbabwe, Bangladesh, Ireland, and Afghanistan were ICC associate members at the times of their ODI debuts): # (English cricket team in Australia in 1970–71#First One Day International - Melbourne, 5 January 1971) # (English cricket team in Australia in 1970–71#First One Day International - Melbourne, 5 January 1971) # (Pakistani cricket team in New Zealand in 1972–73#ODI match, 11 February 1973) # (Pakistani cricket team in New Zealand in 1972–73#ODI match, 11 February 1973) # (West Indian cricket team in England in 1973#One-Day Internationals, 5 September 1973) # (Indian cricket team in England in 1974#ODI matches, 13 July 1974) # (English cricket team in Sri Lanka in 1981–82#First ODI, 13 February 1982) # (South African cricket team in India in 1991–92#1st ODI, 10 November 1991) # (Indian cricket team in Zimbabwe in 1992–93#Only ODI, 25 October 1992) # (President's Cup 1997-98, 10 October 1997) # (Irish cricket team against Afghanistan in the UAE in 2017–18#1st ODI, 5 December 2017) # (Irish cricket team against Afghanistan in the UAE in 2017–18#1st ODI, 5 December 2017)


Temporary ODI status

Between 2005 and 2017 the ICC granted temporary ODI status to six other teams (known as List of International Cricket Council members#Associate Members with ODI status, Associate members). In 2017 this was changed to four teams, following the promotion of Afghanistan national cricket team, Afghanistan and Ireland cricket team, Ireland to Test status (and permanent ODI status). The ICC had previously decided to limit ODI status to 16 teams. Teams earn this temporary status for a period of four years based on their performance in the ICC World Cup Qualifier, which is the final event of the ICC World Cricket League. In 2019, ICC increased the number of teams holding Temporary ODI status to eight. The following eight teams currently have this status (the dates listed in brackets are of their first ODI match after gaining temporary ODI status): * (from International cricket in 2006#Pakistan in Scotland, 27 June 2006, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier) * (from 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier#Final, 1 February 2014, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier) * (from Nepalese cricket team in the Netherlands in 2018, 1 August 2018, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier) * (from Nepalese cricket team in the Netherlands in 2018, 1 August 2018, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier) * (from 2019 ICC World Cricket League Division Two#Playoffs, 27 April 2019, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier) * (from 2019 ICC World Cricket League Division Two#Playoffs, 27 April 2019, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier) * (from 2019 ICC World Cricket League Division Two#Playoffs, 27 April 2019, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier) * (from 2019 ICC World Cricket League Division Two#Playoffs, 27 April 2019, until the 2023 Cricket World Cup Qualifier) Additionally, eight teams have previously held this temporary ODI status before either being promoted to Test Status or relegated after under-performing at the World Cup Qualifier: * (from President's Cup 1997–98, 10 October 1997, until 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier#Super Six, 30 January 2014) * (from International cricket in 2006#Triangular Series (Bermuda, Canada, Zimbabwe), 16 May 2006, until 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier#Playoffs, 28 January 2014) * (from International cricket in 2006#Triangular Series (Bermuda, Canada, Zimbabwe), 17 May 2006, until 2009 Cricket World Cup Qualifier, 8 April 2009) * (from English cricket team in Ireland in 2006, 13 June 2006, until 2017_Ireland_Tri-Nation_Series#5th_ODI, 21 May 2017) * (from International cricket in 2006#Sri Lanka in the Netherlands, 4 July 2006, until 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier#Playoffs, 28 January 2014) * (from 2009 Cricket World Cup Qualifier, 19 April 2009, until Afghan cricket team in the West Indies in 2017#3rd ODI, 14 June 2017) * (from 2014 ACC Premier League#Matches, 1 May 2014, until 2018 Cricket World Cup Qualifier#Playoffs, 17 March 2018) * (from Hong Kong cricket team against Papua New Guinea in Australia in 2014–15, 8 November 2014, until 2018 Cricket World Cup Qualifier#Playoffs, 17 March 2018) The ICC occasionally granted associate members permanent ODI status without granting them full membership and Test status. This was originally introduced to allow the best associate members to gain regular experience in internationals before making the step up to full membership. First Bangladesh and then Kenya received this status. Bangladesh have since made the step up to Test status and full membership; but as a result of disputes and poor performances, Kenya's ODI status was reduced to temporary in 2005, meaning that it had to perform well at World Cup Qualifiers to keep ODI status. Kenya lost ODI status after finishing in fifth place at the 2014 Cricket World Cup Qualifier event.


Special ODI status

The ICC can also grant special ODI status to all matches within certain high-profile tournaments, with the result being that the following countries have also participated in full ODIs, with some later gaining temporary or permanent ODI status also fitting into this category: * (1975 Cricket World Cup, 1975 World Cup) * (1975 Cricket World Cup, 1975 World Cup, 1979 Cricket World Cup, 1979 World Cup) * (1979 Cricket World Cup, 1979 World Cup, 2003 Cricket World Cup, 2003 World Cup) * (1983 Cricket World Cup, 1983 World Cup, 1987 Cricket World Cup, 1987 World Cup, 1992 World Cup) * (1986 Asia Cup, 1988 Asia Cup, Austral-Asia Cup#Second edition 1990, 1990 Austral-Asia Cup, 1990–91 Asia Cup, 1990 Asia Cup, 1995 Asia Cup, 1997 Asia Cup) * (Austral-Asia Cup#Third edition 1994, 1994 Austral-Asia Cup, 1996 Cricket World Cup, 1996 World Cup, 2004 Asia Cup and 2008 Asia Cup) * (1996 Cricket World Cup, 1996 World Cup, Sameer Cup 1996–97, 1996 Sameer Cup) * (1996 Cricket World Cup, 1996 World Cup, 2002 ICC Champions Trophy and 2003 Cricket World Cup, 2003 World Cup) * (1999 Cricket World Cup, 1999 World Cup) * (2003 Cricket World Cup, 2003 World Cup) * (2004 Asia Cup, 2008 Asia Cup and 2018 Asia Cup) * (2004 ICC Champions Trophy) Finally, since 2005, three composite teams have played matches with full ODI status. These matches were: *The World Cricket Tsunami Appeal, a once-off match between the List of Asian XI ODI cricketers, Asian Cricket Council XI vs World XI (cricket), ICC World XI in the 2004/05 season. *The Afro-Asia Cup, two three-ODI series played in 2005 Afro-Asia Cup, 2005 and 2007 Afro-Asia Cup between the Asian Cricket Council XI and the List of African XI ODI cricketers, African XI. *The ICC Super Series, a three-ODI series played between the ICC World XI and the then-top-ranked Australian cricket team in the 2005/06 season.


One Day records


See also

*ICC Test Championship *ICC ODI Championship *ICC T20I Championship *Limited overs cricket *List of One Day International cricket records, One Day International records *One Day International cricket hat-tricks, One Day International hat-tricks *List of batsmen who have scored over 10000 One Day International cricket runs *List of One Day International cricket umpires


References


External links


NatWest International One Day SeriesInternational Cricket Rules and Regulations
at the
ICC ICC may refer to: Buildings * International Commerce Centre, a skyscraper in Hong Kong * International Commercial Center, a skyscraper in Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia * International Convention Centre (disambiguation), any of several convention centers * ...
website
ICC Chief Executives' Committee approves introduction of ODI innovations
by Jon Long, ''ICC website'', 25 June 2005, retrieved 25 November 2005

by Cricinfo staff, ''Cricinfo'', 30 June 2005, retrieved 25 November 2005

by Cricinfo staff, ''Cricinfo'', 8 July 2005, retrieved 26 November 2005. {{Melbourne events One Day International cricket Sports originating in Australia Games and sports introduced in 1971