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Omnipotence is the quality of having unlimited power and potential. [[Monotheism">Monotheistic [[religions generally attribute omnipotence only to the [[deity of their faith. In the monotheistic [[religious philosophy|philosophies of [[Abrahamic religions, omnipotence is often listed as one of a deity's characteristics among many, including omniscience
, and omnibenevolence
. The presence of all these properties in a single entity has given rise to considerable theological
debate, prominently including the problem of theodicy
, the question of why such a deity would permit the manifestation of evil. It is accepted in philosophy
that omnipotence can never be effectively understood.
The word ''omnipotence'' derives from the Latin prefix ''omni''-, meaning "all", and the word ''potens'', meaning "potent" or "powerful". Thus the term means "all-powerful".
The term omnipotent has been used to connote a number of different positions. These positions include, but are not limited to, the following:
# A deity is able to do anything that it chooses to do. (In this version, God can do the impossible and something contradictory.)
# A deity is able to do anything that is in accord with its own nature (thus, for instance, if it is a logical consequence
of a deity's nature that what it speaks is truth, then it is not able to lie
# It is part of a deity's nature to be consistent and that it would be inconsistent for said deity to go against its own laws unless there was a reason to do so.
[This is a consistent theme of Polkinghorne's work, see e.g. Polkinghorne's ''Science and Religion''.]
acknowledged difficulty in comprehending the deity's power: "All confess that God is omnipotent; but it seems difficult to explain in what His omnipotence precisely consists: for there may be doubt as to the precise meaning of the word 'all' when we say that God can do all things. If, however, we consider the matter aright, since power is said in reference to possible things, this phrase, 'God can do all things,' is rightly understood to mean that God can do all things that are possible; and for this reason He is said to be omnipotent."
[Thomas Aquinas, ''Summa Theologiae'', 1a, Q. 25, A. 3, Respondeo; quoted fro]
The Summa Theologica of St. Thomas Aquinas, Second and Revised Edition, 1920, translated by the Fathers of the English Dominican Province, at ''New Advent'', copyright 2008 by Kevin Knight
In the scholastic understanding, omnipotence is generally understood to be compatible with certain limitations or restrictions. A proposition that is necessarily true
is one whose negation is self-contradictory.
Aquinas explains that:
Omnipotence is all-sufficient power. The adaptation of means to ends in the universe does not argue, as J. S. Mill would have it, that the power of the designer is limited, but only that God has willed to manifest his glory by a world so constituted rather than by another. Indeed, the production of secondary causes, capable of accomplishing certain effects, requires greater power than the direct accomplishment of these same effects. On the other hand, even though no creature existed, God's power would not be barren, for "creatures are not an end to God." Regarding the Deity's power, medieval theologians contended that there are certain things that even an omnipotent deity cannot do. The statement "a deity can do anything" is only sensible with an assumed suppressed clause, "that implies the perfection of true power". This standard scholastic answer allows that acts of creatures such as walking can be performed by humans but not by a deity. Rather than an advantage in power, human acts such as walking, sitting, or giving birth were possible only because of a ''defect'' in human power. The capacity to sin
, for example, is not a power but a defect or infirmity. In response to questions of a deity performing impossibilities, e.g. making square circles, Aquinas says that "everything that does not imply a contradiction in terms, is numbered amongst those possible things, in respect of which God is called omnipotent: whereas whatever implies contradiction does not come within the scope of divine omnipotence, because it cannot have the aspect of possibility. Hence it is better to say that such things cannot be done, than that God cannot do them. Nor is this contrary to the word of the angel, saying: 'No word shall be impossible with God.' For whatever implies a contradiction cannot be a word, because no intellect can possibly conceive such a thing."
In recent times, C. S. Lewis
has adopted a scholastic position in the course of his work ''The Problem of Pain
''. Lewis follows Aquinas' view on contradiction:
ianism saw a feeling of omnipotence as intrinsic to early childhood. 'As Freud and Ferenczi
have shown, the child lives in a sort of megalomania
for a long period...the "fiction of omnipotence"'. At birth 'the baby ''is'' everything ''as far as he knows'' - "all powerful"...every step he takes towards establishing his own limits and boundaries will be painful because he'll have to lose this original God-like feeling of omnipotence'.
Freud considered that in a neurotic 'the ''omnipotence'' which he ascribed to his thoughts and feelings...is a frank acknowledgement of a relic of the old megalomania of infancy'. In some narcissists
, the 'period of primary narcissism
which subjectively did not need any objects and was entirely independent...may be retained or regressively regained..."omnipotent" behavior'.
D. W. Winnicott
took a more positive view of a belief in early omnipotence, seeing it as essential to the child's well-being; and "good-enough" mothering as essential to enable the child to 'cope with the immense shock of loss of omnipotence' - as opposed to whatever 'prematurely forces it out of its narcissistic universe'.
Rejection or limitation
Some monotheists reject the view that a deity is or could be omnipotent, or take the view that, by choosing to create creatures with freewill, a deity has chosen to limit divine omnipotence. In Conservative
and Reform Judaism
, and some movements within Protestant Christianity
, including open theism
, deities are said to act in the world through persuasion, and not by coercion (this is a matter of choice—a deity could act miraculously, and perhaps on occasion does so—while for process theism it is a matter of necessity—creatures have inherent powers that a deity cannot, even in principle, override). Deities are manifested in the world through inspiration and the creation of possibility, not necessarily by miracle
s or violations of the laws of nature.
The rejection of omnipotence often follows from either philosophical or scriptural considerations, discussed below.
Process theology rejects unlimited omnipotence on a philosophical basis, arguing that omnipotence as classically understood would be less than perfect, and is therefore incompatible with the idea of a perfect deity. The idea is grounded in Plato's oft-overlooked statement that "being is power."
From this premise, Charles Hartshorne
argues further that:
The argument can be stated as follows:
:1) If a being exists, then it must have some active tendency.
:2) If a being has some active tendency, then it has some power to resist its creator.
:3) If a being has the power to resist its creator, then the creator does not have absolute power.
For example, though someone might control a lump of jelly-pudding almost completely, the inability of that pudding to stage any resistance renders that person's power rather unimpressive. Power can only be said to be great if it is over something that has defenses and its own agenda. If a deity's power is to be great, it must therefore be over beings that have at least some of their own defenses and agenda. Thus, if a deity does not have absolute power, it must therefore embody some of the characteristics of power, and some of the characteristics of persuasion. This view is known as dipolar theism
The most popular works espousing this point are from Harold Kushner
(in Judaism). The need for a modified view of omnipotence was also articulated by Alfred North Whitehead
in the early 20th century and expanded upon by the aforementioned philosopher Charles Hartshorne. Hartshorne proceeded within the context of the theological system known as process theology.
In the Authorized King James Version
of the Bible
, as well as several other versions, in Revelation
19:6 it is stated "...the Lord God omnipotent reigneth" (the original Greek word is παντοκράτωρ, "all-mighty").
Uncertainty and other views
All the above stated claims of power are each based on scriptural grounds and upon empirical
human perception. This perception is limited to our senses
. The power of a deity is related to its existence. There are however other ways of perception like: reason
, divine inspiration
, religious experience
, mystical states
, and historical testimony.
According to the Hindu philosophy the essence of God or Brahman
can never be understood or known since Brahman is beyond both existence and non-existence, transcending and including time, causation and space, and thus can never be known in the same material sense as one traditionally 'understands' a given concept or object.
[''brahmano hi pratisthaham'', Bhagavad Gita 14.27]
So presuming there is a god-like entity consciently taking actions, we cannot comprehend the limits of a deity's powers.
[Since this article deals on the all power of a deity, it would be logic to assign deities to both sexes. Since having only one sex would make a deity less powerful and thus no longer all-powerful. This article is also not (only) on omnipotence of the biblical God, there are other monotheistic religions who consider their God having both sexes (Shaktism, Shaivism, Vaishnavism). These aspects are not meant literally, but are aspects of divinity to illustrate a duality just as the Tao in Taoism consists of yin and yang.
Also an anthropocentric perspective seems at odds with many philosophers, such as Plato, Aristotle, Spinoza, Leibniz, etc.]
Since the current laws of physics are only known to be valid in this universe, it is possible that the laws of physics are different in parallel universes, giving a God-like entity more power. If the number of universes is unlimited, then the power of a certain God-like entity is also unlimited, since the laws of physics may be different in other universes, and accordingly
making this entity omnipotent. Unfortunately concerning a multiverse there is a lack of empirical correlation. To the extreme there are theories about realms beyond this multiverse
Also trying to develop a theory to explain, assign or reject omnipotence on grounds of logic has little merit, since being omnipotent, in a Cartesian sense, would mean the omnipotent being is above logic, a view supported by René Descartes
He issues this idea in his ''Meditations on First Philosophy
''. This view is called universal possibilism.
Allowing assumption that a deity exists, further debate may be provoked that said deity is consciously taking actions. It could be concluded from an emanationism
point of view, that all actions and creations by a deity are simply flows of divine energy (the flowing Tao
in conjunction with qi
is often seen as a river;
[Tao Te Ching Chapter LXI Verse 14] Dharma (Buddhism)
Comments on the Tao Te Ching
the law of nature discovered by Buddha
has no beginning or end.)
see the universe/multiverse itself as God (or, at least, the current state of God), while panentheism
sees the universe/multiverse as 'the body of God', making 'God' everybody and everything. So if one does something, actually 'God' is doing it. We are 'God's' means according to this view.
In the Taoist
religious or philosophical tradition, the Tao is in some ways equivalent to a deity or the logos
. The Tao is understood to have inexhaustible power.
* Criminals from a sense of guilt
* Problem of evil
* Omnipotence paradox
*Augustine''City of God and Christian Doctrine''
*C.S. Lewis''The Problem of Pain''
*Charles Hartshorne''Man's Vision of God''
''Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy'' entryStanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy entryLogical Truth and OmnipotenceOmnipotence and Free Will in Judaism
Category:Philosophy of religion
Category:Attributes of God in Christian theology
Category:Superlatives in religion