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The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (
Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent period in the history of the German language German (: , ) is a mainly spoken in . It is the most widely spoken and or co-official language in , , , , and the province of . It ...

Modern German
: ; historically , after the
Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity in 16th-century Europe that posed a religious and political challenge to the Catholic Church and in ...
also , "Confederation of the
Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial ...
") was a loose
confederation A confederation (also known as a confederacy or league) is a union of sovereign groups or states united for purposes of common action. Usually created by a treaty, confederations of states tend to be established for dealing with critical issu ...
of independent small states (, German or In the charters of the 14th century described as "communities" (, ), the German term ''Orte'' becomes common in the early 15th century, used alongside "estate" after the Reformation. The French term is used in Fribourg in 1475, and after 1490 is increasingly used in French and Italian documents. It only enters occasional German usage after 1648, and only gains official status as synonym of with the
Act of Mediation The Act of Mediation () was issued by Napoleon Bonaparte Napoléon Bonaparte (15 August 1769 – 5 May 1821) was a French military and political leader. He rose to prominence during the French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) ...
of 1803.
) initially within the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
. It is the precursor of the modern state of
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...

Switzerland
. It formed during the 14th century, from a
nucleus ''Nucleus'' (plural nuclei) is a Latin word for the seed inside a fruit. It most often refers to: *Atomic nucleus, the very dense central region of an atom *Cell nucleus, a central organelle of a eukaryotic cell, containing most of the cell's DNA ...
in what is now
Central Switzerland Central Switzerland is the region of the Swiss plateau, Alpine foothills geographically the heart and historically the origin of Switzerland, with the cantons of Canton of Uri, Uri, Canton of Schwyz, Schwyz, Obwalden, Nidwalden, Canton of Lucerne, L ...

Central Switzerland
, expanding to include the cities of
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...

Zürich
and
Berne german: Berner(in)french: Bernois(e) it, bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern, Frauenkappelen, Ittigen, Kirchlindach, Köniz, Mühleberg, Muri bei Bern, Neuenegg, Ostermundigen, Wohlen bei Bern, Zollikofen , website ...

Berne
by the middle of the century. This formed a rare union of rural and urban
communes A commune is an intentional community of people sharing living spaces, interests, values, beliefs, and often property, possessions, and resources in common. In some communes, the people also share common Employment, work, income, or assets. ...
, all of which enjoyed
imperial immediacy Imperial immediacy (german: Reichsfreiheit or ') was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial state, Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Free imperial city, Imperial cities, ...
in the Holy Roman Empire. This confederation of eight cantons () was politically and militarily successful for more than a century, culminating in the Burgundy Wars of the 1470s which established it as a power in the complicated political landscape dominated by
France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a List of transcontinental countries, transcontinental country spanning Western Europe and Overseas France, overseas regions and territories in the Ame ...
and the
Habsburgs The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburgs
. Its success resulted in the addition of more confederates, increasing the number of cantons to thirteen () by 1513. The confederacy pledged neutrality in 1647 (under the threat of the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
), although many Swiss served privately as
mercenaries A mercenary, sometimes known as a soldier of fortune, is a private individual, particularly a soldier, who takes part in military conflict War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and ...
in the
Italian Wars The Italian Wars, often referred to as the Great Wars of Italy and sometimes as the Habsburg–Valois Wars, were a long series of wars fought between 1494 and 1559 in Italy during the Renaissance. The Italian peninsula, economically advanced bu ...
and during the
Early Modern The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of 's past. It is understood through , , , and , and since the , from and s. Humanity's written history was preceded by its , beginning with ...
period. After the
Swabian War The Swabian War of 1499 ( gsw, Schwoobechrieg (spelling depending on dialect), called or ("Swiss War") in Germany and ("War of the Engadin") in Austria) was the last major armed conflict between the Old Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsb ...
of 1499 the confederacy was a ''de facto'' independent state throughout the
early modern period The early modern period of modern history Human history, or world history, is the narrative of Human, humanity's past. It is understood through archaeology, anthropology, genetics, and linguistics, and since the History of writing, adve ...
, although still nominally part of the Holy Roman Empire until 1648 when the
Treaty of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
ended the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
. The Swiss Reformation divided the confederates into Reformed and Catholic parties, resulting in internal conflict from the 16th to the 18th centuries; as a result, the federal diet () was often paralysed by hostility between the factions. The Swiss Confederacy fell to invasion by the
French Revolutionary Army The French Revolutionary Army (french: Armée révolutionnaire française) was the French force that fought the French Revolutionary Wars from 1792 to 1802. These armies were characterised by their revolutionary fervour, their poor equipment and t ...
in 1798, after which it became the short-lived
Helvetic Republic In Swiss history, the Helvetic Republic (1798–1803) represented an early attempt to impose a central authority over Switzerland ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = ...
.


Name

The adjective "old" was introduced after the
Napoleonic era The Napoleonic era is a period in the and . It is generally classified as including the fourth and final stage of the , the first being the , the second being the , and the third being the . The Napoleonic era begins roughly with 's ...
with ,
retronym A retronym is a newer name for an existing thing that differentiates the original form/version from a more recent one. It is thus a word or phrase created to avoid confusion between two types, whereas previously (before there were more than one typ ...
s distinguishing the pre-Napoleonic from the
restored ''Restored'' is Jeremy Camp's fourth album, released on November 16, 2004. Track listing Standard release Enhanced edition Deluxe gold edition Standard Australian release Personnel * Jeremy Camp – lead and backing vocals, acoustic gui ...
confederation. During its existence the confederacy was known as or ("oath fellowship"), in reference to treaties among cantons; this term was first used in the 1370 . Territories of the confederacy came to be known collectively as ''Schweiz'' or ''Schweizerland'' (''Schwytzerland'' in contemporary spelling), with the English ''
Switzerland , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federalism, Federal semi-direct democracy under an assembly-independent Directorial system, directorial republic , leader_title1 = Fe ...
'' beginning during the mid-16th century. From that time the Confederacy was seen as a single state, also known as the Swiss Republic (, and by
Josias Simmler Josias Simmler (Josiah Simler; la, Iosias Simlerus) (6 November 1530 – 2 July 1576) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Sw ...

Josias Simmler
in 1576) after the fashion of calling individual urban cantons
republics A republic ( la, res publica ''Res publica'' (also spelt as ''rēs pūblica'' to indicate vowel length In linguistics, vowel length is the perceived length of a vowel sound: the corresponding physical measurement is length (phonetics), du ...
(such as the Republics of
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...
,
Berne german: Berner(in)french: Bernois(e) it, bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern, Frauenkappelen, Ittigen, Kirchlindach, Köniz, Mühleberg, Muri bei Bern, Neuenegg, Ostermundigen, Wohlen bei Bern, Zollikofen , website ...
and
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...
).


History


Foundation

The nucleus of the Old Swiss Confederacy was an alliance among the valley communities of the
central Alps The Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest and most extensive mountain range A mountain range is a series of mountains ranged in a line and connected by high ground. A mountain system or moun ...

central Alps
to facilitate management of common interests (such as trade) and ensure peace along trade routes through the mountains. The foundation of the Confederacy is marked by the
Rütlischwur The Rütlischwur () is the legendary oath taken at the foundation of the Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern German New High German (NHG) is the term used for the most recent p ...
(dated to 1307 by
Aegidius Tschudi Aegidius (or Giles or Glig) Tschudi (5 February 150528 February 1572) was a Swiss Swiss may refer to: * the adjectival form of Switzerland *Swiss people Places *Swiss, Missouri *Swiss, North Carolina *Swiss, West Virginia *Swiss, Wisconsin Oth ...
) or the 1315
Pact of BrunnenThe Pact of Brunnen (''Bund von Brunnen'') is a historical treaty between the cantons of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden Unterwalden ( Latinized as ''Sylvania'', later also ''Subsylvania'' as opposed to ''Supersylvania'') is the old name of a forest- ...
. Since 1889, the
Federal Charter of 1291 The Federal Charter or Letter of Alliance (german: Bundesbrief) is one of the earliest constitutional documents of Switzerland. A treaty of alliance from 1291 between the cantons of Uri A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique sequenc ...
among the rural communes of
Uri A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique sequence of characters that identifies a logical or physical resource used by web technologies. URIs may be used to identify anything, including real-world objects, such as people and places, concep ...
,
Schwyz The town of Schwyz (; french: Schwytz; it, Svitto) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. The Federal Charter of 1291 or ''Bundesbrief'', the charter that eventually led to the foundation of Switzerland, can be seen at the '' ...
, and
Unterwalden Unterwalden ( Latinized as ''Sylvania'', later also ''Subsylvania'' as opposed to ''Supersylvania'') is the old name of a forest-canton of the Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern G ...

Unterwalden
has been considered the founding document of the confederacy.Schwabe & Co.: ''Geschichte der Schweiz und der Schweizer'', Schwabe & Co 1986/2004.


Expansion

The initial pact was augmented by pacts with the cities of
Lucerne , neighboring_municipalities= Adligenswil Adligenswil is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by na ...

Lucerne
,
Zürich Zürich () is the in and the capital of the . It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of . As of January 2020, the municipality has 434,335 inhabitants, the urban area (agglomeration) 1.315 million (2009), and the 1. ...

Zürich
, and
Berne german: Berner(in)french: Bernois(e) it, bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern, Frauenkappelen, Ittigen, Kirchlindach, Köniz, Mühleberg, Muri bei Bern, Neuenegg, Ostermundigen, Wohlen bei Bern, Zollikofen , website ...

Berne
. This union of rural and urban communes, which enjoyed the status of
imperial immediacy Imperial immediacy (german: Reichsfreiheit or ') was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial state, Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Free imperial city, Imperial cities, ...
within the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
, was engendered by pressure from
Habsburg The House of Habsburg (), alternatively spelled Hapsburg in English (german: Haus Habsburg ; es, Casa de Habsburgo ; hu, Habsburg-család), also known as the House of Austria (german: link=no, Haus Österreich; es, link=no, Casa de Austria), ...

Habsburg
dukes and kings who had ruled much of the land. In several battles with Habsburg armies, the Swiss were victorious; they conquered the rural areas of
Glarus , neighboring_municipalities= Glarus Nord Glarus Nord is one of three Municipalities of Switzerland, municipalities of the canton of Glarus, Switzerland (the others being Glarus and Glarus Süd). Effective from 1 January 2011, Glarus Nord inc ...

Glarus
and
Zug Zug (german: Zug, ; french: Zoug; it, Zugo; rm, Zug; New Latin: ''Tugium'')named in the 16th century is the largest List of cities in Switzerland, town and capital of the Swiss canton of Zug in Switzerland. Its name originates from the fishing vo ...

Zug
, which became members of the confederacy. From 1353 to 1481, the federation of eight
cantons A canton is a type of administrative division of a country. In general, cantons are relatively small in terms of area and population when compared with other administrative divisions such as county, counties, Department (administrative division), ...
—known in German as the ''Acht Orte'' (Eight Cantons)—consolidated its position. The members (especially the cities) enlarged their territory at the expense of local counts—primarily by buying judicial rights, but sometimes by force. The ''Eidgenossenschaft'', as a whole, expanded through military conquest: the
Aargau Aargau (german: Kanton Aargau, links=no ; sometimes Latinized as ; see also other names Other most often refers to: * Other (philosophy), a concept in psychology and philosophy Other or The Other may also refer to: Books * The Other (Tryon no ...

Aargau
was conquered in 1415 and the
Thurgau Thurgau (; french: Thurgovie; it, Turgovia), anglicized as Thurgovia, more formally the Canton of Thurgau, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of five districts and its capit ...

Thurgau
in 1460. In both cases, the Swiss profited from weakness in the Habsburg dukes. In the south, Uri led a military territorial expansion that (after many setbacks) would by 1515 lead to the conquest of the
Ticino Ticino (), sometimes Tessin (), officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,, informally ''Canton Ticino'' ; lmo, Canton Tesin ; german: Kanton Tessin ; french: canton du Tessin ; rm, chantun dal Tessin . ...
. None of these territories became members of the confederacy; they had the status of condominiums (regions administered by several cantons). At this time, the eight cantons gradually increased their influence on neighbouring cities and regions through additional alliances. Individual cantons concluded pacts with
Fribourg , Location of , Location of () (; frp, Fribôrg or ) or (also called ''Freiburg im Üechtland'' ( gsw, label=Swiss German, Frybùrg ; it, Friburgo or ; rm, Friburg) (not to be confused with Freiburg im Breisgau) is the capital of the Cant ...

Fribourg
,
Appenzell Appenzell is a historic cantons of Switzerland, canton in the northeast of Switzerland, and entirely surrounded by the canton of St. Gallen. Appenzell became independent of the Abbey of Saint Gall in 1403 and entered a league with the Old Swiss ...

Appenzell
,
Schaffhausen Schaffhausen (; gsw, Schafuuse; french: Schaffhouse; it, Sciaffusa; rm, Schaffusa; en, Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division ...

Schaffhausen
, the abbot and the city of
St. Gallen , neighboring_municipalities = Eggersriet Eggersriet is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the ''Wahlkreis'' (constituency) of St. Gallen (Wahlkreis), St. Gallen in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of St. Gallen (canton), St. Ga ...
,
Biel , french: Biennois(e) , neighboring_municipalities= Brügg, Ipsach Ipsach is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Biel/Bienne (administrative district), Biel/Bienne administrative district in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton ...

Biel
,
Rottweil Rottweil () is a Town#Germany, town in southwest Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Rottweil was a free imperial city for nearly 600 years. Located between the Black Forest and the Swabian Jura, Swabian Alps, Rottweil has nearly 25,000 ...
, Mulhouse and others. These allies (known as the ''Zugewandte Orte'') became closely associated with the confederacy, but were not accepted as full members. The Burgundy Wars prompted a further enlargement of the confederacy; Fribourg and
Solothurn Solothurn ( , ; french: Soleure ; it, Soletta ; rm, ) is a List of towns in Switzerland, town, a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality, and the Capital (political), capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located in the ...

Solothurn
were accepted in 1481. In the
Swabian War The Swabian War of 1499 ( gsw, Schwoobechrieg (spelling depending on dialect), called or ("Swiss War") in Germany and ("War of the Engadin") in Austria) was the last major armed conflict between the Old Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsb ...
against Holy Roman Emperor
Maximilian IMaximilian I may refer to: *Maximilian I, Holy Roman Emperor, reigned 1486/93–1519 *Maximilian I, Elector of Bavaria, reigned 1597–1651 *Maximilian I, Prince of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen (1636-1689) *Maximilian I Joseph of Bavaria, reigned 1795– ...

Maximilian I
, the Swiss were victorious and exempted from imperial legislation. The associated cities of
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...
and
Schaffhausen Schaffhausen (; gsw, Schafuuse; french: Schaffhouse; it, Sciaffusa; rm, Schaffusa; en, Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division ...
joined the confederacy as a result of that conflict, and Appenzell followed suit in 1513 as the thirteenth member. The federation of thirteen cantons (''Dreizehn Orte'') constituted the Old Swiss Confederacy until its demise in 1798. The expansion of the confederacy was stopped by the Swiss defeat in the 1515
Battle of Marignano The Battle of Marignano was the last major engagement of the War of the League of Cambrai and took place on 13–14 September 1515, near the town now called Melegnano, 16 km southeast of Milan. It pitted the French army, composed of the bes ...
. Only Berne and Fribourg were still able to conquer the
Vaud Vaud ( ; french: (Canton de) Vaud, ; german: (Kanton) Waadt, or ), more formally the canton of Vaud, is one of the forming the . It is composed of ten districts and its capital city is . Its flag bears the motto "Liberté et patrie" on a white ...
in 1536; the latter primarily became part of the
canton of Berne The canton of Bern or Berne (german: Kanton Bern; french: canton de Berne) is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation , french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Federal ...
, with a small portion under the jurisdiction of Fribourg.


Reformation

The
Reformation in Switzerland Map of the Swiss Confederacy by Sebastian Münster () The Protestant Reformation in Switzerland was promoted initially by Huldrych Zwingli Huldrych Zwingli or Ulrich Zwingli (1 January 1484 – 11 October 1531) was a leader of the Refo ...
led to doctrinal division amongst the cantons. Zürich, Berne, Basel, Schaffhausen and associates Biel, Mulhouse, Neuchâtel, Geneva and the city of St. Gallen became
Protestant Protestantism is a form of that originated with the 16th-century , a movement against what its followers perceived to be in the . Protestants originating in the Reformation reject the Roman Catholic doctrine of , but disagree among themselves ...
; other members of the confederation and the
Valais Valais (in French language, French) ( , , ; frp, Valês), or Wallis (in German language, German) (german: Wallis ), more formally the Canton of Valais,; german: Kanton Wallis; in other official Swiss languages outside Valais: it, (Canton) Valle ...

Valais
remained
Catholic The Catholic Church, also known as the Roman Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with 1.3 billion baptised Baptism (from the Greek language, Greek noun βάπτισμα ''báptisma'') is a Christians, Christian ...

Catholic
. In Glarus, Appenzell, in the
Grisons The Grisons or Graubünden, *german: (Kanton) Graubünden, Swiss Standard German Swiss Standard German (german: Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (german: Schweizer Hochdeutsch or ''Schweizerhochdeutsch''), referred to by the S ...
and in most condominiums both religions coexisted; Appenzell split in 1597 into a Catholic
Appenzell Inner Rhodes Appenzell Innerrhoden (; in English sometimes Appenzell Inner-Rhodes) is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation ,german: Schweizer(in),french: Suisse(sse), it, svizzero/svizzera or , rm, Svizzer/Svizra , government_type = Fe ...
and a Protestant
Appenzell Outer Rhodes Appenzell Ausserrhoden (; in English sometimes Appenzell Outer Rhodes) is one of the 26 cantons forming the Swiss Confederation. It is composed of twenty municipalities. The seat of the government and parliament is Herisau, and the seat of judic ...
. The division led to civil war (the
Wars of KappelThe wars of Kappel (''Kappelerkriege'') is a collective term for two armed conflicts fought near Kappel am Albis Kappel am Albis is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corpora ...
) and separate alliances with foreign powers by the Catholic and Protestant factions, but the confederacy as a whole continued to exist. A common foreign policy was blocked, however, by the impasse. During the
Thirty Years' War The Thirty Years' War was a conflict fought largely within the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Weste ...
, religious disagreements among the cantons kept the confederacy neutral and spared it from belligerents. At the
Peace of Westphalia The Peace of Westphalia (german: Westfälischer Friede, ) is the collective name for two peace treaties signed in October 1648 in the Westphalian cities of Osnabrück Osnabrück (; wep, Ossenbrügge; archaic ''Osnaburg'') is a city in the ...
, the Swiss delegation was granted formal recognition of the confederacy as a state independent of the Holy Roman Empire.


Early modern period

Growing social differences and an increasing absolutism in the city cantons during the Ancien Régime led to local popular revolts. An uprising during the post-war depression after the Thirty Years' War escalated to the
Swiss peasant war of 1653 The Swiss peasant war of 1653 was a Popular revolt in late medieval Europe, popular revolt in the Old Swiss Confederacy at the time of the Early Modern Switzerland, Ancien Régime. A devaluation of Bernese money caused a tax revolt that spread fr ...
in Lucerne, Berne, Basel, Solothurn and the Aargau. The revolt was put down swiftly by force and with the help of many cantons. Religious differences were accentuated by a growing economic discrepancy. The Catholic, predominantly rural central-Swiss cantons were surrounded by Protestant cantons with increasingly commercial economies. The politically dominant cantons were Zürich and Berne (both Protestant), but the Catholic cantons were influential since the Second War of Kappel in 1531. A 1655 attempt (led by Zürich) to restructure the federation was blocked by Catholic opposition, which led to the first battle of Villmergen in 1656; the Catholic party won, cementing the ''status quo''. The problems remained unsolved, erupting again in 1712 with the second battle of Villmergen. This time the Protestant cantons won, dominating the confederation. True reform, however, was impossible; the individual interests of the thirteen members were too diverse, and the absolutist cantonal governments resisted all attempts at confederation-wide administration. Foreign policy remained fragmented.


Structure

The ''(Alte) Eidgenossenschaft'' was initially united not by a single pact, but by overlapping pacts and bilateral treaties between members. The parties generally agreed to preserve the peace, aid in military endeavours and arbitrate disputes. Slowly, the members began to see the confederation as a unifying entity. In the ''Pfaffenbrief'', a treaty of 1370 among six of the eight members (Glarus and Berne did not participate) forbidding
feud A feud , referred to in more extreme cases as a blood feud, vendetta, faida, clan war, gang war, or private war, is a long-running argument or fight, often between social groups of people, especially family, families or clans. Feuds begin because ...
s and denying clerical courts jurisdiction over the confederacy, the cantons for the first time used the term ''Eidgenossenschaft''. The first treaty uniting the eight members of the confederacy was the '' Sempacherbrief'' of 1393, concluded after victories over the Habsburgs at
Sempach Sempach is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the district of Sursee (Amt), Sursee in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Lucerne (canton), Lucerne in Switzerland. History It has retained some traces of its medieval appearance, ...
in 1386 and
Näfels Näfels is a former Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Glarus (canton), Glarus in Switzerland. Effective from 1 January 2011, Näfels is part of the municipality of Glarus Nord. History Näfels is f ...
in 1388, which forbade a member from unilaterally beginning a war without the consent of the other cantons. A federal
diet Diet may refer to: Food * Diet (nutrition) In nutrition, diet is the sum of food consumed by a person or other organism. The word diet often implies the use of specific intake of nutrition for #Health, health or #Weight management, weight-mana ...
, the ''
Tagsatzung The Federal Diet of Switzerland (german: Tagsatzung, ; french: Diète fédérale; it, Dieta federale) was the legislative and executive council of the Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy (Modern German ...
'', developed during the 15th century. Pacts and renewals (or modernizations) of earlier alliances reinforced the confederacy. The individual interests of the cantons clashed in the
Old Zürich War The Old Zurich War ('), 1440–46, was a conflict between the canton of Zurich and the other seven cantons of the Old Swiss Confederacy over the succession to the Count of Toggenburg. In 1436, Count Frederick VII, Count of Toggenburg, Friedrich VII ...
(1436–1450), caused by territorial conflict among Zürich and the central Swiss cantons over the succession of the Count of Toggenburg. Although Zürich entered an alliance with the Habsburg dukes, it then rejoined the confederacy. The confederation had become so close a political alliance that it no longer tolerated separatist tendencies in its members. The ''Tagsatzung'' was the confederation council, typically meeting several times a year. Each canton delegated two representatives (including the associate states, which had no vote). The canton where the delegates met initially chaired the gathering, but during the 16th century Zürich permanently assumed the chair (''Vorort'') and
Baden__notoc__ Baden (; ) is a historical territory in South Germany Southern Germany () as a region has no exact boundary but is generally taken to include the areas in which Upper German dialects are spoken. This corresponds roughly to the hi ...
became the seat. The Tagsatzung dealt with inter-cantonal affairs and was the court of last resort in disputes between member states, imposing sanctions on dissenting members. It also administered the condominiums; the reeves were delegated for two years, each time by a different canton. A unifying treaty of the Old Swiss Confederacy was the '' Stanser Verkommnis'' of 1481. Conflicts between rural and urban cantons and disagreements over the bounty of the
Burgundian Wars The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the Burgundian State The Burgundian StateB. Schnerb, ''L'État bourguignon'', 1999 is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to ...
had led to skirmishes. The city-states of Fribourg and Solothurn wanted to join the confederacy, but were mistrusted by the central Swiss rural cantons. The compromise by the ''Tagsatzung'' in the ''Stanser Verkommnis'' restored order and assuaged the rural cantons' complaints, with Fribourg and Solothurn accepted into the confederation. While the treaty restricted freedom of assembly (many skirmishes arose from unauthorised expeditions by soldiers from the Burgundian Wars), it reinforced agreements amongst the cantons in the earlier ''Sempacherbrief'' and ''Pfaffenbrief''. The civil war during the Reformation ended in a stalemate. The Catholic cantons could block council decisions but, due to geographic and economic factors, could not prevail over the Protestant cantons. Both factions began to hold separate councils, still meeting at a common ''Tagsatzung'' (although the common council was deadlocked by disagreements between both factions until 1712, when the Protestant cantons gained power after their victory in the second war of Villmergen). The Catholic cantons were excluded from administering the condominiums in the Aargau, the Thurgau and the Rhine valley; in their place, Berne became co-sovereign of these regions.


List of territories


Cantons

The confederation expanded in several stages: first to the Eight Cantons (''Acht Orte''), then in 1481 to ten, in 1501 to twelve, and finally to thirteen cantons (''Dreizehn Orte'').Im Hof, U.. ''Geschichte der Schweiz'', 7th ed., Stuttgart:
W. Kohlhammer W. Kohlhammer Verlag GmbH, or Kohlhammer Verlag, is a German publishing house Publishing is the activity of making information, literature, music, software and other content available to the public for sale or for free. Traditionally, the term ...
, 1974/2001. .
*Founding cantons ('' Urkantone''): **
Uri A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique sequence of characters that identifies a logical or physical resource used by web technologies. URIs may be used to identify anything, including real-world objects, such as people and places, concep ...
, founding canton named in the
Federal Charter of 1291 The Federal Charter or Letter of Alliance (german: Bundesbrief) is one of the earliest constitutional documents of Switzerland. A treaty of alliance from 1291 between the cantons of Uri A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique sequenc ...
**
Schwyz The town of Schwyz (; french: Schwytz; it, Svitto) is the capital of the canton of Schwyz in Switzerland. The Federal Charter of 1291 or ''Bundesbrief'', the charter that eventually led to the foundation of Switzerland, can be seen at the '' ...
, founding canton named in the Federal Charter of 1291 **
Unterwalden Unterwalden ( Latinized as ''Sylvania'', later also ''Subsylvania'' as opposed to ''Supersylvania'') is the old name of a forest-canton of the Old Swiss Confederacy The Old Swiss Confederacy or Swiss Confederacy, Swiss Confederation (Modern G ...

Unterwalden
, founding canton named in the Federal Charter of 1291 *14th century: expansion to the ''Achtörtige Eidgenossenschaft'' following the battles of and
Laupen Laupen is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Bern-Mittelland (administrative district), Bern-Mittelland administrative district and its district capital, situated in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Bern (canton), Bern in Sw ...

Laupen
: **
Lucerne , neighboring_municipalities= Adligenswil Adligenswil is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corporate status and powers of self-government or jurisdiction as granted by na ...
, city canton, since 1332 **
Zürich Zürich (#Name, see below) is the list of cities in Switzerland, largest city in Switzerland and the capital of the canton of Zürich. It is located in north-central Switzerland, at the northwestern tip of Lake Zürich. As of January 2020, the mun ...
, city canton, since 1351 **
Glarus , neighboring_municipalities= Glarus Nord Glarus Nord is one of three Municipalities of Switzerland, municipalities of the canton of Glarus, Switzerland (the others being Glarus and Glarus Süd). Effective from 1 January 2011, Glarus Nord inc ...
, rural canton, since 1352 **
Zug Zug (german: Zug, ; french: Zoug; it, Zugo; rm, Zug; New Latin: ''Tugium'')named in the 16th century is the largest List of cities in Switzerland, town and capital of the Swiss canton of Zug in Switzerland. Its name originates from the fishing vo ...
, city canton, since 1352 **
Berne ,german: Berner(in),french: Bernois(e), it, Bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern Bremgarten bei Bern is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division having Municipal corporation, corpor ...
, city canton, since 1353; associate since 1323 *15th century: expansion to the ''Zehnörtige Eidgenossenschaft'' following the
Burgundian Wars The Burgundian Wars (1474–1477) were a conflict between the Burgundian State The Burgundian StateB. Schnerb, ''L'État bourguignon'', 1999 is a concept coined by historians to describe the vast complex of territories that is also referred to ...
: **
Fribourg , Location of , Location of () (; frp, Fribôrg or ) or (also called ''Freiburg im Üechtland'' ( gsw, label=Swiss German, Frybùrg ; it, Friburgo or ; rm, Friburg) (not to be confused with Freiburg im Breisgau) is the capital of the Cant ...
, city canton, since 1481; associate since 1454 **
Solothurn Solothurn ( , ; french: Soleure ; it, Soletta ; rm, ) is a List of towns in Switzerland, town, a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality, and the Capital (political), capital of the canton of Solothurn in Switzerland. It is located in the ...
, city canton, since 1481; associate since 1353 *16th century: expansion to the ''Dreizehnörtige Eidgenossenschaft'' following the
Swabian War The Swabian War of 1499 ( gsw, Schwoobechrieg (spelling depending on dialect), called or ("Swiss War") in Germany and ("War of the Engadin") in Austria) was the last major armed conflict between the Old Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsb ...
: **
Basel , french: link=no, Bâlois(e), it, Basilese , neighboring_municipalities= Allschwil , neighboring_municipalities= Baselland (BL), Binningen, Switzerland, Binningen, Buschwiller (FR-68), Hégenheim (FR-68), Neuwiller (FR-68), Oberwil, Basel- ...
, city canton, since 1501 **
Schaffhausen Schaffhausen (; gsw, Schafuuse; french: Schaffhouse; it, Sciaffusa; rm, Schaffusa; en, Shaffhouse) is a town with historic roots, a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division ...
, city canton, since 1501; associate since 1454 **
Appenzell Appenzell is a historic cantons of Switzerland, canton in the northeast of Switzerland, and entirely surrounded by the canton of St. Gallen. Appenzell became independent of the Abbey of Saint Gall in 1403 and entered a league with the Old Swiss ...
, rural canton, since 1513; associate since 1411


Associates

Associates ''(Zugewandte Orte)'' were close allies of the Old Swiss Confederacy, connected to the union by alliance treaties with all or some of the individual members of the confederacy.


Closest associates

Three of the associates were known as ': *
Biel , french: Biennois(e) , neighboring_municipalities= Brügg, Ipsach Ipsach is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Biel/Bienne (administrative district), Biel/Bienne administrative district in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton ...

Biel
 – 1344–82 treaties with Fribourg, Berne and Solothurn. Nominally, Biel was subject to the Bishopric of Basel. *
Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...
Abbey of St. Gall The Abbey of Saint Gall (german: Abtei St. Gallen) is a dissolved abbey (747–1805) in a Catholic religious complex in the city of St. Gallen in Switzerland. The Carolingian Renaissance, Carolingian-era monastery has existed since 719 and became ...
en – 1451 treaty with Schwyz, Lucerne, Zürich and Glarus, renewed in 1479 and 1490. The abbey was simultaneously a protectorate. *
Imperial City In the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Central Europe that developed during the Early Middle A ...
of
St. Gallen , neighboring_municipalities = Eggersriet Eggersriet is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the ''Wahlkreis'' (constituency) of St. Gallen (Wahlkreis), St. Gallen in the Cantons of Switzerland, canton of St. Gallen (canton), St. Ga ...
 – 1454 treaty with Schwyz, Lucerne, Zürich, Glarus, Zug and Berne.


Eternal associates

Two federations were known as ': *
Sieben Zenden The Republic of the Seven Tithings (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationali ...
, an independent federation in the
Valais Valais (in French language, French) ( , , ; frp, Valês), or Wallis (in German language, German) (german: Wallis ), more formally the Canton of Valais,; german: Kanton Wallis; in other official Swiss languages outside Valais: it, (Canton) Valle ...

Valais
 – Became a ''Zugewandter Ort'' in 1416 through an alliance with Uri, Unterwalden and Lucerne, followed by a treaty with Berne in 1446. *
Three Leagues The Three Leagues, sometimes referred to as Raetia, was the alliance of 1471 of the League of God's House The League of God's House (German language, German: ''Gotteshausbund'', Italian language, Italian: ''Lega Caddea'', rm, ) was formed in wh ...
were independent federations on the territory of the
Grisons The Grisons or Graubünden, *german: (Kanton) Graubünden, Swiss Standard German Swiss Standard German (german: Schweizer Standarddeutsch), or Swiss High German (german: Schweizer Hochdeutsch or ''Schweizerhochdeutsch''), referred to by the S ...
and became an associates of the Old Swiss Confederacy in 1497/98 through the events of the
Swabian War The Swabian War of 1499 ( gsw, Schwoobechrieg (spelling depending on dialect), called or ("Swiss War") in Germany and ("War of the Engadin") in Austria) was the last major armed conflict between the Old Swiss Confederacy and the House of Habsb ...
. The Three Leagues together concluded an alliance pact with Berne in 1602. **
Grey League The Grey League (german: Grauer Bund, it, Lega Grigia, rm, Ligia Grischa or ), sometimes called ''Oberbund'', formed in 1395 in the ''Vorderrhein'' and ''Hinterrhein (district), Hinterrhein'' valleys, Raetia. The name Grey League is derived from ...
, who had been allied with Glarus, Uri and Obwalden through pacts from 1400, 1407 and 1419, entered an alliance with seven of the old eight cantons (the ''Acht Orte'' without Berne) in 1497 **
League of God's House The League of God's House (German language, German: ''Gotteshausbund'', Italian language, Italian: ''Lega Caddea'', rm, ) was formed in what is now Switzerland on January 29, 1367 to resist the rising power of the Bishopric of Chur and the House ...
(''Gotteshausbund'') followed suit a year later. **
League of the Ten Jurisdictions The League of the Ten Jurisdictions was the last of the Three Leagues founded during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of th ...
, the third of the leagues, entered an alliance with Zürich and Glarus in 1590.


Protestant associates

There were two ': * Imperial City of
Mulhouse Mulhouse (; Alsatian: or , ; ; meaning ''mill Mill may refer to: Science and technology * Mill (grinding) * Milling (machining) * List of types of mill * Mill, the arithmetic unit of the Analytical Engine early computer * Textile manufacturi ...

Mulhouse
 – Concluded a first treaty with some cantons in 1466 and became an associate in 1515 through a treaty with all 13 members of the Confederacy, remaining so until events of the
French Revolutionary Wars The French Revolutionary Wars (french: Guerres de la Révolution française) were a series of sweeping military conflicts lasting from 1792 until 1802 and resulting from the French Revolution. They pitted French First Republic, France against Gr ...
in 1797. * Imperial City of
Geneva , neighboring_municipalities= Carouge Carouge () is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Canton of Geneva, Switzerland. History Carouge is first mentioned in the Early Middle Ages as ''Quadruvium'' and ''Quatruvio''. In 124 ...

Geneva
 – 1536 treaty with Berne and a 1584 treaty with Zürich and Berne.


Other

* County of Neuchâtel – 1406 and 1526 treaties with Berne and Solothurn, 1495 treaty with Fribourg and 1501 treaty with Lucerne. * Imperial Valley of  – 1317 treaty with Uri; annexed by Uri in 1410. *
Weggis Weggis is a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as w ...

Weggis
 – 1332–1380 by treaties with Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden and Lucerne; annexed by Lucerne in 1480. *
Murten Murten (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Murten
 – from 1353 by treaty with Berne; became a confederal condominium in 1475. *
Payerne Payerne (; frp, Payèrna) is a Municipalities of Switzerland, municipality in the Switzerland, Swiss Cantons of Switzerland, canton of Vaud. It was the seat of the district of Payerne (district), Payerne, and is now part of the district of Broye- ...
 – from 1353 by treaty with Berne; annexed by Berne in 1536. *
County of Sargans The County A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the O ...
 – from 1437 by treaty with Glarus and Schwyz; became a confederal condominium in 1483. * Barony of Sax-Forstegg – from 1458 by treaty with Zürich; annexed by Zürich in 1615 *
Stein am Rhein Stein am Rhein (abbreviated as Stein a. R.) is a historic town and a municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative ...

Stein am Rhein
 – from 1459 by treaty with Zürich and Schaffhausen; annexed by Zürich in 1484. * County of Gruyère – had been allied with Fribourg and Berne since the early 14th century, becoming a full associate of the Confederation in 1548. When the counts fell bankrupt in 1555, the country was partitioned in twain: ** Lower Gruyère – from 1475 by treaty with Fribourg ** Upper Gruyère – from 1403 by treaty with Berne; annexed by Berne in 1555: *** Imperial Valley of Saanen *** Imperial Valley of Château-d'Œx * County of Werdenberg – from 1493 by treaty with Lucerne; annexed by Glarus in 1517. * Imperial City of
Rottweil Rottweil () is a Town#Germany, town in southwest Germany in the state of Baden-Württemberg. Rottweil was a free imperial city for nearly 600 years. Located between the Black Forest and the Swabian Jura, Swabian Alps, Rottweil has nearly 25,000 ...
 – from 1519–1632 through a treaty with all 13 members; a first treaty on military cooperation had already been concluded in 1463. In 1632, the treaty was renewed with Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug, Solothurn and Fribourg. * Bishopric of Basel – 1579–1735 by treaty with Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden, Zug, Solothurn and Fribourg.


Condominiums

Condominium (international law), Condominiums (german: Gemeine Herrschaften) were common subject territories under the administration of several cantons. They were governed by reeves (''Vögte'') delegated for two years, each time from another of the responsible cantons. Berne initially did not participate in the administration of some of the eastern condominiums, as it had no part in their conquest and its interests were focused more on the western border. In 1712, Berne replaced the Catholic cantons in the administration of the ''Freie Ämter'' ("Free Districts"), the
Thurgau Thurgau (; french: Thurgovie; it, Turgovia), anglicized as Thurgovia, more formally the Canton of Thurgau, is one of the Canton of Switzerland, 26 cantons forming the Switzerland, Swiss Confederation. It is composed of five districts and its capit ...

Thurgau
, the Rhine valley, and Sargans, and furthermore the Catholic cantons were excluded from the administration of the County of Baden.


German bailiwicks

The "German bailiwicks" (german: Deutsche Gemeine Vogteien, Gemeine Herrschaften) were generally governed by the ''Acht Orte'' apart from Berne until 1712, when Bern joined the sovereign powers: * Freie Ämter – conquered 1415 and partitioned in 1712: ** Upper Freiamt was governed by the ''Acht Orte''; ** Lower Freiamt was governed by Zürich, Bern and Glarus alone. * County of Baden – conquered 1415; from 1712 governed by Zürich, Bern and Glarus. *
County of Sargans The County A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the O ...
 – from 1460/83 * Landgraviate of Thurgau – from 1460 * Vogtei of Rheintal – from 1490, ''Acht Orte'' minus Bern, plus the Imperial Abbey of St Gall. Appenzell added in 1500; Berne added in 1712.


Italian bailiwicks

Several Vogt (Switzerland), bailiwicks (''Vogteien'') were generally referred to as "transmontane bailiwicks" (german: Ennetbergische Vogteien, it, Baliaggi Ultramontani). In 1440,
Uri A Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) is a unique sequence of characters that identifies a logical or physical resource used by web technologies. URIs may be used to identify anything, including real-world objects, such as people and places, concep ...
conquered the Valle Leventina, Leventina Valley from the Visconti of Milan, Visconti, dukes of Milan. Some of this territory had previously been annexed between 1403 and 1422. Further territories were acquired in 1500; ''see Ticino#History, History of Ticino for further details''. Three bailiwicks, all now in the
Ticino Ticino (), sometimes Tessin (), officially the Republic and Canton of Ticino or less formally the Canton of Ticino,, informally ''Canton Ticino'' ; lmo, Canton Tesin ; german: Kanton Tessin ; french: canton du Tessin ; rm, chantun dal Tessin . ...
, were condominiums of the Forest cantons of Uri, Schwyz and Nidwalden: * Vogtei of Blenio – 1477–80 and from 1495 * Vogtei of Rivera – 1403–22 and from 1495 * Vogtei of Bellinzona – from 1500 Four other Ticinese bailiwicks were condominiums of the ''Zwölf Orte'' (the original 13 cantons, minus Appenzell) from 1512: * Landvogtei of Valmaggia * Landvogtei of Lugano * Landvogtei of Locarno * Landvogtei of Mendrisio Another three bailiwicks were condominiums of the ''Zwölf Orte'' from 1512, but were lost from the Confederacy three years later and are all now ''comuni'' of Lombardy: * Val Travaglia, Travaglia * Val Cuvia, Cuvio * Ossola, Eschental (now Ossola)


Two-party condominiums


=Bern and Fribourg

= * County of Grasburg / Schwarzenburg – from 1423 *
Murten Murten (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Murten
 – from 1475 * Grandson, Switzerland, Grandson – from 1475 * Orbe and Echallens – from 1475


=Glarus and Schwyz

= * County of Uznach, Uznach – from 1437 * , See-Gaster, Windegg / Gaster – from 1438 * Hohensax / Gams – from 1497


= Condominiums with third-parties

= * Lordship of Tessenberg – from 1388, condominium between
Berne german: Berner(in)french: Bernois(e) it, bernese , neighboring_municipalities = Bremgarten bei Bern, Frauenkappelen, Ittigen, Kirchlindach, Köniz, Mühleberg, Muri bei Bern, Neuenegg, Ostermundigen, Wohlen bei Bern, Zollikofen , website ...

Berne
and Bishopric of Basel


Protectorates

* Bellelay Abbey – protectorate of Bern, Biel and Solothurn from 1414; nominally under the jurisdiction of the Bishopric of Basel * Einsiedeln Abbey – protectorate of Schwyz from 1357 * Engelberg Abbey – protectorate of Lucerne, Uri, Schwyz and Unterwalden from 1425 * Erguel – protectorate of Biel/Bienne under military jurisdiction from 1335; also subject to the Bishopric of Basel *
Imperial Imperial is that which relates to an empire, emperor, or imperialism. Imperial or The Imperial may also refer to: Places United States * Imperial, California * Imperial, Missouri * Imperial, Nebraska * Imperial, Pennsylvania * Imperial, Texas * ...
Abbey of St. Gall The Abbey of Saint Gall (german: Abtei St. Gallen) is a dissolved abbey (747–1805) in a Catholic religious complex in the city of St. Gallen in Switzerland. The Carolingian Renaissance, Carolingian-era monastery has existed since 719 and became ...
en – protectorate of Schwyz, Lucerne, Zürich and Glarus from 1451; the abbey was simultaneously a ''Zugewandter Ort''. * Republic of Gersau, an independent village – allied with Schwyz since 1332; Lucerne, Uri and Unterwalden were also protecting powers. * Moutier-Grandval Abbey – protectorate of Berne from 1486; the abbey was also subject to the Bishopric of Basel and, until 1797, the
Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Romanum Imperium; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Western may refer to: Places *Western, Nebraska, a village in the US *Western, New York, a town i ...
* La Neuveville – protectorate of Berne from 1388; also subject to the Bishopric of Basel. * Pfäfers Abbey – protectorate of the ''Acht Orte'' minus Berne from 1460; annexed to the
County of Sargans The County A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary, L. Brookes (ed.), 2005, Chambers Harrap Publishers Ltd, Edinburgh in certain modern nations. The term is derived from the O ...
in 1483 * Rapperswil – protectorate of Uri, Schwyz, Unterwalden and Glarus from 1464; of Zürich, Berne and Glarus from 1712 * County of Toggenburg – protectorate of Schwyz and Glarus from 1436; of Zürich and Berne from 1718. The county was simultaneously subject to St Gallen Abbey.


Separate subjects

Some territories were separate subjects of cantons or associates, ':


Uri

* Valley of Valle Leventina, Leventina (1403, 1439, finally 1480) * Valley of (1440)


Schwyz

* Küssnacht (1402) * Einsiedeln Abbey (1397 / 1424) * March (district), March (1405 / 36) * Höfe (district), Höfe (1440)


Glarus

* County of Werdenberg (1485 / 1517); annexed to Lucerne in 1485; to Glarus in 1517


Valais

* Saint-Maurice, Switzerland, St-Maurice (1475 / 77) * Monthey (1536) * Nendaz, Nendaz-Hérémence (1475 / 77) * Port-Valais, Port Valais/Vionnaz * Lötschental (15th century); the five upper ''Zenden''


Three Leagues

* Bormio (1512) * Chiavenna (1512) * Valtellina (1512) * Drei Pleven (1512–26) * Maienfeld (:de:Bündner Herrschaft, Bündner Herrschaft) (1509–1790); simultaneously a member of the
League of the Ten Jurisdictions The League of the Ten Jurisdictions was the last of the Three Leagues founded during the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted from the 5th to the late 15th century. It began with the fall of th ...
.


Notes and references


Further reading

* Aubert, J.-F.: ''Petite histoire constitutionnelle de la Suisse'', 2nd ed.; Francke Editions, Bern, 1974. * Peyer, H. C.: ''Verfassungsgeschichte der alten Schweiz'', Schulthess Polygraphischer Verlag, Zürich, 1978. .


External links

* {{DEFAULTSORT:Swiss Confederacy Old Swiss Confederacy, States and territories established in 1291 States and territories disestablished in 1798 Medieval Switzerland, . Early Modern history of Switzerland, . Former confederations Former countries in Europe States of the Holy Roman Empire 1290s establishments in the Holy Roman Empire 1291 establishments in Europe 1798 disestablishments in Europe 13th-century establishments in the Old Swiss Confederacy, * 18th-century disestablishments in the Old Swiss Confederacy, * Former countries History of Switzerland by period 2nd millennium in Switzerland, Old Swiss Confederacy