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Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic () was the first
Slavic
Slavic
literary language A literary language is the form (register) of a language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the ...
. Historians credit the 9th-century
Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern provinces during Late Antiquity and the Middle Ages, when its capital city was Constantinople. It survi ...

Byzantine
missionaries
Saints Cyril and Methodius Cyril (born Constantine, 826–869) and Methodius (815–885) were two brothers and Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern p ...

Saints Cyril and Methodius
with
standardizing In statistics Statistics is the discipline that concerns the collection, organization, analysis, interpretation, and presentation of data. In applying statistics to a scientific, industrial, or social problem, it is conventional to begin ...
the language and using it in translating the
Bible The Bible (from Koine Greek Koine Greek (, , Greek approximately ;. , , , lit. "Common Greek"), also known as Alexandrian dialect, common Attic, Hellenistic or Biblical Greek, was the koiné language, common supra-regional form of Gree ...

Bible
and other
Ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
ecclesiastical texts as part of the
Christianization of the Slavs The Slavs were Christianization, Christianized in waves from the 7th to 12th century, though the process of replacing Slavic paganism, old Slavic religious practices began as early as the 6th century. Generally speaking, the monarchs of the Sout ...
. It is thought to have been based primarily on the dialect of the 9th-century Byzantine Slavs living in the Province of Thessalonica (in present-day
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
). Old Church Slavonic played an important role in the history of the
Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo-European languages spoken primarily by the Slavs, Slavic peoples or their descendants. They are thought to descend from a proto-language called Proto-Slavic language, Proto- ...

Slavic languages
and served as a basis and model for later
Church Slavonic Church Slavonic (црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ, ''crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ'', literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative ...
traditions, and some
Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 million baptised members. It operates as a communion Communion may refer to: Religion * The Eucharist (also cal ...
and
Eastern Catholic The Eastern Catholic Churches or Oriental Catholic Churches, also called the Eastern-rite Catholic Churches, Eastern Rite Catholicism, or simply the Eastern Churches, are twenty-three Eastern Christian Eastern Christianity comprises Chris ...
churches use this later Church Slavonic as a
liturgical language A sacred language, holy language or liturgical language is any language that is cultivated and used primarily in church service or for other religion, religious reasons by people who speak another, primary language in their daily lives. Concep ...
to this day. As the oldest attested Slavic language, OCS provides important evidence for the features of
Proto-Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
, the reconstructed common ancestor of all Slavic languages.


Nomenclature

The name of the language in Old Church Slavonic texts was simply ''Slavic'' (словѣ́ньскъ ѩꙁꙑ́къ, ''slověnĭskŭ językŭ''),. derived from the word for ''Slavs'' (словѣ́нє, ''slověne''), the self-designation of the compilers of the texts. This name is preserved in the modern native names of the
Slovak Slovak may refer to: * Something from, related to, or belonging to Slovakia (''Slovenská republika'') * Slovaks, a Western Slavic ethnic group * Slovak language, an Indo-European language that belongs to the West Slavic languages * Slovak, Arkans ...
and
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
languages. The language is sometimes called ''Old Slavic'', which may be confused with the distinct
Proto-Slavic language Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
. Different strains of
nationalists Nationalism is an idea and movement that promotes the interests of a particular nation (as in a in-group and out-group, group of people),Anthony D. Smith, Smith, Anthony. ''Nationalism: Theory, Ideology, History''. Polity (publisher), Polity, ...
have tried to 'claim' Old Church Slavonic; thus OCS has also been variously called ''Old Bulgarian'', ''Old Croatian'', ''Old Macedonian'' or ''Old Serbian,'' or even ''Old Slovak'', ''Old Slovenian''. The commonly accepted terms in modern English-language
Slavic studies Slavic studies (North America), Slavonic studies (Britain and Ireland) or Slavistics (borrowed from Russian ''славистика'' or Polish ''slawistyka'') is the academic field An academic discipline or academic field is a subdivision of kn ...
are ''Old Church Slavonic'' and ''Old Church Slavic''. The term ''Old Bulgarian'' (german: Altbulgarisch) is the only designation used by
Bulgarian-language
Bulgarian-language
writers. It was used in numerous 19th-century sources, e.g. by
August Schleicher August Schleicher (; 19 February 1821 – 6 December 1868) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germa ...

August Schleicher
,
Martin Hattala Martin Hattala (4 November 1821 in Trstená, Kingdom of Hungary (today Slovakia) – 11 December 1903 in Prague) was a Slovak pedagogue, Roman Catholic theologian and linguist. He is best known for his reform of the Ľudovít Štúr, Štúr's Slo ...
, Leopold Geitler and
August Leskien August Leskien (; 8 July 1840 – 20 September 1916) was a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see a ...

August Leskien
, who noted similarities between the first literary Slavic works and the modern Bulgarian language. For similar reasons,
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
n linguist Aleksandr Vostokov used the term ''Slav-Bulgarian''. The term is still used by some writers but nowadays normally avoided in favor of ''Old Church Slavonic''. The term ''Old Macedonian'' is occasionally used by Western scholars in a regional context. The obsolete term ''Old Slovenian''. was used by early 19th-century scholars who conjectured that the language was based on the dialect of
Pannonia Pannonia (, ) was a province A province is almost always an administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as ...

Pannonia
.


History

Byzantine missionaries standardized the language for the expedition of the two apostles, Cyril and his brother Methodius, to
Great Moravia Great Moravia ( la, Regnum Marahensium; el, Μεγάλη Μοραβία, ''Meghálī Moravía''; cz, Velká Morava ; sk, Veľká Morava ; pl, Wielkie Morawy), or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to ...

Great Moravia
(the territory of today's western Slovakia and the Czech Republic; see
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, , ''glagolitsa'') is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Metho ...

Glagolitic alphabet
for details). For that purpose, Cyril and Methodius started to translate religious literature into Old Church Slavonic, allegedly basing the language on the
Slavic dialects Slavic, Slav or Slavonic may refer to: Peoples * Slavic peoples, an ethno-linguistic group living in Europe and Asia ** East Slavic peoples, eastern group of Slavic peoples ** South Slavic peoples, southern group of Slavic peoples ** West Slavic ...

Slavic dialects
spoken in the hinterland of their hometown,
Thessaloniki Thessaloniki (; el, Θεσσαλονίκη, ), also known as Thessalonica (), Saloniki or Salonica () is the second-largest city in Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in So ...

Thessaloniki
, in present-day
Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, Elláda, ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeastern Europe Southeast Europe or Southeastern Europe () is a geographical subregion A subregion is a part of a larger region In geogr ...

Greece
. As part of preparations for the mission, in 862/863, the
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, , ''glagolitsa'') is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Metho ...

Glagolitic alphabet
was developed and the most important prayers and
liturgical book A liturgical book, or service book, is a book published by the authority of a church body that contains the text and directions for the liturgy of its official Church service, religious services. Roman Rite In the Roman Rite of the Catholic ...
s, including the ''Aprakos Evangeliar'' (a
Gospel Book A Gospel Book, Evangelion, or Book of the Gospels (Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast ...
lectionary A lectionary ( la, lectionarium) is a book or listing that contains a collection of scripture Religious texts, also known as scripture, scriptures, holy writ, or holy books, are the texts which various religious traditions consider to be sac ...
containing only feast-day and Sunday readings), the
Psalter A psalter is a volume containing the Book of Psalms The Book of Psalms ( or ; he, תְּהִלִּים, , lit. "praises"), commonly referred to simply as Psalms, the Psalter or "the Psalms", is the first book of the ("Writings"), the t ...

Psalter
, and the
Acts of the Apostles The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testament The New T ...
, were translated. (The Gospels were also translated early, but it is unclear whether Cyril or Methodius had a hand in this.) The language and the Glagolitic alphabet, as taught at the Great Moravian Academy ( sk, Veľkomoravské učilište), were used for government and religious documents and books between 863 and 885. The texts written during this phase contain characteristics of the West Slavic
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
s in Great Moravia. In 885
Pope Stephen V Pope Stephen V ( la, Stephanus V; died 14 September 891) was the bishop of Rome A bishop is an ordained, consecrated, or appointed member of the Clergy#Christianity, Christian clergy who is generally entrusted with a position of authority and ...

Pope Stephen V
prohibited the use of Old Church Slavonic in Great Moravia in favour of
Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Republic, it became ...

Latin
. King Svatopluk I of Great Moravia expelled the Byzantine missionary contingent in 886. Exiled students of the two
apostles upright=1.35, Jesus and his Twelve Apostles, Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla">Chi_Rho.html" ;"title="fresco with the Chi Rho">Chi-Rho symbol ☧, Catacombs of Domitilla, Rome In Christian theology and ecclesiology, apostles, parti ...
, mainly
Bulgarians Bulgarians ( bg, българи, Bǎlgari, ) are a nation A nation is a community A community is a social unitThe term "level of analysis" is used in the social sciences to point to the location, size, or scale of a research target. "Le ...
(including
Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian language, Bulgarian and Macedonian language, Macedonian: , ; el, Άγιος Κλήμης της Αχρίδας; sk, svätý Kliment Ochridský; – 916) was one of the first First Bulgarian Empire, Medieval Bulg ...
and
Saint Naum Saint Naum (Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demog ...

Saint Naum
), and then brought the Glagolitic alphabet to the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
.
Boris I of Bulgaria Boris I, also known as Boris-Mihail (Michael) and ''Bogoris'' ( cu, Борисъ А҃ / Борисъ-Михаилъ bg, Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian ...

Boris I of Bulgaria
() received and officially accepted them; he established the two literary schools: the
Preslav Literary School The Preslav Literary School ( bg, Преславска книжовна школа), also known as the Pliska Literary School or Pliska-Preslav Literary school was the first literary school in the medieval Bulgarian Empire In the medieval hi ...
and the
Ohrid Literary School The Ohrid Literary School or Ohrid-Devol (Albania), ''Devol'' Literary school was one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). The school was established in Oh ...
. Both schools originally used the Glagolitic alphabet, though the
Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a writing system used for various languages across Eurasia and is used as the national script in various Slavic languages, Slavic, Turkic languages, Turkic, Mongolic languages, Mongolic, Uralic languages, Uralic, Caucas ...
developed early on at the Preslav Literary School, where it superseded Glagolitic as official in
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria,, ) is a country in Southeast Europe. It occupies the whole eastern part of the Balkans, and is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia and North Macedoni ...

 Bulgaria
in 893. The texts written during this era exhibit certain linguistic features of the vernaculars of the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
. Old Church Slavonic spread to other South-Eastern, Central, and Eastern European Slavic territories, most notably
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
,
Serbia Serbia (, ; Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * in both meanings, depending on the context, it may ref ...

Serbia
,
Bohemia Bohemia ( ; cs, Čechy ; ; hsb, Čěska; szl, Czechy) is the westernmost and largest historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographical Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, ...

Bohemia
,
Lesser Poland Lesser Poland, often known by its Polish language, Polish name Małopolska ( la, Polonia Minor), is a historical region situated in southern and south-eastern Poland. Its capital and largest city is Kraków. Throughout centuries, Lesser Pol ...
, and principalities of the
Kievan Rus' Kievan Rus' ( orv, , Rusĭ, or , , "Rus' land") or Kyivan Rus', was a loose federation A federation (also known as a federal state) is a political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a ...
- while retaining characteristically South Slavic linguistic features. Later texts written in each of those territories began to take on characteristics of the local Slavic vernaculars, and by the mid-11th century Old Church Slavonic had diversified into a number of regional varieties (known as ''recensions''). These local varieties are collectively known as the
Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic (црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ, ''crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ'', literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative ...
. Apart from use in the Slavic countries, Old Church Slavonic served as a liturgical language in the
Romanian Orthodox Church The Romanian Orthodox Church ( ro, Biserica Ortodoxă Română), or Patriarchate of Romania, is an autocephalous Eastern Orthodox The Eastern Orthodox Church, officially the Orthodox Catholic Church, is the List of Christian denomination ...
, and also as a literary and official language of the princedoms of
Wallachia Wallachia or Walachia (; ro, Țara Românească, lit=The Romanian Land' or 'The Romanian Country, ; archaic Archaic is a period of time preceding a designated classical period, or something from an older period of time that is also not found ...
and
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
(see
Old Church Slavonic in Romania Church Slavonic was the main language used for administrative (until the 16th century) and liturgical purposes (until the 17th century) by the Romanian principalities, being still occasionally used in the History of Christianity in Romania, Orthodox ...
), before gradually being replaced by
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania **Romanians, an ethnic group **Romanian language, a Romance language ***Romanian dialects, variants of the Romanian language **Romanian cuisine, traditional ...
during the 16th to 17th centuries. Church Slavonic maintained a prestigious status, particularly in
Russia Russia ( rus, link=no, Россия, Rossiya, ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is the eastern region of . There is no consistent definition of the precise area it covers, partly because th ...

Russia
, for many centuriesamong Slavs in the East it had a status analogous to that of Latin in
Western Europe Western Europe is the western region of Europe Europe is a continent A continent is any of several large landmasses. Generally identified by convention (norm), convention rather than any strict criteria, up to seven geographical r ...

Western Europe
, but had the advantage of being substantially less divergent from the
vernacular A vernacular or vernacular language refers to the language or dialect that is spoken by people that are inhabiting a particular country or region. The vernacular is typically the native language, normally Spoken language, spoken informally rath ...
tongues of average parishioners. Some Orthodox churches, such as the
Bulgarian Orthodox Church The Bulgarian Orthodox Church ( bg, Българска православна църква, translit=Balgarska pravoslavna tsarkva), legally the Patriarchate of Bulgaria ( bg, Българска патриаршия, links=no, translit=Balgarska ...
,
Russian Orthodox Church , native_name_lang = ru , image = Moscow July 2011-7a.jpg , imagewidth = , alt = , caption = Cathedral of Christ the Saviour The Cathedral of Christ the Saviour ( rus, Храм Хр ...

Russian Orthodox Church
,
Serbian Orthodox Church The Serbian Orthodox Church ( sr-cyr, Српска православна црква, Srpska pravoslavna crkva) is one of the autocephalous Autocephaly (; from el, αὐτοκεφαλία, meaning "property of being self-headed") is the s ...
, and
Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric The Macedonian Orthodox Church – Ohrid Archbishopric (MOC-OA; mk, Македонска православна црква – Охридска архиепископија (МПЦ-ОА), tr. ''Makedonska pravoslavna crkva – Ohridska arhiepis ...
, as well as several Eastern Catholic Churches, still use
Church Slavonic Church Slavonic (црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ, ''crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ'', literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative ...
in their services and chants as of 2021.


Script

Initially Old Church Slavonic was written with the
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, , ''glagolitsa'') is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Metho ...

Glagolitic alphabet
, but later Glagolitic was replaced by
Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is ...
, which was developed in the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
by a decree of
Boris I of Bulgaria Boris I, also known as Boris-Mihail (Michael) and ''Bogoris'' ( cu, Борисъ А҃ / Борисъ-Михаилъ bg, Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian ...

Boris I of Bulgaria
in the 9th century. The local
Bosnian Cyrillic Bosnian Cyrillic, widely known as Bosančica is an extinct variant of the Cyrillic alphabet , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian ...
alphabet, known as ''Bosančica'', was preserved in
Bosnia Bosnia ( bs, Bosna / , ) is the north North is one of the four compass points The points of the compass are the vectors by which planet A planet is an astronomical body orbiting a star or Stellar evolution#Stellar remnants, stellar r ...

Bosnia
and parts of
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
, while a variant of the angular
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, , ''glagolitsa'') is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Metho ...

Glagolitic alphabet
was preserved in
Croatia , image_flag = Flag of Croatia.svg , image_coat = Coat of arms of Croatia.svg , anthem = "Lijepa naša domovino ''Lijepa naša domovino'' (; ) is the national anthem A national anthem is a song that ...

Croatia
. See
Early Cyrillic alphabet The Early Cyrillic alphabet, also called classical Cyrillic or paleo-Cyrillic, is a writing system A writing system is a method of visually representing verbal communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a class ...

Early Cyrillic alphabet
for a detailed description of the script and information about the sounds it originally expressed.


Phonology

For Old Church Slavonic, the following segments are reconstructible. A few sounds are given in Slavic transliterated form rather than in IPA, as the exact realisation is uncertain and often differs depending on the area that a text originated from.


Consonants

* The letter denoted different sounds in different dialects and is not shown in the table. In Bulgaria, it represented the sequence , and it is normally transliterated as št for that reason. Farther west and north, it was probably or like in modern Macedonian, Torlakian and Serbian/Croatian. * appears mostly in early texts, becoming later on. * The distinction between , and , on one hand, and palatal , and , on the other, is not always indicated in writing. When it is, it is shown by a palatization diacritic over the letter: ⟨ л҄ ⟩ ⟨ н҄ ⟩ ⟨ р҄ ⟩ .


Vowels

* Accent is not indicated in writing and must be inferred from later languages and from reconstructions of Proto-Slavic. * The pronunciation of
yat Yat or Jat (Ѣ ѣ; italics: ''Ѣ ѣ'') is the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet. There is also another version of Yat, the iotified Yat (majuscule: , minuscule: ), which is a Cyrillic character combining a decimal ...

yat
() differed by area. In Bulgaria it was a relatively open vowel, commonly reconstructed as , but further north its pronunciation was more closed and it eventually became a diphthong (e.g. in modern standard
Bosnian Bosnian may refer to: *Anything related to the state of Bosnia and Herzegovina or its inhabitants *Anything related to Bosnia (region) or its inhabitants * Bosniaks, an ethnic group mainly inhabiting Bosnia and Herzegovina and one of three Ethnic gr ...
,
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
and Montenegrin, or modern standard Serbian spoken in
Bosnia and Herzegovina Bosnia and Herzegovina,, abbreviated BiH or B&H, sometimes called Bosnia–Herzegovina and often known informally as Bosnia, is a country in South South is one of the cardinal directions or compass points. South is the opposite of north a ...

Bosnia and Herzegovina
) or even in many areas (e.g. in
Chakavian Chakavian or Čakavian (, , , sh-Latn, čakavski proper name: or own name: ''čokovski, čakavski, čekavski'') is a South Slavic regiolect The term dialect (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic l ...

Chakavian
Croatian,
Shtokavian Shtokavian or Štokavian (; sh-Latn, štokavski / sh-Cyrl, italics=no, штокавски, ) is the prestige dialect of the pluricentric language, pluricentric Serbo-Croatian language and the basis of its Serbian language, Serbian, Croatian la ...

Shtokavian
Ikavian Shtokavian or Štokavian (; sh-Latn, štokavski / sh-Cyrl, italics=no, штокавски, ) is the prestige dialect In sociolinguistics Sociolinguistics is the descriptive study of the effect of any and all aspects of society, including cu ...

Ikavian
Croatian and Bosnian dialects or
Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians an East Slavic people from Eastern Europe * Something relating to Demographics of Ukraine, in terms of demography: population of Ukraine * Somethi ...
) or (modern standard
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * Serbian language * Serbian names See also

* * * Serbian Uprising (disamb ...
spoken in Serbia). * The
yer A yer is either of two letters in Cyrillic alphabet , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () ...

yer
vowels and (ĭ and ŭ) are often called "ultrashort" and were lower, more centralised and shorter than their counterparts i and y/u. They disappeared in most positions in the word, already sporadically in the earliest texts but more frequently later on. They also tended to merge with other vowels, particularly ĭ with e and ŭ with o, but differently in different areas. * The exact articulation of the nasal vowels is unclear because different areas tend to merge them with different vowels. ę /ɛ̃/ is occasionally seen to merge with e or ě in South Slavic, but becomes ja early on in East Slavic. ǫ /ɔ̃/ generally merges with u or o, but in Bulgaria, ǫ was apparently unrounded and eventually merged with ŭ.


Phonotactics

Several notable constraints on the distribution of the phonemes can be identified, mostly resulting from the tendencies occurring within the
Common Slavic Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
period, such as ''intrasyllabic synharmony'' and the ''law of open syllables''. For consonant and vowel clusters and sequences of a consonant and a vowel, the following constraints can be ascertained: * Two adjacent consonants tend not to share identical features of
manner of articulation In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics that studies articulation and ways that humans produce speech. Articulatory phoneticians explain how humans produce speech sounds via the interaction of ...

manner of articulation
* No syllable ends in a consonant * Every obstruent agrees in voicing with the following obstruent * Velars do not occur before front vowels * Phonetically palatalized consonants do not occur before certain back vowels * The back vowels /y/ and /ъ/ as well as front vowels other than /i/ do not occur word-initially: the two back vowels take prothetic /v/ and the front vowels prothetic /j/. Initial /a/ may take either prothetic consonant or none at all. * Vowel sequences are attested in only one lexeme (''paǫčina'' 'spider's web') and in the suffixes /aa/ and /ěa/ of the imperfect * At morpheme boundaries, the following vowel sequences occur: /ai/, /au/, /ao/, /oi/, /ou/, /oo/, /ěi/, /ěo/


Morphophonemic alternations

As a result of the
first First or 1st is the ordinal form of the number one (#1). First or 1st may also refer to: *World record A world record is usually the best global and most important performance that is ever recorded and officially verified in a specific skill ...
and the
second The second (symbol: s, also abbreviated: sec) is the base unit of time Time is the continued sequence of existence and event (philosophy), events that occurs in an apparently irreversible process, irreversible succession from the past, th ...
Slavic palatalizations, velars alternate with dentals and palatals. In addition, as a result of a process usually termed ''iotation'' (or ''iodization''), velars and dentals alternate with palatals in various inflected forms and in word formation. In some forms the alternations of /c/ with /č/ and of /dz/ with /ž/ occur, in which the corresponding velar is missing. The dental alternants of velars occur regularly before /ě/ and /i/ in the declension and in the imperative, and somewhat less regularly in various forms after /i/, /ę/, /ь/ and /rь/. The palatal alternants of velars occur before front vowels in all other environments, where dental alternants do not occur, as well as in various places in inflection and word formation described below.. As a result of earlier alternations between short and long vowels in roots in
Proto-Indo-European Proto-Indo-European (PIE) is the theorized common ancestor of the Indo-European language family The Indo-European languages are a language family A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech ( ...
,
Proto-Balto-Slavic Proto-Balto-Slavic (PBS) is a linguistic reconstruction, reconstructed proto-language descending from Proto-Indo-European language, Proto-Indo-European (PIE). From Proto-Balto-Slavic, the later Balto-Slavic languages are thought to have develope ...
and Proto-Slavic times, and of the fronting of vowels after palatalized consonants, the following vowel alternations are attested in OCS: /ь/ : /i/;   /ъ/ : /y/ : /u/;   /e/ : /ě/ : /i/;   /o/ : /a/;   /o/ : /e/;   /ě/ : /a/;   /ъ/ : /ь/;   /y/ : /i/;   /ě/ : /i/;   /y/ : /ę/. Vowel:∅ alternations sometimes occurred as a result of sporadic loss of weak yer, which later occurred in almost all Slavic dialects. The phonetic value of the corresponding vocalized strong jer is dialect-specific.


Grammar

As an ancient Indo-European language, OCS has a highly inflective morphology. Inflected forms are divided in two groups, nominals and verbs. Nominals are further divided into nouns, adjectives and pronouns. Numerals inflect either as nouns or pronouns, with 1-4 showing gender agreement as well. Nominals can be declined in three
grammatical gender In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, including speech (spoken language), gestures (Signed language, sign language) and writing. Most langua ...
s (masculine, feminine, neuter), three numbers (singular, plural,
dual Dual or Duals may refer to: Paired/two things * Dual (mathematics), a notion of paired concepts that mirror one another ** Dual (category theory), a formalization of mathematical duality ** . . . see more cases in :Duality theories * Dual ...
) and seven
cases Case or CASE may refer to: Containers * Case (goods) A case of some merchandise Merchandising is any practice which contributes to the sale of products Product may refer to: Business * Product (business), an item that serves as a solution ...
:
nominative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
,
vocative In grammar, the vocative Grammatical case, case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) is a grammatical case which is used for a noun that identifies a person (animal, object, etc.) being addressed, or occasionally for the determiner (li ...
,
accusative The accusative case (list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ) of a noun is the grammatical case used to mark the direct object of a transitive verb. The same case is used in many languages for the objects of (some or all) prepositions. It is ...
,
instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voice consists of sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmissio ...
,
dative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, as ...
,
genitive In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
, and
locative In grammar In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language, meaning that it is a comprehensive, systematic, objective, and precise study of language. Linguistics encompasses the analysis of every aspect of language, a ...
. There are five basic inflectional classes for nouns: ''o/jo''-stems, ''a/ja''-stems, ''i''-stems, ''u''-stems and consonant stems. Forms throughout the inflectional paradigm usually exhibit morphophonemic alternations. Fronting of vowels after palatals and ''j'' yielded dual inflectional class ''o'' : ''jo'' and ''a'' : ''ja'', whereas palatalizations affected stem as a synchronic process (N sg. ''vlьkъ'', V sg. ''vlьče''; L sg. ''vlьcě''). Productive classes are ''o/jo-'', ''a/ja-'' and ''i''-stems. Sample paradigms are given in the table below: Adjectives are inflected as ''o/jo''-stems (masculine and neuter) and ''a/ja''-stems (feminine), in three genders. They could have short (indefinite) or long (definite) variants, the latter being formed by suffixing to the indefinite form the anaphoric third-person pronoun ''jь''.
SyntheticA synthetic is an artificial material produced by organic chemistry, organic chemical synthesis. Synthetic may also refer to: In the sense of both "combination" and "artificial" * Synthetic chemical or synthetic compress, produced by the process ...
verbal conjugation is expressed in present, aorist and imperfect tenses while perfect, pluperfect, future and conditional tenses/moods are made by combining auxiliary verbs with participles or synthetic tense forms. Sample conjugation for the verb ''vesti'' "to lead" (underlyingly ''ved-ti'') is given in the table below.


Basis and local influences

Written evidence of Old Church Slavonic survives in a relatively small body of
manuscripts A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once practical typewriter A typewriter is a mechanical Mechanical may refer to: Machine * Mechanical system ...

manuscripts
, most of them written in the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
during the late 10th and the early 11th centuries. The language has a South Slavic basis with an admixture of Western Slavic features inherited during the mission of
Saints Cyril and Methodius Cyril (born Constantine, 826–869) and Methodius (815–885) were two brothers and Byzantine The Byzantine Empire, also referred to as the Eastern Roman Empire, or Byzantium, was the continuation of the Roman Empire in its eastern p ...

Saints Cyril and Methodius
to
Great Moravia Great Moravia ( la, Regnum Marahensium; el, Μεγάλη Μοραβία, ''Meghálī Moravía''; cz, Velká Morava ; sk, Veľká Morava ; pl, Wielkie Morawy), or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to ...

Great Moravia
(863–885). The only well-preserved manuscript of the Moravian recension, the Kiev Folia, is characterised by the replacement of some South Slavic phonetic and lexical features with Western Slavic ones. Manuscripts written in the
Second Bulgarian Empire The Second Bulgarian Empire (Middle Bulgarian Middle Bulgarian language was the lingua franca and the most widely spoken language of the Second Bulgarian Empire The Second Bulgarian Empire ( bg, Второ българско царство, ...

Second Bulgarian Empire
(1185-1396) have, on the other hand, few Western Slavic features. Old Church Slavonic is valuable to historical linguists since it preserves archaic features believed to have once been common to all Slavic languages such as these: * Most significantly, the
yer A yer is either of two letters in Cyrillic alphabet , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () ...

yer
(
extra-short The International Phonetic Alphabet The International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) is an alphabetic system of phonetic transcription, phonetic notation based primarily on the Latin script. It was devised by the International Phonetic Associati ...
) vowels: and *
Nasal vowel A nasal vowel is a vowel A vowel is a syllabicSyllabic may refer to: *Syllable, a unit of speech sound, considered the building block of words **Syllabic consonant, a consonant that forms the nucleus of a syllable *Syllabary, writing syste ...
s: and * Near-open articulation of the yat vowel () *
Palatal consonant Palatal consonants are consonant In articulatory phonetics The field of articulatory phonetics is a subfield of phonetics Phonetics is a branch of linguistics that studies how humans produce and perceive sounds, or in the case of sign lan ...

Palatal consonant
s and from Proto-Slavic *ň and *ľ * Proto-Slavic declension system based on stem endings, including those that later disappeared in attested languages (such as ''u''-stems) *
Dual Dual or Duals may refer to: Paired/two things * Dual (mathematics), a notion of paired concepts that mirror one another ** Dual (category theory), a formalization of mathematical duality ** . . . see more cases in :Duality theories * Dual ...
as a distinct grammatical number from singular and plural *
Aorist Aorist (; abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for exam ...
,
imperfect The imperfect (abbreviated An abbreviation (from Latin ''brevis'', meaning ''short'') is a shortened form of a word or phrase, by any method. It may consist of a group of letters, or words taken from the full version of the word or phrase; for ...
, Proto-Slavic paradigms for participles Old Church Slavonic is also likely to have preserved an extremely archaic type of accentuation (probably close to the
Chakavian dialect Chakavian or Čakavian (, , , sh-Latn, čakavski proper name: or own name: ''čokovski, čakavski, čekavski'') is a South Slavic languages, South Slavic regiolect or language spoken primarily by Croats along the Adriatic coast, in the histo ...
of modern Serbo-Croatian), but unfortunately, no accent marks appear in the written manuscripts. The South Slavic nature of the language is evident from the following variations: * Phonetic: ** ''ra, la'' by means of
liquid metathesis The Slavic liquid metathesis refers to the phenomenon of metathesis (linguistics), metathesis of liquid consonants in the Common Slavic period in the South Slavic languages, South Slavic and West Slavic languages, West Slavic area. The closely relat ...
of Proto-Slavic *or, *ol clusters ** ''sě'' from Proto-Slavic *xě < *xai ** ''cv, (d)zv'' from Proto-Slavic *kvě, *gvě < *kvai, *gvai *morphosyntactic use of the dative possessive case in personal pronouns and nouns: 'рѫка ти' (''rǫka ti'', "your hand"), 'отъпоущенье грѣхомъ' (''otŭpuštenĭje grěxomŭ'', "remission of sins");
periphrastic In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
future tense using the verb 'хотѣти' (''xotěti'', "to want"); use of the comparative form 'мьнии' (''mĭniji'', "smaller") to denote "younger". **morphosyntactic use of suffixed demonstrative pronouns 'тъ, та, то' (''tŭ, ta, to''). In Bulgarian and Macedonian these developed into suffixed definite articles. Old Church Slavonic has some extra features in common with
Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demographics of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

Bulgarian
: * Near-open articulation of the ''
Yat Yat or Jat (Ѣ ѣ; italics: ''Ѣ ѣ'') is the thirty-second letter of the old Cyrillic alphabet. There is also another version of Yat, the iotified Yat (majuscule: , minuscule: ), which is a Cyrillic character combining a decimal ...

Yat
'' vowel (ě); still preserved in the Bulgarian dialects of the
Rhodope mountains - el, Ροδόπη , photo=Родопско зелено.jpg , photo_caption= Vacha Reservoir , country_type= Countries , country= , geology= , orogeny= , area_km2=14735 , range_coordinates= , length_km=240 , length_orientation= west- ...
; * The existence of and as reflexes of Proto-Slavic *ť (< *tj and *gt, *kt) and *ď (< *dj). * Use of possessive dative for personal pronouns and nouns, as in 'братъ ми' (''bratŭ mi'', "my brother"), 'рѫка ти' (''rǫka ti'', "your hand"), 'отъпоущенье грѣхомъ' (''otŭpuštenĭje grěxomŭ'', "remission of sins"), 'храмъ молитвѣ' (''xramŭ molitvě'', 'house of prayer'), etc. *
Periphrastic In linguistics Linguistics is the scientific study of language A language is a structured system of communication Communication (from Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic ...
compound future tense formed with the auxiliary verb 'хотѣти' (''xotěti'', "to want"), for example 'хоштѫ писати' (''xoštǫ pisati'', "I will write").


Great Moravia

The language was standardized for the first time by the mission of the two apostles to
Great Moravia Great Moravia ( la, Regnum Marahensium; el, Μεγάλη Μοραβία, ''Meghálī Moravía''; cz, Velká Morava ; sk, Veľká Morava ; pl, Wielkie Morawy), or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to ...

Great Moravia
from 863. The manuscripts of the Moravian recension are therefore the earliest dated of the OCS recensions. The recension takes its name from the Slavic state of Great Moravia which existed in Central Europe during the 9th century on the territory of today's western Slovakia and Czech Republic.


Moravian recension

This recension is exemplified by the Kiev Folia. Certain other linguistic characteristics include: * Confusion between the letters ''Big yus'' (Ѫ) and ''Uk'' (оу) - this occurs once in the Kiev Folia, when the expected form въсоудъ ''vъsudъ'' is spelled въсѫдъ ''vъsǫdъ'' * from Proto-Slavic *tj, use of from *dj, *skj * Use of the words ''mьša'', ''cirky'', ''papežь'', ''prěfacija'', ''klepati'', ''piskati'' etc. * Preservation of the consonant cluster (e.g. ''modlitvami'') * Use of the ending –ъmь instead of –omь in the masculine singular
instrumental An instrumental is a recording normally without any vocals, although it might include some inarticulate vocal The human voice consists of sound In physics, sound is a vibration that propagates as an acoustic wave, through a transmissio ...
, use of the pronoun čьso


First Bulgarian Empire

Old Church Slavonic language is developed in the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
and was taught in
Preslav The modern Veliki Preslav or Great Preslav ( bg, Велики Преслав, ), former Preslav ( bg, link=no, Преслав; until 1993), is a city and the seat of government of the Veliki Preslav Municipality (Great Preslav Municipality, new ...
(Bulgarian capital between 893 and 972), and in
Ohrid Ohrid ( mk, Охрид ) is a city in North Macedonia and is the seat of the Ohrid Municipality. It is the largest city on Lake Ohrid and the List of cities in North Macedonia, eighth-largest city in the country, with the municipality recording ...

Ohrid
(Bulgarian capital between 991/997 and 1015). It did not represent one regional dialect but a generalized form of early
eastern South Slavic The Eastern South Slavic dialects form the eastern subgroup of the South Slavic languages The South Slavic languages are one of three branches of the Slavic languages The Slavic languages, also known as the Slavonic languages, are Indo- ...
, which cannot be localized. The existence of two major literary centres in the Empire led in the period from the 9th to the 11th centuries to the emergence of two
recension Recension is the practice of editing or revising a text based on critical analysis. When referring to manuscript A manuscript (abbreviated MS for singular and MSS for plural) was, traditionally, any document written by hand – or, once ...
s (otherwise called "
redaction Redaction is a form of editing Editing is the process of selecting and preparing written language, written, photographic, Image editing, visual, Audio engineer, audible, or Film editing, cinematic material used by a person or an entity to ...

redaction
s"), termed "Eastern" and "Western" respectively. Some researchers do not differentiate between manuscripts of the two recensions, preferring to group them together in a "Macedo-Bulgarian" or simply "Bulgarian" recension. Others, as
Horace Lunt Horace Gray Lunt (September 12, 1918 – August 11, 2010) was a linguistics, linguist in the field of Slavic Studies. He was Professor Emeritus at the Slavic Language and Literature Department and the Ukrainian Institute at Harvard University. B ...
, have changed their opinion with time. In the mid-1970s, Lunt held that the differences in the initial OCS were neither great enough nor consistent enough to grant a distinction between a 'Macedonian' recension and a 'Bulgarian' one. A decade later, however, Lunt argued in favour of such a distinction, illustrating his point with paleographic, phonological and other differences. The development of Old Church Slavonic literacy had the effect of preventing the assimilation of the
South Slavs The South Slavs are a subgroup of Slavic peoples Slavs are an ethno-linguistic group of people who speak the various Slavic languages of the larger Balto-Slavic language, Balto-Slavic linguistic group of the Indo-European languages. They are ...
into neighboring cultures, which promoted the formation of a distinct Bulgarian identity.


Preslav recension

The manuscripts of the Preslav recension. or "Eastern" variant are among the oldest of the Old Church Slavonic language. This recension was centred around the
Preslav Literary School The Preslav Literary School ( bg, Преславска книжовна школа), also known as the Pliska Literary School or Pliska-Preslav Literary school was the first literary school in the medieval Bulgarian Empire In the medieval hi ...
. Since the earliest datable
Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is ...
inscriptions were found in the area of
Preslav The modern Veliki Preslav or Great Preslav ( bg, Велики Преслав, ), former Preslav ( bg, link=no, Преслав; until 1993), is a city and the seat of government of the Veliki Preslav Municipality (Great Preslav Municipality, new ...
, it is this school which is credited with the development of the Cyrillic alphabet which gradually replaced the Glagolic one. A number of prominent Bulgarian writers and scholars worked at the Preslav Literary School, including
Naum of Preslav Saint Naum (Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulgarians, a South Slavic ethnic group * Bulgarian language, a Slavic language * Bulgarian alphabet * A citizen of Bulgaria, see Demog ...
(until 893),
Constantine of Preslav Constantine of Preslav () was a medieval First Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ...
,
John Exarch John the Exarch (also transcribed Joan Ekzarh; ) was a medieval First Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginn ...
,
Chernorizets Hrabar Chernorizets Hrabar ( chu, Чрьнори́зьць Хра́бръ, ''Črĭnorizĭcĭ Hrabrŭ'', bg, Черноризец Храбър)Sometimes modernized as ''Chernorizetz Hrabar'', ''Chernorizets Hrabr'' or ''Crnorizec Hrabar'' was a First Bulga ...
, etc. The main linguistic features of this recension are the following: * The Glagolitic and Cyrillic alphabets were used concurrently. * In some documents the original supershort vowels ъ and ь merged with one letter taking the place of the other. * The original ascending reflex (''rь'', ''lь'') of syllabic and was sometimes metathesized to ''ьr'', ''ьl''; or a combination of the ordering was used. * The central vowel ы ''y'' merged with ъи ''ъi''. * Sometimes the use of letter () was merged with that of (). * The verb forms нарицаѭ, нарицаѥши (''naricajǫ, naricaješi'') were substituted or alternated with наричꙗѭ, наричꙗеши (''naričjajǫ, naričjaješi'').


Ohrid recension

The manuscripts of the Ohrid recension or "Western" variant are among the oldest of the Old Church Slavonic language. The recension is sometimes named Macedonian because its literary centre,
Ohrid Ohrid ( mk, Охрид ) is a city in North Macedonia and is the seat of the Ohrid Municipality. It is the largest city on Lake Ohrid and the List of cities in North Macedonia, eighth-largest city in the country, with the municipality recording ...
, lies in the historical
region of Macedonia Macedonia () is a geographical and historical region of the Balkan Peninsula in Southeast Europe. Its boundaries have changed considerably over time; however, it came to be defined as the modern geographical region by the mid 19th century. Tod ...
. At that period,
Ohrid Ohrid ( mk, Охрид ) is a city in North Macedonia and is the seat of the Ohrid Municipality. It is the largest city on Lake Ohrid and the List of cities in North Macedonia, eighth-largest city in the country, with the municipality recording ...

Ohrid
administratively formed part of the province of
Kutmichevitsa Kutmichevitsa ( bg, Кутмичевица) was an administrative region of the Bulgarian Empire In the medieval history of Europe, Bulgaria's status as the Bulgarian Empire ( bg, Българско царство, ''Balgarsko tsarstvo'' ), wh ...
in the
First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian Empire ( cu, блъгарьско цѣсарьствиѥ, blagarysko tsesarystviye) was a medieval Bulgar- Slavic and later Bulgarian Bulgarian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to the country of Bulgaria * Bulg ...

First Bulgarian Empire
until the Byzantine conquest. The main literary centre of this dialect was the
Ohrid Literary School The Ohrid Literary School or Ohrid-Devol (Albania), ''Devol'' Literary school was one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). The school was established in Oh ...
, whose most prominent member and most likely founder, was Saint Clement of Ohrid who was commissioned by
Boris I of Bulgaria Boris I, also known as Boris-Mihail (Michael) and ''Bogoris'' ( cu, Борисъ А҃ / Борисъ-Михаилъ bg, Борис I / Борис-Михаил; died 2 May 907), was the ruler of the First Bulgarian Empire The First Bulgarian ...

Boris I of Bulgaria
to teach and instruct the future clergy of the state in the Slavonic language. The language variety that was used in the area started shaping the modern
Macedonian dialectsThe dialects of Macedonian comprise the Slavic dialects spoken in the Republic of North Macedonia North Macedonia, ; sq, Maqedonia e Veriut, (Macedonia until February 2019), officially the Republic of North Macedonia,, is a country in So ...
..
Macedonian, Victor Friedman
Facts about world's languages, 2001''
This recension is represented by the
Codex ZographensisThe ''Codex Zographensis'' (or ''Tetraevangelium Zographense''; scholarly abbreviation ''Zo'') is an illuminated Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-cen ...
and
Marianus Marianus is a male name, formerly an Ancient Roman family name, derived from Marius (name), Marius. Marianus may refer to: *Marianus of Auxerre (died 462 or 473), French monk and saint *Marianus Scotus of Mainz (1028–1082 or -83), otherwise Máel ...
, among others. The main linguistic features of this recension include: * Continuous usage of the
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, , ''glagolitsa'') is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Metho ...

Glagolitic alphabet
instead of
Cyrillic , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () were the formal writing system A writing system is ...
* A feature called "mixing (confusion) of the nasals" in which became after , and in a cluster of a labial consonant and . became after sibilant consonants and * Wide use of the soft consonant clusters and ; in the later stages, these developed into the modern Macedonian phonemes * Strict distinction in the articulation of the yers and their vocalisation in strong position (ъ > and ь > ) or deletion in weak position * Confusion of with yat and yat with * Denasalization in the latter stages: > and > , оу, ъ * Wider usage and retention of the phoneme (which in most other Slavic languages has dеaffricated to );


Czech recension

Czech (Bohemian) recension is derived from Moravian recension and had been used in the Czech lands until 1097. It's preserved in religious texts (e.g. Prague Fragments), legends and glosses. Its main features are: * PSl. *tj, *kt(i), *dj, *gt(i) → c /ts/, z * PSl. *stj, *skj → šč: ''*očistjenьje'' → ''očiščenie'' * ending ''-ъmь'' in instr. sg. (instead of ''-omь''): ''obrazъmь'' * verbs with prefix ''vy-'' (instead of ''iz-'') * promoting of etymological ''-dl-, -tl-'' (''světidlъna, vъsedli'', inconsistently) * suppressing of epenthetic ''l'' (''prěstavenie'', inconsistently) * ''-š-'' in original stem ''vьch-'' (''všěch'') after 3rd palatalization * development of yers and nasals coincident with development in Czech lands * fully syllabic ''r'' and ''l'' * ending ''-my'' in first-person pl. verbs * missing terminal ''-tь'' in third-person present tense indicative * creating future tense using prefix ''po-'' * using words ''prosba (request), zagrada (garden), požadati (to ask for), potrěbovati (to need)'', conjunctions ''aby, nebo'' etc.


Later recensions

Later use of the language in a number of medieval Slavic polities resulted in the adjustment of Old Church Slavonic to the local vernacular, though a number of South Slavic,
Moravia Moravia ( , also , ; cs, Morava ; german: link=no, Mähren ; pl, Morawy ; szl, Morawa; la, Moravia) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geography, geographical areas which at some point in time had a cult ...

Moravia
n or
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
n features also survived. Significant later recensions of Old Church Slavonic (referred to as
Church Slavonic Church Slavonic (црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ, ''crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ'', literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative ...
) in the present time include:
Slovene Slovene or Slovenian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Slovenia, a country in Central Europe * Slovene language, a South Slavic language mainly spoken in Slovenia * Slovenes, an ethno-linguistic group mainly living in Slovenia * Sla ...
,
Croatian Croatian may refer to: *Croatia *Croatian cuisine *Croatian language *Croatian name *Croats, people from Croatia, or of Croatian descent *Citizens of Croatia, see demographics of Croatia See also

* Croatia (disambiguation) * Serbo-Croatian (di ...
,
Serbian Serbian may refer to: * someone or something related to Serbia, a country in Southeastern Europe * someone or something related to the Serbs, a South Slavic people * Serbian language * Serbian names See also

* * * Serbian Uprising (disamb ...
and
Russian Russian refers to anything related to Russia, including: *Russians (русские, ''russkiye''), an ethnic group of the East Slavic peoples, primarily living in Russia and neighboring countries *Rossiyane (россияне), Russian language term ...
. In all cases, denasalization of the
yus Little yus (Ѧ ѧ) and big yus (Ѫ ѫ), or jus, are letters of the Cyrillic script The Cyrillic script ( ) is a used for various languages across and is used as the national script in various , , , , and -speaking countries in , , ...

yus
es occurred; so that only Old Church Slavonic, modern
Polish Polish may refer to: * Anything from or related to Poland Poland, officially the Republic of Poland, is a country located in Central Europe. It is divided into 16 Voivodeships of Poland, administrative provinces, covering an area of , ...
and some isolated
Bulgarian dialects Bulgarian dialects are the regional varieties of the Bulgarian language #REDIRECT Bulgarian language #REDIRECT Bulgarian language Bulgarian (, ; bg, label=none, български, bălgarski, ) is a South Slavic langu ...
retained the old Slavonic nasal vowels.


Serbian recension

The Serbian recension was written mostly in Cyrillic, but also in the Glagolitic alphabet (depending on region); by the 12th century the Serbs used exclusively the Cyrillic alphabet (and
Latin script Latin script, also known as Roman script, is an alphabetic An alphabet is a standardized set of basic written symbols A symbol is a mark, sign, or word In linguistics, a word of a spoken language can be defined as the smallest sequ ...

Latin script
in coastal areas). The 1186 Miroslav Gospels belong to the Serbian recension. They feature the following linguistic characteristics: * Nasal vowels were denasalised and in one case closed: *ę > e, *ǫ > u, e.g. OCS rǫka > Sr. ruka ("hand"), OCS językъ > Sr. jezik ("tongue, language") * Extensive use of diacritical signs by the Resava dialect * Use of letters ''i, y'' for the sound in other manuscripts of the Serbian recension Due to the Ottoman conquest of Bulgaria in 1396, Serbia saw an influx of educated scribes and clergy who re-introduced a more classical form, closer resembling the Bulgarian recension. The letter Ꙉ was also created, in place of the sounds *d͡ʑ, *tɕ, *dʑ and d͡ʒ,also used during the Bosnian recession.


Russian recension

The Russian recension emerged after the 10th century on the basis of the earlier Bulgarian recension, from which it differed slightly. Its main features are: * Substitution of for the nasal sound * Merging of letters ''ę'' and ''ja''


Middle Bulgarian

The line between OCS and post-OCS manuscripts is arbitrary, and terminology varies. The common term "Middle Bulgarian" is usually contrasted to "Old Bulgarian" (an alternative name for Old Church Slavonic), and loosely used for manuscripts whose language demonstrates a broad spectrum of regional and temporal dialect features after the 11th century.


Bosnian recension

The Bosnian recension used the
Bosnian Cyrillic Bosnian Cyrillic, widely known as Bosančica is an extinct variant of the Cyrillic alphabet , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian ...
alphabet (better known as ''Bosančica'') and the
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, , ''glagolitsa'') is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Metho ...

Glagolitic alphabet
. * Use of letters ''i, y, ě'' for the sound in . The letter was used in place of the sounds *tɕ *ʃt and *ɕ


Croatian recension

The Croatian recension of Old Church Slavonic used only the
Glagolitic alphabet The Glagolitic script (, , ''glagolitsa'') is the oldest known Slavic alphabet. It is generally agreed to have been created in the 9th century by Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril, a monk from Thessaloniki. He and his brother, Saint Metho ...

Glagolitic alphabet
of angular Croatian type. It shows the development of the following characteristics: * Denasalisation of PSl. *ę > e, PSl. *ǫ > u, e.g. Cr. ''ruka'' : OCS ''rǫka'' ("hand"), Cr. ''jezik'' : OCS ''językъ'' ("tongue, language") * PSl. *y > i, e.g. Cr. ''biti'' : OCS ''byti'' ("to be") * PSl. weak-positioned
yers A yer is either of two letters in Cyrillic alphabet , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () w ...
*ъ and *ь in merged, probably representing some schwa-like sound, and only one of the letters was used (usually 'ъ'). Evident in earliest documents like
Baška tablet Baška tablet ( hr, Bašćanska ploča, ) is one of the first monuments containing an inscription in the Church Slavonic#Croatian recension, Croatian recension of the Church Slavonic language, dating from . The inscription is written in the Glagol ...

Baška tablet
. * PSl. strong-positioned
yers A yer is either of two letters in Cyrillic alphabet , bg, кирилица , mk, кирилица , russian: кириллица , sr, ћирилица, uk, кирилиця , fam1 = Egyptian hieroglyphs Egyptian hieroglyphs () w ...
*ъ and *ь were vocalized into a in most Štokavian and Čakavian speeches, e.g. Cr. ''pas'' : OCS ''pьsъ'' ("dog") * PSl. hard and soft syllabic liquids *r and r′ retained syllabicity and were written as simply r, as opposed to OCS sequences of mostly rь and rъ, e.g. ''krstъ'' and ''trgъ'' as opposed to OCS ''krьstъ'' and ''trъgъ'' ("cross", "market") * PSl. #vьC and #vъC > #uC, e.g. Cr. ''udova'' : OCS. ''vъdova'' ("widow")


Canon

The core corpus of Old Church Slavonic manuscripts is usually referred to as ''canon''. Manuscripts must satisfy certain linguistic, chronological and cultural criteria to be incorporated into the canon: they must not significantly depart from the language and tradition of Saints Cyril and Methodius, usually known as the ''Cyrillo-Methodian tradition''. For example, the
Freising Fragments The Freising manuscriptsAlso ''Freising folia'', ''Freising fragments'', or ''Freising monuments''; german: Freisinger Denkmäler, la, Monumenta Frisingensia, sl, Brižinski spomeniki or are the first Latin-script Latin script, also known ...
, dating from the 10th century, show some linguistic and cultural traits of Old Church Slavonic, but they are usually not included in the canon, as some of the phonological features of the writings appear to belong to certain Pannonian Slavic dialect of the period. Similarly, the
Ostromir Gospels with many spellings reflecting the East Slavic recension, is famous for its brilliant miniatures. The opening of the Gospel of Saint John The Gospel according to John ( el, Εὐαγγέλιον κατὰ Ἰωάννην, translit=Euangélion ...
exhibits dialectal features that classify it as
East Slavic East Slavic may refer to: * East Slavic languages, one of three branches of the Slavic languages * East Slavs, a subgroup of Slavic peoples who speak the East Slavic languages See also

* Old East Slavic, a language used during the 10th–15th ...
, rather than South Slavic so it is not included in the canon either. On the other hand, the
Kiev Missal The Kyiv Missal (or Kyiv Fragments or Kyiv Folios; scholarly abbreviation Ki) is a seven-folio Glagolitic Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-century ...
is included in the canon even though it manifests some West Slavic features and contains Western liturgy because of the Bulgarian linguistic layer and connection to the Moravian mission. Manuscripts are usually classified in two groups, depending on the alphabet used, Cyrillic or Glagolitic. With the exception of the Kiev Missal and Glagolita Clozianus, which exhibit West Slavic and Croatian features respectively, all Glagolitic texts are assumed to be of the Macedonian recension: *
Kiev Missal The Kyiv Missal (or Kyiv Fragments or Kyiv Folios; scholarly abbreviation Ki) is a seven-folio Glagolitic Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-century ...
(Ki, KM), seven folios, late 10th century *
Codex ZographensisThe ''Codex Zographensis'' (or ''Tetraevangelium Zographense''; scholarly abbreviation ''Zo'') is an illuminated Old Church Slavonic Old Church Slavonic or Old Slavonic (, ) was the first Slavic literary language. Historians credit the 9th-cen ...
, (Zo), 288 folios, 10th or 11th century *
Codex Marianus The ''Codex Marianus'' is an Old Church Slavonic fourfold Gospel Book written in Glagolitic script, dated to the beginning of the 11th century, which is (along with Codex Zographensis), one of the oldest manuscript witnesses to the Old Church Slavo ...
(Mar), 173 folios, early 11th century *
Codex Assemanius Codex Assemanius (scholarly abbreviation Ass) is a rounded Glagolitic The Glagolitic script (, ''glagolitsa''; Bulgarian and Macedonian: глаголица, romanized as ''glagolitsa'' and ''glagolica'' respectively; Croatian: ; Czech: ; S ...
(Ass), 158 folios, early 11th century *
Psalterium Sinaiticum The Psalterium Sinaiticum (scholarly abbreviations: Psa or Ps. sin.) is a 209-folio Glagolitic script, Glagolitic Old Church Slavonic Old_Church_Slavonic#Canon, canon manuscript, the earliest Slavic psalter, dated to the 11th century. The manuscri ...

Psalterium Sinaiticum
(Pas, Ps. sin.), 177 folios, 11th century * Euchologium Sinaiticum (Eu, Euch), 109 folios, 11th century * Glagolita Clozianus (Clo, Cloz), 14 folios, 11th century * Ohrid Folios (Ohr), 2 folios, 11th century * Rila Folios (Ri, Ril), 2 folios and 5 fragments, 11th century All Cyrillic manuscripts are of the Preslav recension (
Preslav Literary School The Preslav Literary School ( bg, Преславска книжовна школа), also known as the Pliska Literary School or Pliska-Preslav Literary school was the first literary school in the medieval Bulgarian Empire In the medieval hi ...
) and date from the 11th century except for the Zographos, which is of the Ohrid recension (
Ohrid Literary School The Ohrid Literary School or Ohrid-Devol (Albania), ''Devol'' Literary school was one of the two major cultural centres of the First Bulgarian Empire, along with the Preslav Literary School (Pliska Literary School). The school was established in Oh ...
): * Sava's book (Sa, Sav), 126 folios * Codex Suprasliensis, (Supr), 284 folios * Enina Apostle (En, Enin), 39 folios * Hilandar Folios (Hds, Hil), 2 folios * Undol'skij's Fragments (Und), 2 folios * Macedonian Folio (Mac), 1 folio * Zographos Fragments (Zogr. Fr.), 2 folios * Sluck Psalter (Ps. Sl., Sl), 5 folios


Sample text

Here is the Lord's Prayer in Old Church Slavonic:


Authors

The history of Old Church Slavonic writing includes a northern tradition begun by the mission to
Great Moravia Great Moravia ( la, Regnum Marahensium; el, Μεγάλη Μοραβία, ''Meghálī Moravía''; cz, Velká Morava ; sk, Veľká Morava ; pl, Wielkie Morawy), or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to ...

Great Moravia
, including a short mission in the Pannonian Slavs#Principality, Lower Pannonia, and a Bulgarian tradition begun by some of the missionaries who relocated to
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
after the expulsion from Great Moravia. Old Church Slavonic's first writings, translations of Christian liturgical and Biblical texts, were produced by Byzantine missionaries Saints Cyril and Methodius, Saint Cyril and Saint Methodius of Thessaloniki, Saint Methodius, mostly during their mission to
Great Moravia Great Moravia ( la, Regnum Marahensium; el, Μεγάλη Μοραβία, ''Meghálī Moravía''; cz, Velká Morava ; sk, Veľká Morava ; pl, Wielkie Morawy), or simply Moravia, was the first major state that was predominantly West Slavic to ...

Great Moravia
. The most important authors in Old Church Slavonic after the death of Methodius and the dissolution of the Great Moravian academy were
Clement of Ohrid Saint Clement of Ohrid (Bulgarian language, Bulgarian and Macedonian language, Macedonian: , ; el, Άγιος Κλήμης της Αχρίδας; sk, svätý Kliment Ochridský; – 916) was one of the first First Bulgarian Empire, Medieval Bulg ...
(active also in Great Moravia),
Constantine of Preslav Constantine of Preslav () was a medieval First Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. ...
, Chernorizetz Hrabar and
John Exarch John the Exarch (also transcribed Joan Ekzarh; ) was a medieval First Bulgarian Empire, Bulgarian scholar, writer and translator, one of the most important men of letters working at the Preslav Literary School at the end of the 9th and the beginn ...
, all of whom worked in medieval
Bulgaria Bulgaria (; bg, България, Bǎlgariya), officially the Republic of Bulgaria ( bg, Република България, links=no, Republika Bǎlgariya, ), is a country in Southeast Europe. It is bordered by Romania to the north, Serbia ...

Bulgaria
at the end of the 9th and the beginning of the 10th century. The Second Book of Enoch was only preserved in Old Church Slavonic, although the original most certainly had been Greek language, Greek or even Hebrew or Aramaic.


Modern Slavic nomenclature

Here are some of the names used by speakers of modern Slavic languages: * be, стараславянская мова (''starasłavianskaja mova''), ‘Old Slavic language’ * bg, старобългарски (''starobălgarski''), ‘Old Bulgarian’ and старославянски,Иванова-Мирчева 1969: Д. Иванова-Мнрчева. Старобългарски, старославянски и средно-българска редакция на старославянски. Константин Кирил Философ. В Юбилеен сборник по случай 1100 годишнината от смъртта му, стр. 45-62. (''staroslavjanski''), ‘Old Slavic’ * cs, staroslověnština, ‘Old Slavic’ * mk, старословенски (''staroslovenski''), ‘Old Slavic’ * pl, staro-cerkiewno-słowiański, ‘Old Church Slavic’ * russian: старославянский язык (''staroslavjánskij jazýk''), ‘Old Slavic language’ * sh-Latn, staroslovenski / staroslavenski, sh-Cyrl, старословенски / старославенски, ‘Old Slavic’ * sk, staroslovienčina, ‘Old Slavic’ * sl, stara cerkvena slovanščina, ‘Old Church Slavic’ * ua, староцерковнослов’янська мова (''starotserkovnoslovjans'ka mova''), ‘Old Church Slavic language’


See also

* History of the Bulgarian language *
Church Slavonic language Church Slavonic (црькъвьнословѣньскъ ѩзыкъ, ''crĭkŭvĭnoslověnĭskŭ językŭ'', literally "Church-Slavonic language"), also known as Church Slavic, New Church Slavonic or New Church Slavic, is the conservative ...
* Old East Slavic * List of Glagolitic manuscripts *
Proto-Slavic language Proto-Slavic is the unattested, reconstructed Reconstruction may refer to: Politics, history, and sociology *Reconstruction (law), the transfer of a company's (or several companies') business to a new company *''Perestroika'' (Russian for ...
* Slavonic-Serbian


Notes


References


Bibliography

* * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * *


External links


Old Church Slavonic Online
by Todd B. Krause and Jonathan Slocum, free online lessons at th
Linguistics Research Center
at the University of Texas at Austin
Medieval Slavic Fonts
on AATSEEL
Old Slavic data entry application

Corpus Cyrillo-Methodianum Helsingiense: An Electronic Corpus of Old Church Slavonic Texts


* Bible in Old Church Slavonic language - Russian redactio
(Wikisource)(PDF)(iPhone)(Android)

Old Church Slavonic and the Macedonian recension of the Church Slavonic language, Elka Ulchar
* Vittore Pisani
Old Bulgarian Language
Sofia, Bukvitza, 2012. English, Bulgarian, Italian. * Philipp Ammon
''Tractatus slavonicus''.
in: ''Sjani (Thoughts) Georgian Scientific Journal of Literary Theory and Comparative Literature'', N 17, 2016, pp. 248–56 *

an online collection of introductory videos to Ancient Indo-European languages produced by the University of Göttingen {{DEFAULTSORT:Slavic, Old Church Languages attested from the 9th century Old Church Slavonic language, History of Eastern Orthodoxy Extinct languages of Europe Extinct Slavic languages Great Moravia History of Macedonia (region) Christian liturgical languages Medieval Bulgarian literature Medieval languages Medieval Macedonia Medieval Serbia