HOME

TheInfoList




The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the
legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contrasted with the Executive (government), executive and Judiciary, ...
of
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...

Ireland
. The Oireachtas consists of: *The
President of Ireland The president of Ireland ( ga, Uachtarán na hÉireann) is the head of state A head of state (or chief of state) is the public persona A persona (plural personae or personas), depending on the context, can refer to either the public ...
*The two houses of the Oireachtas ( ga, Tithe an Oireachtais): **
Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the , and principal chamber, of the (Irish legislature), which also includes the and (the ).Article 15.1.2º of the reads: "The Oireachtas shall consist of the President and two Houses, viz.: a House of Represent ...
(
lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community in Apache County *Chambers, Nebraska *Chambers, We ...
) **
Seanad Éireann Seanad Éireann ( , ; "Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamb ...

Seanad Éireann
( upper house) The houses of the Oireachtas sit in
Leinster House Leinster House ( ga, Teach Laighean) is the seat of the Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of ...
in
Dublin Dublin (; , or ) is the capital and largest city of Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster-Scots: ) is an island upright=1.15, Great_Britain.html"_;"title="Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain">Ireland_(left)_and_Great_Britain_ ...

Dublin
, an eighteenth-century
ducal A duke (male) can either be a monarch ranked below the emperor An emperor (from la, imperator, via fro, empereor) is a monarch, and usually the sovereignty, sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. Empress, the f ...

ducal
palace A palace is a grand residence, especially a royal residence, or the home of a or some other high-ranking dignitary, such as a or . The word is derived from the name palātium, for in Rome which housed the residences. Most European languages ...

palace
. The directly elected Dáil is by far the more powerful branch of the Oireachtas.


Etymology

The word comes from the
Irish Irish most commonly refers to: * Someone or something of, from, or related to: ** Ireland, an island situated off the north-western coast of continental Europe ** Northern Ireland, a constituent unit of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and North ...
word / ("deliberative assembly of freemen; assembled freemen; assembly, gathering; patrimony, territory"), ultimately from the word ("freeman"). Its first recorded use as the name of a legislative body was within the
Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of St ...
.


Composition

Dáil Éireann, the lower house, is directly elected under
universal suffrage Universal suffrage (also called universal franchise, general suffrage, and common suffrage of the common man) gives the right to vote Suffrage, political franchise, or simply franchise, is the right to vote in public, political elections (a ...
of all Irish citizens who are residents and at least eighteen years old. An election is held at least once every five years as required by law; however, the house can be dissolved at any time at the request of the
Taoiseach The Taoiseach is the prime minister and head of government The head of government is either the highest or second highest official in the executive branch of a sovereign state, a federated state, or a self-governing colony, autonomous reg ...
(head of government). Dáil elections use a system of
proportional representation#REDIRECT Proportional representation Proportional representation (PR) characterizes electoral systems in which divisions in an electorate are reflected proportionately in the elected body. The concept applies mainly to geographical, and to ideolog ...

proportional representation
by way of a
single transferable vote Single transferable vote (STV) is a type of ranked preferential electoral system An electoral system or voting system is a set of rules that determine how elections and Referendum, referendums are conducted and how their results are de ...
. The Dáil has 160 members. The Seanad is not directly elected but consists of a mixture of members selected in a number of different ways. 43 senators are elected by councillors and parliamentarians, 11 are appointed by the Taoiseach, and six are elected by two
university constituencies A university constituency is a constituency, used in elections to a legislature, that represents the members of one or more universities rather than residents of a geographical area. These may or may not involve plural voting, in which voters ...
, thus having 60 members in total. The President of Ireland is directly elected once every seven years, and may serve a maximum of two terms; however, if, as has occurred on a number of occasions, a consensus among the larger political parties can result in only a single candidate being nominated, no actual election takes place.


Role

To become law, a
bill Bill(s) may refer to: Common meanings * Banknote A banknote (often known as a bill (in the US and Canada), paper money, or simply a note) is a type of negotiable instrument, negotiable promissory note, made by a bank or other licensed author ...
must first be approved by both the Dáil and in most circumstances the Seanad (although the Dáil can override a Seanad refusal to pass a Bill), and then signed into law by the President. Bills to amend the Constitution must also be approved by the People in a referendum prior to being presented to the President. In most circumstances, the President is in effect obliged to sign all laws approved by the Houses of the Oireachtas, although he or she has the power to refer most bills to the Supreme Court for a ruling on constitutionality. The powers of the Seanad are in effect limited to delay rather than veto. It is the Dáil, therefore, that is the supreme tier of the Irish legislature. The general
enacting formula An enacting clause, or enacting formula, is a short phrase that introduces the main provisions of a law enacted by a legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is the st ...
for
Acts of the OireachtasThis is a list of Acts The Acts of the Apostles ( grc-koi, Πράξεις Ἀποστόλων, ''Práxeis Apostólōn''; la, Actūs Apostolōrum), often referred to simply as Acts, or formally the Book of Acts, is the fifth book of the New Testa ...
is: "Be it enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:—", for an act with a preamble this enacting formula is, instead, "Be it therefore enacted by the Oireachtas as follows:—".


Powers

The Oireachtas has exclusive power to: * Legislate, including a power vested in the Dáil of approving the financial resolutions relevant to the budget. However, the courts have allowed the Oireachtas to delegate limited legislative powers to other entities, such as Government Ministers. * Create subordinate legislatures. * Propose changes to the constitution (must be initiated in the Dáil), which must then be submitted to a
referendum A referendum (plural: referendums or less commonly referenda) is a direct Direct may refer to: Mathematics * Directed set In mathematics Mathematics (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ) includes the study of such topics as quantity (number th ...

referendum
. * Raise military or armed forces. * Allow international agreements to become part of the domestic law of the state. * Pass certain laws having an extraterritorial effect (in accordance with the similar practices of other states). * Enact, when it considers a
state of emergency A state of emergency is a situation in which a government is empowered to be able to put through policies that it would normally not be permitted to do, for the safety and protection of its citizens. A government can declare such a state duri ...
to exist, almost any law it deems necessary, with the imposition of capital punishment being the only absolutely excluded act in all circumstances.


Limitations

* Laws are invalid if, and to the extent that, they contradict the constitution. * In the event of a conflict,
EU law European Union law is a system of rules operating within the member states of the European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a whic ...
also takes precedence over acts of the Oireachtas, as is common throughout the
European Union The European Union (EU) is a political and economic union of member states that are located primarily in Europe Europe is a which is also recognised as part of , located entirely in the and mostly in the . It comprises the wester ...

European Union
. * It may not retrospectively criminalise acts that were not illegal at the time they were committed. * It may not enact any law providing for the imposition of the
death penalty Capital punishment, also known as the death penalty, is the state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ' ...

death penalty
, even during a state of emergency.


Committees

The Oireachtas has a number of
joint committees A joint committee is a committee made up of members of the two chambers of a bicameral legislature. In other contexts, it refers to a committee with members from more than one organization. Germany A joint committee ('' Gemeinsamer Ausschuss'') c ...
that include members of both houses. There are currently fifteen of these: *Joint Committee on Agriculture and the Marine *Joint Committee on Children, Disability, Equality and Integration *Joint Committee on Climate Action *Joint Committee on Education, Further and Higher Education, Research, Innovation and Science *Joint Committee on Enterprise, Trade and Employment *Joint Committee on European Union Affairs *Joint Committee on Finance, Public Expenditure and Reform, and Taoiseach *Joint Committee on Foreign Affairs and Defence *Joint Committee on Health *Joint Committee on Housing, Local Government and Heritage *Joint Committee on the Implementation of the Good Friday Agreement *Joint Committee on Justice *Joint Committee on Media, Tourism, Arts, Culture, Sport and the Gaeltacht *Joint Committee on Social Protection, Community and Rural Development and the Islands *Joint Committee on Transport and Communications Networks *Working Group of Committee Chairmen


History

''Oireachtas'' has been the title of two parliaments in
Irish history The first evidence of human presence in Ireland Ireland (; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the North Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel ( ...
: the current Oireachtas of Ireland, since 1937, and, immediately before that, the
Oireachtas of the Irish Free State The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State ( ga, Oireachtas Shaorstát Éireann) was the legislature of the Irish Free State The Irish Free State ( ga, Saorstát Éireann, , ; 6 December 192229 December 1937) was a state established in 1922 un ...
of 1922–1937. The earliest parliament in Ireland was the
Parliament of Ireland The Parliament of Ireland ( ga, Parlaimint na hÉireann) was the of the , and later the , from 1297 until 1800. It was modelled on the and from 1537 comprised two chambers: the and the . The Lords were members of the (’’) and bisho ...
, which was founded in the thirteenth century as the supreme legislative body of the lordship of Ireland and was in existence until 1801. This parliament governed the English-dominated part of Ireland, which at first was limited to Dublin and surrounding cities, but later grew to include the entire island. But the Irish Parliament was, from the passage of Poynings' Law in 1494 until its repeal in 1782, subordinate to the English, and later British,
Parliament In modern politics and history, a parliament is a legislative A legislature is an assembly Assembly may refer to: Organisations and meetings * Deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of ...
. This Parliament consisted of the
King of Ireland Monarchical systems of government have existed in Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North C ...
, who was the same person as the King of England, a
House of Lords The House of Lords, formally The Right Honourable the Lords Spiritual and Temporal of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland in Parliament assembled, is the of the . Membership is by , or . Like the , it meets in the . ar ...
and a
House of Commons The House of Commons is the name for the elected lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporat ...
. In 1800 the Irish Parliament abolished itself when, after widespread bribery of members, it adopted the
Act of UnionAct of Union may refer to: In Great Britain and Ireland * Laws in Wales Acts 1535 and 1542, passed during the reign of King Henry VIII to make Wales a part of the Kingdom of England (These laws are often referred to in the plural as the "Acts of Un ...
, which came into effect from 1 January 1801. The next legislature to exist in Ireland only came into being in 1919. This was a
unicameral In government, unicameralism (Latin , "one" and , "chamber") is the practice of having a single legislative or legislative chamber, parliamentary chamber. Thus, a ''unicameral parliament'' or ''unicameral legislature'' is a legislature which co ...
parliament established by Irish republicans, known simply as
Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the lower house A lower house is one of two chambers Chambers may refer to: Places Canada: *Chambers Township, Ontario United States: *Chambers County, Alabama *Chambers, Arizona, an unincorporated community i ...
. This revolutionary Dáil was notionally a legislature for the whole island of Ireland. In 1920, in parallel to the Dáil, the
British government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland.
created a
home rule Home rule is government of a colony, dependent country, or region by its own citizens. It is thus the power of a part (administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative re ...

home rule
legislature called the
Parliament of Southern Ireland The Parliament of Southern Ireland was a Home Rule legislature established by the Government of the United Kingdom, British Government during the Irish War of Independence under the Government of Ireland Act 1920. It was designed to legislate for ...
. However, this parliament was boycotted by most Irish politicians. It was made up of the King, the
House of Commons of Southern Ireland The Parliament of Southern Ireland was a Home Rule legislature established by the British Government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdo ...
and the
Senate of Southern Ireland The Parliament of Southern Ireland was a Home Rule legislature established by the British Government The Government of the United Kingdom, domestically referred to as Her Majesty's Government, is the central government of the United Kingdo ...
. The Parliament of Southern Ireland was formally abolished in 1922, with the establishment of the Oireachtas under the
Constitution of the Irish Free State A constitution is an aggregate of fundamental principles or established precedents that constitute the legal basis of a polity, organisation An organization, or organisation ( Commonwealth English; see spelling differences), is an ...
. The Oireachtas of the Irish Free State consisted officially of the
King King is the title given to a male monarch in a variety of contexts. The female equivalent is queen regnant, queen, which title is also given to the queen consort, consort of a king. *In the context of prehistory, antiquity and contempora ...
and two houses, named, as their successors would be, Dáil Éireann (described, in this case, as a 'Chamber of Deputies') and Seanad Éireann. However, the Free State Senate was abolished in 1935. The modern Oireachtas came into being in 1937, with the adoption by referendum of the Constitution of Ireland.


Broadcasting

The first Oireachtas radio and television broadcasts were of ceremonial addresses from dignitaries, beginning with that of
John F. Kennedy John Fitzgerald Kennedy (May 29, 1917 – November 22, 1963), often referred to by his initials JFK, was an American politician who served as the 35th president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the ...

John F. Kennedy
during his 1963 state visit. Regular radio broadcasting of edited Oireachtas proceedings began in October 1986, although
budget A budget is a financial plan In general usage, a financial plan is a comprehensive evaluation of an individual's current pay and future financial state by using current known variables to predict future income, asset values and withdrawal p ...
statements had already been broadcast live. Television coverage of Dáil, Seanad, and committee proceedings began in 1990, 1991, and 1993 respectively. Since 2005 the proceedings of both houses have been made available over the internet by
HEAnet HEAnet is the national education and research network of Republic of Ireland, Ireland. HEAnet's e-infrastructure services support approximately 210,000 students and staff (third-level) in Ireland, and approximately 800,000 students and staff (fir ...
and the eDemocracy Unit of the Office of the Houses of the Oireachtas.
Houses of the Oireachtas Channel Houses of the Oireachtas Channel ( ga, Bealach Thithe an Oireachtais) or publicly called Oireachtas TV is a public service broadcaster for the two houses of the Oireachtas (Irish parliament). The channel was created under the Broadcasting Act 2009 ...
(publicly known as Oireachtas TV) is a digital television channel in Ireland. It broadcasts Committee and Houses and other parliament proceedings following its establishment under the
Broadcasting Act 2009 The Broadcasting Act 2009 (Number 18 of 2009) is an Act of the Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields ...
. On 15 November 2011, it began broadcasting a pilot service on
UPC Ireland Virgin Media Ireland is Liberty Global's telecommunications operation in Ireland. It is the largest digital cable television provider within the country. As of 31 December 2014, the company offers broadband internet, digital television and d ...
. On 22 September 2014, the Houses launched the dedicated television channel Oireachtas TV, bringing unfiltered access to the parliamentary process to over one million households nationwide. The service is available free of charge on UPC Channel 207 and Sky Channel 574. In 2012, the Oireachtas launched its first e-consultation.


Houses of the Oireachtas family day

On 28 June 2008, the first Houses of the Oireachtas family day was held. This initiative by the then
Ceann Comhairle The ( "Head of heCouncil"; plural usually ''Cinn Comhairle'' ) is the chairperson (or speaker) of Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes ...
of
Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the , and principal chamber, of the (Irish legislature), which also includes the and (the ).Article 15.1.2º of the reads: "The Oireachtas shall consist of the President and two Houses, viz.: a House of Represent ...
, John O'Donoghue and the
Cathaoirleach Cathaoirleach (; Irish language, Irish for Chairman, chairperson; plural: ) is the title of the chair (or speaker (politics), presiding officer) of Seanad Éireann, the sixty-member upper house of the Oireachtas, the legislature of Republic of I ...
of
Seanad Éireann Seanad Éireann ( , ; "Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamb ...

Seanad Éireann
, Pat Moylan aimed to increase public awareness in the work of the Houses of The Oireachtas. It included tours of both chambers of the Oireachtas, lectures on the history of Oireachtas, historic political speeches recited by actors and a hot air balloon – commemorating the balloon flight which took place in 1785 from Leinster Lawn. The Oireachtas family day took place again in 2009, but it has not been held since then.


Northern Ireland representation

Although, as adopted in 1937, Article 3 of the constitution asserted the "right of the parliament and government established by this constitution to exercise jurisdiction" over the whole of Ireland, it also provided that pending the "re-integration of the national territory" Acts of the Oireachtas would not apply to Northern Ireland. Therefore, no serious attempts have been made for the representation of Northern Ireland in the Dáil. As Taoiseach,
Éamon de Valera Éamon de Valera (, ; first registered as ''George de Valero''; changed some time before 1901 to ''Edward de Valera''; 14 October 1882 – 29 August 1975) was a prominent statesman and political leader in 20th-century Ireland. He served severa ...

Éamon de Valera
, while a staunch opponent of partition, and who had been elected to represent a Northern constituency in the
First Dáil The First Dáil ( ga, An Chéad Dáil) was Dáil Éireann (Irish Republic), Dáil Éireann as it convened from 1919 to 1921. It was the first meeting of the Unicameralism, unicameral Legislature, parliament of the revolutionary republic, revolut ...
, did not pursue the idea of seats in the Dáil for Northern Ireland, on the grounds that this would amount to representation "without taxation or responsibility". Beginning with
Seamus Mallon Seamus Frederick Mallon (; 17 August 1936 – 24 January 2020) was an Irish politician who served as deputy First Minister of Northern Ireland from 1998 to 2001 and Deputy Leader of the Social Democratic and Labour Party from 1979 to 2001. Ba ...
in 1982, one or more from Northern Ireland have been included among the eleven Senators nominated by the Taoiseach after most elections.
Sinn Féin Sinn Féin ( , ; en, "eOurselves") is an Irish republican and democratic socialist political party active throughout Ireland; both the Republic of Ireland and Northern Ireland. The History of Sinn Féin, original Sinn Féin organisation wa ...

Sinn Féin
has advocated that Northern Ireland MLAs,
MPs A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency An electoral district, also known as an election district, legislative district, voting district, constituency, riding, ward, division, (election) ...
, and MEPs should have the right to participate in Dáil debates, if not vote. In 2005 the Taoiseach,
Bertie Ahern Bartholomew Patrick "Bertie" Ahern (born 12 September 1951) is an Irish former Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil (, ; meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party ( ga, audio=ga-Fianna ...

Bertie Ahern
, proposed that Northern Ireland MPs should be able to address a
committee of the whole A committee of the whole is a meeting of a legislative or deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a meeting of Collective, members who use parliamentary procedure. Etymology In a speech to the electorate at Bristol in 1774, Edmund Bur ...
Dáil. However,
Fine Gael Fine Gael (, ; English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the ...
, the
Labour Party Labour Party or Labor Party may refer to: Angola *MPLA, known for some years as "Popular Movement for the Liberation of Angola – Labour Party" Antigua and Barbuda *Antigua and Barbuda Labour Party Argentina *Labour Party (Argentina) Armenia ...
, and Ahern's coalition partners, the
Progressive Democrats The Progressive Democrats ( ga, An Páirtí Daonlathach, literally The Democratic Party, PDs) was a conservative-liberal political party in the Republic of Ireland. Launched on 21 December 1985 by Desmond O'Malley and other politicians who had ...
, all opposed the idea,Ahern proposal on MPs ill-advised
, ''
Irish Times ''The Irish Times'' is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper and online digital publication. It launched on 29 March 1859. The editor is Paul O'Neill (newspaper editor), Paul O'Neill. The deputy editor is Deirdre Veldon. It is published every day e ...
'', 29 October 2005
as did the
Green Party A Green party is a formally organized political party A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a country's elections. It is common for the members of a political party to have similar ideas about poli ...
, the
Socialist Party Socialist Party is the name of many different political parties A political party is an organization that coordinates candidates to compete in a particular country's elections. It is common for the members of a party to hold similar ideas abo ...
and some Oireachtas members from
Fianna Fáil Fianna Fáil (, ; meaning 'Soldiers of Destiny' or 'Warriors of Fál'), officially Fianna Fáil – The Republican Party ( ga, audio=ga-Fianna Fáil.ogg, Fianna Fáil – An Páirtí Poblachtánach), is a conservative Conser ...
. Only Sinn Féin, the party that stood to gain most from the proposal, supported it, while the more moderate
Social Democratic and Labour Party The Social Democratic and Labour Party (SDLP) ( ga, Páirtí Sóisialta Daonlathach an Lucht Oibre) is a social democracy, social-democratic and Irish nationalism, Irish nationalist list of political parties in Northern Ireland, political party ...
(SDLP) described it as a step forward. The proposal was also criticised widely in the media, with an editorial in ''
The Irish Times ''The Irish Times'' is an Irish daily broadsheet newspaper and online digital publication. It launched on 29 March 1859. The editor is Paul O'Neill. The deputy editor is Deirdre Veldon. It is published every day except Sundays. Though formed as ...
'', declaring that: "The overwhelming democratic imperative is that the institutions of this State should represent and serve the people of the State." From 2011, Northern Ireland MEPs had the same automatic right as MEPs from the Republic to participate in meetings of the Seanad's European committee, whereas other MEPs require an invitation. This ended in 2020 when the United Kingdom left the EU, which consequently meant all UK MEPs left office.


Houses of the Oireachtas Commission

While each house is empowered to organise its own business, they have always co-operated in practical matters arising from the fact that they share Leinster House as a common building complex. The Houses of the Oireachtas Commission was established by statute in 2003 to provide a formal structure for this, which was previously done by a joint committee. Non-political support staff, such as ushers and the English–Irish translation staff, are employed by this Commission and treated as part of the Civil Service of the State. The Commission's
chairperson The chairperson (also chair, chairman, or chairwoman) is the presiding officer of an organized group such as a board Board or Boards may refer to: Flat surface * Lumber, or other rigid material, milled or sawn flat ** Plank (wood) ** Cutting ...
and
chief executive A chief executive officer (CEO), chief administrator officer, or just chief executive (CE), is one of a number of corporate executives A corporation is an organization—usually a group of people or a company A company, abbreviated as co ...
are the
Ceann Comhairle The ( "Head of heCouncil"; plural usually ''Cinn Comhairle'' ) is the chairperson (or speaker) of Dáil Éireann Dáil Éireann ( , ; ) is the lower house, and principal chamber, of the Oireachtas (Irish legislature), which also includes ...
and
clerk A clerk ( or ) is a white-collar worker A white-collar worker is a person who performs professional, desk, managerial, or administrative work. White-collar work may be performed in an office or other administrative setting. White-collar worker ...
of the Dáil respectively; other members are the
Cathaoirleach Cathaoirleach (; Irish language, Irish for Chairman, chairperson; plural: ) is the title of the chair (or speaker (politics), presiding officer) of Seanad Éireann, the sixty-member upper house of the Oireachtas, the legislature of Republic of I ...
of the Seanad, one appointed by the
Minister for Finance A finance minister is an executive or Cabinet (government), cabinet position in charge of one or more of government finances, economic policy and financial regulation. A finance minister's Ministry (government department), portfolio has a large v ...
, four by the Dáil, and three by the Seanad. The Commission, through the translation department, is responsible for periodic updates to
An Caighdeán Oifigiúil ' (; "The Official Standard"), often shortened to ', is the variety of the Irish language Irish (also called in An Caighdeán Oifigiúil, Standard Irish) is a Goidelic languages, Goidelic language of the Insular Celtic branch of the Celtic l ...
, the official standard form of the
Irish language Irish ( in Standard Irish Standard may refer to: Symbols * Colours, standards and guidons, kinds of military signs * Heraldic flag, Standard (emblem), a type of a large symbol or emblem used for identification Norms, conventions or requ ...
.


See also

*
Bicameralism Bicameralism is the practice of having a legislature A legislature is an deliberative assembly, assembly with the authority to make laws for a Polity, political entity such as a Sovereign state, country or city. They are often contraste ...
*
List of Acts of the OireachtasThis is a list of Acts of the Oireachtas The Oireachtas ( , ), sometimes referred to as Oireachtas Éireann, is the legislature A legislature is a deliberative assembly with the authority In the fields of sociology Sociology is t ...
* Records of members of the Oireachtas


References


External links

* {{Authority control 1937 establishments in Ireland
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
Ireland Ireland ( ; ga, Éire ; Ulster Scots dialect, Ulster-Scots: ) is an island in the Atlantic Ocean, North Atlantic. It is separated from Great Britain to its east by the North Channel (Great Britain and Ireland), North Channel, the Irish Sea ...
Politics of the Republic of Ireland