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Ohio () is a
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...
in the
Midwestern The midwestern United States, often referred to simply as the Midwest, is one of four census regions of the United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of ...
region of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. Of the
fifty states The United States, United States of America is a federal republic consisting of 50 U.S. state, states, a Capital districts and territories#United States, federal district (Washington, D.C., the capital city of the United States), five major t ...
, it is the 34th-largest by area, and with a population of nearly 11.8 million, is the seventh-most populous and tenth-most densely populated. The state's capital and
largest city The United Nations The United Nations (UN) is an intergovernmental organization that aims to maintain international peace and international security, security, develop friendly relations among nations, achieve international cooperation, ...
is
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
, with the Columbus metro area,
Greater Cincinnati The Cincinnati metropolitan area, informally known as Metro Cincinnati, Greater Cincinnati, or the Greater Cincinnati Tri-State Area, is a metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, u ...
, and
Greater Cleveland The Cleveland metropolitan area, or Greater Cleveland as it is more commonly known, is the metropolitan area A metropolitan area or metro is a region consisting of a densely populated core city, urban core and its less-populated surrounding ...
being the largest metropolitan areas. Ohio is bordered by
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
to the north,
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
to the east,
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
to the southeast,
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
to the southwest,
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
to the west, and
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
to the northwest. Ohio is historically known as the "Buckeye State" after its
Ohio buckeye trees
Ohio buckeye trees
, and Ohioans are also known as "Buckeyes". Its
state flag In vexillology Vexillology () is the study of the history, symbolism and usage of s or, by extension, any interest in flags in general.Smith, Whitney. ''Flags Through the Ages and Across the World'' New York: McGraw-Hill, 1975. Print. The w ...
is the only non-rectangular flag of all the U.S. states. The state takes its name from the
Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wi ...

Ohio River
, whose name in turn originated from the
Seneca Seneca may refer to: People and language *Seneca (name), a list of people with either the given name or surname *Seneca the Elder, a Roman rhetorician, writer and father of the stoic philosopher Seneca the Younger *Seneca the Younger, a Roman Stoi ...
word '' ohiːyo'', meaning "good river", "great river", or "large creek". Ohio arose from the lands west of Appalachia that were contested from colonial times through the
Northwest Indian War The Northwest Indian War (1785–1795), also known as the Ohio War, Little Turtle's War, and by other names, was a war between the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or ...
s of the late 18th century. It was partitioned from the resulting
Northwest Territory The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and formally known as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, was formed from unorganized western territory of the United States after the . Established in 1787 by the through the , ...

Northwest Territory
, which was the first frontier of the new United States, and became the 17th state admitted to the Union on March 1, 1803, and the first under the
Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio and also known as the Ordinance of 1787), enacted July 13, 1787, was an organic act of the Congress of the Conf ...
. Ohio was the first post-colonial
free state The Free State ( af, Vrystaat; st, Freistata; xh, iFreyistata; tn, Foreistata; zu, iFuleyisitata; before 1995, the Orange Free State) is a Provinces of South Africa, province of South Africa. Its capital is Bloemfontein, which is also South A ...
admitted to the union, and became one of the earliest and most influential industrial powerhouses during the 20th century. Although Ohio has transitioned to a more information- and service-based economy in the 21st century, it remains an industrial state, ranking seventh in GDP as of 2019, with the third largest manufacturing sector and second largest automobile production. The government of Ohio is composed of the executive branch, led by the
governor A governor is, in most cases, a public official with the power to govern the Executive (government), executive branch of a non-sovereign or sub-national level of government, ranking under the head of state. In federations, ''governor'' may be t ...
; the legislative branch, consisting of the bicameral
Ohio General Assembly The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature (United States), state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio. It consists of the 99-member Ohio House of Representatives and the 33-member Ohio Senate. Both houses of the General Assembly meet at ...
; and the judicial branch, led by the state
Supreme Court A supreme court is the highest court A court is any person or institution, often as a government institution, with the authority to Adjudication, adjudicate legal disputes between Party (law), parties and carry out the administration of just ...
. Ohio occupies 16 seats in the
United States House of Representatives The United States House of Representatives is the of the , with the being the . Together they compose the national of the . The House's composition is established by . The House is composed of representatives who sit in allocated to ea ...
. The state is known for its status as both a
swing state In American politics The United States is a constitutional federal republic, in which the president of the United States, president (the head of state and head of government), United States Congress, Congress, and United States federal courts, ...
and a
bellwether A bellwether is a leader or indicator of trends. The term derives from the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken i ...
in national elections. Seven
presidents of the United States The president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of the United States of America. The president directs the Federal government of the United States#Executive branch ...
have come from Ohio. This has led to it receiving the moniker "the Mother of Presidents".


History


Indigenous settlement

Archeological evidence of spear points of both the Folsom and Clovis types indicate that the Ohio Valley was inhabited by
nomadic people A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation which regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherers, pastoral nomads (owning livestock), and tink ...

nomadic people
as early as 13,000 BC.Knepper (1989), p. 9. These early nomads disappeared from Ohio by 1,000 BC. Between 1,000 and 800 BC, the sedentary
Adena culture The Adena culture was a Pre-Columbian Native American culture that existed from 800 BC to 100 AD, in a time known as the Early Woodland period. The Adena culture refers to what were probably a number of related Native American societies sharing ...
emerged. The Adena were able to establish "semi-permanent" villages because they domesticated plants, including,
sunflowers ''Helianthus'' () is a genus comprising about 70 species of annual and perennial flowering plants in the daisy family Asteraceae. Except for three South American species, the species of ''Helianthus'' are native to North America and Central Amer ...

sunflowers
, and "grew
squash Squash may refer to: Sports * Squash (sport), the high-speed racquet sport also known as squash racquets * Squash (professional wrestling), an extremely one-sided match in professional wrestling * Squash tennis, a game similar to squash racquets ...
and possibly
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American English, North American and Australian English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas, indige ...

corn
"; with hunting and gathering, this cultivation supported more settled, complex villages.Knepper (1989), p. 10. The most notable remnant of the Adena culture is the
Great Serpent Mound The Great Serpent Mound is a , three-foot-high prehistoric effigy mound on a plateau of the Serpent Mound crater along Ohio Brush Creek in Adams County, Ohio. Maintained within a park by Ohio History Connection, it has been designated a National ...

Great Serpent Mound
, located in
Adams County, Ohio Adams County is a county A county is a geographical region of a country used for administrative or other purposesChambers Dictionary The ''Chambers Dictionary'' (''TCD'') was first published by William Chambers (publisher), William and ...
. Around 100 BC, the Adena evolved into the
Hopewell Hopewell may refer to: Places Barbados *Hopewell, Christ Church *Hopewell, Saint Thomas Canada * Hopewell Parish, New Brunswick * Hopewell Cape, New Brunswick * Hopewell Rocks, a tourist attraction new Hopewell Cape * Hopewell, Newfoundland and ...
people who were also mound builders. Their complex, large and technologically sophisticated
earthworks Earthworks may refer to: Construction *Earthworks (archaeology), human-made constructions that modify the land contour *Earthworks (engineering), civil engineering works created by moving or processing quantities of soil *Earthworks (military), mil ...
can be found in modern-day , Newark, and Circleville.Knepper (1989), p. 11. They were also a prolific trading society, their trading network spanning a third of the continent. The Hopewell disappeared from the Ohio Valley about 600 AD. The
Mississippian Culture The Mississippian culture was a Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South America and their descendants * Native Americans in the United Stat ...
rose as the Hopewell Culture declined. Many Siouan-speaking peoples from the plains and east coast claim them as ancestors and say they lived throughout the Ohio region until approximately the 13th century.Knepper (1989), p. 13. There were three other cultures contemporaneous with the Mississippians: the
Fort Ancient Fort Ancient is a name for a Native American culture Culture () is an umbrella term which encompasses the social behavior and Norm (social), norms found in human Society, societies, as well as the knowledge, beliefs, arts, laws, Social norm, ...

Fort Ancient
people, the Whittlesey Focus people and the
Monongahela Culture The Monongahela culture were a Native American cultural manifestation of Late Woodland peoples from AD 1050 to 1635 in present-day western Pennsylvania, western Maryland Maryland ( ) is a U.S. state, state in the Mid-Atlantic (United Stat ...
. All three cultures disappeared in the 17th century. Their origins are unknown. The Shawnees may have absorbed the Fort Ancient people. It is also possible that the Monongahela held no land in Ohio during the Colonial Era. The Mississippian Culture were close to and traded extensively with the Fort Ancient people. Indians in the Ohio Valley were greatly affected by the aggressive tactics of the
Iroquois Confederation The Iroquois ( or ) or Haudenosaunee (; "People of the Longhouse") are an Indigenous peoples of the Americas, indigenous Confederation#Indigenous confederations in North America, confederacy in northeast North America. They were known during th ...
, based in central and western New York.Knepper (1989), p. 14. After the
Beaver Wars The Beaver Wars, also known as the Iroquois Wars or the French and Iroquois Wars (french: Guerres franco-iroquoises), encompass a series of conflicts fought intermittently during the 17th century in North America. They were battles for economic do ...
in the mid-17th century, the Iroquois claimed much of the Ohio country as hunting and, more importantly, beaver-trapping ground. After the devastation of epidemics and war in the mid-17th century, which largely emptied the Ohio country of indigenous people by the mid-to-late 17th century, the land gradually became repopulated by the mostly
Algonquian Algonquin or Algonquian—and the variation Algonki(a)n—may refer to: Indigenous peoples *Algonquian languages, a large subfamily of Native American languages in a wide swath of eastern North America from Canada to Virginia **Algonquin languag ...
. Many of these Ohio-country nations were multi-ethnic (sometimes multi-linguistic) societies born out of the earlier devastation brought about by disease, war, and subsequent social instability. They subsisted on agriculture (
corn Maize ( ; ''Zea mays'' subsp. ''mays'', from es, maíz after tnq, mahiz), also known as corn (North American English, North American and Australian English), is a cereal grain first domesticated by indigenous peoples of the Americas, indige ...

corn
, sunflowers,
bean A bean is the seed of one of several of the , which are used as vegetables for human or animal food. They can be cooked in many different ways, including boiling, frying, and baking, and are used in many traditional dishes throughout th ...

bean
s, etc.) supplemented by seasonal hunts. By the 18th century, they were part of a larger global economy brought about by European entry into the
fur trade The fur trade is a worldwide industry dealing in the acquisition and sale of animal fur Fur is a thick growth of hair Hair is a protein filament In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organi ...
.Roseboom (1967), p. 20. Some of the indigenous nations which historically inhabited Ohio included the Iroquoian, the Algonquian & the Siouan.Knepper (1989), pp. 14–17.
Ohio country upright=1.75, The Ohio Country with battles and massacres between 1775 and 1794 The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio TerritoryA misnomer since it was never an organized territory of the United States or of any other nation or Ohio Valley b ...
was also the site of Indian massacres, such as the
Yellow Creek Massacre The Yellow Creek massacre was a killing of several Mingo Indians by Virginian settlers on April 30, 1774. The massacre occurred across from the mouth of the Yellow Creek on the upper Ohio River in the Ohio Country, near the current site of the Moun ...
, Gnadenhutten and Pontiac's Rebellion school massacre.Knepper (1989), pp. 43–44. After the
War of 1812 The War of 1812 (18 June 1812 – 17 February 1815) was a conflict fought by the United States of America The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country in . It ...
when Natives suffered serious losses such as at , most Native tribes either left Ohio or had to live on only limited reservations. By 1842, all remaining Natives were forced out of the state.


Colonial and Revolutionary eras

During the 18th century, the French set up a system of
trading post A trading post, trading station, or trading house, also known as a factory, was an establishment or settlement where goods and services could be traded. Typically the location of the trading post would allow people from one geographic area to tr ...
s to control the fur trade in the region. Beginning in 1754, France and
Great Britain Great Britain is an island An island (or isle) is an isolated piece of habitat that is surrounded by a dramatically different habitat, such as water. Very small islands such as emergent land features on atoll An atoll (), ...

Great Britain
fought the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
. As a result of the Treaty of Paris, the French ceded control of Ohio and the remainder of the
Old Northwest The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and formally known as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, was formed from unorganized western territory of the United States after the American Revolutionary War The Ameri ...
to Great Britain. In the Treaty of Paris in 1783, Britain ceded all claims to Ohio country to the United States.


Northwest Territory

The United States created the
Northwest Territory The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and formally known as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, was formed from unorganized western territory of the United States after the . Established in 1787 by the through the , ...

Northwest Territory
under the
Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio and also known as the Ordinance of 1787), enacted July 13, 1787, was an organic act of the Congress of the Conf ...
of 1787.Cayton (2002), p. 3. Slavery was not permitted in the new territory. Settlement began with the founding of by the
Ohio Company of Associates Image:ForTheOhio.jpg, Pioneer wagon The Ohio Company of Associates, also known as the Ohio Company, was a land company whose members are today credited with becoming the first non- Native American group to settle in the present-day state of Ohi ...
, which had been formed by a group of American Revolutionary War veterans. Following the Ohio Company, the Miami Company (also referred to as the "
Symmes Purchase The Symmes Purchase, also known as the Miami Purchase, was an area of land totaling roughly in what is now Hamilton County, Ohio, Hamilton, Butler County, Ohio, Butler, and Warren County, Ohio, Warren counties of southwestern Ohio, purchased by J ...
") claimed the southwestern section, and the
Connecticut Land Company The Connecticut Company or Connecticut Land Company (e.-1795) was a post-colonial land speculation company formed in the late eighteenth century to survey and encourage settlement in the eastern parts of the newly chartered Connecticut Western Res ...
surveyed and settled the
Connecticut Western Reserve The Connecticut Western Reserve was a portion of land claimed by the Colony of Connecticut The Connecticut Colony or Colony of Connecticut, originally known as the Connecticut River Colony or simply the River Colony, was an English colony in New ...
in present-day
Northeast Ohio The region Northeast Ohio, in the US state of Ohio, in its most expansive usage contains six metropolitan areas (Greater Cleveland, Cleveland–Elyria, Akron metropolitan area, Akron, Canton–Massillon, Ohio, metropolitan area, Canton–Massill ...

Northeast Ohio
. Territorial surveyors from Fort Steuben began surveying an area of eastern Ohio called the
Seven Ranges The Seven Ranges (also known as the Old Seven Ranges) was a land tract in eastern Ohio Ohio () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Depart ...

Seven Ranges
at about the same time. The old Northwest Territory originally included areas previously known as
Ohio Country upright=1.75, The Ohio Country with battles and massacres between 1775 and 1794 The Ohio Country (sometimes called the Ohio TerritoryA misnomer since it was never an organized territory of the United States or of any other nation or Ohio Valley b ...
and
Illinois Country The Illinois Country (french: Pays des Ilinois ; , i.e. the Illinois Confederation, Illinois people) — sometimes referred to as Upper Louisiana (french: Haute-Louisiane ; es, Alta Luisiana) — was a vast region of New France claimed ...
. As Ohio prepared for statehood, the
Indiana Territory The Indiana Territory was created by a congressional act that President John Adams John Adams (October 30, 1735 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, attorney, diplomat, writer, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding F ...
was created, reducing the Northwest Territory to approximately the size of present-day Ohio plus the eastern half of the
Lower Peninsula of Michigan Lower may refer to: *Lower (surname)Lower is a surname. Notable people with the surname include: * Arthur R. M. Lower (1889–1988) Canadian historian * Britt Lower (born 1985), American actress * Cyrus B. Lower (1843–1924), American Civil War ...
and the eastern tip of the
Upper Peninsula Upper may refer to: * Shoe upper or ''vamp'', the part of a shoe on the top of the foot * Stimulant Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those t ...

Upper Peninsula
and a sliver of southeastern Indiana called "The Gore". The coalition of Native American tribes, known as the
Western Confederacy The Northwestern Confederacy, or Northwestern Indian Confederacy, was a loose confederacy Confederacy may refer to: A confederation, an association of sovereign states or communities. Examples include: * Battle of the Trench, Confederate tribes * ...
, was forced to cede extensive territory, including much of present-day Ohio, in the
Treaty of Greenville The Treaty of Greenville, formally titled Treaty with the Wyandots, etc., was a 1795 treaty between the United States and indigenous nations of the Northwest Territory The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and formall ...

Treaty of Greenville
in 1795. Under the
Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio and also known as the Ordinance of 1787), enacted July 13, 1787, was an organic act of the Congress of the Conf ...
, areas could be defined and admitted as states once their population reached 60,000. Although Ohio's population was only 45,000 in December 1801,
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...

Congress
determined that it was growing rapidly and had already begun the path to statehood. In regards to the
Leni Lenape The Lenape ( or ), also called the Leni Lenape, Lenni Lenape and Delaware people, are an indigenous people of the Northeastern Woodlands, who live in the United States and Canada. Their historical territory included present-day New Jersey ...
natives, Congress decided that 10,000 acres on the
Muskingum River The Muskingum River ( Shawnee: ') is a tributary of the Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river in the United States. It is located in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern and Southern United States, flowing southwesterly from western P ...
in the present state of Ohio would "be set apart and the property thereof be vested in the
Moravian Brethren , image = AgnusDeiWindow.jpg , imagewidth = 250px , caption = Church emblem featuring the Agnus Dei is the Latin name under which the "Lamb of God" is honoured within the Roman Rite Mass, Roman Catholic Mass and, by extension, other Christ ...
 ... or a society of the said Brethren for civilizing the Indians and promoting Christianity".


Rufus Putnam, the "Father of Ohio"

Rufus Putnam Brigadier General (United States), Brigadier-General Rufus Putnam (April 9, 1738 – May 4, 1824) was a colonial military officer during the French and Indian War, and a general in the Continental Army during the American Revolutionary War. As an ...
served in important military capacities in both the
French and Indian War The French and Indian War (1754–1763) was a theater of the Seven Years' War The Seven Years' War (1756–1763) is widely considered to be the first global conflict in history, and was a struggle for world supremacy between Great Britain ...

French and Indian War
and the
American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independence, was initiated by delegates from Thirteen Colonies, thirteen American colonies of British America in Continental Congress ...
. He was one of the most highly respected men in the early years of the United States. In 1776, Putnam created a method of building portable fortifications, which enabled the
Continental Army The Continental Army was the army of the Thirteen Colonies and the Revolutionary-era United States. It was formed by the Second Continental Congress after the outbreak of the American Revolutionary War, and was established by a resolution of ...
to drive the British from Boston.
George Washington George Washington (February 22, 1732, 1799) was an American soldier, statesman, and Founding Fathers of the United States, Founding Father who served as the first President of the United States from 1789 to 1797. Appointed by the Continenta ...

George Washington
was so impressed that he made Putnam his chief engineer. After the war, Putnam and
Manasseh Cutler Manasseh Cutler (May 13, 1742 – July 28, 1823) was an American clergyman involved in the American Revolutionary War The American Revolutionary War (1775–1783), also known as the Revolutionary War and the American War of Independenc ...
were instrumental in creating the
Northwest Ordinance The Northwest Ordinance (formally An Ordinance for the Government of the Territory of the United States, North-West of the River Ohio and also known as the Ordinance of 1787), enacted July 13, 1787, was an organic act of the Congress of the Conf ...
, which opened up the
Northwest Territory The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and formally known as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, was formed from unorganized western territory of the United States after the . Established in 1787 by the through the , ...

Northwest Territory
for settlement. This land was used to serve as compensation for what was owed to Revolutionary War veterans. It was also at Putnam's recommendation that the land would be surveyed and laid out in townships of six miles square. Putnam organized and led the
Ohio Company of Associates Image:ForTheOhio.jpg, Pioneer wagon The Ohio Company of Associates, also known as the Ohio Company, was a land company whose members are today credited with becoming the first non- Native American group to settle in the present-day state of Ohi ...
, who settled at
Marietta, Ohio Marietta is a city in, and the county seat of, Washington County, Ohio, Washington County, Ohio, United States. During 1788, pioneers to the Ohio Country established Marietta as the first permanent settlement of the new United States in the Terr ...

Marietta, Ohio
, where they built a large fort called
Campus Martius The Campus Martius (Latin for the "Field of Mars", Italian language, Italian ''Campo Marzio'') was a publicly owned area of ancient Rome about in extent. In the Middle Ages, it was the most populous area of Rome. The IV Rioni of Rome, rione of ...
. Putnam, in the Puritan tradition, was influential in establishing education in the Northwest Territory. Substantial amounts of land were set aside for schools. Putnam had been one of the primary benefactors in the founding of
Leicester AcademyImage:LeicesterAcademy.jpg, 450px, Leicester Academy second academic building circa 1806 Leicester Academy was founded on March 23, 1784, when the Act of Incorporation for Leicester Academy was passed by the Massachusetts General Court as a private, ...
in Massachusetts, and similarly, in 1798, he created the plan for the construction of the Muskingum Academy (now
Marietta College Marietta College (MC) is a private liberal arts college A liberal arts college or liberal arts institution of higher education is a college A college (Latin: ''collegium'') is an educational institution or a University system, constituen ...
) in Ohio. In 1780, the directors of the Ohio Company appointed him superintendent of all its affairs relating to settlement north of the Ohio River. In 1796, he was commissioned by President George Washington as Surveyor-General of United States Lands. In 1788, he served as a judge in the Northwest Territory's first court. In 1802, he served in the convention to form a constitution for the State of Ohio.


Statehood and early years

On February 19, 1803, U.S. president
Thomas Jefferson Thomas Jefferson (April 13, 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American statesman, diplomat, lawyer, architect, philosopher, and Founding Father The following list of national founding figures is a record, by country, of people who were cr ...

Thomas Jefferson
signed an act of Congress that approved Ohio's boundaries and constitution. However, Congress had never passed a formal resolution admitting Ohio as the 17th state, a custom not introduced until
Louisiana Louisiana (Standard French Standard French (in French: ''le français standard'', ''le français normé'', ''le français neutre'' eutral Frenchor ''le français international'' nternational French is an unofficial term for a standard ...

Louisiana
's admission as the 18th state. Although no formal resolution of admission was required, when the oversight was discovered in 1953, as Ohio began preparations for celebrating its sesquicentennial, Ohio congressman George H. Bender introduced a bill in Congress to admit Ohio to the Union retroactive to March 1, 1803, the date on which the
Ohio General Assembly The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature (United States), state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio. It consists of the 99-member Ohio House of Representatives and the 33-member Ohio Senate. Both houses of the General Assembly meet at ...
first convened. At a special session at the old state capital in Chillicothe, Ohio, Chillicothe, the Ohio state legislature approved a new petition for statehood which was delivered to Washington, D.C., on horseback, and approved that August. Ohio has had three capital cities: Chillicothe, Zanesville, Ohio, Zanesville, and
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
. Chillicothe was the capital from 1803 to 1810. The capital was then moved to Zanesville for two years, as part of a state legislative compromise to get a bill passed. The capital was then moved back to Chillicothe, which was the capital from 1812 to 1816. Finally, the capital was moved to Columbus, to have it near the geographic center of the state. Although many Native Americans had migrated west to evade American encroachment, others remained settled in the state, sometimes assimilating in part. In 1830 under President Andrew Jackson, the US government forced Indian Removal of most tribes to the Indian Territory west of the Mississippi River. In 1835, Ohio fought with
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
in the Toledo War, a mostly bloodless boundary war over the Toledo Strip. Only one person was injured in the conflict. Congress intervened, making Michigan's admittance as a state conditional on ending the conflict. In exchange for giving up its claim to the Toledo Strip, Michigan was given the western two-thirds of the
Upper Peninsula Upper may refer to: * Shoe upper or ''vamp'', the part of a shoe on the top of the foot * Stimulant Stimulants (also often referred to as psychostimulants or colloquially as uppers) is an overarching term that covers many drugs including those t ...

Upper Peninsula
, in addition to the eastern third which was already considered part of the state.


Civil War and industrialization

Ohio's central position and its population gave it an important place during the American Civil War, Civil War. The Ohio River was a vital artery for troop and supply movements, as were Ohio's railroads. The industry of Ohio made the state one of the most important states in the Union during the Civil war. Ohio contributed more soldiers per capita than any other state in the Union. In 1862, the state's morale was badly shaken in the aftermath of the Battle of Shiloh, a costly victory in which Ohio forces suffered 2,000 casualties.Knepper (1989), pp. 233–234. Later that year, when Confederate States Army, Confederate troops under the leadership of Stonewall Jackson threatened Washington, D.C., Ohio governor David Tod still could recruit 5,000 volunteers to provide three months of service.Roseboom and Weisenburger (1967), p. 188. From July 13 to 26, 1863, towns along the Ohio River were attacked and ransacked in Morgan's Raid, starting in Harrison, Ohio, Harrison in the west and culminating in the Battle of Salineville near West Point, Columbiana County, Ohio, West Point in the far east. While this raid was overall insignificant to the Confederacy, it aroused fear among people in Ohio and
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
as it was the furthest advancement of troops from the South in the war. Almost 35,000 Ohioans died in the conflict, and 30,000 were physically wounded.Cayton (2002), p. 129. By the end of the Civil War, the Union's top three generals – Ulysses S. Grant, William Tecumseh Sherman, and Philip Sheridan – were all from Ohio.Morris (1992), pp. 10–11.Cayton (2002), pp. 128–129. Throughout much of the 19th century, industry was rapidly introduced to complement an existing agricultural economy. One of the first iron manufacturing plants opened near Youngstown, Ohio, Youngstown in 1804 called Hopewell Furnace. By the mid-19th century, 48 blast furnaces were operating in the state, most in the southern portions of the state. Discovery of coal deposits aided the further development of the steel industry in the state, and by 1853 Cleveland was the third largest iron and steel producer in the country. The first Bessemer converter was purchased by the Cleveland Rolling Mill, Cleveland Rolling Mill Company, which eventually became part of the U.S. Steel Corporation following the merger of Federal Steel Company and Carnegie Steel, the first billion-dollar American corporation. The first open-hearth furnace used for steel production was constructed by the Otis Steel Company in Cleveland, and by 1892, Ohio ranked as the 2nd-largest steel-producing state behind Pennsylvania. Republic Steel was founded in Youngstown in 1899 and was at one point the nation's third-largest producer. Armco, now AK Steel, was founded in Middletown, Ohio, Middletown also in 1899.


20th century

During the 1930s, the Great Depression in the United States, Great Depression struck the state hard. American Jews watched the rise of the Third Reich with apprehension. Cleveland residents Jerry Siegel and Joe Shuster created the Superman comic character in the spirit of the Jewish golem. Many of their comics portrayed Superman fighting and defeating the Nazis. Artists, writers, musicians and actors developed in the state throughout the 20th century and often moved to other cities which were larger centers for their work. They included Zane Grey, Milton Caniff, George Bellows, Art Tatum, Roy Lichtenstein, and Roy Rogers. Alan Freed, who emerged from the swing dance culture in Cleveland, hosted the first live rock 'n roll concert in Cleveland in 1952. Famous filmmakers include Steven Spielberg, Chris Columbus (filmmaker), Chris Columbus and the original Warner Brothers, who set up their first movie theatre in Youngstown before that company later relocated to California. The state produced many popular musicians, including Dean Martin, Doris Day, The O'Jays, Marilyn Manson, Dave Grohl, Devo, Macy Gray and The Isley Brothers. The National Football League was originally founded in Ohio in 1920 as the American Professional Football Association. In 1970 an Ohio Army National Guard unit Kent State shootings, fired at students during an anti-war protest at Kent State University, killing four and wounding nine. The Guard had been called onto campus after several protests in and around campus had become violent, including a riot in downtown Kent and the burning of an Reserve Officers' Training Corps, ROTC building. The main cause of the protests was the United States' Cambodian Campaign, invasion of Cambodia during the Vietnam War. Beginning in the 1980s, the state entered into international economic and resource cooperation treaties and organizations with other Midwestern states, as well as New York (state), New York,
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
, Ontario, and Quebec, including the Great Lakes Charter, Great Lakes Compact, and the Council of Great Lakes Governors.


21st century

Ohio had become nicknamed the "fuel cell corridor" in being a contributing anchor for the region now called the "Green Belt," in reference to the growing renewable energy sector. Although the state experienced heavy manufacturing losses at the close of the 20th century and suffered from the Great Recession, it was rebounding by the second decade in being the country's 6th-fastest-growing economy through the first half of 2010. Ohio's transition into the 21st century was symbolized by the Third Frontier program, spearheaded by governor Bob Taft around the start of the century. This built on the agricultural and industrial pillars of the economy, dubbed the first and second frontiers, by aiding the growth of advanced technology industries, the third frontier. The results of this initiative were considered widely successful, attracting 637 new high-tech companies to the state and 55,000 new jobs, with an average of salary of $65,000, while having a $6.6 billion economic impact with an investment return ratio of 9:1. In 2010 the state won the International Economic Development Council's ''Excellence in Economic Development Award'', celebrated as a national model of success. Many of the state's former industrial centers turned to new industries, including Akron, Ohio, Akron as a center for polymer and biomedical research, Cincinnati as the state's largest mercantile hub,"Atlantic Eye: Brunner is the best for Ohio"
, Marc S. Ellenbogen. May 3, 2010. Retrieved May 5, 2010.
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
as a center for technological research and development, education, and insurance, Cleveland, Ohio, Cleveland in regenerative medicine research and manufacturing, Dayton, Ohio, Dayton as an aerospace and defense hub, and Toledo, Ohio, Toledo as a national center for solar technology."Five cities that will rise in the New Economy", ''Christian Science Monitor''. Retrieved November 27, 2009.
/ref> Ohio was hit hard by the Great Recession and manufacturing employment losses entering the 2010s. The recession cost the state 376,500 jobs and it had 89,053 foreclosures in 2009, a record for the state. The median household income dropped 7% and the poverty rate ballooned to 13.5% by 2009.


Geography

Ohio's geographic location has proven to be an asset for economic growth and expansion. Because Ohio links the Northeast to the Midwest, much cargo and business traffic passes through its borders along its well-developed highways. Ohio has the nation's 10th largest highway network and is within a one-day drive of 50% of North America's population and 70% of North America's manufacturing capacity. To the north, Ohio has of coastline with Lake Erie, which allows for numerous cargo ports such as Cleveland and Toledo. Ohio's southern border is defined by the
Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wi ...

Ohio River
. Ohio's neighbors are
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
to the east,
Michigan Michigan () is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper ...

Michigan
to the northwest,
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
to the north,
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
to the west,
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
on the south, and
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
on the southeast. Ohio's borders were defined by metes and bounds in the Enabling Act of 1802 as follows: Ohio is bounded by the Ohio River, but nearly all of the river itself belongs to Kentucky and West Virginia. In 1980, the U.S. Supreme Court held that, based on the wording of the cessation of territory by Virginia (which at the time included what is now Kentucky and West Virginia), the boundary between Ohio and Kentucky (and, by implication, West Virginia) is the northern low-water mark of the river as it existed in 1792. Ohio has only that portion of the river between the river's 1792 low-water mark and the present high-water mark. The border with Michigan has also changed, as a result of the Toledo War, to angle slightly northeast to the north shore of the mouth of the Maumee River. Much of Ohio features Glacial till plains (Ohio), glaciated till plains, with an exceptionally flat area in the northwest being known as the Great Black Swamp. This glaciated region in the northwest and central state is bordered to the east and southeast first by a belt known as the glaciated Allegheny Plateau, and then by another belt known as the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau. Most of Ohio is of low relief, but the unglaciated Allegheny Plateau Appalachian Ohio, features rugged hills and forests. The rugged southeastern quadrant of Ohio, stretching in an outward bow-like arc along the Ohio River from the West Northern Panhandle of West Virginia, Virginia Panhandle to the outskirts of Cincinnati, forms a distinct Socioeconomics, socio-economic unit. Geologically similar to parts of West Virginia and southwestern Pennsylvania, this area's coal mining legacy, dependence on small pockets of old manufacturing establishments, and distinctive regional dialect set this section off from the rest of the state. In 1965 the United States Congress passed the Appalachian Regional Development Act, an attempt to "address the persistent poverty and growing economic despair of the Appalachian Region". This act defines 29 Ohio counties as part of Appalachia. While 1/3 of Ohio's land mass is part of the federally defined Appalachian region, only 12.8% of Ohioans live there (1.476 million people.) Significant List of rivers of Ohio, rivers within the state include the Cuyahoga River, Great Miami River, Maumee River,
Muskingum River The Muskingum River ( Shawnee: ') is a tributary of the Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river in the United States. It is located in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern and Southern United States, flowing southwesterly from western P ...
, and Scioto River. The rivers in the northern part of the state drain into the northern Atlantic Ocean via
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
and the St. Lawrence River, and the rivers in the southern part of the state drain into the Gulf of Mexico via the
Ohio River The Ohio River is a long river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowing towards an ocean, sea, lake or another river. In some cases, a river flows into the ground and becomes dry at the end of its course wi ...

Ohio River
and then the Mississippi River, Mississippi. The worst weather disaster in Ohio history occurred along the Great Miami River in 1913. Known as the Great Dayton Flood, the entire Great Miami River, Miami River watershed flooded, including the downtown business district of Dayton, Ohio, Dayton. As a result, the Miami Conservancy District was created as the first major flood plain engineering project in Ohio and the United States. Grand Lake St. Marys in the west-central part of the state was constructed as a supply of water for canals in the canal-building era of 1820–1850. This body of water, over , was the largest artificial lake in the world when completed in 1845. :Canals in Ohio, Ohio's canal-building projects were not the economic fiasco that similar efforts were in other states. Some cities, such as Dayton, owe their industrial emergence to location on canals, and as late as 1910 interior canals carried much of the bulk freight of the state.


Climate

The climate of Ohio is a humid continental climate (Köppen climate classification ''Dfa/Dfb'') throughout most of the state, except in the extreme southern counties of Ohio's Bluegrass region section, which are located on the northern periphery of the humid subtropical climate (''Cfa'') and Upland South region of the United States. Summers are typically hot and humid throughout the state, while winters generally range from cool to cold. Precipitation in Ohio is moderate year-round. Severe weather is not uncommon in the state, although there are typically fewer tornado reports in Ohio than in states located in what is known as the Tornado Alley. Severe lake effect snowstorms are also not uncommon on the southeast shore of
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
, which is located in an area designated as the Snowbelt. Although predominantly not in a subtropical climate, some warmer-climate flora and fauna do reach well into Ohio. For instance, some trees with more southern ranges, such as the blackjack oak, ''Quercus marilandica'', are found at their northernmost in Ohio just north of the Ohio River. Also evidencing this climatic transition from a subtropical to continental climate, several plants such as the Southern magnolia ''(Magnolia grandiflora)'', Albizia julibrissin (mimosa), Crape Myrtle, and even the occasional Needle Palm are hardy landscape materials regularly used as street, yard, and garden plantings in the Bluegrass region of Ohio; but these same plants will simply not thrive in much of the rest of the state. This interesting change may be observed while traveling through Ohio on Interstate 75 in Ohio, Interstate 75 from Cincinnati to Toledo, Ohio, Toledo; the observant traveler of this diverse state may even catch a glimpse of Cincinnati's common wall lizard, one of the few examples of permanent "subtropical" fauna in Ohio. Due to flooding resulting in severely damaged highways, Governor Mike DeWine declared a state of emergency in 37 Ohio counties in 2019.


Records

The highest recorded temperature was , near Gallipolis, Ohio, Gallipolis on July 21, 1934. The lowest recorded temperature was , at Milligan, Ohio, Milligan on February 10, 1899, during the Great Blizzard of 1899.


Earthquakes

Although few have registered as noticeable to the average resident, more than 200 earthquakes with a Richter magnitude scale, magnitude of 2.0 or higher have occurred in Ohio since 1776. The Western Ohio Seismic Zone and a portion of the Southern Great Lakes Seismic Zone are located in the state, and numerous Fault (geology), faults lie under the surface. The most substantial known earthquake in Ohio history was the Anna, Ohio, Anna (Shelby County) earthquake, which occurred on March 9, 1937. It was centered in western Ohio, and had a magnitude of 5.4, and was of Mercalli intensity scale, intensity VIII. Other significant earthquakes in Ohio include: one of magnitude 4.8 near Lima, Ohio, Lima on September 19, 1884; one of magnitude 4.2 near Portsmouth, Ohio, Portsmouth on May 17, 1901; and one of 5.0 in LeRoy Township, Lake County, Ohio, LeRoy Township in Lake County on January 31, 1986, which continued to trigger 13 aftershocks of magnitude 0.5 to 2.4 for two months. Notable Ohio earthquakes in the 21st century include one occurring on December 31, 2011, approximately northwest of Youngstown, Ohio, Youngstown, and one occurring on June 10, 2019, approximately north-northwest of Eastlake, Ohio, Eastlake under
Lake Erie Lake Erie (; french: Lac Érié) is the fourth largest lake A lake is an area filled with water, localized in a basin, surrounded by land, apart from any river A river is a natural flowing watercourse, usually freshwater, flowin ...

Lake Erie
; both registered a 4.0 magnitude.


Major cities

Ohio's three largest cities are
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
, Cleveland, and Cincinnati, all three of which anchor major metropolitan areas. Columbus is the capital of state, located near the geographic center of the state and is well known for The Ohio State University. In 2019, the city had six corporations named to the U.S. Fortune 500 list: Alliance Data, Nationwide Mutual Insurance Company, American Electric Power, L Brands, Huntington Bancshares, and Cardinal Health in suburban Dublin, Ohio, Dublin. Other major employers include hospitals (among others, Wexner Medical Center and Nationwide Children's Hospital), hi-tech research and development including the Battelle Memorial Institute, information/library companies such as OCLC and Chemical Abstracts Service, steel processing and pressure cylinder manufacturer Worthington Industries, financial institutions such as JPMorgan Chase and Huntington Bancshares, as well as Owens Corning. Fast food chains Wendy's and White Castle (restaurant), White Castle are also headquartered in Columbus. Located in
Northeast Ohio The region Northeast Ohio, in the US state of Ohio, in its most expansive usage contains six metropolitan areas (Greater Cleveland, Cleveland–Elyria, Akron metropolitan area, Akron, Canton–Massillon, Ohio, metropolitan area, Canton–Massill ...

Northeast Ohio
along the Lake Erie shore, Cleveland is characterized by its New England heritage, ethnic immigrant cultures, and history as a major American manufacturing and healthcare center. It anchors the Cleveland–Akron–Canton Combined Statistical Area, the largest CSA in the state, of which the cities of Akron, Ohio, Akron, Canton, Ohio, Canton, Mansfield, Ohio, Mansfield, and Youngstown, Ohio, Youngstown are constituent parts. Northeast Ohio is known for major industrial companies Goodyear Tire and Rubber Company, Goodyear Tire and Rubber and Timken Company, Timken, top-ranked colleges Case Western Reserve University, Oberlin College, and Kent State University, the Cleveland Clinic, and cultural attractions including the Cleveland Museum of Art, Big Five group Cleveland Orchestra, Playhouse Square, the Pro Football Hall of Fame, and the Rock and Roll Hall of Fame. Cincinnati, Ohio, Cincinnati anchors Southwest Ohio and Cincinnati metropolitan area, Metro Cincinnati, which also encompasses counties in the neighboring states of Kentucky and Indiana. The metropolitan area is home to Miami University and the University of Cincinnati, Cincinnati Union Terminal, Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, and various Fortune 500 companies including Procter & Gamble, Kroger, Macy's, Inc., and Fifth Third Bank. Weirton-Steubenville Metropolitan Statistical Area, Steubenville is the only metropolitan city in Appalachian Ohio, which is home to Hocking Hills State Park. Toledo, Ohio, Toledo and Lima, Ohio, Lima are the major cities in Northwest Ohio, an area known for its glass-making industry. It is home to Owens Corning and Owens-Illinois, two Fortune 500 corporations. Dayton, Ohio, Dayton and Springfield, Ohio, Springfield are located in the Miami Valley, which is home to the University of Dayton, the Dayton Ballet, and the extensive Wright-Patterson Air Force Base.


Metropolitan areas

The Cincinnati metropolitan area extends into Kentucky and Indiana, the Steubenville metropolitan area extends into West Virginia, and the Youngstown metropolitan area extends into Pennsylvania. Other metropolitan areas that contain cities in Ohio, but are primarily in other states include: * Huntington–Ashland metropolitan area, Huntington-Ashland, WV-KY-OH Metropolitan Statistical Area (Lawrence County, Ohio, Lawrence County) * Wheeling, West Virginia metropolitan area, Wheeling, WV Metropolitan Statistical Area (Belmont County, Ohio, Belmont County) Additionally, 30 Ohio cities function as centers of United States micropolitan area, micropolitan areas, urban clusters smaller than that of metropolitan areas. Many of these are included as part of larger combined statistical areas, as shown in the table above.


Demographics


Population

From just over 45,000 residents in 1800, Ohio's population grew faster than 10% per decade (except for the 1940 census) until the 1970 United States Census, 1970 census, which recorded just over 10.65 million Ohioans. Growth then slowed for the next four decades. The United States Census Bureau counted 11,808,848 in the 2020 census, a 2.4% increase since the 2010 United States Census, 2010 United States census. Ohio's population growth lags that of the entire United States, and White Americans, whites are found in a greater density than the US average. , Ohio's center of population is located in Morrow County, Ohio, Morrow County, in the county seat of Mount Gilead, Ohio, Mount Gilead. This is approximately south and west of Ohio's population center in 1990. file:Ohio change in population by county 2010 to 2020.svg, 300px, Population growth by county in Ohio 2010 to 2020 censuses As of 2011, 27.6% of Ohio's children under the age of 1 belonged to minority groups. 6.2% of Ohio's population is under five years of age, 23.7 percent under 18 years of age, and 14.1 percent were 65 or older. Females made up approximately 51.2 percent of the population.


Birth data

''Note: Births in table do not add up because Hispanics are counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.'' * Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic and Latino Americans, White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one ''Hispanic'' group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.


Ancestry

In 2010, there were 469,700 foreign-born residents in Ohio, corresponding to 4.1% of the total population. Of these, 229,049 (2.0%) were naturalized Citizenship of the United States, US citizens and 240,699 (2.1%) were not. The largest groups were: Mexico (54,166), India (50,256), China (34,901), Germany (19,219), Philippines (16,410), United Kingdom (15,917), Canada (14,223), Russia (11,763), South Korea (11,307), and Ukraine (10,681). Though predominantly white, Ohio has large black populations in all major metropolitan areas throughout the state, Ohio has a significant Hispanic population made up of Mexicans in Toledo and Columbus, and Puerto Ricans in Cleveland and Columbus, and also has a significant and diverse Asian population in Columbus. The largest ancestry groups (which the census defines as not including racial terms) in the state are: * 26.5% German American, German * 14.1% Irish American, Irish * 9.0% English American, English * 6.4% Italian American, Italian * 3.8% Polish American, Polish * 2.5% French American, French * 1.9% Scottish American, Scottish * 1.7% Hungarian Ohioans, Hungarian * 1.6% Dutch American, Dutch * 1.5% Mexican American, Mexican * 1.2% Slovak American, Slovak * 1.1% Welsh American, Welsh * 1.1% Scotch-Irish American, Scotch-Irish Ancestries claimed by less than 1% of the population include Sub-Saharan African, Puerto Ricans in the United States, Puerto Rican, Swiss American, Swiss, Swedish American, Swedish, Arab American, Arab, Greek American, Greek, Norwegian American, Norwegian, Romanian American, Romanian, Austrian American, Austrian, Lithuanian American, Lithuanian, Finnish American, Finnish, West Indian American, West Indian, Portuguese American, Portuguese and Slovene American, Slovene.


Languages

About 6.7% of the population age 5 years and older reported speaking a language other than English, with 2.2% of the population speaking Spanish, 2.6% speaking other Indo-European languages, 1.1% speaking Asian and Austronesian languages, and 0.8% speaking other languages. Numerically: 10,100,586 spoke American English, English, 239,229 Spanish language in the United States, Spanish, 55,970 German language in the United States, German, 38,990 Chinese language in the United States, Chinese, 33,125 Arabic language, Arabic, and 32,019 French in the United States, French. In addition 59,881 spoke a Slavic language and 42,673 spoke another West Germanic languages, West Germanic language according to the 2010 census. Ohio also had the nation's largest population of Slovene language, Slovene speakers, second largest of Slovak language, Slovak speakers, second largest of Pennsylvania German language, Pennsylvania Dutch (German) speakers, and the third largest of Serbian language, Serbian speakers.


Religion

According to a Pew Forum poll, as of 2014, 73% of Ohioans identified as Christian. Specifically, 29% of Ohio's population identified as Evangelicalism, Evangelical Protestant, 17% as Mainline (Protestant), Mainline Protestant, 7% as Black church, Historically Black Protestant, and 18% as Catholic. 22% of the population is unaffiliated with any religious body. Small minorities of Judaism, Jews (1%), Jehovah's Witnesses (1%), Islam, Muslims (1%), Hinduism, Hindus (<1%), Buddhism, Buddhists (1%), Mormonism, Mormons (1%), and other faiths (1-1.5%) exist. According to the Association of Religion Data Archives (ARDA), in 2010 the largest denominations by adherents were the Catholic Church with 1,992,567; the United Methodist Church with 496,232; the Evangelical Lutheran Church in America with 223,253, the Southern Baptist Convention with 171,000, the Christian Churches and Churches of Christ with 141,311, the United Church of Christ with 118,000, and the Presbyterian Church (USA) with 110,000. With about 80,000 adherents in 2020, Ohio has the List of U.S. states by Amish population, second largest Amish population of all U.S. states, only behind neighboring
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
. According to the same data, a majority of Ohioans, 56%, feel religion is "very important", 25% that it is "somewhat important", and 19% that religion is "not too important/not important at all". 38% of Ohioans indicate that they attend religious services at least once weekly, 32% occasionally, and 30% seldom or never.


Economy

According to the U.S. Census Bureau, the total number for employment in 2016 was 4,790,178. The total number of unique employer establishments was 252,201, while the total number of non-employer establishments was 785,833. In 2010, Ohio was ranked second in the country for best business climate by Site Selection magazine, based on a business-activity database. The state has also won three consecutive Governor's Cup awards from the magazine, based on business growth and developments. , Ohio's gross domestic product (GDP) was $626 billion. This ranks Ohio's economy as the seventh-largest of all fifty states and the District of Columbia. The Small Business & Entrepreneurship Council ranked the state No. 10 for best business-friendly tax systems in their Business Tax Index 2009, including a top corporate tax and capital gains rate that were both ranked No. 6 at 1.9%."Business Tax Index 2009"
, SMALL BUSINESS & ENTREPRENEURSHIP COUNCIL. Retrieved December 2, 2009.
Ohio was ranked No. 11 by the council for best friendly-policy states according to their Small Business Survival Index 2009. The Directorship's Boardroom Guide ranked the state No. 13 overall for best business climate, including No. 7 for best litigation climate. Forbes ranked the state No. 8 for best regulatory environment in 2009. Ohio has five of the top 115 colleges in the nation, according to U.S. News and World Report's 2010 rankings, and was ranked No. 8 by the same magazine in 2008 for best high schools. Ohio's unemployment rate stands at 4.5% as of February 2018, down from 10.7% in May 2010. The state still lacks 45,000 jobs compared to the pre-Great Recession in the United States, recession numbers of 2007.Olivera Perkins (May 22, 2015
Ohio's unemployment rate up to 5.2 percent: 5 things you need to know
Cleveland.com.
The labor force participation as of April 2015 is 63%, slightly above the national average. Ohio's per capita income stands at $34,874. , Ohio's median household income is $58,642, and 13.1% of the population is below the poverty line. The manufacturing and financial industry, financial activities sectors each compose 18.3% of Ohio's GDP, making them Ohio's largest industries by percentage of GDP. Ohio has the third largest manufacturing workforce behind California and Texas. Ohio has the largest bioscience sector in the Midwest, and is a national leader in the "green" economy. Ohio is the largest producer in the country of plastics, rubber, fabricated metals, electrical equipment, and appliances. 5,212,000 Ohioans are currently employed by wage or salary. By employment, Ohio's largest sector is trade/transportation/utilities, which employs 1,010,000 Ohioans, or 19.4% of Ohio's workforce, while the health care industry, health care and education sector employs 825,000 Ohioans (15.8%). Government employs 787,000 Ohioans (15.1%), manufacturing employs 669,000 Ohioans (12.9%), and professional and technical services employs 638,000 Ohioans (12.2%). Ohio's manufacturing sector is the third-largest of all fifty United States states in terms of gross domestic product. Fifty-nine of the United States' top 1,000 publicly traded companies (by revenue in 2008) are headquartered in Ohio, including Procter & Gamble, Goodyear Tire & Rubber, AK Steel, Timken Company, Timken, Abercrombie & Fitch, and Wendy's. Ohio is also one of 41 states with its own lottery, the Ohio Lottery. , the Ohio Lottery has contributed more than $26 billion to education beginning in 1974.


Transportation


Ground travel

Many major east–west transportation corridors go through Ohio. One of those pioneer routes, known in the early 20th century as "Main Market Route 3", was chosen in 1913 to become part of the historic Lincoln Highway which was the first road across America, connecting New York City to San Francisco. In Ohio, the Lincoln Highway linked many towns and cities together, including Canton, Ohio, Canton, Mansfield, Ohio, Mansfield, Wooster, Ohio, Wooster, Lima, Ohio, Lima, and Van Wert, Ohio, Van Wert. The arrival of the Lincoln Highway to Ohio was a major influence on the development of the state. Upon the advent of the federal numbered highway system in 1926, the Lincoln Highway through Ohio became U.S. Route 30 in Ohio, U.S. Route 30. Ohio also is home to of the Historic National Road, now U.S. Route 40 in Ohio, U.S. Route 40. Ohio has a highly developed network of roads and interstate highways. Major east-west through routes include the Ohio Turnpike (Interstate 80 in Ohio, I-80/Interstate 90 in Ohio, I-90) in the north, Interstate 76 in Ohio, I-76 through Akron, Ohio, Akron to
Pennsylvania Pennsylvania ( , elsewhere ; pdc, Pennsilfaani), officially the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, is a landlocked A landlocked country is a country that does not have territory connected to an ocean or whose coastlines lie on endorheic basi ...

Pennsylvania
, Interstate 70 in Ohio, I-70 through
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
and Dayton, Ohio, Dayton, and the Appalachian Highway (Ohio), Appalachian Highway (Ohio State Route 32, State Route 32) running from
West Virginia West Virginia () is a U.S. state, state in the Appalachian region, Appalachian, Mid-Atlantic (United States), Mid-Atlantic and Southeastern United States, Southeastern regions of the United States.The United States Census Bureau, Census Burea ...
to Cincinnati. Major north–south routes include Interstate 75 in Ohio, I-75 in the west through Toledo, Ohio, Toledo, Dayton, and Cincinnati, Interstate 71, I-71 through the middle of the state from Cleveland through Columbus and Cincinnati into
Kentucky Kentucky ( , ), officially the Commonwealth of Kentucky, is a state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ...
, and Interstate 77 in Ohio, I-77 in the eastern part of the state from Cleveland through Akron, Canton, Ohio, Canton, New Philadelphia, Ohio, New Philadelphia and south into West Virginia. Interstate 75 between Cincinnati and Dayton is one of the heaviest traveled sections of interstate in Ohio. Ohio also has a highly developed network of signed state bicycle routes. Many of them follow rail trails, with conversion ongoing. The Ohio to Erie Trail (route 1) connects Cincinnati, Columbus, and Cleveland. U.S. Bicycle Route 50 traverses Ohio from Steubenville, Ohio, Steubenville to the Indiana state line outside Richmond, Indiana, Richmond. Ohio has several long-distance hiking trails, the most prominent of which is the Buckeye Trail which extends in a loop around the state of Ohio. Part of it is on roads and part is on wooded trail. Additionally, the North Country Trail (the longest of the eleven National Scenic Trails authorized by
Congress Congresses are formal meetings of the representatives of different countries A country is a distinct territorial body or political entity A polity is an identifiable political entity—any group of people who have a collective identity, ...

Congress
) and the American Discovery Trail (a system of recreational trails and roads that collectively form a coast-to-coast route across the mid-tier of the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
) pass through Ohio. Much of these two trails coincide with the Buckeye Trail.


Transit

Ohio has extensive railroads, though today most are only utilized by freight companies. Major cities in the north and south of Ohio lie on Amtrak intercity rail lines. The ''Capitol Limited'' and the ''Lake Shore Limited'' serve Toledo, Cleveland and other northern Ohio cities. The ''Cardinal (train), Cardinal'' serves Cincinnati. Columbus is the largest city in the United States without any form of passenger rail. Its Union Station (Columbus, Ohio), Union Station last had an inter-city train in 1979 with the ''National Limited (Amtrak train), National Limited.'' Mass transit exists in many forms in Ohio cities, primarily through bus systems, though Cleveland has both light and heavy rail through the GCRTA, and Cincinnati reestablished a Cincinnati Bell Connector, streetcar line in 2016.


Air travel

Ohio has four international airports, four commercial, and two military. The four international include Cleveland Hopkins International Airport, John Glenn Columbus International Airport, Dayton International Airport, and Rickenbacker International Airport (one of two military airfields). The other military airfield is Wright Patterson Air Force Base which is one of the largest Air Force bases in the United States. Other major airports are located in Toledo Express Airport, Toledo and Akron-Canton Airport, Akron. Cincinnati's primary airport, Cincinnati/Northern Kentucky International Airport, is in Hebron, Kentucky, and therefore is not included in Ohio airport lists.


Transportation lists

* List of Interstate Highways in Ohio * List of U.S. Routes in Ohio * List of state routes in Ohio * List of Ohio train stations * List of Ohio railroads * List of rivers of Ohio * Historic Ohio Canals


Law and government

The state government of Ohio consists of the executive, legislative, and judicial branches.


Executive branch

The executive branch is headed by the List of Governors of Ohio, governor of Ohio. The current governor is Mike DeWine since 2019, a member of the Republican Party (United States), Republican Party. A Lieutenant Governor of Ohio, lieutenant governor succeeds the governor in the event of any removal from office, and performs any duties assigned by the governor. The current lieutenant governor is Jon A. Husted. The other elected constitutional offices in the executive branch are the Ohio Secretary of State, secretary of state (Frank LaRose), Ohio State Auditor, auditor (Keith Faber), Ohio State Treasurer, treasurer (Robert Sprague), and Ohio Attorney General, attorney general (Dave Yost). There are 21 state administrative departments in the executive branch.


Legislative branch

The
Ohio General Assembly The Ohio General Assembly is the state legislature (United States), state legislature of the U.S. state of Ohio. It consists of the 99-member Ohio House of Representatives and the 33-member Ohio Senate. Both houses of the General Assembly meet at ...
is a bicameral legislature consisting of the Ohio Senate, Senate and Ohio House of Representatives, House of Representatives. The Senate is composed of 33 districts, each of which is represented by one senator. Each senator represents approximately 330,000 Electoral district, constituents. The House of Representatives is composed of 99 members. The Republican Party (United States), Republican Party is the controlling party in both houses as of the 2020 Ohio elections, 2020 election cycle.


Judicial branch

There are three levels of the Ohio state judiciary. The lowest level is the court of common pleas: each county maintains its own constitutionally mandated court of common pleas, which maintain jurisdiction over "all justiciable matters". The intermediate-level court system is the district court system. Twelve courts of appeals exist, each retaining jurisdiction over appeals from common pleas, municipal, and county courts in a set geographical area. A case heard in this system is decided by a three-judge panel, and each judge is elected. The state's highest-ranking court is the Ohio Supreme Court. A seven-justice panel composes the court, which, by its own Certiorari#State courts, discretion, hears appeals from the courts of appeals, and retains original jurisdiction over limited matters.


Politics


"Mother of presidents"

Six U.S. presidents hailed from Ohio at the time of their elections, giving rise to its nickname "mother of presidents", a sobriquet it shares with Virginia. It is also termed "modern mother of presidents", in contrast to Virginia's status as the origin of presidents earlier in American history. Seven presidents were born in Ohio, making it second to Virginia's eight. Virginia-born William Henry Harrison lived most of his life in Ohio and is also buried there. Harrison conducted his political career while living on the family compound, founded by his father-in-law, John Cleves Symmes, in North Bend, Ohio. The seven presidents born in Ohio were Ulysses S. Grant (elected from Illinois), Rutherford B. Hayes, James A. Garfield, Benjamin Harrison (grandson of William Henry Harrison & elected from
Indiana Indiana () is a U.S. state in the Midwestern United States, Midwestern United States. It is the List of U.S. states and territories by area, 38th-largest by area and the List of U.S. states and territories by population, 17th-most populous o ...

Indiana
), William McKinley, William Howard Taft and Warren G. Harding. All seven were History of the United States Republican Party, Republicans.


Swing state

Ohio is considered a
swing state In American politics The United States is a constitutional federal republic, in which the president of the United States, president (the head of state and head of government), United States Congress, Congress, and United States federal courts, ...
, being won by either the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic or Republican Party (United States), Republican candidates reasonably each election. As a swing state, Ohio is usually targeted by both major-party campaigns, especially in competitive elections. Pivotal in the election of 1888 United States presidential election, 1888, Ohio has been a regular swing state since 1980. Additionally, Ohio is considered a
bellwether A bellwether is a leader or indicator of trends. The term derives from the Middle English Middle English (abbreviated to ME) was a form of the English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken i ...
. Historian R. Douglas Hurt asserts that not since Virginia "had a state made such a mark on national political affairs".Holli (1999), p. 162. ''The Economist'' notes that "This slice of the mid-west contains a bit of everything American—part north-eastern and part southern, part urban and part rural, part hardscrabble poverty and part booming suburb", Since 1896 United States presidential election, 1896, Ohio has had only three misses in the general election (1944 United States presidential election, Thomas E. Dewey in 1944, 1960 United States presidential election, Richard Nixon in 1960, and 2020 United States presidential election, Donald Trump in 2020) and had the longest perfect streak of any state, voting for the winning presidential candidate in each election from 1964 United States presidential election, 1964 to 2016 United States presidential election, 2016, and in 33 of the 38 held since the American Civil War, Civil War. No Republican has ever won the presidency without winning Ohio. As of 2019, there are more than 7.8 million registered Ohioan voters, with 1.3 million Ohio Democratic Party, Democrats and 1.9 million Ohio Republican Party, Republicans. They are disproportionate in age, with a million more over 65 than there are 18- to 24-year-olds. Since the 2010 United States elections, 2010 midterm elections, Ohio's voter demographic has leaned towards the Republican Party. The governor, Mike DeWine, is Republican, as well as all other non-judicial statewide elected officials, including Lieutenant Governor Jon A. Husted, Attorney General Dave Yost, State Auditor Keith Faber, Secretary of State Frank LaRose and State Treasurer Robert Sprague. In the Ohio State Senate the Republicans are the majority, 25–8, and in the Ohio House of Representatives the Republicans control the delegation 64–35. Losing two seats in the U.S. House of Representatives following the 2010 census, Ohio has had 16 seats for the three presidential elections of the decade in 2012, 2016 and 2020. As of the 2020 Ohio elections, 2020 cycle, twelve federal representatives are Republicans while four are Democrats. Marcia Kaptur, Marcy Kaptur (D-Ohio's 9th congressional district, 09) is the most senior member of the Ohio delegation to the U.S. House of Representatives. The Seniority in the United States Senate, senior United States Senator, U.S. senator, Sherrod Brown, is a Democrat, while the junior, Rob Portman, is a Republican.


Voter suppression

Since 1994, the state has had a policy of purging infrequent voters from its rolls. In April 2016, a lawsuit was filed, challenging this policy on the grounds that it violated the National Voter Registration Act of 1993, National Voter Registration Act (NVRA) of 1993 and the Help America Vote Act of 2002. In June, the federal district court ruled for the plaintiffs and entered a preliminary injunction applicable only to the November 2016 election. The preliminary injunction was upheld in September by the Court of Appeals for the Sixth Circuit. Had it not been upheld, thousands of voters would have been purged from the rolls just a few weeks before the election. Still, it has been estimated that the state has removed up to two million voters since 2011.


Education

Ohio's system of public education is outlined in Article VI of the Ohio Constitution, state constitution, and in Title XXXIII of the Ohio Revised Code. Ohio University, the first university in the
Northwest Territory The Northwest Territory, also known as the Old Northwest and formally known as the Territory Northwest of the River Ohio, was formed from unorganized western territory of the United States after the . Established in 1787 by the through the , ...

Northwest Territory
, was also the first public institution in Ohio. Substantively, Ohio's system is similar to those found in Education in the United States, other states. At the State level, the Ohio Department of Education, which is overseen by the Ohio State Board of Education, governs primary and secondary educational institutions. At the municipal level, there are approximately 700 school districts statewide. The Ohio Board of Regents coordinates and assists with Ohio's institutions of higher education which have recently been reorganized into the University System of Ohio under Governor Strickland. The system averages an annual enrollment of more than 400,000 students, making it one of the five largest state university systems in the U.S.


Colleges and universities

Ohio schools consistently ranking in the top 50 nationally of the U.S. News & World Report of liberal arts colleges are Ohio Big Three; Denison University, Oberlin College, and Kenyon College. Ranking in the top 100 of national research universities typically includes Case Western Reserve University, Ohio State University and Miami University. * 13 state universities ** Bowling Green State University (Bowling Green, Ohio, Bowling Green) ** Central State University (Wilberforce, Ohio, Wilberforce) ** Cleveland State University (Cleveland) ** Kent State University (Kent, Ohio, Kent) ** Miami University (Oxford, Ohio, Oxford) ** The Ohio State University (
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
) ** Ohio University (Athens, Ohio, Athens) ** Shawnee State University (Portsmouth, Ohio, Portsmouth) ** University of Akron (Akron, Ohio, Akron) ** University of Cincinnati (Cincinnati) ** University of Toledo (Toledo, Ohio, Toledo) ** Wright State University (Fairborn, Ohio, Fairborn) ** Youngstown State University (Youngstown, Ohio, Youngstown) * 24 state university branch and regional campuses * 46 private colleges and universities * 6 free-standing state-assisted medical schools ** Boonshoft School of Medicine, Wright State University ** Heritage College of Osteopathic Medicine, Ohio University ** Northeast Ohio Medical University ** OSU College of Medicine and Public Health, The Ohio State University College of Medicine and Public Health ** University of Cincinnati Academic Health Center#University of Cincinnati College of Medicine, University of Cincinnati College of Medicine ** University of Toledo Medical Center, University of Toledo College of Medicine (formerly Medical University of Ohio) * 15 community colleges * 8 technical colleges * 24 independent non-profit colleges


Libraries

Ohio is home to some of the nation's highest-ranked public libraries. The Hennen's American Public Library Ratings, 2008 study by Thomas J. Hennen Jr. ranked Ohio as number one in a state-by-state comparison. For 2008, 31 of Ohio's library systems were all ranked in the top ten for American cities of their population category. * 500,000 books or more ** Columbus Metropolitan Library (First) ** Cuyahoga County Public Library (Second) ** Public Library of Cincinnati and Hamilton County (Tenth) The Ohio Public Library Information Network (OPLIN) is an organization that provides Ohio residents with internet access to their 251 public libraries. OPLIN also provides Ohioans with free home access to high-quality, subscription research databases. Ohio also offers the OhioLINK program, allowing Ohio's libraries (particularly those from colleges and universities) access to materials for the other libraries. The program is largely successful in allowing researchers for access to books and other media that might not be otherwise available.


Culture


Arts


Music

The Rock and Roll Hall of Fame and the Rhythm and Blues Music Hall of Fame are both located in Cleveland. Cleveland disc jockey Alan Freed is credited with coining the term and promoting rock and roll in the early 1950s. Cincinnati is home to the American Classical Music Hall of Fame and Museum. Popular musicians from Ohio include Mamie Smith, Dean Martin, Dave Grohl, Tyler Joseph and Josh Dun of Twenty One Pilots, Frankie Yankovic, Doris Day, The McGuire Sisters, The Isley Brothers, Bobby Womack, Howard Hewett, Shirley Murdock, Boz Scaggs, John Legend, Marilyn Manson, Nine Inch Nails, Dan Auerbach and Patrick Carney of The Black Keys, Griffin Layne, Joe Dolce, Kid Cudi, Benjamin Orr of The Cars, Chrissie Hynde of The Pretenders, William "Bootsy" Collins, Stephanie Eulinberg of Kid Rock's Twisted Brown Trucker Band, and Devo. Five Ohio musicians are Rock and Roll Hall of Fame members.


Performance arts

Playhouse Square in downtown Cleveland is the second-largest performing arts center in the United States, home to ten theaters. The Cleveland Orchestra is one of the historic Big Five (orchestras), Big Five orchestras in the U.S., and is considered one of the best worldwide. Many other Ohio cities are home to their own orchestras, including Akron Symphony Orchestra, Akron, Blue Ash Montgomery Symphony Orchestra, Blue Ash, Canton Symphony Orchestra, Canton, Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, Cincinnati, Columbus Symphony Orchestra, Columbus, Dayton Philharmonic Orchestra, Dayton, Toledo Symphony Orchestra, Toledo, and Youngstown Symphony Orchestra, Youngstown. Cincinnati is home to its own Cincinnati Ballet, ballet, Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, symphony orchestra, Cincinnati Pops Orchestra, pops orchestra, and Cincinnati Opera, opera, all housed at the Cincinnati Music Hall. Dayton is also home to a ballet, orchestra, and opera, collectively known as the Dayton Performing Arts Alliance. The Columbus Association for the Performing Arts manages seven historic Columbus area theaters. Winter Guard International has hosted national championships in performing arts at the University of Dayton from 1983 to 1989, 1991–1996, 1998–2000, 2002–2003, and from 2005 to the present.


Visual arts

Ohio is home to 30 art institutions, including the Columbus Museum of Art, Cincinnati Art Museum, Cleveland Museum of Art, and other entities. The full list includes: *Akron Art Museum, Akron *Allen Memorial Art Museum, Oberlin College *Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum, Ohio State University *Burchfield Homestead, Salem, Ohio, Salem *Butler Institute of American Art, Youngstown, Ohio, Youngstown *Canton Museum of Art (Ohio), Canton Museum of Art, Canton, Ohio, Canton *Cincinnati Art Museum, Cincinnati *Cleveland Museum of Art, Cleveland *Columbus Museum of Art,
Columbus Columbus is a Latinized version of the Italian surname "''Colombo Colombo ( si, කොළඹ, translit=Kolamba, ; ta, கொழும்பு, translit=Kozhumpu, ) is the commercial capital and largest city of Sri Lanka Sri Lanka (, ...
*Contemporary Arts Center, Cincinnati *Dayton Art Institute, Dayton, Ohio, Dayton *Frank Museum of Art, Otterbein University *Imperial Glass Company, National Imperial Glass Museum, Bellaire, Ohio, Bellaire *Kennedy Museum of Art, Ohio University *Maltz Performing Arts Center, Temple Museum of Religious Art, Case Western Reserve University *Mansfield Art Center, Mansfield, Ohio, Mansfield *McDonough Museum of Art, Youngstown State University *Miami University Art Museum, Miami University *Museum of Ceramics (East Liverpool, Ohio), Museum of Ceramics, East Liverpool, Ohio, East Liverpool *Museum of Contemporary Art Cleveland, Cleveland *Lancaster, Ohio#Ohio Glass Museum, Ohio Glass Museum, Lancaster, Ohio, Lancaster *Richard Ross Museum of Art, Ohio Wesleyan University *Springfield Center for the Arts at Wittenberg University, Wittenberg University *Taft Museum of Art, Cincinnati *Toledo Museum of Art, Toledo, Ohio, Toledo *Toy and Plastic Brick Museum, Bellaire, Ohio, Bellaire *University of Findlay's Mazza Museum, University of Findlay *Wexner Center for the Arts, Ohio State University *Whitby Mansion, Sidney, Ohio, Sidney The Cincinnati Art Museum holds over 100,000 works spanning 6,000 years of human history, being among the most comprehensive collections in the Midwest. Among its notable collections are works by Master of San Baudelio, Jorge Ingles, Sandro Botticelli (''Judith with Head of Holofernes''), Matteo di Giovanni, Domenico Tintoretto (''Portrait of Venetian dux Marino Grimani''), Mattia Preti, Bernardo Strozzi, Frans Hals, Bartolomé Esteban Murillo (''St. Thomas of Villanueva''), Peter Paul Rubens (''Samson and Delilah (Rubens), Samson and Delilah'') and Aert van der Neer. The collection also includes works by Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Pierre-Auguste Renoir, Camille Pissarro, Claude Monet (''Rocks At Belle Isle''), and Pablo Picasso. The museum also has a large collection of paintings by American painter Frank Duveneck (''Elizabeth B. Duveneck''). The Cleveland Museum of Art is internationally renowned for its substantial holdings of Asian art, Asian and Art of ancient Egypt, Egyptian art, and has a permanent collection of more than 61,000 works from around the world. It is the fourth-wealthiest art museum in the
United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washington, D.C., ...

United States
. The Columbus Museum of Art holds nineteenth and early twentieth-century American and European art, including early Cubist paintings by Pablo Picasso and Juan Gris, works by François Boucher, Paul Cézanne, Mary Cassatt, Jean Auguste Dominique Ingres, Edgar Degas, Henri Matisse, Claude Monet, Edward Hopper, and Norman Rockwell, and installations by Mel Chin, Josiah McElheny, Susan Philipsz, and Allan Sekula. Also in Columbus, the Billy Ireland Cartoon Library & Museum collection includes 450,000 original cartoons, 36,000 books, 51,000 serial titles, and of manuscript materials, plus 2.5 million comic strip clippings and tear sheets, making it the largest research library for cartoon art. Youngstown's Butler Institute of American Art was the first museum to be dedicated exclusively to Visual arts of the United States, American art.


Sports


Professional sports teams

Ohio is home to eight professional sports teams across the five different Major professional sports leagues in the United States and Canada, major leagues in the United States. Current teams include the Cincinnati Reds and Cleveland Guardians of Major League Baseball, the Columbus Crew SC and FC Cincinnati of Major League Soccer, the Cleveland Cavaliers of the National Basketball Association, the Cincinnati Bengals and Cleveland Browns of the National Football League, and the Columbus Blue Jackets of the National Hockey League. Ohio has brought home seven World Series titles (Reds 1919 World Series, 1919, 1940 World Series, 1940, 1975 World Series, 1975, 1976 World Series, 1976, 1990 World Series, 1990; Indians 1920 World Series, 1920, 1948 World Series, 1948), two MLS Cups (Crew MLS Cup 2008, 2008, MLS Cup 2020, 2020), one NBA Finals, NBA Championship (Cavaliers 2016 NBA Finals, 2016), and nine History of the National Football League championship, NFL Championships (1920 Akron Pros season, Pros 1920; 1922 Canton Bulldogs season, Bulldogs 1922, 1923 Canton Bulldogs season, 1923, 1924 Cleveland Bulldogs season, 1924; 1945 NFL Championship Game, Rams 1945; Browns 1950 NFL Championship Game, 1950, 1954 NFL Championship Game, 1954, 1955 NFL Championship Game, 1955, 1964 NFL Championship Game, 1964). Despite this success in the NFL in the first half of the 20th century, no Ohio team has won the Super Bowl since its inception in Super Bowl I, 1967 or made an appearance since Super Bowl XXIII, 1989. No Ohio team has made an appearance in the Stanley Cup Finals. Ohio played a central role in the development of both Major League Baseball and the National Football League. Baseball's first fully professional team, the Cincinnati Red Stockings of 1869, were organized in Ohio. An informal early-20th-century American football association, the Ohio League, was the direct predecessor of the NFL, although neither of Ohio's modern NFL franchises trace their roots to an Ohio League club. The Pro Football Hall of Fame is located in Canton, Ohio, Canton. On a smaller scale, Ohio hosts minor league baseball, arena football, indoor American football, indoor football, mid-level hockey, and lower division soccer.


Individual sports

The Mid-Ohio Sports Car Course has hosted several auto racing championships, including CART World Series, IndyCar Series, NASCAR Nationwide Series, Can-Am, Formula 5000, IMSA GT Championship, American Le Mans Series and Rolex Sports Car Series. The Grand Prix of Cleveland also hosted CART races from 1982 to 2007. The Eldora Speedway is a major dirt oval that hosts NASCAR Camping World Truck Series, World of Outlaws Sprint Cars and USAC Silver Crown Series races. Ohio hosts two PGA Tour events, the WGC-Bridgestone Invitational and Memorial Tournament. The Cincinnati Masters is an ATP World Tour Masters 1000 and WTA Premier tournaments, WTA Premier 5 tennis tournament.


College sports

Ohio has eight NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision college football teams, divided among three different List of NCAA conferences, conferences. It has also experienced considerable success in the secondary and tertiary tiers of college football divisions. There is only one program in the Power Five conferences, the Ohio State Buckeyes, who play in the Big Ten Conference. The Ohio State Buckeyes football, football team is second in all-time winning percentage, with a 931–327–53 overall record and a 25–26 Bowl game, bowl record as of 2020 Ohio State Buckeyes football team, 2020. The program has produced seven Heisman Trophy winners, forty conference titles, and eight undisputed national championships. The Ohio State Buckeyes men's basketball, men's basketball program has appeared in the NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament 27 times. In the Group of Five conferences, the Cincinnati Bearcats play as a member of the American Athletic Conference. Their Cincinnati Bearcats men's basketball, men's basketball team has over 1,800 wins, 33 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, March Madness appearances, and is currently on a nine-year streak of appearances as of 2019. Six teams are represented in the Mid-American Conference: the Akron Zips, Bowling Green Falcons, Kent State Golden Flashes, Miami RedHawks, Ohio Bobcats and the Toledo Rockets. The MAC headquarters are in Cleveland. The Victory Bell (Cincinnati–Miami), Cincinnati–Miami rivalry game has been played in southwest Ohio every year since 1888 and is the oldest current non-conference NCAA football rivalry. Other Division I schools, either part of the NCAA Division I Football Championship Subdivision or not fielding in football include the Cleveland State Vikings, Xavier Musketeers, Wright State Raiders, and Youngstown State Penguins. Xavier's Xavier Musketeers men's basketball, men's basketball has performed particularly well, with 27 NCAA Division I Men's Basketball Tournament, March Madness appearances. Youngstown State's Youngstown State Penguins football, football has the third most NCAA Division I Football Championship wins, with 3. There are 12 NCAA Division II universities and 22 NCAA Division III universities in Ohio.


See also

* Index of Ohio-related articles * Outline of Ohio


Notes


References


Bibliography

* Cayton, Andrew R. L. (2002). ''Ohio: The History of a People''. Columbus, OH: The Ohio State University Press. * Knepper, George W. (1989). ''Ohio and Its People''. Kent, OH: Kent State University Press. * Mithun, Marianne (1999). ''Languages of Native North America''. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press. * Morris, Roy, Jr. (1992). ''Sheridan: The Life and Wars of General Phil Sheridan''. New York: Crown Publishing. . * Holli, Melvin G. (1999). ''The American Mayor''. State College, PA: Pennsylvania State University Press. * Roseboom, Eugene H.; Weisenburger, Francis P. (1967). ''A History of Ohio''. Columbus: The Ohio Historical Society.


External links


State of Ohio official website

Ohio State Facts from USDA



USGS real-time, geographic, and other scientific resources of Ohio

''Thunder in the Heartland: A Chronicle of Outstanding Weather Events in Ohio''
by Dr. Thomas Schmidlin and Jeanne Appelhans Schmidlin; The Kent State university Press; Kent, Ohio, 1996. * * {{coord, 40.2862, -82.7937, dim:300000_region:US-OH_type:adm1st, name=State of Ohio, display=title Ohio, States of the United States Midwestern United States States and territories established in 1803 Former British colonies and protectorates in the Americas Former French colonies 1803 establishments in the United States Contiguous United States