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The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the
Executive Office of the President of the United States The Executive Office of the President (EOP) comprises the offices and agencies that support the work of the president at the center of the executive branch The executive is the branch of government exercising authority in and holding Mor ...
(EOP). OMB's most prominent function is to produce the president's budget, but it also examines agency programs, policies, and procedures to see whether they comply with the president's policies and coordinates inter-agency policy initiatives.
Shalanda Young Shalanda Delores Young is an American political advisor who is the deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United S ...
has served as acting director of OMB since March 24, 2021.
President President most commonly refers to: *President (corporate title) A president is a leader of an organization, company, community, club, trade union, university or other group. The relationship between a president and a Chief Executive Officer, chi ...

President
Joe Biden Joseph Robinette Biden Jr. ( ; born November 20, 1942) is an American politician who is the 46th and current president of the United States The president of the United States (POTUS) is the head of state and head of government of th ...

Joe Biden
initially nominated
Neera Tanden Neera Tanden (born September 10, 1970) is an American political consultant and former government official. She is the president of the Center for American Progress The Center for American Progress (CAP) is a public policy Public policy is a ...

Neera Tanden
as the next OMB director, but Tanden withdrew her nomination after it became clear that she did not have enough support to be confirmed by the Senate. Biden has nominated Young to serve as permanent director.


History

The Bureau of the Budget, OMB's predecessor, was established in 1921 as a part of the Department of the Treasury by the
Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 The Budget and Accounting Act of 1921 () was landmark legislation that established the framework for the modern federal budget. The act was approved by President Warren G. Harding to provide a national budget system and an independent audit of go ...
, which President
Warren G. Harding
Warren G. Harding
signed into law. The Bureau of the Budget was moved to the
Executive Office of the President Executive may refer to: Role, title, or function * Executive (government), branch of government that has authority and responsibility for the administration of state bureaucracy * Executive, a senior management role in an organization ** Chief e ...
in 1939 and was run by Harold D. Smith during the government's rapid expansion of spending during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
. James L. Sundquist, a staffer at the Bureau of the Budget, called the relationship between the president and the bureau extremely close and subsequent bureau directors politicians, not public administrators. The bureau was reorganized into the Office of Management and Budget in 1970 during the
Nixon administration The presidency of Richard Nixon began at noon EST on January 20, 1969, when Richard Nixon Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th president of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. A member of the ...

Nixon administration
. The first OMB included
Roy Ash Roy Lawrence Ash (October 20, 1918December 14, 2011) was the co-founder and president of the American company Litton Industries and director of the Office of Management and Budget from February 2, 1973 until February 3, 1975, during the administrati ...
(head), Paul O'Neill (assistant director),
Fred Malek Frederic Vincent Malek (December 22, 1936 – March 24, 2019) was an American business executive, political advisor, and philanthropist. He was a President of Marriott Hotels and Northwest Airlines and an assistant to United States Presidents Ric ...
(deputy director),
Frank Zarb Frank Gustave Zarb (born February 17, 1935) is an American businessman and former Republican Party (United States), Republican politician. He is perhaps best known as the chairman and ceo of the NASDAQ stock exchange during the Dot-com bubble, dot ...
(associate director) and two dozen others. In the 1990s, OMB was reorganized to remove the distinction between management staff and budgetary staff by combining the dual roles into each given program examiner within the Resource Management Offices.


Purpose

OMB prepares the president's budget proposal to Congress and supervises the administration of the executive branch agencies. It evaluates the effectiveness of agency programs, policies, and procedures, assesses competing funding demands among agencies, and sets funding priorities. OMB ensures that agency reports, rules, testimony, and proposed legislation are consistent with the president's budget and administration policies. OMB also oversees and coordinates the administration's procurement, financial management, information, and regulatory policies. In each of these areas, OMB's role is to help improve administrative management, develop better performance measures and coordinating mechanisms, and reduce unnecessary burdens on the public. OMB's critical missions are: #Budget development and execution, a prominent government-wide process managed from the Executive Office of the President (EOP) and a device by which a president implements their policies, priorities, and actions in everything from the
Department of DefenseDepartment of Defence or Department of Defense may refer to: Current departments of defence * Department of Defence (Australia) The Department of Defence (DoD) is a Government department, department of the Government of Australia charged with ...
to
NASA The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA; ) is an independent agency A regulatory agency or regulatory authority, is a Public benefit corporation Public-benefit corporation is a term that has different meanings in differen ...

NASA
. #Managing other agencies' financials, paperwork, and IT.


Structure


Overview

OMB is made up mainly of career appointed staff who provide continuity across changes of party and administration in the White House. Six positions within OMBthe Director, the Deputy Director, the Deputy Director for Management, and the administrators of the
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA ) is a Division within the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which in turn, is within the Executive Office of the President. OIRA oversees the implementation of government-wide policie ...
, the
Office of Federal Procurement Policy The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) is a component of the United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States ...
, and the
Office of Federal Financial Management The Office of Federal Financial Management (OFFM) is a component of the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). The President of the United States ap ...
are presidentially appointed and
Senate The Curia Julia in the Roman Forum ">Roman_Forum.html" ;"title="Curia Julia in the Roman Forum">Curia Julia in the Roman Forum A senate is a deliberative assembly, often the upper house or Debating chamber, chamber of a bicameral legislatu ...
-
confirmed A woodcut depicting the confirmation of Lutheran youth In Christian denominations that practice infant baptism, confirmation is seen as the sealing of the covenant created in baptism. It is an affirmation of commitment and belief. Those bei ...
positions. OMB's largest components are the five Resource Management Offices, which are organized along functional lines mirroring the federal government, each led by an OMB associate director. Approximately half of all OMB staff are assigned to these offices, the majority of whom are designated as program examiners. Program examiners can be assigned to monitor one or more federal agencies or may be deployed by a topical area, such as monitoring issues relating to U.S. Navy warships. These staff have dual responsibility for both management and budgetary issues, as well as for giving expert advice on all aspects relating to their programs. Each year they review federal agency budget requests and help decide what resource requests will be sent to Congress as part of the president's budget. They perform in-depth program evaluations with the Program Assessment Rating Tool, review proposed regulations and agency testimony, analyze pending legislation, and oversee the aspects of the president's management agenda including agency management scorecards. They are often called upon to provide analysis information to EOP staff. They also provide important information to those assigned to the statutory offices within OMB: the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs, the Office of Federal Procurement Policy, the Office of Federal Financial Management, and the
Office of E-Government & Information TechnologyThe Office of E-Government & Information Technology, also called the E-Gov office, develops and guides the U.S. federal government's use of Internet-based technologies for the public to interact with the government. The office is part of the Office o ...
, which specializes in issues such as federal regulations and procurement policy and law. Other components are OMB-wide support offices, including the Office of General Counsel, the Office of Legislative Affairs, the Budget Review Division (BRD), and the Legislative Reference Division. The BRD performs government-wide budget coordination and is largely responsible for the technical aspects relating to the release of the president's budget each February. With respect to the estimation of spending for the
executive branch The executive (short for executive branch or executive power) is the part of government that enforces law, and has Moral responsibility, responsibility for the governance of a State (polity), state. In political systems based on the principle ...
, the BRD serves a purpose parallel to that of the
Congressional Budget Office The Congressional Budget Office (CBO) is a federal agency within the legislative branch A legislature is a deliberative assembly A deliberative assembly is a gathering of members (of any kind of collective) who use parliamentary procedure ...

Congressional Budget Office
(which was created in response to the OMB) for estimating Congressional spending, the
Department of the Treasury Department may refer to: * Departmentalization, division of a larger organization into parts with specific responsibility Government and military *Department (country subdivision), a geographical and administrative division within a country, for e ...
for estimating executive branch revenue, and the
Joint Committee on Taxation The Joint Committee on Taxation (JCT) is a Committee of the U.S. Congress established under the Internal Revenue Code The Internal Revenue Code (IRC), formally the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, is the domestic portion of federal statutory tax law ...
for estimating Congressional revenue. The Legislative Reference Division is the federal government's central clearing house for proposed legislation or testimony by federal officials. It distributes proposed legislation and testimony to all relevant federal reviewers and distills the comments into a consensus opinion of the administration about the proposal. It is also responsible for writing an Enrolled Bill Memorandum to the president once a bill is presented by both chambers of Congress for the president's signature. The Enrolled Bill Memorandum details the bill's particulars, opinions on the bill from relevant federal departments, and an overall opinion about whether it should be signed into law or
vetoed A veto (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman Repu ...

vetoed
. It also issues Statements of Administration Policy that let Congress know the White House's official position on proposed legislation.


Role in the executive budget process

In practice, the president has assigned the OMB certain responsibilities when it comes to the budget and hiring authorities who play key roles in developing it. OMB coordinates the development of the president's budget proposal by issuing circulars, memoranda, and guidance documents to the heads of executive agencies. The OMB works very closely with executive agencies in making sure the budget process and proposal is smooth. The development of the budget within the executive branch has many steps and takes nearly a year to complete. The first step is the OMB informing the president of the country's economic situation. The next step is known as the Spring Guidance: the OMB gives executive agencies instructions on policy guidance to use when coming up with their budget requests along with due dates for them to submit their requests. The OMB then works with the agencies to discuss issues in the upcoming budget. In July, the OMB issues circular A-11 to all agencies, which outlines instructions for submitting the budget proposals, which the agencies submit by September. The
fiscal year A fiscal year (or financial year, or sometimes budget year) is used in government accounting, which varies between countries, and for budget purposes. It is also used for financial report Financial statements (or financial reports) are formal ...
begins October1 and OMB staff meet with senior agency representatives to find out whether their proposals are in line with the president's priorities and policies and identify constraints within the budget proposal until late November. The OMB director then meets with the president and EOP advisors to discuss the agencies' budget proposals and recommends a federal budget proposal, and the agencies are notified of the decisions about their requests. They can appeal to OMB and the president in December if they are dissatisfied with the decisions. After working together to resolve issues, agencies and OMB prepare a budget justification document to present to relevant congressional committees, especially the Appropriations Committee. Finally, by the first Monday in February, the president must review and submit the final budget to Congress to approve. OMB is also responsible for the preparation of Statements of Administrative Policy (SAPs) with the president. These statements allow the OMB to communicate the president's and agencies' policies to the government as a whole and set forth policymakers' agendas. During the review of the federal budget, interest groups can lobby for policy change and affect the budget for the new year. OMB plays a key role in policy conflicts by making sure legislation and agencies' actions are consistent with the executive branch's. OMB has a powerful and influential role in the government, basically making sure its day-to-day operations run. Without a budget, federal employees could not be paid, federal buildings could not open and federal programs would come to a halt in a government shutdown. Shutdowns can occur when Congress refuses to accept a budget.


Suspension and debarment

The Interagency Suspension and Debarment Committee (ISDC) was created as an OMB committee by President Ronald Reagan's
Executive Order In the United States, an executive order is a directive Directive may refer to: * Directive (European Union), a legislative act of the European Union * Directive (programming), a computer language construct that specifies how a compiler shou ...
12549 in 1986, for the purpose of monitoring the implementation of the order. This order mandates executive departments and agencies to: *participate in a government-wide suspension and debarment system, *issue regulations with government-wide criteria and minimum due process procedures when debarring or suspending participants, and *send debarred and suspended participants' identifying information to the
General Services Administration The General Services Administration (GSA) is an Independent agencies of the United States government, independent agency of the United States government established in 1949 to help manage and support the basic functioning of federal agencies. G ...
for inclusion on a list of excluded persons, now known as the
System for Award ManagementThe Central Contractor Registration (CCR) was the primary supplier database for the U.S. Federal government until July 30, 2012. The CCR collected data from suppliers, validated and stored this data, and disseminated it to various government acquisi ...
(SAM).


Circulars

Circulars are instructions or information the OMB issues to federal agencies that are indexed by major category: Budget, State and Local Governments, Educational and Non-Profit Institutions, Federal Procurement, Federal Financial Management, Federal Information Resources / Data Collection and Other Special Purpose. Circular NO. A-119 Circular A-119 is for federal participation in the development and use of voluntary consensus standards and in
conformity assessment Conformance testing — an element of conformity assessment, and also known as compliance testing, or type testing — is Test method, testing or other activities that determine whether a process, product, or service complies with the requirements o ...
activities. A-119 instructs its agencies to adopt voluntary consensus standards before relying upon industry standards and reducing to a minimum the reliance by agencies on government standards. Adoption of
international standards are technical standards developed by international organization ''International Organization'' is a quarterly peer-reviewed academic journal that covers the entire field of international relations, international affairs. It was established in 194 ...
is widely followed by U.S. agencies. This includes: *
Environmental Protection Agency A biophysical environment is a biotic Biotics describe living or once living components of a community; for example organisms, such as animals and plants. Biotic may refer to: *Life, the condition of living organisms *Biology, the study of life ...
referencing
ISO 14001 ISO 14000 is a family of standards related to environmental management that exists to help organizations (a) minimize how their operations (processes, etc.) negatively environmental effects, affect the environment (i.e. cause adverse changes to air ...
supporting public policy in environmental management *
Department of EnergyA Ministry of Energy or Department of Energy is a government department in some countries that typically oversees the production of fuel and electricity; in the United States, however, it manages nuclear weapons development and conducts energy-relate ...
referencing
ISO 50001 ISO 50001 Energy management systems - Requirements with guidance for use, is an international standard created by the International Organization for Standardization (ISO). The standard specifies the requirements for establishing, implementing, maint ...
supporting public policy for energy performance aligned with the
International Energy Agency The International Energy Agency (IEA; french: Agence internationale de l'énergie) is a Paris Paris () is the Capital city, capital and List of communes in France with over 20,000 inhabitants, most populous city of France, with an estima ...
*
Department of Labor The Ministry of Labour ('' UK''), or Labor ('' US''), also known as the Department of Labour, or Labor, is a government department responsible for setting national labour standards, labour dispute mechanisms, employment, workforce participation, tra ...
referencing
ISO 45001 ISO 45001 is an ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), norm or requirement for a repe ...
supporting public policy in occupational health and safety *
Food and Drug Administration The United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, st ...
referencing
ISO 13485 #REDIRECT ISO 13485 #REDIRECT ISO 13485#REDIRECT ISO 13485ISO 13485 ''Medical devices -- Quality management systems -- Requirements for regulatory purposes'' is an International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard published for the fir ...
supporting public policy in medical devices *
Food and Drug Administration The United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, st ...
referencing
ISO 22000 ISO 22000 is a Food safety management system which provides requirements for any organization in the food industry with objective to help to improve overall performance in food safety. Food safety Food safety Food safety (or food hygiene) ...
supporting public policy in food products


Organization

*Director of the Office of Management and Budget **Deputy Director, OMB **Executive Associate Director of OMB ***Office of General Counsel ***Office of Legislative Affairs ***Office of Communications ***Office of Economic Policy (EP) ***Management and Operations Division ***Legislative Reference Division ***Budget Review Division (BRD) ***Resource Management Offices ****Natural Resource Programs ****Education, Income Maintenance, and Labor Programs ****Health Programs ****General Government Programs ****National Security Programs **Deputy Director for Management (
Chief Performance Officer of the United States Chief Performance Officer of the United States (CPO) is a position in the Office of Management and Budget (within the Executive Office of the President of the United States), first announced on January 7, 2009, by then President-elect Barack Obama ...
) ***Office of Performance and Personnel Management (OPPM) ***
Office of Federal Financial Management The Office of Federal Financial Management (OFFM) is a component of the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). The President of the United States ap ...
(OFFM) ***
Office of Federal Procurement Policy The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) is a component of the United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States ...
(OFPP) ***
Office of E-Government & Information TechnologyThe Office of E-Government & Information Technology, also called the E-Gov office, develops and guides the U.S. federal government's use of Internet-based technologies for the public to interact with the government. The office is part of the Office o ...
(administrator: Federal Chief Information Officer of the United States) ****Cyber and National Security Unit **** United States Digital Service (USDS) ***
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA ) is a Division within the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which in turn, is within the Executive Office of the President. OIRA oversees the implementation of government-wide policie ...
(OIRA) ***Office of the Intellectual Property Enforcement Coordinator (IPEC)


Current appointees

*Director:
Shalanda Young Shalanda Delores Young is an American political advisor who is the deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United S ...
(acting since March 24, 2021) **Deputy Director:
Shalanda Young Shalanda Delores Young is an American political advisor who is the deputy director of the Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United S ...
***General Counsel: Samuel Bagenstos **Deputy Director for Management (
Chief Performance Officer of the United States Chief Performance Officer of the United States (CPO) is a position in the Office of Management and Budget (within the Executive Office of the President of the United States), first announced on January 7, 2009, by then President-elect Barack Obama ...
): Jason Miller ***Controller of the Office of Federal Financial Management: vacant (Patrick Corrigan is Performing the Duties of the Controller) ***Administrator of the Office of Federal Procurement Policy: vacant ***Administrator of the Office of E-Government & Information Technology ( Federal Chief Information Officer of the United States):
Clare Martorana Clare Martorana is an American business executive and government official serving as the Federal Chief Information Officer of the United States. She previously served as the CIO of the United States Office of Personnel Management from 2019 to 2021. ...
***Made in America Director: Celeste Drake ***Administrator of the Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs: Sharon Block (Acting)


List of directors


See also

*
List of federal agencies in the United States Legislative definitions of a federal agency Agency may refer to: * a governmental or other institution Institutions, according to Samuel P. Huntington, are "stable, valued, recurring patterns of behavior". Institutions can refer to mechanis ...
*
Learning agendaA learning agenda is a set of questions, assembled by an organization or team, that identifies what needs to be learned before a project can be Project planning, planned and Implementation, implemented. Overview An organizational learning agenda is ...
*
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
**
List of U.S. states and territories by population upright=2.5, Average annual population growth rate in each District of Columbia ) , image_skyline = , image_caption = Clockwise from top left: the Washington Monument and Lincoln Memorial on the National Mall, Un ...
**
List of metropolitan areas of the United States #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region wit ...
**
List of United States cities by population The following is a list of the most populous municipal corporation, incorporated places of the United States. As defined by the United States Census Bureau, an "Place (United States Census Bureau)#Incorporated place, incorporated place" incl ...
**
List of United States counties and county-equivalents This article lists the 3,143 counties and county equivalents of the United States. The 50 states of the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country ...
** Primary statistical areaList of the 574PSAs **
Combined Statistical Area Combined statistical area (CSA) is a United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent ...
List of the 169CSAs **
Core Based Statistical Area A core-based statistical area (CBSA) is a U.S. The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country primarily located in North America North America is a continent enti ...
List of the 929CBSAs **
Metropolitan Statistical Area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area #REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area#REDIRECT Metropolitan statistical area In the United States, a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) is a geographical region with a relatively high population density a ...
List of the 388MSAs ** Micropolitan Statistical AreaList of the 541μSAs **
United States urban area This is a list of urban areas in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It c ...
List of United States urban areas This is a list of urban areas in the United States The United States of America (U.S.A. or USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US) or America, is a country Continental United States, primarily located in North America. It c ...
* Title 2 of the Code of Federal Regulations * Title 5 of the Code of Federal Regulations *
United States federal budget The United States federal budget comprises the spending and revenue In accounting, revenue is the income or increase in net assets that an entity has from its normal activities (in the case of a business, usually from the sale of product (busin ...
*
Office of Federal Financial Management The Office of Federal Financial Management (OFFM) is a component of the United States Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which is part of the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). The President of the United States ap ...
*
Office of Federal Procurement Policy The Office of Federal Procurement Policy (OFPP) is a component of the United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States ...
*
Government procurement in the United States The processes of government procurement in the United States enable federal Federal or foederal (archaic) may refer to: Politics General *Federal monarchy, a federation of monarchies *Federation, or ''Federal state'' (federal system), a type of g ...
*
Office of E-Government & Information TechnologyThe Office of E-Government & Information Technology, also called the E-Gov office, develops and guides the U.S. federal government's use of Internet-based technologies for the public to interact with the government. The office is part of the Office o ...
*
Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs The Office of Information and Regulatory Affairs (OIRA ) is a Division within the Office of Management and Budget (OMB), which in turn, is within the Executive Office of the President. OIRA oversees the implementation of government-wide policie ...
* Data.gov *
USAFacts USAFacts (c. 2017) is a non-profit organization and website that provides data and reports on the US population, its government's finances, and government's impact on society. History and background USAFacts was founded by former Microsoft CE ...


Notes


References


External links

*
Office of Management and Budget
in the
Federal Register The ''Federal Register'' (FR or sometimes Fed. Reg.) is the official journal A government gazette (also known as official gazette, official journal, official newspaper, official monitor or official bulletin) is a periodical publication that h ...

Budget of the United States government
and supplements, 1923–present
Death and Taxes: 2009
A visual guide and infographic of the 2009 United States federal discretionary budget request as prepared by OMB
"The Decision Makers: Office of Management and Budget" GovExec.com, August 22, 2005
{{DEFAULTSORT:Office Of Management And Budget
United States Office of Management and Budget The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) is the largest office within the Executive Office of the President of the United States (EOP). OMB's most prominent function is to produce the president's budget, but it also examines agency programs, poli ...
Management and budget United States administrative law United States federal budgets Cabinet of the United States Government agencies established in 1970