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Odessa (russian: Оде́сса ) or Odesa ( uk, Оде́са ) is the third most populous
city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1996) ''The Social Science Encyclopedia''. 2nd edition. London: Routledge. It can be defined as a ...
and
municipality A municipality is usually a single administrative division Administrative division, administrative unitArticle 3(1). , country subdivision, administrative region, subnational entity, first-level subdivision, as well as many similar terms, ...
in
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
and a major tourism center, seaport and transport hub located in the south-west of the country, on the northwestern shore of the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. The city is also the
administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government, or a county town, or the place where the central administration of a Township, commune is located. In countries with French as one of their administrative languages ( ...
of the
Odessa Raion Odessa Raion (also sometimes spelled as Odesa Raion; uk, Одеський район, russian: Одесский район) is a List of raions of Ukraine, raion (district) of Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. It was created in July 2020 as part of the refo ...
and
Odessa Oblast Odessa Oblast (also known as Odesa oblast; uk, Оде́ська о́бласть, translit=Odeska oblast; russian: Одесская область, translit=Odesskaya oblast; bg, Одеска област, Odeska oblast'';'' ro, Regiunea Odesa) ...
, as well a multiethnic cultural center. Odessa is sometimes called the "pearl of the Black Sea", the "South Capital" (under the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
and
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
), "The Humor Capital" and "Southern
Palmyra Palmyra (; Palmyrene dialect, Palmyrene: 𐡶𐡣𐡬𐡥𐡴 () ''Tadmor''; ar, تَدْمُر ''Tadmur'') is an ancient Semitic people, Semitic city in present-day Homs Governorate, Syria. Archaeological finds date back to the Neolithic pe ...

Palmyra
". Before the Tsarist establishment of Odessa, an
ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simply as Greek (, ), refers collectively to the diale ...
settlement existed at its location. A more recent
Tatar The Tatars (; tt, , , , crh, tatarlar; otk, 𐱃𐱃𐰺, Tatar) is an umbrella term for different Turkic peoples, Turkic ethnic groups bearing the name "Tatar." Initially, the ethnonym ''Tatar'' possibly referred to the Tatar confederation ...
settlement was also founded at the location by
Hacı I Giray Hacı I Giray (1397–1466, ruled circa 1441–1466) was the founder of the Crimean Khanate and the Giray dynasty of Crimea. As the Golden Horde was breaking up, he established himself in Crimea and spent most of his life fighting off other warlo ...
, the Khan of
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from ' "almost" and ' "island") is a landform surrounded by water on mos ...

Crimea
in 1440 that was named after him as Hacibey (or
Khadjibey Khadjibey ( tr, Hacıbey) was a fortress and a haven by the Gulf of Odessa The Gulf of Odessa, or Odessa Bay, ( uk, Одеська затока, Odeska zatoka) is a part of the Black Sea between North Odessa Cape in the north and Cape Velyky Fon ...
). After a period of
Lithuanian Grand Duchy The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was Partitions of Poland, partitioned among the Russian Empire, the Kingdom of Prussia, and the Habsburg Empire, Habsburg Empire of Au ...

Lithuanian Grand Duchy
control, Hacibey and surroundings became part of the domain of the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...
s in 1529 and remained there until the empire's defeat in the
Russo-Turkish War The Russo-Turkish wars (or Ottoman–Russian wars) were a series of twelve wars fought between the Russian Empire and the Ottoman Empire between the 16th and 20th centuries. It was one of the longest series of military conflicts in History of Europe ...
of 1792. In 1794, the city of Odessa was founded by a decree of the Russian empress
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst , mother ...

Catherine the Great
. From 1819 to 1858, Odessa was a
free port Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SE ...
—a porto-Franco. During the Soviet period, it was the most important port of trade in the
Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a that spanned during its existence from 1922 to 1991. It was nominally a of multiple national ; in practice and were highly until its final years. The ...
and a Soviet
naval base A naval base, navy base, or military port is a military base, where warships and naval ships are docked when they have no mission at sea or need to restock. Ships may also undergo repairs. Some naval bases are temporary homes to aircraft tha ...
. On 1 January 2000, the Quarantine Pier at Odessa Commercial Sea Port was declared a free port and
free economic zone Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SE ...
for a period of 25 years. During the 19th century, Odessa was the fourth largest city of Imperial Russia, after
Moscow Moscow ( , American English, US chiefly ; rus, links=no, Москва, r=Moskva, p=mɐˈskva, a=Москва.ogg) is the Capital city, capital and List of cities and towns in Russia by population, largest city of Russia. The city stands on the ...

Moscow
,
Saint Petersburg Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Saint Petersburg
and
Warsaw Warsaw, * la, Varsovia (Polish language, Polish: ''Warszawa'' ), officially the Capital City of Warsaw, is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland, largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula, River Vistula in e ...

Warsaw
. Its historical architecture has a style more
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
than Russian, having been heavily influenced by French and Italian styles. Some buildings are built in a mixture of different styles, including
Art Nouveau Art Nouveau (; ) is an international style Style is a manner of doing or presenting things and may refer to: * Architectural style, the features that make a building or structure historically identifiable * Design, the process of creating som ...
,
Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. is a period Period may refer to: Common uses * Era, a length or span of time * Full stop (or period), a punctuation mark Arts, entertainment, and media * Period (music), a concept in ...
and
Classicist Classics or classical studies is the study of classical antiquity Classical antiquity (also the classical era, classical period or classical age) is the period of cultural history History (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Any ...
. Odessa is a
warm-water port The Porticciolo del Cedas port in Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port A_port_is_a_ Barcola_near_Trieste,_a_small_local_port">Trieste.html"_;"title="Barcola_near_Trieste">Barcola_near ...
. The city of Odessa hosts both the
Port of Odessa
Port of Odessa
and Port Yuzhne, a significant oil
terminal
terminal
situated in the city's suburbs. Another notable port,
Chornomorsk Chornomorsk ( uk, Чорномо́рськ), formerly Illichivsk (, translit. ''Illichivs'k'', , ) is a city A city is a large human settlement.Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kup ...

Chornomorsk
, is located in the same
oblast An oblast (; ; Cyrillic script, Cyrillic (in most languages, including Russian language, Russian and Ukrainian language, Ukrainian): , Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: ) is a type of administrative division of Belarus, Bulgaria, Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzs ...
, to the south-west of Odessa. Together they represent a major
transport hub in Helsinki, Finland : Port of Szczecin, A6 autostrada (Poland), motorway, Expressway S3 (Poland), expressway and Szczecin Główny railway station, railway connections, an inter-city public transport, a city bus and Tramways in Szczecin, electr ...
integrating with railways. Odessa's oil and chemical processing facilities are connected to Russian and European networks by strategic pipelines. The population in 2021 was


Name

The settlement was known as Khazhibei until in 1795 it was renamed in compliance with the
Greek Plan The colossal Pella Palace on the bank of the Neva River was named after the birthplace of Alexander the Great The Greek Plan or Greek Project () was an early solution to the Eastern Question which was advanced by Catherine the Great in the early ...
of Catherine the Great. It was named after the ancient Greek city of Odessos, which was mistakenly believed to have been located here. Odessa is located in between the ancient Greek cities of
Tyras Tyras ( grc, Τύρας) was an ancient Greek Ancient Greek includes the forms of the Greek language Greek ( el, label=Modern Greek Modern Greek (, , or , ''Kiní Neoellinikí Glóssa''), generally referred to by speakers simpl ...

Tyras
and
Olbia Olbia (, ; sc, Terranoa; sdn, Tarranoa) is a city and commune An intentional community is a voluntary residential community designed from the start to have a high degree of group cohesiveness, social cohesion and teamwork. The members ...
, different from the ancient Odessos's location further west along the coast, which is at present day
Varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a municipality in Italy *Varniai, a city in Lithuania *Varna (Šabac), a villag ...
, Bulgaria. Catherine's secretary of state claimed in his memoirs that the name was his suggestion. Some expressed doubts about this claim, while others noted the reputation of Gribovsky as an honest and modest man.


History


Early history

Odessa was the site of a large Greek settlement no later than the middle of the 6th century BC (a
necropolis A necropolis (plural necropolises, necropoles, necropoleis, necropoli) is a large, designed cemetery A cemetery, burial ground or graveyard is a place where the remains of dead people are burial, buried or otherwise interred. The word ''cem ...

necropolis
from the 5th–3rd centuries BC has long been known in this area). Some scholars believe it to have been a trade settlement established by the Greek city of Histria. Whether the Bay of Odessa is the ancient "Port of the Histrians" cannot yet be considered a settled question based on the available evidence.
Archaeological artifacts An artifact, or artefact (see American and British English spelling differences#Miscellaneous spelling differences, American and British English spelling differences), is a general term for an item made or given shape by humans, such as a tool o ...
confirm extensive links between the Odessa area and the eastern
Mediterranean The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Western Europe, Western and Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa ...
. In the Middle Ages successive rulers of the Odessa region included various
nomad A nomad ( frm, nomade "people without fixed habitation") is a member of a community without fixed habitation who regularly moves to and from the same areas. Such groups include hunter-gatherer A hunter-gatherer is a human Humans (''Homo ...

nomad
ic tribes ( Petchenegs,
Cumans The Cumans (or Kumans), also known as Polovtsians or Polovtsy (plural only, from the Russian exonym An endonym (from Greek: , 'inner' + , 'name'; also known as autonym) is a common, internal name A name is a term used for identification by ...
), the
Golden Horde The Golden Horde, self-designated as Ulug Ulus, 'Great State' in Turkic, was originally a Mongol The Mongols ( mn, Монголчууд, , ''Mongolchuud'', ; russian: Монголы, ) are an ethnic group to the , and the of Russia. ...
, the
Crimean Khanate The Crimean Khanate ( crh, , or ), own name — Great Horde and Desht-i Kipchak (), in old European historiography and geography — Little Tartary ( la, Tartaria Minor) was a Crimean Tatars, Crimean Tatar state existing from 1441 to 1783, the ...

Crimean Khanate
, the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire t ...

Grand Duchy of Lithuania
, and the
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (; ', ; or '; )info page on bookat Martin Luther University) // CITED: p. 36 (PDF p. 38/338). was an empire that controlled much of Southeastern Europe, Western Asia, and North Africa, Northern Africa between the 14th ...
.
Yedisan Yedisan (also ''Jedisan'' or ''Edisan''; tr, Yedisan; uk, Єдисан; ro, Edisan; russian: Едисан) was a conditional name for Özi așaSancağı (Ochakiv Sanjak) of Silistra Eyalet The Eyalet of Silistra or Silistria ( ota, ایالت ...

Yedisan
Crimean Tatars Crimean Tatars ( crh, , ) or Crimeans ( crh, , ), are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambig ...

Crimean Tatars
traded there in the 14th century. Since middle of the 13th century the city's territory belonged to the Golden Horde domain.Vermenych, Ya.
Odessa (ОДЕСА)
'. Encyclopedia of History of Ukraine. 2010.
On Italian navigational maps of 14th century on the place of Odessa is indicated the castle of Ginestra, at the time the center of a colony of the
Republic of Genoa The Republic of Genoa ( lij, Repúbrica de Zêna ; it, Repubblica di Genova; la, Res Publica Ianuensis) was a medieval and early modern maritime republic The maritime republics ( it, repubbliche marinare), also called merchant republics ( it ...
(''more Gazaria''). At times when the Northern Black Sea littoral was controlled by the
Grand Duchy of Lithuania The Grand Duchy of Lithuania was a European state that lasted from the 13th century to 1795, when the territory was partitioned among the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire t ...

Grand Duchy of Lithuania
, there existed a settlement of Kachibei which at first was mentioned in 1415. By middle of 15th century the settlement was depopulated. During the reign of Khan
Hacı I Giray Hacı I Giray (1397–1466, ruled circa 1441–1466) was the founder of the Crimean Khanate and the Giray dynasty of Crimea. As the Golden Horde was breaking up, he established himself in Crimea and spent most of his life fighting off other warlo ...
of
Crimea Crimea; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ is a peninsula A peninsula ( la, paeninsula from 'almost' and 'island') is a landform A landform is a natural ...

Crimea
(1441–1466), the Khanate was endangered by the Golden Horde and the Ottoman Turks and, in search of allies, the khan agreed to cede the area to Lithuania. The site of present-day Odessa was then a fortress known as
Khadjibey Khadjibey ( tr, Hacıbey) was a fortress and a haven by the Gulf of Odessa The Gulf of Odessa, or Odessa Bay, ( uk, Одеська затока, Odeska zatoka) is a part of the Black Sea between North Odessa Cape in the north and Cape Velyky Fon ...
(named for Hacı I Giray, and also spelled Kocibey in
English English usually refers to: * English language English is a West Germanic languages, West Germanic language first spoken in History of Anglo-Saxon England, early medieval England, which has eventually become the World language, leading lan ...

English
, Hacıbey or Hocabey in
Turkish Turkish may refer to: * of or about Turkey Turkey ( tr, Türkiye ), officially the Republic of Turkey, is a country straddling Southeastern Europe and Western Asia. It shares borders with Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), offi ...

Turkish
, and Hacıbey in Crimean Tatar).


Ottoman Silistre

Khadjibey came under direct control of the Ottoman Empire after 1529 as part of a region known as
Yedisan Yedisan (also ''Jedisan'' or ''Edisan''; tr, Yedisan; uk, Єдисан; ro, Edisan; russian: Едисан) was a conditional name for Özi așaSancağı (Ochakiv Sanjak) of Silistra Eyalet The Eyalet of Silistra or Silistria ( ota, ایالت ...

Yedisan
after one of Nogay Hordes, and was administered in the Ottoman Silistra (Özi) Eyalet, Sanjak of Özi. In the mid-18th century, the Ottomans rebuilt the
fortress A fortification is a military A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense armed conflict between State (polity), states, gov ...

fortress
at Khadjibey (also was known Hocabey), which was named ''Yeni Dünya'' (literally "New World"). Hocabey was a
sanjak Sanjaks (liwāʾ) (plural form: alwiyāʾ) * Armenian language, Armenian: նահանգ (''nahang''; meaning "province") * Bulgarian language, Bulgarian: окръг (''okrǔg''; meaning "county", "province", or "region") * el, Διοίκησι ...
centre of Silistre Province.


Russian conquest of Sanjak of Özi (Ochacov Oblast)

The sleepy fishing village that Odessa had witnessed a sea-change in its fortunes when the wealthy
magnate A magnate, from the late Latin Late Latin ( la, Latinitas serior) is the scholarly name for the written Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally ...
and future
Voivode Voivode (, also spelled Voievod, Voivoda, Vojvoda or Wojewoda) is a title denoting a "military-leader" or "warlord A warlord is a person who exercises military, economic, and political control over a region in a country without a strong nat ...
of
Kiev Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...

Kiev
(1791),
Antoni Protazy Potocki Antoni Protazy Potocki (11 September 1761 – 1801), aka Prot, was a Poland, Polish nobleman and an early Entrepreneurship, entrepreneur. He was born to Paula née Szembek coat of arms, Szembek and her second husband, Count Jan Prosper House of Poto ...

Antoni Protazy Potocki
, established trade routes through the port for the ''Polish Black Sea Trading Company'' and set up the infrastructure in the 1780s. During the Russian-Turkish War of 1787–1792, on 25 September 1789, a detachment of the , including Zaporozhian
Cossacks The Cossacks * russian: казаки́ or * be, казакi * pl, Kozacy * cs, kozáci * sk, kozáci * hu, kozákok, cazacii * fi, Kasakat, cazacii * et, Kasakad, cazacii are a group of predominantly East Slavic languages, East Slav ...

Cossacks
under
Alexander Suvorov Alexander Vasilyevich Suvorov (russian: Алекса́ндр Васи́льевич Суво́ров, Aleksándr Vasíl'evič Suvórov; or 1730) was a Russian general in service of the Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred ...
and
Ivan Gudovich Count Ivan Vasilyevich Gudovich (russian: Ива́н Васи́льевич Гудо́вич, tr. ; 1741–1820) was a Russian noble and military leader of Ukrainian descent. His exploits included the capture of Khadjibey (1789) and the conque ...
, took Khadjibey and Yeni Dünya for the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
. One section of the troops came under command of a
Spaniard ** ** * gl, españois * oc, espanhòls . , native_name_lang = , tablehdr = Spanish diaspora, Diaspora , regions = 41,539,400 Spaniards, or Spanish people, are a predominantly Romance peoples, Romance-speaking ethn ...

Spaniard
in Russian service,
Major General Major general (abbreviated MG, maj. gen. and similar) is a military rank used in many countries. It is derived from the older rank of sergeant major general. The disappearance of the "sergeant" in the title explains the apparent confusion of a lie ...

Major General
José de Ribas (known in Russia as Osip Mikhailovich Deribas); today, the main street in Odessa,
Deribasivska Street Vulytsia Derybasivska ( uk, Дерібасiвська) or ulitsa Deribasovskaya or De Ribas Street (russian: Дериба́совская) is a pedestrian walkway (street) in the heart of Odessa, Ukraine. The street is named after José de Ribas, w ...
, is named after him. Russia formally gained possession of the Sanjak of Özi (Ochacov Oblast) as a result of the
Treaty of Jassy The Treaty of Jassy, signed at Jassy (''Iași'') in Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic: or ) is a historical region Historical regions (or historical areas) are geographic areas ...
(Iaşi) in 1792 and it became a part of Yekaterinoslav Viceroyalty. The newly acquired Ochakov Oblast was promised to the Cossacks by the Russian government for resettlement. On permission of the Archbishop of Yekaterinoslav Amvrosiy, the Black Sea Kosh Host, that was located around the area between Bender and
Ochakiv Ochakiv also known as Ochakov ( uk, Очаків, russian: Очаков, crh, Özü, ro, Oceacov and ''Vozia'', and Alektor ( in Greek) is a small city in Mykolaiv Oblast Mykolaiv Oblast ( uk, Миколаївська область, ''Mykola ...
, built second after wooden church of Saint Nicholas. By the Highest
rescript In legal terminology, a rescript is a document that is issued not on the initiative of the author, but in response (it literally means 'written back') to a specific demand made by its addressee. It does not apply to more general legislation. Overvi ...
of 17 June 1792 addressed to General Kakhovsky it was ordered to establish the Dniester Border Line of fortresses. The commander of the land forces in Ochakiv Oblast was appointed Graf (Count) Suvorov-Rymnikskiy. The main fortress was built near Sucleia at the mouth of river Botna as the Head Dniester Fortress by Engineer-Major . Near the new fortress saw the formation of a new "Vorstadt" (suburb) where people moved from Sucleia and Parkan. With the establishment of the Voznesensk Governorate on 27 January 1795, the Vorstadt was named
Tiraspol Tiraspol ( ro, Tiraspol, Moldovan Cyrillic alphabet: Тираспол; russian: Тира́споль ; uk, Тираспіль ) is the capital of Transnistria (''de facto''), a breakaway state in Moldova (''de jure''), where it is the second l ...

Tiraspol
. The city of Odessa, founded by the Russian Empress
Catherine the Great russian: Екатерина Алексеевна Романова, translit=Yekaterina Alekseyevna Romanova en, Catherine Alexeievna Romanova, link=yes , house = , father = Christian August, Prince of Anhalt-Zerbst Christi ...
, centers on the site of the Turkish fortress Khadzhibei, which was occupied by a Russian Army in 1789. The Flemish engineer working for the empress, Franz de Volan () recommended the area of Khadzhibei fortress as the site for the region's basic port: it had an ice-free harbor, breakwaters could be cheaply constructed that would render the harbor safe and it would have the capacity to accommodate large fleets. The Namestnik of Yekaterinoslav and Voznesensk,
Platon Zubov Princes of the Holy Roman Empire, Prince Platon Alexandrovich Zubov (russian: Платон Александрович Зубов; ) was the last of Catherine the Great's favourites and the most powerful man in the Russian Empire during the last yea ...
(one of Catherine's favorites) supported this proposal, and in 1794 Catherine approved the founding of the new port-city and invested the first money in constructing the city. However, adjacent to the new official locality, a
Moldavia Moldavia ( ro, Moldova, or , literally "The Moldavian Country"; in Romanian Cyrillic alphabet, Romanian Cyrillic: or ; chu, Землѧ Молдавскаѧ; el, Ἡγεμονία τῆς Μολδαβίας) is a historical region and forme ...

Moldavia
n colony already existed, which by the end of the 18th century was an independent settlement named
Moldavanka Moldavanka is a historical part of Odessa in the Odessa Oblast (oblast, province) of southern Ukraine, located jointly in Malinovskiy and Primorskiy city districts. Before 1820 it was a settlement just outside Odessa, which later engulfed it. Un ...

Moldavanka
. Some local historians consider that the settlement predates Odessa by about thirty years and assert that the locality was founded by Moldavians who came to build the fortress of Yeni Dunia for the Ottomans and eventually settled in the area in the late 1760s, right next to the settlement of Khadjibey (since 1795 Odessa proper), on what later became the Primorsky Boulevard. Another version posits that the settlement appeared after Odessa itself was founded, as a settlement of Moldavians, Greeks and Albanians fleeing the Ottoman yoke.
Richardson Richardson may refer to: People * Richardson (surname), an English and Scottish surname Places Australia *Richardson, Australian Capital Territory Canada *Richardson Islands, Nunavut *Richardson Mountains, mountain range in northern Yukon Uni ...
, p. 110.


Renaming of the settlement and establishment of sea port

In 1795 Khadjibey was officially renamed as Odessa after a Greek colony of Odessos that supposedly was located in the area. Petro Tronko.
Creation and development of the city of Odessa (Виникнення і розвиток міста Одеса)
'.
The History of Cities and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR ''The History of Cities and Villages of the Ukrainian SSR'' ( uk, Історія міст і сіл Української РСР) is a Ukrainian Ukrainian may refer to: * Something of, from, or related to Ukraine * Something relating to Ukrainians ...
.
In reality it was located at the mouth of
Tylihul Estuary Tylihul (or Tyligul) Estuary also called Tiligulskiy liman (or Tylihul'skyi liman as transliterated from uk, Тилігульський лиман, russian: Тилигульский лиман) or simply Tiligul is a Ramsar listed government prot ...
(liman). The first census that was conducted in Odessa was in 1797 which accounted for 3,455 people. Since 1795, the city had its own city magistrate, and since 1796 a city council of six members and the Odessa Commodity Exchange. In 1801 in Odessa had opened the first commercial bank. In 1803 the city accounted for 9,000 people. In their settlement, also known as Novaya Slobodka, the Moldavians owned relatively small plots on which they built village-style houses and cultivated vineyards and gardens. What became Mykhailovsky Square was the center of this settlement and the site of its first
Orthodox church Orthodox Church may refer to: * Eastern Orthodox Church The Eastern Orthodox Church, also called the Orthodox Church, is the List of Christian denominations by number of members, second-largest Christian church, with approximately 220 mi ...
, the Church of the Dormition, built in 1821 close to the seashore, as well as of a cemetery. Nearby stood the
military barracks Barracks are usually a group of long buildings built to house military personnel or laborers. The English word comes via French from an old Spanish word "barraca" (hut), originally referring to temporary shelters or huts for various people and an ...

military barracks
and the country houses (''
dacha A dacha ( rus, дача, p=ˈdatɕə, a=ru-dacha.ogg) is a seasonal or year-round second home, often located in the exurbs of Russian language, Russian-speaking and other former Soviet Union, post-Soviet countries. A cottage (, ') or shack serving ...

dacha
'') of the city's wealthy residents, including that of the Duc de Richelieu, appointed by Tzar
Alexander IAlexander I may refer to: * Alexander I of Macedon, king of Macedon 495–454 BC * Alexander I of Epirus (370–331 BC), king of Epirus * Pope Alexander I (died 115), early bishop of Rome * Pope Alexander I of Alexandria (died 320s), patriarch of Al ...

Alexander I
as Governor of Odessa in 1803. Richelieu played a role during Ottoman plague epidemic which hit Odessa in the autumn 1812. Dismissive of any attempt to forge a compromise between quarantine requirements and free trade, Prince (the Saint Petersburg-based High Commissioner for Sanitation) countermanded Richelieu's orders. In the period from 1795 to 1814 the population of Odessa increased 15 times over and reached almost 20 thousand people. The first city plan was designed by the engineer F. Devollan in the late 18th century. Colonists of various ethnicities settled mainly in the area of the former colony, outside of the official boundaries, and as a consequence, in the first third of the 19th century, Moldavanka emerged as the dominant settlement. After planning by the official architects who designed buildings in Odessa's central district, such as the Italians Francesco Carlo Boffo and Giovanni Torricelli, Moldovanka was included in the general city plan, though the original grid-like plan of Moldovankan streets, lanes and squares remained unchanged. The new city quickly became a major success although initially it received little state funding and privileges.Odesa: Through Cossacks, Khans and Russian Emperors
The Ukrainian Week ''The Ukrainian Week'' ( uk, Український Тиждень, translit=Ukrainskyi Tyzhden) is an illustrated weekly magazine covering politics, economics and the arts and aimed at the socially engaged Ukrainian-language reader. It provides a ...
(18 November 2014)
Its early growth owed much to the work of the Duc de Richelieu, who served as the city's governor between 1803 and 1814. Having fled the
French Revolution The French Revolution ( ) was a period of radical political and societal change in France France (), officially the French Republic (french: link=no, République française), is a spanning and in the and the , and s. Its ...

French Revolution
, he had served in army against the Turks. He is credited with designing the city and organizing its amenities and infrastructure, and is considered one of the founding fathers of Odessa, together with another Frenchman, Count Andrault de Langeron, who succeeded him in office. Richelieu is commemorated by a
bronze statue Image:Liu Ding.jpg, Chinese ritual bronze, a Late Shang ''Ding (vessel), dǐng''. Bronze is the most popular metal for Casting (metalworking), cast metal sculptures; a cast bronze sculpture is often called simply a "bronze". It can be used for ...

bronze statue
, unveiled in 1828 to a design by
Ivan Martos Ivan Petrovich Martos (russian: Иван Петрович Мартос; uk, Іван Петрович Мартос; 1754 — 5 April 1835) was a Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a countr ...
. His contributions to the city are mentioned by
Mark Twain Samuel Langhorne Clemens (November 30, 1835 – April 21, 1910), known by his pen name A pen name, also called a ''nom de plume'' () or a literary double, is a pseudonym A pseudonym () (originally: ψευδώνυμος in Greek) or ...

Mark Twain
in his travelogue '' Innocents Abroad'': "I mention this statue and this stairway because they have their story. Richelieu founded Odessa – watched over it with paternal care – labored with a fertile brain and a wise understanding for its best interests – spent his fortune freely to the same end – endowed it with a sound prosperity, and one which will yet make it one of the great cities of the Old World". In 1819, the city became a free port, a status it retained until 1859. It became home to an extremely diverse population of Albanians, Armenians, Azeris, Bulgarians, Crimean Tatars, Frenchmen, Germans (including Mennonites), Greeks, Italians, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Russians, Turks, Ukrainians, and traders representing many other nationalities (hence numerous "ethnic" names on the city's map, for example ''Frantsuzky'' (French) and ''Italiansky'' (Italian) Boulevards, ''Grecheskaya'' (Greek), ''Yevreyskaya'' (Jewish), ''Arnautskaya'' (Albanian) Streets). Its
cosmopolitan Cosmopolitan may refer to: Food and drink * Cosmopolitan (cocktail), also known as a "Cosmo" History * Rootless cosmopolitan, a Soviet derogatory epithet during Joseph Stalin's anti-Semitic campaign of 1949–1953 Hotels and resorts * Cosmopo ...
nature was documented by the great Russian poet
Alexander Pushkin Alexander Sergeyevich Pushkin (; rus, links=no, Алекса́ндр Серге́евич Пу́шкинIn Pushkin's day, his name was written ., r=Aleksándr Sergéyevich Púshkin, p=ɐlʲɪkˈsandr sʲɪrˈɡʲe(j)ɪvʲɪtɕ ˈpuʂkʲɪn, a=r ...
, who lived in
internal exile To be in exile means to be forced away from one's home (i.e. village A village is a clustered human settlement In geography, statistics and archaeology, a settlement, locality or populated place is a community in which people li ...

internal exile
in Odessa between 1823 and 1824. In his letters he wrote that Odessa was a city where "the air is filled with all Europe, French is spoken and there are European papers and magazines to read". Odessa's growth was interrupted by the
Crimean War The Crimean War, , was a military conflict fought from October 1853 to February 1856 in which Russian Empire, Russia lost to an alliance of Second French Empire, France, the Ottoman Empire, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland, ...
of 1853–1856, during which it was bombarded by
British British may refer to: Peoples, culture, and language * British people The British people, or Britons, are the citizens of the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ir ...

British
and naval forces. It soon recovered and the growth in trade made Odessa Russia's largest grain-exporting port. In 1866, the city was linked by rail with
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
and
Kharkiv Kharkiv ( uk, Харкі́в, ), also known as Kharkov (russian: Харькoв), is the second-largest city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, J., eds (1 ...

Kharkiv
as well as with Iaşi in Romania. The city became the home of a large Jewish community during the 19th century, and by 1897 Jews were estimated to comprise some 37% of the population. The community, however, was repeatedly subjected to
anti-Semitism Antisemitism (also spelled anti-semitism or anti-Semitism) is hostility to, prejudice, or discrimination against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 , Israeli pronunciation ) or Jewish people are an ethnoreligious group and ...
and anti-Jewish agitation from almost all Christian segments of the population.
Pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot Rioters wearing scarves to conceal their identity and filter tear gas A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising ...
s were carried out in 1821, 1859, 1871, 1881 and 1905. Many Odessan Jews fled abroad after 1882, particularly to the
Ottoman Ottoman is the Turkish spelling of the Arabic masculine given name Uthman (name), Uthman (Arabic: عُثْمان ''‘uthmān''). It may refer to: Governments and dynasties * Ottoman Caliphate, an Islamic caliphate from 1517 to 1924 * Ottoman Empi ...

Ottoman
region that became
Palestine Palestine ( or ) most often refers to: * State of Palestine, a ''de jure'' sovereign state in the Middle East * Palestine (region), a geographical and historical region in the Middle East Palestine may also refer to: * Palestinian National Aut ...
, and the city became an important base of support for
Zionism Zionism ( he, צִיּוֹנוּת ''Tsiyyonut'' after ''Zion Zion ( he, צִיּוֹן ''Ṣīyyōn'', , also variously ''Sion'', ''Tzion'', ''Tsion'', ''Tsiyyon'') is a placename in the used as a synonym for as well as for the as ...
.


Beginnings of revolution

In 1905, Odessa was the site of a workers' uprising supported by the crew of the Russian battleship ''Potemkin'' and the
Menshevik The Mensheviks (russian: меньшевики́), also known as the Minority were one of the three dominant factions in the Russian socialist Socialism is a Political philosophy, political, Social philosophy, social, and economic philosop ...

Menshevik
's
Iskra ''Iskra'' ( rus, Искра, , ''the Spark'') was a political newspaper A newspaper is a periodical Periodical literature (also called a periodical publication or simply a periodical) is a category of Serial (publishing), serial published ...

Iskra
.
Sergei Eisenstein Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein ( rus, Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, p=sʲɪrˈɡʲej mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ ɪjzʲɪnˈʂtʲejn, 2=Sergey Mikhaylovich Eizenshteyn; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and ...
's famous motion picture ''The Battleship Potemkin'' commemorated the uprising and included a scene where hundreds of Odessan citizens were murdered on the great stone staircase (now popularly known as the "Potemkin Steps"), in one of the most famous scenes in motion picture history. At the top of the steps, which lead down to the port, stands a statue of the Duc de Richelieu. The actual massacre took place in streets nearby, not on the steps themselves, but the film caused many to visit Odessa to see the site of the "slaughter". The "Odessa Steps" continue to be a
tourist attraction A tourist attraction is a place of interest that Tourism, tourists visit, typically for its inherent or an exhibited natural or cultural value, historical significance, natural or built beauty, offering leisure and amusement. History Types ...

tourist attraction
in Odessa. The film was made at , one of the oldest cinema studios in the
former Soviet Union The post-Soviet states, also known as the former Soviet Union (FSU), the former Soviet Republics and in Russia as the near abroad (russian: links=no, ближнее зарубежье, blizhneye zarubezhye), are the 15 sovereign state A sovere ...
. Following the
Bolshevik Revolution The October Revolution,. officially known as the Great October Socialist Revolution. under the Soviet Union The Soviet Union,. officially the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics. (USSR),. was a Federalism, federal socialist state in ...

Bolshevik Revolution
in 1917 during Ukrainian-Soviet War, Odessa saw two Bolshevik armed insurgencies, the second of which succeeded in establishing their control over the city; for the following months the city became a center of the Odessa Soviet Republic. After signing of the
Brest-Litovsk Treaty The Treaty of Brest-Litovsk (also known as the Peace of Brest in Russia Russia (russian: link=no, Россия, , ), or the Russian Federation, is a country spanning Eastern Europe and Northern Asia. It is the List of countries and depende ...
all Bolshevik forces were driven out by 13 March 1918 by the combined armed forces of the
Austro-Hungarian Army The Austro-Hungarian Army (german: Landstreitkräfte Österreich-Ungarns; hu, Császári és Királyi Hadsereg) was the ground force of the Austria-Hungary, Austro-Hungarian Dual Monarchy from 1867 to 1918. It was composed of three parts: the jo ...
, providing support to the
Ukrainian People's Republic The Ukrainian People's Republic (UPR), or Ukrainian National Republic (UNR), was a country in Eastern Europe that existed between 1917 and 1920. It was Ukraine after the Russian Revolution, declared following the February Revolution in Russia. ...

Ukrainian People's Republic
. With the end of the
World War I World War I, often abbreviated as WWI or WW1, also known as the First World War or the Great War, was a global war A world war is "a war engaged in by all or most of the principal nations of the world". The term is usually reserved for ...

World War I
and withdrawal of armies of Central Powers, the Soviet forces fought for control over the country with the army of the Ukrainian People's Republic. A few months later the city was occupied by the
French Army The French Army, officially the Ground Army (french: Armée de Terre , ) to distinguish it from the French Air and Space Force The French Air and Space Force (AAE) (french: Armée de l'Air et de l'Espace, ) is the air File:Atmosphere gas ...
and the
Greek Army The Hellenic Army ( el, Ελληνικός Στρατός, ''Ellinikós Stratós'', sometimes abbreviated as ΕΣ), formed in 1828, is the land force of Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country lo ...
that supported the Russian
White Army The White Army or White Armies, also known as the White Guard (Бѣлая Гвардія/Белая Гвардия, ''Belaya Gvardiya''), Whites, or White Guardsmen (Бѣлогвардейцы/Белогвардейцы, ''Belogvardeytsi''), wa ...
in its struggle with the Bolsheviks. The Ukrainian general Nikifor Grigoriev who sided with Bolsheviks managed to drive the unwelcome
Triple Entente The Triple Entente (from French ''Entente (type of alliance), entente'' meaning "friendship, understanding, agreement") describes the informal understanding between the Russian Empire, the French Third Republic and the United Kingdom of Great B ...

Triple Entente
forces out of the city, but Odessa was soon retaken by the Russian White Army. Finally, by 1920 the Soviet Red Army managed to overpower both Ukrainian and Russian White Army and secure the city. The people of Odessa suffered badly from a
famine A famine is a widespread scarcity of food Food is any substance consumed to provide nutritional support for an organism In biology, an organism (from Ancient Greek, Greek: ὀργανισμός, ''organismos'') is any individual con ...

famine
that resulted from the
Russian Civil War , date = October Revolution, 7 November 1917 – Yakut revolt, 16 June 1923{{Efn, The main phase ended on 25 October 1922. Revolt against the Bolsheviks continued Basmachi movement, in Central Asia and Tungus Republic, the Far East th ...
in 1921–1922 due to the Soviet policies of
prodrazverstka Prodrazvyorstka ( rus, продразвёрстка, p=prədrɐˈzvʲɵrstkə, short for , ''food apportionment'') was a policy and campaign of confiscation Confiscation (from the Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the ...
. File:Odessa during first days of Revolution - 1916.png, Odessa during first days of Revolution - 1916 File:Revolutionary soldiers - 1916.png, Revolutionary soldiers - 1916 File:Revolutionary soldiers, Odessa - 1916.png, Revolutionary soldiers, Odessa - 1916


World War II

Odessa was attacked by Romanian and German troops in August 1941. The defense of Odessa lasted 73 days from 5 August to 16 October 1941. The defense was organized on three lines with emplacements consisting of trenches, anti-tank ditches and pillboxes. The first line was long and situated some from the city. The second and main line of defense was situated from the city and was about long. The third and last line of defense was organized inside the city itself. A medal, "For the Defence of Odessa", was established on 22 December 1942. Approximately 38,000 medals were awarded to servicemen of the Soviet Army, Navy, Ministry of Internal Affairs, and civil citizens who took part in the city's defense. It was one of the first four Soviet cities to be awarded the title of "
Hero City Hero City (, , ) is a Soviet honorary title A title is one or more words used before or after a person's name, in certain contexts. It may signify either generation, an official position, or a professional or academic qualification. In some l ...
" in 1945. (These others were
Leningrad Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...
,
Stalingrad Volgograd (russian: Волгогра́д, Volgográd, a=ru-Volgograd.ogg, p=vəɫɡɐˈɡrat), geographical renaming, formerly Tsaritsyn (russian: Цари́цын, Tsarítsyn) (1589–1925), and Stalingrad (russian: Сталингра́д, Stal ...

Stalingrad
, and
Sevastopol Sevastopol (Russian, Ukrainian: Севастополь); is the largest city in Crimea Crimea (; ; uk, Крим, Krym; crh, Къырым, translit=Kirim/Qırım; grc, Κιμμερία/Ταυρική, translit=Kimmería/Taurikḗ) ...
).
Lyudmila Pavlichenko Ludmila or Ludmilla (Cyrillic script, Cyrillic: Людмила, ''Lyudmila'') is a Slavic languages, Slavic female given name that may particularly refer to: People * Ludmila (given name) * Ludmila da Silva (born 1994), Brazilian footballer, com ...
, the famous female sniper, took part in the battle for Odessa. Her first two kills were effected near Belyayevka using a Mosin-Nagant bolt-action rifle with a P.E. 4-power scope. She recorded 187 confirmed kills during the defense of Odessa. Pavlichenko's confirmed kills during World War II totaled 309 (including 36 enemy snipers). Before being occupied by Romanian troops in 1941, a part of the city's population, industry, infrastructure and all cultural valuables possible were evacuated to inner regions of the USSR and the retreating Red Army units destroyed as much as they could of Odessa's remaining harbour facilities. The city was
land mine A land mine is an explosive device An explosive device is a device that relies on the exothermic reaction of an explosive material An explosive (or explosive material) is a reactive substance that contains a great amount of potential en ...
d in the same way as Kyiv. During
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, from 1941 to 1944, Odessa was subject to
Romanian Romanian may refer to: *anything of, from, or related to the country and nation of Romania Romania ( ; ro, România ) is a country at the crossroads of Central Europe, Central, Eastern Europe, Eastern and Southeast Europe, Southeastern Euro ...
administration, as the city had been made part of
Transnistria Transnistria, officially the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic (PMR), is an unrecognised breakaway state located in the narrow strip of land between the river Dniester The Dniester ( ) is a river in Eastern Europe Eastern Europe is ...
. Partisan fighting continued, however, in the city's catacombs. Following the Siege of Odessa, and the
Axis Axis may refer to: Politics *Axis of evil The phrase "axis of evil" was first used by President of the United States, U.S. President George W. Bush in his State of the Union address on January 29, 2002, less than five months after the Septe ...
occupation, approximately 25,000 Odessans were murdered in the outskirts of the city and over 35,000 deported; this came to be known as the Odessa massacre. Most of the atrocities were committed during the first six months of the occupation which officially began on 17 October 1941, when 80% of the 210,000 Jews in the region were killed,
Richardson Richardson may refer to: People * Richardson (surname), an English and Scottish surname Places Australia *Richardson, Australian Capital Territory Canada *Richardson Islands, Nunavut *Richardson Mountains, mountain range in northern Yukon Uni ...
, p. 33.
compared to Jews in Romania proper where the majority survived. After the Nazi forces began to lose ground on the Eastern Front, the Romanian administration changed its policy, refusing to deport the remaining
Jewish population , the world's "core" Jews, Jewish population, those identifying as Jews above all else, is 15.7 million (or 0.2 % of the 7.89 billion humans). The "connected" Jewish population, including those who say they are partly Jewish or that have Jewi ...
to extermination camps in German
occupied Poland ' (Norwegian language, Norwegian: ') is a Norway, Norwegian political thriller TV series that premiered on TV 2 (Norway), TV2 on 5 October 2015. Based on an original idea by Jo Nesbø, the series is co-created with Karianne Lund and Erik Skjoldb ...
, and allowing Jews to work as hired labourers. As a result, despite the events of 1941, the survival of the Jewish population in this area was higher than in other areas of occupied eastern Europe. The city suffered severe damage and sustained many casualties over the course of the war. Many parts of Odessa were damaged during both its siege and recapture on 10 April 1944, when the city was finally liberated by the Red Army. Some of the Odessans had a more favourable view of the Romanian occupation, in contrast with the Soviet official view that the period was exclusively a time of hardship, deprivation, oppression and suffering – claims embodied in public monuments and disseminated through the media to this day. Subsequent Soviet policies imprisoned and executed numerous Odessans (and deported most of the German population) on account of collaboration with the occupiers. File:Odessa (timbre soviétique).jpg, Postage stamp of the USSR 1965 “Hero-City Odessa 1941-1945” File:Defence of Odessa OBVERSE.jpg, Obverse of the Soviet campaign medal "For the Defence of Odessa" File:Defence of Odessa REVERSE.jpg, Reverse of the Soviet campaign medal "For the Defence of Odessa"; inscription reads “For our Soviet homeland” File:Наградное удостоверение к медали За оборону Одессы.jpg, Certificate "For taking part in the heroic defense of Odessa" Logvinov Petr Leontievich was awarded the Medal for the Defense of Odessa.


Postwar history

During the 1960s and 1970s, the city grew. Nevertheless, the majority of Odessa's Jews emigrated to
Israel Israel (; he, יִשְׂרָאֵל, translit=Yīsrāʾēl; ar, إِسْرَائِيل, translit=ʾIsrāʾīl), officially the State of Israel ( he, מְדִינַת יִשְׂרָאֵל, label=none, translit=Medīnat Yīsrāʾēl; ), is a ...

Israel
, the United States and other Western countries between the 1970s and 1990s. Many ended up in the
Brooklyn Brooklyn () is a borough A borough is an administrative division in various English language, English-speaking countries. In principle, the term ''borough'' designates a self-governing walled town, although in practice, official use of the te ...

Brooklyn
neighborhood of
Brighton Beach Brighton Beach is a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard) is a language variety that has undergone ...

Brighton Beach
, sometimes known as "Little Odessa". Domestic migration of the Odessan middle and
upper classes Upper class in modern societies is the social class A social class is a set of concepts in the social sciences and political theory Political philosophy is the philosophical study of government A government is the system or gr ...
to Moscow and
Leningrad Saint Petersburg ( rus, links=no, Санкт-Петербург, a=Ru-Sankt Peterburg Leningrad Petrograd Piter.ogg, r=Sankt-Peterburg, p=ˈsankt pʲɪtʲɪrˈburk), formerly known as Petrograd (1914–1924) and later Leningrad (1924–1991), ...

Leningrad
, cities that offered even greater opportunities for career advancement, also occurred on a large scale. Despite this, the city grew rapidly by filling the void of those left with new migrants from rural Ukraine and industrial professionals invited from all over the Soviet Union. As a part of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic, the city preserved and somewhat reinforced its unique cosmopolitan mix of Russian/Ukrainian/Jewish culture and a predominantly
Russophone This article details the geographical distribution of Russian-speakers. After the dissolution of the Soviet Union The dissolution of the Soviet Union, also negatively connoted as rus, Разва́л Сове́тского Сою́за, r=R ...

Russophone
environment with the uniquely accented dialect of Russian spoken in the city. The city's unique identity has been formed largely thanks to its varied demography; all the city's communities have influenced aspects of Odessan life in some way or form. Odessa is a city of more than 1 million people. The city's industries include shipbuilding,
oil refining An oil refinery or petroleum refinery is an industrial process Industrial processes are procedures involving chemical A chemical substance is a form of matter having constant chemical composition and characteristic properties. Some referen ...
, chemicals, metalworking, and food processing. Odessa is also a Ukrainian
naval A navy, naval force, or maritime force is the branch of a nation's armed forces A military, also known collectively as armed forces, is a heavily armed, highly organized force primarily intended for warfare War is an intense ...
base and home to a
fishing fleet A fishing fleet is an aggregate of commercial fishing Ship, vessels. The term may be used of all vessels operating out of a particular port, all vessels engaged in a particular type of fishing (as in the "tuna fishing fleet"), or all fishing vesse ...
. It is known for its large outdoor market – the Seventh-Kilometer Market, the largest of its kind in Europe. The city saw violence in the 2014 pro-Russian conflict in Ukraine during the 2014 Odessa clashes. The 2 May 2014 Odessa clashes between pro-Ukrainian and pro-Russian protestors killed 42 people. Four were killed during the protests, and at least 32 trade unionists were killed after a trade union building was set on fire after Molotov cocktails exchange between sides. Polls conducted from September to December 2014 found no support for joining Russia. Odessa was struck by three bomb blasts in December 2014, one of which killed one person (the injuries sustained by the victim indicated that he had dealt with explosives).Two dead after Ukraine rocked by series of blasts
Mashable (28 December 2014)Interior minister's advisor says Kharkiv, Odesa explosions aim at escalating tensions in Ukraine
Interfax-Ukraine (25 December 2014)
Internal Affairs Ministry advisor Zorian Shkiryak said on 25 December that Odessa and Kharkiv had become "cities which are being used to escalate tensions" in Ukraine. Shkiryak said that he suspected that these cities were singled out because of their "geographic position". On 5 January 2015 the city's Euromaidan Coordination Center and a cargo train car were (non-lethally) bombed.French Leader Urges End to Sanctions Against Russia Over Ukraine
New York Times (5 January 2015)Latest Explosion in Odessa Strikes Pro-Ukraine Organization (Video)
The Moscow Times (5 January 2015)Mysterious bombing rocks Ukrainian port city of Odessa
Mashable (5 January 2015)


Geography


Location

Odessa is situated () on terraced hills overlooking a small harbor on the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
in the Gulf of Odessa, approximately north of the estuary of the Dniester river and some south of the Ukrainian capital
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
. The average elevation at which the city is located is around , while the maximum is and minimum (on the coast) amounts to Above mean sea level, above sea level. The city currently covers a territory of , the population density for which is around 6,139 persons/km2. Sources of running water in the city include the Dniester River, from which water is taken and then purified at a processing plant just outside the city. Being located in the south of Ukraine, the topography of the area surrounding the city is typically flat and there are no large mountains or hills for many kilometres around. Flora is of the deciduous variety and Odessa is known for its tree-lined avenues which, in the late 19th and early 20th centuries, made the city a favourite year-round retreat for the Russian aristocracy. The city's location on the coast of the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
has also helped to create a booming tourist industry in Odessa. The city's Arkadia beach has long been a favourite place for relaxation, both for the city's inhabitants and its visitors. This is a large sandy beach which is located to the south of the city centre. Odessa's many sandy beaches are considered to be quite unique in Ukraine, as the country's southern coast (particularly in the Crimea) tends to be a location in which the formation of stoney and pebble beaches has proliferated. The coastal cliffs adjacent to the city are home to frequent landslides, resulting in a typical change of landscape along the Black Sea. Due to the fluctuating slopes of land, city planners are responsible for monitoring the stability of such areas, and for preserving potentially threatened building and other structures of the city above sea level near water. Also a potential danger to the infrastructure and architecture of the city is the presence of multiple openings underground. These cavities can cause buildings to collapse, resulting in a loss of money and business. Due to the effects of climate and weather on sedimentary rocks beneath the city, the result is instability under some buildings' foundations.


Climate

Odessa has a hot-summer humid continental climate (''Dfa'', using the isotherm) that borderlines the semi-arid climate (''BSk'') as well as a humid subtropical climate (''Cfa'') This has, over the past few centuries, aided the city greatly in creating conditions necessary for the development of summer tourism. During the tsarist era, Odessa's climate was considered to be beneficial for the body, and thus many wealthy but sickly persons were sent to the city in order to relax and recuperate. This resulted in the development of spa culture and the establishment of a number of high-end hotels in the city. The average annual temperature of sea is , whilst seasonal temperatures range from an average of in the period from January to March, to in August. Typically, for a total of 4 months – from June to September – the average sea temperature in the Gulf of Odessa and city's bay area exceeds . The city typically experiences dry, cold winters, which are relatively mild when compared to most of Ukraine as they're marked by temperatures which rarely fall below . Summers on the other hand do see an increased level of precipitation, and the city often experiences warm weather with temperatures often reaching into the high 20s and low 30s. Snow cover is often light or moderate, and municipal services rarely experience the same problems that can often be found in other, more northern, Ukrainian cities. This is largely because the higher winter temperatures and coastal location of Odessa prevent significant snowfall. Additionally the city hardly ever faces the phenomenon of sea-freezing.


Demographics

According to the 2001 census, Ukrainians make up a majority (62 percent) of Odessa's inhabitants, along with an ethnic Russians, Russian minority (29 percent).


Historical population

A 2015 study by the International Republican Institute found that 68% of Odessa was ethnic Ukrainian, and 25% ethnic Russian. Despite Odessa's Ukrainian majority, the biggest part of Odessa population speaks Russian language, Russian at home. Though, Ukrainian language, Ukrainian is gaining its popularity: in 2021, the share of Ukrainian language as the main language spoken at home has increased almost 5 times from 6% in 2015 to 29% in 2021. Odessa oblast is also home to a number of other nationalities and minority ethnic groups, including Albanians, Armenians, Azeris,
Crimean Tatars Crimean Tatars ( crh, , ) or Crimeans ( crh, , ), are a Turkic Turkic may refer to: * anything related to the country of Turkey * Turkic languages, a language family of at least thirty-five documented languages ** Turkic alphabets (disambig ...

Crimean Tatars
, Bulgarians, Georgians, Greeks, Jews, Poles, Romanians, Turkish people, Turks, among others. Up until the early 1940s the city had a large Jewish population. As the result of Holocaust, mass deportation to extermination camps during the Second World War, the city's Jewish population declined considerably. Since the 1970s, the majority of the remaining Jewish population Aliyah, emigrated to Israel and other countries, shrinking the Jewish community. Through most of the 19th century and until the mid 20th century, the largest ethnic group in Odessa was Russians, with the second largest ethnic group being Jews.


Historical ethnic and national composition

* 1897 # Russians: 198,233 people (49.09%) # Jews: 124,511 people (30.83%) # Ukrainians: 37,925 people (9.39%) # Poles: 17,395 people (4.31%) # Germans: 10,248 people (2.54%) # Greeks: 5,086 people (1.26%) # Tatars: 1,437 people (0.36%) # Armenians: 1,401 people (0.35%) # Belarusians: 1,267 people (0.31%) # French people, French: 1,137 people (0.28%) * 1926 # Russians: 162,789 people (39.97%) # Jews: 153,243 people (36.69%) # Ukrainians: 73,453 people (17.59%) # Poles: 10,021 people (2.40%) # Germans: 5,522 people (1.32%) # Belarusians: 2,501 people (0.60%) # Armenians: 1,843 people (0.44%) # Greeks: 1,377 people (0.33%) # Bulgarians: 1,186 people (0.28%) # Moldovans: 1,048 people (0.25%) * 1939 # Jews: 200,961 people (33.26%) # Russians: 186,610 people (30.88%) # Ukrainians: 178,878 people (29.60%) # Poles: 8,829 people (1.46%) # Germans: 8,424 people (1.39%) # Bulgarians: 4,967 people (0.82%) # Moldovans: 2,573 people (0.43%) # Armenians: 2,298 people (0.38%) * 2001 # Ukrainians: 622,900 people (61.6%) # Russians: 292,000 people (29.0%) # Bulgarians: 13,300 people (1.3%) # Jews: 12,400 people (1.2%) # Moldovans: 7,600 people (0.7%) # Belarusians: 6,400 people (0.6%) # Armenians: 4,400 people (0.4%) # Poles: 2,100 people (0.2%)


Government and administrative divisions

Whilst Odessa is the Capital city, administrative centre of the
Odessa Raion Odessa Raion (also sometimes spelled as Odesa Raion; uk, Одеський район, russian: Одесский район) is a List of raions of Ukraine, raion (district) of Odessa Oblast, Ukraine. It was created in July 2020 as part of the refo ...
and
Odessa Oblast Odessa Oblast (also known as Odesa oblast; uk, Оде́ська о́бласть, translit=Odeska oblast; russian: Одесская область, translit=Odesskaya oblast; bg, Одеска област, Odeska oblast'';'' ro, Regiunea Odesa) ...
, the city is also the main constituent of the Odessa Municipality. The city of Odessa is governed by a mayor and city council which work cooperatively to ensure the smooth-running of the city and procure its municipal bylaws. The city's budget is also controlled by the administration. The mayoralty plays the role of the executive in the city's municipal administration. Above all comes the mayor, who is elected, by the city's electorate, for five years in a direct election. 2015 Ukrainian local elections#Odessa, 2015 Mayoral election of Odessa Gennadiy Trukhanov was reelected in the first round of the election with 52,9% of the vote. Trukhanov was again reelected in the second round of the 2020 Ukrainian local elections#Odessa, 2020 Mayoral election of Odessa when 54.28% of the voters voted for him.Trukhanov officially won the mayoral election in Odessa
The Ukrainian Week ''The Ukrainian Week'' ( uk, Український Тиждень, translit=Ukrainskyi Tyzhden) is an illustrated weekly magazine covering politics, economics and the arts and aimed at the socially engaged Ukrainian-language reader. It provides a ...
(17 November 2020)
There are five deputy mayors, each of which is responsible for a certain particular part of the city's public policy. The City Council of the city makes up the administration's legislative branch, thus effectively making it a city 'parliament' or rada. The municipal council is made up of 120 elected members, who are each elected to represent a certain district of the city for a four-year term. The current council is the fifth in the city's modern history, and was elected in January 2011. In the regular meetings of the municipal council, problems facing the city are discussed, and annually the city's budget is drawn up. The council has seventeen standing commissions which play an important role in controlling the finances and trading practices of the city and its merchants. The territory of Odessa is divided into four administrative raions (districts): * Kyivsky Raion * Malynovsky Raion * Prymorsky Raion * Suvorovsky Raion In addition, every raion has its own administration, subordinate to the Odessa City council, and with limited responsibilities.


Cityscape

Many of Odessa's buildings have, rather uniquely for a Ukrainian city, been influenced by the Mediterranean style of classical architecture. This is particularly noticeable in buildings built by architects such as the Italian Francesco Boffo, who in early 19th-century built a palace and colonnade for the Governor of Odessa, Prince Mikhail Vorontsov, the Potocki Palace, Odessa, Potocki Palace and many other public buildings. In 1887 one of the city's most well known architectural monuments was completed – the theatre, which still hosts a range of performances to this day; it is widely regarded as one of the world's finest opera houses. The first opera house was opened in 1810 and destroyed by fire in 1873. The modern building was constructed by Ferdinand Fellner, Fellner and Hermann Helmer, Helmer in Baroque Revival architecture, neo-baroque; its luxurious hall was built in the rococo style. It is said that thanks to its unique acoustics even a whisper from the stage can be heard in any part of the hall. The theatre was projected along the lines of Dresden's Semperoper built in 1878, with its nontraditional foyer following the curvatures of the auditorium; the building's most recent renovation was completed in 2007. Odessa's most iconic symbol, the Potemkin Stairs, is a vast staircase that conjures an illusion so that those at the top only see a series of large steps, while at the bottom all the steps appear to merge into one pyramid-shaped mass. The original 200 steps (now reduced to 192) were designed by Italian architect Francesco Boffo and built between 1837 and 1841. The steps were made famous by
Sergei Eisenstein Sergei Mikhailovich Eisenstein ( rus, Сергей Михайлович Эйзенштейн, p=sʲɪrˈɡʲej mʲɪˈxajləvʲɪtɕ ɪjzʲɪnˈʂtʲejn, 2=Sergey Mikhaylovich Eizenshteyn; 11 February 1948) was a Soviet film director and ...
in his film, Battleship Potemkin. Most of the city's 19th-century houses were built of limestone mined nearby. Abandoned mines were later used and broadened by local smuggling, smugglers. This created a gigantic complicated labyrinth of tunnels beneath Odessa, known as "Odessa Catacombs". During World War II, the catacombs served as a hiding place for Partisan (military), partisans and natural shelter for civilians, who were escaping air plane bombing. Deribasivska Street, an attractive pedestrian avenue named after José de Ribas, the Spanish-born founder of Odessa and decorated Russian Navy Admiral from the Russo-Turkish War, is famous by its unique character and architecture. During the summer it is common to find large crowds of people leisurely sitting and talking on the outdoor terraces of numerous cafés, bars and restaurants, or simply enjoying a walk along the cobblestone street, which is not open to vehicular traffic and is kept shaded by the linden trees which line its route. A similar streetscape can also be found in that of Primorsky Bulvar, a grand thoroughfare which runs along the edge of the plateau upon which the city is situated, and where many of the city's most imposing buildings are to be found. As one of the biggest on the Black Sea, Odessa's port is busy all year round. The Odessa Sea Port is located on an artificial stretch of Black Sea coast, along with the north-western part of the Gulf of Odessa. The total shoreline length of Odessa's sea port is around . The port, which includes an oil refinery, container handling facility, passenger area and numerous areas for handling dry cargo, is lucky in that its work does not depend on seasonal weather; the harbour itself is defended from the elements by breakwaters. The port is able to handle up to 14 million tons of cargo and about 24 million tons of oil products annually, whilst its passenger terminals can cater for around 4 million passengers a year at full capacity.


Parks and gardens

There are a number of public parks and gardens in Odessa, among these are the Preobrazhensky, Gorky and Victory parks, the latter of which is an arboretum. The city is also home to a university botanical garden, which recently celebrated its 200th anniversary, and a number of other smaller gardens. The Odessa city garden, City Garden, or Gorodskoy Sad, is perhaps the most famous of Odessa's gardens. Laid out in 1803 by Felix De Ribas (brother of the founder of Odessa, José de Ribas) on a plot of urban land he owned, the garden is located right in the heart of the city. When Felix decided that he was no longer able to provide enough money for the garden's upkeep, he decided to present it to the people of Odessa. The transfer of ownership took place on 10 November 1806. Nowadays the garden is home to a bandstand and is the traditional location for outdoor theater in the summertime. Numerous sculptures can also be found within the grounds as well as a musical fountain, the waters of which are computer controlled to coordinate with the musical melody being played. Odessa's largest park, Shevchenko Park (Odessa), Shevchenko Park (previously Alexander Park), was founded in 1875, during a visit to the city by Alexander II of Russia, Emperor Alexander II. The park covers an area of around and is located near the centre of the city, on the side closest to the sea. Within the park there are a variety of cultural and entertainment facilities, and wide pedestrian avenues. In the center of the park is the local top-flight football team's Chornomorets Stadium, the Alexander Column and municipal observatory. The Baryatinsky Bulvar is popular for its route, which starts at the park's gate before winding its way along the edge of the coastal plateau. There are a number of monuments and memorials in the park, one of which is dedicated to the park's namesake, the Ukrainian national poet Taras Shevchenko.


Education

Odessa is home to several universities and other institutions of higher education. The city's best-known and most prestigious university is the Odessa National University, Odessa 'I.I. Mechnikov' National University. This university is the oldest in the city and was first founded by an edict of Tsar Alexander II of Russia in 1865 as the Imperial Novorossiya Governorate, Novorossian University. Since then the university has developed to become one of modern Ukraine's leading research and teaching universities, with staff of around 1,800 and total of thirteen academic faculties. Other than the National University, the city is also home to the 1921-inaugurated OSEU, Odessa National Economic University, the Odessa National Medical University (founded 1900), the 1918-founded Odessa National Polytechnic University and the Odessa National Maritime University (established 1930). In addition to these universities, the city is home to the Odessa Law Academy, the National Academy of Telecommunications, the Odessa State Environmental University and the Odessa National Maritime Academy. The last of these institutions is a highly specialised and prestigious establishment for the preparation and training of merchant mariners which sees around 1,000 newly qualified officer cadets graduate each year and take up employment in the merchant marines of numerous countries around the world. The South Ukrainian National Pedagogical University is also based in the city, this is one of the largest institutions for the preparation of educational specialists in Ukraine and is recognised as one of the country's finest of such universities. In addition to all the state-run universities mentioned above, Odessa is also home to many private educational institutes and academies which offer highly specified courses in a range of different subjects. These establishments, however, typically charge much higher fees than government-owned establishments and may not have held the same level of official accreditation as their state-run peers. With regard to primary and secondary education, Odessa has many schools catering for all ages from kindergarten through to lyceum (final secondary school level) age. Most of these schools are state-owned and operated, and all schools have to be state-accredited in order to teach children.


Culture


Museums, art and music

Odessa Art Museum, Fine Arts museum is the biggest art gallery in the city, which collection includes canvas mostly of Russian painters from 17th-21st centuries, icon collection and modern art. The Odessa Museum of Western and Eastern Art is big art museum; it has large European collections from the 16–20th centuries along with the art from the East on display. There are paintings from Caravaggio, Pierre Mignard, Mignard, Frans Hals, Hals, Teniers and Del Piombo. Also of note is the city's Odessa Pushkin Museum, Alexander Pushkin Museum, which is dedicated to detailing the short time Alexander Pushkin, Pushkin spent in exile in Odessa, a period during which he continued to write. The poet also has a city street named after him, as well as a statue. Other museums in the city include the Odessa Archeological Museum, which is housed in a neoclassical building, the Odessa Numismatics Museum, the Odessa Museum of the Regional History, Museum of Heroic Defense of Odessa (411th Battery). Among the city's public sculptures, two sets of ''Medici lions'' can be noted, at the Vorontsov Palace (Odessa), Vorontsov Palace as well as the Starosinnyi Garden. Jacob Pavlovich Adler, Jacob Adler, the major star of the Yiddish theatre in New York and father of the actor, director and teacher Stella Adler, was born and spent his youth in Odessa. The most popular Russian show business people from Odessa are Yakov Smirnoff (comedian), Mikhail Zhvanetsky (legendary List of humorists, humorist writer, who began his career as a port engineer) and Roman Kartsev (comedian ). Zhvanetsky's and Kartsev's success in the 1970s, along with Odessa's KVN team, contributed to Odessa's established status as "capital of Soviet humor", culminating in the annual Humorina, Humoryna festival, carried out around the beginning of April. Odessa was also the home of the late Armenian painter Sarkis Ordyan (1918–2003), the Ukrainian painter Mickola Vorokhta and the Greek philologist, author and promoter of Modern Greek, Demotic Greek Ioannis Psycharis (1854–1929). Yuri Siritsov, bass player of the Israeli Metal band PallaneX is originally from Odessa. Igor Glazer Production Manager Baruch Agadati (1895–1976), the Israeli classical ballet dancer, choreographer, painter, and film producer and director grew up in Odessa, as did Israeli artist and author Nachum Gutman (1898–1980). Israeli painter Avigdor Stematsky (1908–89) was born in Odessa. Odessa produced one of the founders of the Soviet violin school, Pyotr Stolyarsky. It has also produced many musicians, including the violinists Nathan Milstein, David Oistrakh and Igor Oistrakh, Boris Goldstein, Zakhar Bron and pianists Sviatoslav Richter, Benno Moiseiwitsch, Vladimir de Pachmann, Shura Cherkassky, Emil Gilels, Maria Grinberg, Simon Barere, Leo Podolsky and Yakov Zak. (Note: Richter studied in Odessa but wasn't born there.) The Odessa International Film Festival is also held in this city annually since 2010.


Literature

Poet Anna Akhmatova was born in Bolshoy Fontan near Odessa, however her further work was not connected with the city and its literary tradition. The city has produced many writers, including Isaak Babel, Isaac Babel, whose series of short stories, Odessa Tales, are set in the city. Other Odessites are the duo Ilf and Petrov - authors of "twelve Chairs, The Twelve chairs", and Yury Olesha, Yuri Olesha - author of "The Three Fat Men". Vera Inber, a poet and writer, as well as the poet and journalist, Margarita Aliger were both born in Odessa. The Italian writer, slavist and Anti-fascism, anti-fascist dissident Leone Ginzburg was born in Odessa into a Jewish family, and then went to Italy where he grew up and lived. One of the most prominent pre-war Russian literature, Soviet writers, Valentin Kataev, was born here and began his writing career as early as high school (gymnasia). Before moving to Moscow in 1922, he made quite a few acquaintances here, including Yury Olesha and Ilf and Petrov, Ilya Ilf (Ilf's co-author Petrov was in fact Kataev's brother, Petrov being his pen-name). Kataev became a benefactor for these young authors, who would become some of the most talented and popular List of Russian language writers, Russian writers of this period. In 1955 Kataev became the first editing, chief editor of the ''Youth'' (russian: link=no, Юность, Yunost'), one of the leading literary magazine, literature magazines of the Khrushchev Thaw, Ottepel of the 1950s and 1960s. These authors and comedians played a great role in establishing the "Odessa myth" in the Soviet Union. Odessites were and are viewed in the ethnic stereotype as sharp-witted, street-wise and eternally optimistic. These qualities are reflected in the "Odessa dialect", which borrows chiefly from the characteristic speech of the Odessan Jews, and is enriched by a plethora of influences common for the port city. The "Odessite speech" became a staple of the "Soviet Jew" depicted in a multitude of jokes and comedy acts, in which a Jewish adherent served as a wise and subtle dissenter and opportunist, always pursuing his own Quality of life, well-being, but unwittingly pointing out the flaws and absurdities of the Soviet regime. The Odessan Jew in the jokes always "came out clean" and was, in the end, a lovable character – unlike some of other jocular nation stereotypes such as The Chukcha, The Ukrainian, The Estonian or The American.


Resorts and health care

Odessa is a popular tourist destination, with many therapeutic resorts in and around the city. The city's The Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue Therapy, Filatov Institute of Eye Diseases & Tissue Therapy is one of the world's leading ophthalmology clinics.


Celebrations and holidays

April Fools' Day, held annually on 1 April, is one of the most celebrated festivals in the city. Practical joking is a central theme throughout, and Odessans dress in unique, colorful attire to express their spontaneous and comedic selves. The tradition has been celebrated since the early 1970s, when the humor of Ukraine's citizens were drawn to television and the media, further developing into a mass festival. Large amounts of money are made from the festivities, supporting Odessa's local entertainers and shops.


Notable Odessans

Pyotr Schmidt (better known as "Lieutenant Schmidt"), one of the leaders of the Sevastopol Uprising, Sevastopol uprising, was born in Odessa. Ze'ev Jabotinsky was born in Odessa, and largely developed his version of
Zionism Zionism ( he, צִיּוֹנוּת ''Tsiyyonut'' after ''Zion Zion ( he, צִיּוֹן ''Ṣīyyōn'', , also variously ''Sion'', ''Tzion'', ''Tsion'', ''Tsiyyon'') is a placename in the used as a synonym for as well as for the as ...
there in the early 1920s. One Marshal of the Soviet Union, Rodion Malinovsky, Rodion Yakovlevich Malinovsky, a military commander in World War II and List of Ministers of Defence of the Soviet Union, Defense Minister of the Soviet Union, was born in Odessa, whilst renowned Nazi hunter Simon Wiesenthal lived in the city at one time. Sidney Reilly, Georgi Rosenblum, who was employed by William Melville as one of the first spies of the British Secret Service Bureau, was a native Odessan. Another intelligence agent from Odessa was Genrikh Lyushkov, who joined in the Odessa Cheka in 1920 and reached two-star rank in the NKVD before fleeing to Japanese-occupied Manchuria in 1938 to avoid being murdered. The composer Jacob Weinberg (1879–1956) was born in Odessa. He composed over 135 works and was the founder of the Jewish National Conservatory in Jerusalem before immigrating to the U.S. where he became "an influential voice in the promotion of American Jewish music".von Rhein, John (19 August 2005)
"Jacob Weinberg: Piano Concerto No. 2 in C Major"
''Chicago Tribune''. Retrieved 29 August 2014.
Valeria Lukyanova, a girl from Odessa who looks very similar to a Barbie doll, has received attention on the Internet and from the media for her doll-like appearance. Mikhail Zhvanetsky, writer, satirist and Performance art, performer best known for his shows targeting different aspects of the Soviet Union, Soviet and post-Soviet everyday life is one of most famous living Odessans. VitaliV (Vitali Vinogradov), and artist and sculptor based in London since 1989, was born in Odessa. Kostyantyn Mykolayovych Bocharov, better known by his stage name, Mélovin, is a native of Odessa. He is best known for winning season six of ''X-Factor (Ukrainian TV series), X-Factor Ukraine'' and for representing Ukraine in the Eurovision Song Contest 2018, singing the song "Under the Ladder". Yaakov Dori, the first Chief of Staff of the Israel Defense Forces, and President of the Technion – Israel Institute of Technology, was born in Odessa, as was Israel Dostrovsky, Israeli physical chemist who was the fifth president of the Weizmann Institute of Science. Janka Bryl (1917 – 2006), Belarusian writer, was born in Odessa.


Economy

The economy of Odessa largely stems from its traditional role as a port city. The nearly ice-free port lies near the mouths of the Dnieper River, Dnieper, the Southern Bug, the Dniester and the Danube rivers, which provide good links to the hinterland. During the Soviet period (until 1991) the city functioned as the USSR's largest trading port; it continues in a similar role as independent Ukraine's busiest international port. The port complex contains an oil and gas transfer and storage facility, a cargo-handling area and a large passenger port. In 2007 the Port of Odessa handled 31,368,000 tonnes of cargo.Ассоциация портов Украины и всего Чёрного моря: члены
The port of Odessa is also one of the Ukrainian Navy's most important bases on the
Black Sea , with the skyline of Batumi Batumi (; ka, ბათუმი ) is the second largest city of Georgia Georgia usually refers to: * Georgia (country) Georgia ( ka, საქართველო; ''Sakartvelo''; ) is a country locat ...

Black Sea
. Rail transport is another important sector of the economy in Odessa – largely due to the role it plays in delivering goods and imports to and from the city's port. The Container Terminal Odessa (CTO) in the port is the largest container terminal in Ukraine. It has been operated by the Hamburg-based HHLA Group since 2001 and, in addition to containers, also handles bulk goods, general cargo and project cargo. This means that Odessa is networked with the ports of Hamburg, Muuga Harbour, Muuga and Trieste via the logistics group HHLA. Industrial enterprises located in and around the city include those dedicated to fuel refinement, machine building, metallurgy, and other types of light industry such as food preparation, timber plants and chemical industry. Agriculture is a relatively important sector in the territories surrounding the city. The Seventh-Kilometer Market is a major commercial complex on the outskirts of the city where private traders now operate one of the largest market complexes in Eastern Europe. The market has roughly 6,000 traders and an estimated 150,000 customers per day. Daily sales, according to the Ukrainian periodical ''Dzerkalo Tyzhnia'', were believed to be as high as US$20 million in 2004. With a staff of 1,200 (mostly guards and janitors), the market is also the region's largest employer. It is owned by local land and agriculture tycoon Viktor A. Dobrianskyi and three partners of his. Tavria-V is the most popular retail chain in Odessa. Key areas of business sector, business include: retail, wholesale, catering, production, construction and development, private label. Consumer recognition is mainly attributed to the high level of service and the quality of services. Tavria-V is the biggest private company and the biggest tax payer.
Deribasivska Street Vulytsia Derybasivska ( uk, Дерібасiвська) or ulitsa Deribasovskaya or De Ribas Street (russian: Дериба́совская) is a pedestrian walkway (street) in the heart of Odessa, Ukraine. The street is named after José de Ribas, w ...
is one of the city's most important commercial streets, hosting many of the city's boutiques and higher-end shops. In addition to this there are a number of large commercial shopping centres in the city. The 19th-century shopping gallery Odessa Passage, Passage was, for a long time, the city's most upscale shopping district, and remains an important landmark of Odessa. The Tourism in Ukraine, tourism sector is of great importance to Odessa, which is currently the second most-visited Ukrainian city. In 2003 this sector recorded a total revenue of 189,2 mln UAH. Other sectors of the city's economy include the banking sector: the city hosts a branch of the National Bank of Ukraine. Imexbank, one of Ukraine's largest commercial banks, was based in the city, however on May 27, 2015, the Deposit Guarantee Fund of Ukraine made a decision to liquidate the bank. Foreign business ventures have thrived in the area, as since 1 January 2000, much of the city and its surrounding area has been declared a
free economic zone Free economic zones (FEZ), free economic territories (FETs) or free zones (FZ) are a class of special economic zone A special economic zone (SEZ) is an area in which the business and trade laws are different from the rest of the country. SE ...
– this has aided the foundation of foreign companies' and corporations' Ukrainian divisions and allowed them to more easily invest in the Ukrainian manufacturing and service sectors. To date a number of Japanese and Chinese companies, as well as a host of European enterprises, have invested in the development of the free economic zone, to this end private investors in the city have invested a great deal of money into the provision of quality office real estate and modern manufacturing facilities such as warehouses and plant complexes. Odessa also has a well-developed IT industry with large number of IT outsourcing companies and IT product startups. Among most famous startups is Looksery and AI Factory both developed in Odessa and acquired by Snap Inc., Snap inc.


Scientists

A number of world-famous scientists have lived and worked in Odessa. They include: Ilya Ilyich Mechnikov, Illya Mechnikov (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1908), Igor Tamm (Nobel Prize in Physics 1958), Selman Waksman (Nobel Prize in Medicine 1952), Dmitri Mendeleev, Nikolay Ivanovich Pirogov, Nikolay Pirogov, Ivan Sechenov, Vladimir Filatov, Nikolay Umov, Leonid Isaakovich Mandelstam, Leonid Mandelstam, Aleksandr Lyapunov, Mark Krein, Alexander Smakula, Waldemar Haffkine, Valentin Glushko, Israel Dostrovsky, and George Gamow.


Transport


Maritime transport

Odessa is a major maritime-transport hub that includes several ports including , Port of Chornomorsk (ferry, freight), Yuzhne (freight only). The Port of Odessa became a provisional headquarters for the Ukrainian Navy, following the Russian occupation of Crimea in 2014. Before the fall of the Soviet Union, the Port of Odessa harbored the major Soviet cruise line Black Sea Shipping Company. Passenger ships and ferries connect Odessa with Istanbul, Haifa and
Varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a municipality in Italy *Varniai, a city in Lithuania *Varna (Šabac), a villag ...
, whilst river cruises can occasionally be booked for travel up the Dnieper River to cities such as Kherson, Dnipro and
Kyiv Kyiv ( uk, Київ) or Kiev . is the capital and most populous city of Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also share ...
.


Roads and automotive transport

The first car in the Russian Empire, a Mercedes-Benz belonging to V. Navrotsky, came to Odessa from France in 1891. He was a popular city publisher of the newspaper ''The Odessa Leaf''. Odessa is linked to the Ukrainian capital, Kyiv, by the M05 highway (Ukraine), M05 Highway, a high quality multi-lane road which is set to be re-designated, after further reconstructive works, as an 'Avtomagistral' (motorway) in the near future. Other routes of national significance, passing through Odessa, include the M16 Highway to Moldova, M15 to Izmail and Romania, and the Highway M14 (Ukraine), M14 which runs from Odessa, through Mykolaiv and Kherson to Ukraine's eastern border with Russia. The M14 is of particular importance to Odessa's maritime and shipbuilding industries as it links the city with Ukraine's other large deep water port Mariupol which is located in the south east of the country. Odessa also has a well-developed system of inter-urban municipal roads and minor beltways. However, the city is still lacking an extra-urban bypass for transit traffic which does not wish to proceed through the city centre. Intercity bus services are available from Odessa to many cities in Russia (Moscow, Rostov-on-Don, Krasnodar, Pyatigorsk), Germany (Berlin, Hamburg and Munich), Greece (Thessaloniki and Athens), Bulgaria (
Varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a municipality in Italy *Varniai, a city in Lithuania *Varna (Šabac), a villag ...
and Sofia) and several cities of
Ukraine Ukraine ( uk, Україна, Ukraïna, ) is a country in . It is the in Europe after , which it borders to the east and north-east. Ukraine also shares borders with to the north; , , and to the west; and to the south; and has a coastli ...

Ukraine
and Europe.


Railways

Odessa is served by a number of railway stations and halts, the largest of which is Odessa Train Station, Odessa Holovna (Main Station), from where passenger train services connect Odessa with
Warsaw Warsaw, * la, Varsovia (Polish language, Polish: ''Warszawa'' ), officially the Capital City of Warsaw, is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland, largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula, River Vistula in e ...

Warsaw
, Prague, Bratislava, Vienna, Berlin, Moscow, Saint Petersburg, St. Petersburg, the cities of Ukraine and many other cities of the former USSR. The city's first railway station was opened in the 1880s, however, during the Second World War, the iconic building of the main station, which had long been considered to be one of the
Russian Empire The Russian Empire, . commonly referred to as Imperial Russia, was a historical empire that extended across Eurasia and North America from 1721, succeeding the Tsardom of Russia following the Treaty of Nystad that ended the Great Northern War. ...
's premier stations, was destroyed through enemy action. In 1952 the station was rebuilt to the designs of A Chuprina. The current station, which is characterised by its many Socialist Realism, socialist-realist architectural details and grand scale, was renovated by the state railway operator Ukrainian Railways in 2006.


Public transport

In 1881 Odessa became the first city in Imperial Russia to have steam tramway lines, an innovation that came only one year after the establishment of horsecar, horse tramway services in 1880 operated by the "Tramways d'Odessa", a Belgian owned company. The first Narrow gauge railway, metre gauge steam tramway line ran from Railway Station to Great Fontaine and the second one to Hadzhi Bey Liman. These routes were both operated by the same Belgian company. Electric tramway started to operate on 22 August 1907. Trams were imported from Germany. The city's public transport, public transit system is currently made up of trams, trolleybuses, buses and fixed-route taxis (marshrutkas). Odessa also has a Aerial lift, cable car to Vidrada Beach, and recreational ferry service. There are two routes of public transport which connect Odessa Airport with the city center: trolley-bus No.14 and marshrutka No.117. One additional mode of transport in Odessa is the Potemkin Stairs Odessa Funicular, funicular railway, which runs between the city's Primorsky Bulvar and the sea terminal, has been in service since 1902. In 1998, after many years of neglect, the city decided to raise funds for a replacement track and cars. This project was delayed on multiple occasions but was finally completed eight years later in 2005. The funicular has now become as much a part of historic Odessa as the staircase to which it runs parallel.


Air transport

Odesa International Airport, which is located to the south-west of the city centre, is served by a number of airlines. The airport is also often used by citizens of neighbouring countries for whom Odessa is the nearest large city and who can travel visa-free to Ukraine. Transit flights from the Americas, Africa, Asia, Europe and the Middle East to Odessa are offered by Ukraine International Airlines through their hub at Kyiv's Boryspil International Airport. Additionally Turkish Airlines wide network and daily flights offers more than 246 destinations all over the world.


Sport

The most popular sport in Odessa is Association football, football. The main professional football club in the city is FC Chornomorets Odesa, who play in the Ukrainian Premier League. Chornomorets play their home games at the Chornomorets Stadium, an elite-class stadium which has a maximum capacity of 34,164. The second football team in Odessa is FC Odesa, FC Odessa.Basketball is also a prominent sport in Odessa, with BC Odessa representing the city in the Ukrainian Basketball League, the highest tier basketball league in Ukraine. Odessa will become one of five Ukrainian cities to host the FIBA EuroBasket 2015, 39th European Basketball Championship in 2015.


Athletes

The cyclist and aviator Sergei Utochkin was one of the most famous natives of Odessa in the years before the Russian Revolution. Chess player Efim Geller was born in the city. Gymnast Tatiana Gutsu (known as "The Painted Bird of Odessa") brought home Ukraine's first Olympic gold medal as an independent nation when she outscored the USA's Shannon Miller in the women's all-around event at 1992 Summer Olympics in Barcelona, Spain. Figure skaters Oksana Grishuk and Evgeny Platov won the 1994 and 1998 Olympic gold medals as well as the 1994, 1995, 1996, and 1997 World Championships in ice dance. Both were born and raised in the city, though they skated at first for the Soviet Union, in the Unified Team, the Commonwealth of Independent States, and then Russia. Hennadiy Avdyeyenko won a 1988 Olympic gold medal in thehigh jump, setting an Olympic record at . Other notable athletes: * Mykola Avilov, Olympic champion in decathlon at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich * Oksana Baiul, Olympic champion in figure skating in 1994 * Ihor Belanov, European Footballer of the Year in 1986 * Yuriy Bilonoh, European Athletics Championships in shot put at 2002 in Munich * Leonid Buryak (born 1953), football coach and former Olympic bronze medal-winning player * Maksim Chmerkovskiy, professional ballroom & Latin dancer on American Dancing With the Stars * Valentin Chmerkovskiy, professional ballroom & Latin dancer on American Dancing With the Stars * Charles Goldenberg (1911–1986), NFL All-Pro football player * Viktor Kanevskyi (born 1936), football player and coach * Svetlana Krachevskaya, Olympic silver medalist in shot put * Viacheslav Kravtsov, NBA basketball player * Lenny Krayzelburg (born 1975), Olympic champion swimmer * Artur Kyshenko, K1 Muay Thai kickboxer * Yevgeny Lapinsky, Olympic champion in volleyball at the 1968 Summer Olympics in Mexico * Roman Pelts, Soviet chess master * Viktor Petrenko, Olympic champion in figure skating in 1992 * Vladimir Portnoi, Olympic silver and bronze medalist in gymnastics * Vitaliy Pushkar, racing driver, No. 6 in 2012 International Rally Challenge Production cup standings * :ru:Резвой, Теодор Павлович, Theodore Rezvoy, ocean rower, Guinness records holder (twice) * Ekaterina Rubleva, Russian ice dancing champion * Yulia Ryabchinskaya, Olympic champion in the K-1 500 m Kayak Singles at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich * Dmitry Salita (born 1982), boxer * Michael Shmerkin (born 1970), Israeli competitive figure skater * Elina Svitolina (born 1994), professional tennis player * Olena Vitrychenko, world champion in rhythmic gymnastics * Andriy Voronin (born 1979), football manager and player * Yakov Zheleznyak, Olympic champion in 50 m Running Target at the 1972 Summer Olympics in Munich * Dayana Yastremska (born 2000), professional tennis player


Twin towns – sister cities

Odessa is Sister city, twinned with: * Alexandria, Egypt (1968) * Baltimore, United States (1975) * Chișinău, Moldova (1994) * Constanța, Romania (1991) * Genoa, Italy (1972) * Haifa, Israel (1992) * Istanbul, Turkey (1997) * Kolkata, India (1986) * Liverpool, United Kingdom (1957) * Łódź, Poland (1993) * Marseille, France (1973) * Nicosia, Cyprus (1996) * Oulu, Finland (1957) * Piraeus, Greece (1993) * Qingdao, China (1993) * Regensburg, Germany (1990) * Split, Croatia, Split, Croatia (1964) * Szeged, Hungary (1977) * Vancouver, Canada (1944) *
Varna Varna may refer to: Places Europe * Varna, Bulgaria, a large city in Bulgaria. ** Varna Province **Varna Municipality **Gulf of Varna **Lake Varna *Vahrn, or Varna, a municipality in Italy *Varniai, a city in Lithuania *Varna (Šabac), a villag ...
, Bulgaria (1958) * Yerevan, Armenia (1995) * Yokohama, Japan (1968)


Partner cities

Odessa cooperated with: * Brest, Belarus, Brest, Belarus (2004) * Gdańsk, Poland (1996) * Klaipėda, Lithuania (2004) * Larnaca, Cyprus (2004) * Marrakesh, Morocco (2019) * Minsk, Belarus (1996) * Ningbo, China (2008) * Tallinn, Estonia (1997) * Tbilisi, Georgia (1996) * Valparaíso, Chile (2004) * Vienna, Austria (2006) *
Warsaw Warsaw, * la, Varsovia (Polish language, Polish: ''Warszawa'' ), officially the Capital City of Warsaw, is the capital and List of cities and towns in Poland, largest city of Poland. The metropolis stands on the Vistula, River Vistula in e ...

Warsaw
, Poland (2005)


See also

* Kherson Governorate * List of UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Ukraine * Municipal Guard (Odessa), The Municipal Guard


References


Cited sources

* * *


Further reading

* Complete book available online. * * * * * * (hardcover), (1991 paperback reprint) * * * * * * * * * * * * * (hardcover); (paperback) * * ** * (hardcover), (paperback reprint)


External links

* * Ukrainian and Russian * Russian, Ukrainian, and English versions of Maps * English (Ukrainian and Russian versions also available)
The murder of the Jews of Odessa
during
World War II World War II or the Second World War, often abbreviated as WWII or WW2, was a global war A world war is "a war War is an intense armed conflict between states State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literatur ...
, at Yad Vashem website.
The Jewish Community of Odessa
The Museum of the Jewish People at Beit Hatfutsot
Odessa yesterday. Odessa today. Images gallery. Prospekt Group
{{Portal bar, Ukraine Odessa, Port cities of the Black Sea Cities in Odessa Oblast Populated coastal places in Ukraine Port cities and towns in Ukraine Seaside resorts in Ukraine Oblast centers in Ukraine 1794 establishments in the Russian Empire Populated places established in the Russian Empire Populated places established in 1794 Odessky Uyezd Historic Jewish communities Holocaust locations in Ukraine 1794 establishments in Ukraine