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Oakland is the largest city and the
county seat A county seat is an administrative centerAn administrative centre is a seat of regional administration or local government Local government is a generic term for the lowest tiers of public administration within a particular sovereign state. Th ...
of
Alameda County, California Alameda County ( ) is located in the state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the List of states and territories of the ...
. A major
West CoastWest Coast or west coast may refer to: Geography Australia * Western Australia *Regions of South Australia#Weather forecasting, West Coast of South Australia * West Coast, Tasmania **West Coast Range, mountain range in the region Canada * British ...
port city, Oakland is the largest city in the
East Bay 330px, A satellite image of the majority of the East Bay The East Bay is the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisc ...
region of the
San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the , , and in . Although the exact boundaries of the region are variously defined, the Bay Area is defined by the to include the nine counti ...
, the third largest city overall in the San Francisco Bay Area, the eighth most populated city in California, and the 45th most populated city in the United States. With a population of 440,646 as of 2020, it serves as a trade center for the San Francisco Bay Area; the
Port of Oakland The Port of Oakland is a major container ship A container ship (sometimes spelled containership) is a cargo ship that carries all of its load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. Container ships are a co ...

Port of Oakland
is the busiest port in the
San Francisco Bay San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone ...

San Francisco Bay
, the entirety of
Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that generally comprises the northern portion of the U.S. state of California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over ...

Northern California
, and the fifth busiest in the United States of America. An act to
incorporate Incorporation may refer to: * Incorporation (business), the creation of a corporation * Incorporation of a place, creation of municipal corporation such as a city or county * Incorporation (academic), awarding a degree based on the student having a ...
the city was passed on May 4, 1852, and incorporation was later approved on March 25, 1854. Oakland is a
charter city In the United States The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States (U.S. or US), or America, is a country Contiguous United States, primarily located in North America. It consists of 50 U.S. state, states, a Washin ...
. Oakland's territory covers what was once a mosaic of California coastal terrace prairie,
oak An oak is a tree In botany, a tree is a perennial plant with an elongated Plant stem, stem, or trunk (botany), trunk, supporting branches and leaves in most species. In some usages, the definition of a tree may be narrower, including on ...

oak
woodland A woodland () is, in the broad sense, land covered with trees, or in a narrow sense, synonymous with wood (or in the U.S., the ''plurale tantum'' woods), a low-density forest forming open habitats with plenty of sunlight and limited shade (see d ...

woodland
, and north coastal scrub. Its land served as a resource when its hillside oak and
redwood Sequoioideae, popularly known as redwoods, is a subfamily In biological classification, a subfamily (Latin: ', plural ') is an auxiliary (intermediate) taxonomic rank, next below family (biology), family but more inclusive than genus. Standa ...

redwood
timber were logged to build San Francisco. The fertile flatland soils helped it become a prolific agricultural region. In the late 1860s, Oakland was selected as the western terminal of the
Transcontinental Railroad A transcontinental railroad or transcontinental railway is contiguous railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which are located on track ...
. Following the 1906 San Francisco earthquake, many San Francisco citizens moved to Oakland, enlarging the population, increasing its housing stock, and improving its infrastructure. It continued to grow in the 20th century with its busy port,
shipyard A shipyard (also called a dockyard) is a place where are and repaired. These can be s, military vessels, s or other cargo or passenger ships. Dockyards are sometimes more associated with maintenance and basing activities than shipyards, whi ...

shipyard
s, and a thriving automobile manufacturing industry.


History


Ohlone era

The earliest known inhabitants were the Huchiun natives, who lived there for thousands of years. The Huchiun belonged to a linguistic grouping later called the
Ohlone The Ohlone, formerly known as Costanoans (from Spanish ''costeño'' meaning "coast dweller"), are a Native American people of the Northern California Northern California (colloquially known as NorCal) is a geographic and cultural region that ...

Ohlone
(a
Miwok The Miwok (also spelled Miwuk, Mi-Wuk, or Me-Wuk) are members of four linguistically related Native American Native Americans may refer to: Ethnic groups * Indigenous peoples of the Americas, the pre-Columbian peoples of North and South Americ ...
word meaning "western people"). In Oakland, they were concentrated around
Lake Merritt Lake Merritt is a large tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, California, just east of Downtown Oakland, Downtown. It is surrounded by parkland and city neighborhoods. It is historically significant as the United States' first official wildlife ...
and Temescal Creek, a stream that enters the San Francisco Bay at Emeryville. Throughout Oakland, Colleges, community organizations and companies have dedicated their respects to the Ohlone tribe by doing land acknowledgements.


Spanish and Mexican eras

In 1772, the area that later became Oakland was colonized, along with the rest of California, by Spanish settlers for the King of Spain. In the early 19th century, the Spanish crown granted the East Bay area to Luis María Peralta for his Rancho San Antonio. The grant was confirmed by the successor Mexican republic upon its independence from Spain. Upon his death in 1842, Peralta divided his land among his four sons. Most of Oakland was within the shares given to Antonio Maria and Vicente. The portion of the parcel that is now Oakland was called ''Encinar'' (misrendered at an early date and carried forward as "encinal") —Spanish for "oak grove"—due to the large oak forest that covered the area, which eventually led to the city's name. According to
Stanford University Stanford University, officially Leland Stanford Junior University, is a private Private or privates may refer to: Music * "In Private "In Private" was the third single in a row to be a charting success for United Kingdom, British singer Du ...

Stanford University
historian Albert Camarillo, the Peralta family struggled to keep their land after the incorporation of California into the United States after the
Mexican–American War The Mexican–American War, also known in the United States as the Mexican War and in Mexico as the (''U.S. intervention in Mexico''), was an armed conflict between the United States and Second Federal Republic of Mexico, Mexico from 1846 ...

Mexican–American War
. Camarillo claims the family was the victim of targeted racial violence. He writes in ''Chicanos in California'', "They lost everything when squatters cut down their fruit trees, killed their cattle, destroyed their buildings, and even fenced off the roads leading to the rancho. Especially insidious were the actions of attorney
Horace Carpentier Horace Walpole Carpentier (1824–1918) was a lawyer and the first mayor of Oakland, California Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Paris ...

Horace Carpentier
, who tricked Vicente Peralta into signing a 'lease' which turned out to be a mortgage against the 19,000-acre rancho. The lands became Carpentier's when Peralta refused to repay the loan he believed was fraudulently incurred. The Peraltas had no choice but to abandon the homesite they had occupied for two generations."


Development of Chinatown

During the 1850s—just as gold was discovered in California—Oakland started growing and further developing because land was becoming too expensive in
San Francisco San Francisco (; Spanish language, Spanish for "Francis of Assisi, Saint Francis"), officially the City and County of San Francisco, is a cultural, commercial, and financial center in the U.S. state of California. Located in Northern Califo ...

San Francisco
. People in China were struggling financially as a result of the
First Opium War The First Opium War (), also known as the Opium War or the Anglo-Chinese War, was a series of military engagements fought between Britain and the Qing dynasty The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing (), was the last Dynasties ...
, the
Second Opium War The Second Opium War (), also known as the Second Anglo-Chinese War, the Second China War, the Arrow War, or the Anglo-French expedition to China, was a war War is an intense armed conflict between states, government A gov ...
, and the
Taiping Rebellion The Taiping Rebellion, also known as the Taiping Civil War or the Taiping Revolution, was a massive rebellion Rebellion, uprising, or insurrection is a refusal of obedience or order. It refers to the open resistance against the orders of an ...
, so they began migrating to Oakland, many of whom were recruited to work on railroads. However, the Chinese struggled to settle because they were discriminated against by the white community and their living quarters were burned down on several occasions. The majority of the Chinese migrants lived in unhealthy conditions in China and they often had diseases, so plague spread into San Francisco even though the Chinese were thoroughly inspected for diseases upon their arrival to San Francisco.


City beginnings

In 1851, three men—
Horace Carpentier Horace Walpole Carpentier (1824–1918) was a lawyer and the first mayor of Oakland, California Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Paris ...

Horace Carpentier
, Edson Adams, and Andrew Moon—began developing what is now downtown Oakland. In 1852, the Town of Oakland was incorporated by the state legislature. During this time, Oakland had 75–100 inhabitants, two hotels, a wharf, two warehouses, and only cattle trails. Two years later, on March 25, 1854, Oakland re-incorporated as the City of Oakland. Horace Carpentier was elected the first mayor, though a scandal ended his mayorship in less than a year. The city and its environs quickly grew with the railroads, becoming a major rail terminal in the late 1860s and 1870s. In 1868, the Central Pacific constructed the
Oakland Long Wharf The Oakland Long Wharf was an 11,000-foot railroad wharf A wharf, quay (, also ), or staith(e) is a structure on the shore of a harbour A harbor (American English) or harbour (British English; American and British English spelling differ ...
at Oakland Point, the site of today's
Port of Oakland The Port of Oakland is a major container ship A container ship (sometimes spelled containership) is a cargo ship that carries all of its load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. Container ships are a co ...

Port of Oakland
. A number of
horsecar A horsecar, horse-drawn tram, (U.S.) horse-drawn streetcar, or (historical) horse-drawn railway is an Animal-powered transport, animal-powered (usually horse) tram or streetcar. Summary The horse-drawn tram (horsecar) was an early form of Publ ...
and cable car lines were constructed in Oakland during the latter half of the 19th century. The first electric
streetcar A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

streetcar
set out from Oakland to Berkeley in 1891, and other lines were converted and added over the course of the 1890s. The various streetcar companies operating in Oakland were acquired by
Francis "Borax" Smith Francis Marion Smith (February 2, 1846 – August 27, 1931) (once known nationally and internationally as "Borax Smith" and "The Borax King" ) was an United States, American miner, business magnate and civic builder in the Mojave Desert, the ...
and consolidated into what eventually became known as the
Key System The Key System (or Key Route) was a privately owned company that provided mass transit File:201703118号线列车正在开出沈杜公路折返线.jpg, Shanghai Metro is the second largest rapid transit system in the world by route length, ...
, the predecessor of today's publicly owned
AC Transit AC Transit (Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is an Oakland Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), ...
.


1900–1950s


Plague epidemic

Oakland was one of the worst affected cities in California that was impacted by the plague epidemic.
Quarantine A quarantine is a restriction on the movement of people, animals and goods which is intended to prevent the spread of disease A disease is a particular abnormal condition that negatively affects the structure A structure is an arr ...

Quarantine
measures were set in place at the Oakland ports requiring the authorities at the port to inspect the arriving vessels for the presence of infected rats. Quarantine authorities at these ports inspected over a thousand vessels per year for plague and yellow fever. By 1908, over 5,000 people were detained in quarantine. Hunters were sent to poison the affected areas in Oakland and shoot the squirrels, but the eradication work was limited in its range because the State Board of Health and the
United States Public Health Service The United States Public Health Service (USPHS or PHS) is a collection of agencies of the Department of Health and Human Services The United States Department of Health and Human Services (HHS), also known as the Health Department, is a cab ...
were only allotted about $60,000 a year to eradicate the disease. During this period Oakland did not have sufficient health facilities, so some of the infected patients were treated at home. The State Board of Health along with Oakland also advised physicians to promptly report any cases of infected patients. Yet, in 1919 it still resulted in a small epidemic of
Pneumonic plague Pneumonic plague is a severe lung infection caused by the bacterium Bacteria (; common noun bacteria, singular bacterium) are a type of Cell (biology), biological cell. They constitute a large domain (biology), domain of prokaryotic micr ...

Pneumonic plague
which killed a dozen people in Oakland. This started when a man went hunting in Contra Costa Valley and killed a squirrel. After eating the squirrel, he fell ill four days later and another household member contracted the plague. This in turn was passed on either directly or indirectly to about a dozen others. The officials in Oakland acted quickly by issuing death certificates to monitor the spread of plague.


Incorporation

At the time of incorporation in 1852, Oakland had consisted of the territory that lay south of today's major intersection of San Pablo Avenue, Broadway, and Fourteenth Street. The city gradually annexed farmlands and settlements to the east and the north. Oakland's rise to industrial prominence, and its subsequent need for a seaport, led to the digging of a shipping and tidal channel in 1902. This resulted in the nearby town of
Alameda An alameda is a Avenue (landscape), street or path lined with trees () and may refer to: Places Canada *Alameda, Saskatchewan, town in Saskatchewan **Grant Devine Dam, formerly ''Alameda Dam'', a dam and reservoir in southern Saskatchewan Spain * ...
being made an island. In 1906, the city's population doubled with refugees made homeless after the 1906 San Francisco earthquake and fire. In 1908 lawyer, former miner and newspaper owner Homer Wood (1880–1976) suggested to his friend Frank Bilger of Blake and Bilger Rock Quarry and Paving Company that he organize a gathering to establish a
Rotary Club Rotary International is an international service organization A service club or service organization is a Volunteering, voluntary nonprofit organization where members meet regularly to perform Charity (practice), charitable works either by d ...
east of the bay. On November 27, 1908, Homer took a ferry across the bay in a driving rainstorm and met for lunch with Frank and twenty three other businessmen at the Hotel Metropole at 13th and Jefferson. This gathering became the first meeting of the Tri-City Rotary Club, renamed in 1911 The Rotary Club of Oakland, the third Rotary Club in the world. This group established the tradition of weekly meetings, something most clubs worldwide follow today. In 1917,
General Motors General Motors Company (GM) is an American multinational Multinational may refer to: * Multinational corporation, a corporate organization operating in multiple countries * Multinational force, a military body from multiple countries * Multinat ...

General Motors
opened an automobile factory in
East Oakland East Oakland is a geographical region of Oakland, California, Oakland, California, United States, that stretches between Lake Merritt in the northwest and San Leandro, California, San Leandro in the southeast. As the southeastern portion of the ci ...
called
Oakland Assembly Oakland Assembly was a former Chevrolet manufacturing facility located in Elmhurst, Oakland, California. It was the first automobile plant established in Northern California to build Chevrolet vehicles. In 1916, Chevrolet opened the auto industry' ...
. It produced
Chevrolet Chevrolet ( ), colloquially referred to as Chevy and formally the Chevrolet Division of General Motors Company, is an American automobile division of the American manufacturer General Motors General Motors Company (GM) is an American Mul ...

Chevrolet
cars and then
GMC GMC may refer to: Government India * Gandhinagar Municipal Corporation, in Gujarat * Gobichettipalayam Municipal Corporation, in Tamil Nadu * Guntur Municipal Corporation, in Andhra Pradesh * Guwahati Municipal Corporation, in Assam * Gwalior Mun ...
trucks until 1963, when it was moved to Fremont in southern Alameda County. Also in 1916, the Fageol Motor Company chose East Oakland for their first factory, manufacturing farming tractors from 1918 to 1923. By 1920, Oakland was the home of numerous manufacturing industries, including
metals A metal (from Ancient Greek, Greek μέταλλον ''métallon'', "mine, quarry, metal") is a material that, when freshly prepared, polished, or fractured, shows a lustrous appearance, and conducts Electrical resistivity and conductivity, e ...
, canneries, bakeries,
internal combustion engines An internal combustion engine (ICE or IC engine) is a heat engine in which the combustion of a fuel occurs with an oxidizer (usually air) in a combustion chamber that is an integral part of the working fluid flow circuit. In an internal combu ...
, automobiles, and shipbuilding. By 1929, when
Chrysler Chrysler (; officially Stellantis North America) is one of the " Big Three" automobile manufacturer The automotive industry comprises a wide range of companies A company, abbreviated as co., is a legal entity In law, a legal pers ...

Chrysler
expanded with a new plant there, Oakland had become known as the "
Detroit (strait) , nicknames = The Motor City, Motown, Renaissance City, Techno City, City of the Straits, The D, D-Town, Hockeytown, The Automotive Capital of the World, Rock City, The 313, The Arsenal of Democracy, The Town Th ...

Detroit
of the West," referring to the major auto manufacturing center in Michigan. Oakland expanded during the 1920s, as its population expanded with factory workers. Approximately 13,000 homes were built in the 3 years between 1921 and 1924, more than during the 13 years between 1907 and 1920. Many of the large downtown office buildings, apartment buildings, and single-family houses still standing in Oakland were built during the 1920s; they reflect the architectural styles of the time. Russell Clifford Durant established Durant Field at 82nd Avenue and East 14th Street in 1916. The first transcontinental airmail flight finished its journey at Durant Field on August 9, 1920, flown by Army Capt.
Eddie Rickenbacker Edward Vernon Rickenbacker (October 8, 1890 – July 23, 1973) was an American fighter ace A flying ace, fighter ace or air ace is a military aviator credited with shooting down five or more enemy aircraft An aircraft is a vehicle that ...

Eddie Rickenbacker
and Navy
Bert Acosta Bertrand Blanchard Acosta (January 1, 1895 – September 1, 1954) was a record-setting aviator. He and Clarence D. Chamberlin set an endurance record of 51 hours, 11 minutes, and 25 seconds in the air. He later flew in the Spanish Civil War ...
. Durant Field was often called Oakland Airport, though the current
Oakland International Airport Oakland International Airport is an international airport located 10 miles (16 km) south of Downtown Oakland in Oakland, California, Oakland, California, United States located in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is owned by the Port of Oakla ...
was soon established to the southwest. During World War II, the East Bay Area was home to many war-related industries. Oakland's
Moore Dry Dock Company File:YSD-14USNavy_1.jpg, Seaplane Wrecking Derrick - YSD Moore Dry Dock Company was a ship repair and shipbuilding company in Oakland, California. In 1905, Robert S. Moore, his brother Joseph A. Moore, and John Thomas Scott purchased the Natio ...
expanded its shipbuilding capabilities and built over 100 ships. Valued at $100 million in 1943, Oakland's canning industry was its second-most-valuable war contribution after shipbuilding. The largest canneries were in the Fruitvale District, and included the Josiah Lusk Canning Company, the Oakland Preserving Company (which started the Del Monte brand), and the California Packing Company. President
Franklin D. Roosevelt Franklin Delano Roosevelt (, ; January 30, 1882April 12, 1945), often referred to by his initials FDR, was an American politician who served as the 32nd president of the United States from 1933 until his death in 1945. A member of the De ...

Franklin D. Roosevelt
called on defense industries with government contracts to integrate their workforces and provide opportunities for all Americans. Tens of thousands of laborers came from around the country, especially poor whites and blacks from the Deep South: Alabama, Arkansas, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, South Carolina, and Texas, as well as Missouri and Tennessee.
Henry J. Kaiser Henry John Kaiser (May 9, 1882 – August 24, 1967) was an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. Prior to World War II, Kaiser was involved in the construction industry; his company was one of t ...
's representatives recruited
sharecroppers Sharecropping is a legal arrangement with regard to agricultural land in which a landowner allows a tenant to use the land in return for a share of the crops produced on that land. Sharecropping has a long history and there are a wide range ...
and
tenant farmers A tenant farmer is one who resides on land owned by a landlord A landlord is the owner of a house, apartment, condominium, land, or real estate which is Renting, rented or leased to an individual or business, who is called a Leasehold estat ...
from rural areas to work in his shipyards. African Americans were part of the Great Migration by which five million persons left the South, mostly for the West, from 1940 to 1970. White migrants from the
Jim Crow Jim or JIM may refer to: * Jim, a diminutive form of the given name James (name), James * Jim, a short form of the given name Jimmy (given name), Jimmy * OPCW-UN Joint Investigative Mechanism * Jim (comics), ''Jim'' (comics), a series by Jim Woodri ...

Jim Crow
South carried their racial attitudes, causing tensions to rise among black and white workers competing for the better-paying jobs in the Bay Area. The racial harmony Oakland African-Americans had been accustomed to prior to the war evaporated. Also migrating to the area during this time were many
Mexican Americans Mexican Americans ( es, mexicano-estadounidenses or ) are Americans of Mexicans, Mexican ancestry. In 2019, Mexican Americans comprised 11.3% of the US population and 61.5% of all Hispanic and Latino Americans, Latino Americans. In 2019, 71% of ...

Mexican Americans
from southwestern states such as
New Mexico ) , population_demonym = New Mexican ( es, Neomexicano, Neomejicano, Nuevo Mexicano) , seat = Santa Fe , LargestCity = Albuquerque , LargestMetro = Greater Albuquerque , OfficialLang = None , Languages = English English usually refer ...

New Mexico
,
Texas Texas (, ; Spanish Spanish may refer to: * Items from or related to Spain: **Spaniards, a nation and ethnic group indigenous to Spain **Spanish language **Spanish cuisine Other places * Spanish, Ontario, Canada * Spanish River (disambigu ...

Texas
, and
Colorado Colorado (, other variants) is a state in the Mountain West The Mountain West Conference (MW) is one of the collegiate athletic conferences affiliated with the National Collegiate Athletic Association The National Collegiate Athletic ...

Colorado
. Many worked for the
Southern Pacific Railroad The Southern Pacific (or Espee from the railroad initials- SP) was an American Class I railroad Rail transport (also known as train transport) is a means of transferring passengers and goods on wheeled vehicles running on rails, which a ...
, at its major rail yard in West Oakland. Their young men encountered hostility and discrimination by Armed Forces personnel, and tensions broke out in "
zoot suit riots The Zoot Suit Riots were a series of conflicts on June 3–8, 1943 in Los Angeles, California, United States, which pitted United States Armed Forces, American servicemen stationed in Southern California against young Latino and Mexican Americans ...
" in downtown Oakland in 1943 in the wake of a major disturbance in Los Angeles that year. In 1946,
National City Lines National City Lines, Inc. (NCL) was a public transportation company. The company grew out of the Fitzgerald brothers' bus operations, founded in Minnesota Minnesota () is a U.S. state, state in the north central region of the United States. I ...
(NCL), a General Motors
holding company A holding company is a company whose primary business is holding a controlling interest in the securities of other companies. A holding company usually does not produce goods or services itself. Its purpose is to own shares of other companies ...
, acquired 64% of
Key System The Key System (or Key Route) was a privately owned company that provided mass transit File:201703118号线列车正在开出沈杜公路折返线.jpg, Shanghai Metro is the second largest rapid transit system in the world by route length, ...
stock; during the next several years NCL engaged in the conspiratorial dissolution of Oakland's electric
streetcar A tram (also known as a streetcar or trolley in North America) is a train that runs on tramway track Tramway track is used on tramways or light rail operations. Groove (engineering), Grooved rails (or Rail profile#Grooved rail, girder ...

streetcar
system. The city's expensive electric streetcar fleet was converted to the cheaper diesel buses.UNITED STATES, v. NATIONAL CITY LINES, Inc., et al.—186 F.2d 562—AltLaw
The state Legislature created the Alameda and Contra Costa Transit District in 1955, which operates today as
AC Transit AC Transit (Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is an Oakland Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), ...
, the third-largest bus-only transit system in the nation. Soon after the war, as Oakland's shipbuilding industry declined and the automobile industry went through restructuring, many jobs were lost. Economic competition increased racial tension. In addition, labor unrest increased as workers struggled to protect their livelihoods. Oakland was the center of a
general strike A general strike (or mass strike) is a strike action in which a substantial proportion of the total labour (economics), labour force in a city, region, or country participates. General strikes are characterised by the participation of workers ...
during the first week of December 1946, one of six cities across the country that had such a strike after World War II.


1960–1999

In 1960, Kaiser Corporation opened its new headquarters; it was the largest skyscraper in Oakland, as well as "the largest office tower west of
Chicago (''City in a Garden''); I Will , image_map = , map_caption = Interactive map of Chicago , coordinates = , coordinates_footnotes = , subdivision_type = Country , subdivision_name ...

Chicago
" up to that time. In the postwar period, suburban development increased around Oakland, and wealthier residents moved to new housing. Despite the major increases in the number and proportion of African Americans in the city, in 1966 only 16 of the city's 661 police officers were black. Tensions between the black community and the largely white police force were high, as expectations during the civil rights era increased to gain social justice and equality before the law. Police abuse of blacks was common.''Inside the Panther Revolution'', Robyn Cean Spencer, Chapter 13, p. 302 Students
Huey Newton Huey Percy Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989) was an African-American African Americans (also referred to as Black Americans or Afro-Americans) are an ethnic group An ethnic group or ethnicity is a grouping of people ...

Huey Newton
and
Bobby Seale Robert George Seale (born October 22, 1936) is an American political activist and author. In 1966, he co-founded the Black Panther Party with fellow activist Huey P. Newton. Founded as the "Black Panther Party for Self-Defense", the Party's mai ...

Bobby Seale
founded the
Black Panther Party The Black Panther Party (BPP), originally the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense, was a Black Power political organization founded by college students Bobby Seale and Huey P. Newton in October 1966 in Oakland, California. The party was acti ...
at
Merritt College Merritt College is a public community college in Oakland, California Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative divi ...
(then located at a former high school on Grove Street, now occupied by
Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute Children's Hospital Oakland Research Institute (CHORI) is a biomedical research institute affiliated with California’s pediatric medical center, Children's Hospital Oakland, UCSF Benioff Children's Hospital Oakland. CHORI is based in Oakland ...
), which emphasized black power, advocated armed self-defense against police brutality, and was involved in several incidents that ended in the deaths of police officers and other Black Panther members. Among their social programs were feeding children and providing other services to the needy. During the 1970s, Oakland began to suffer serious violence and other problems related to gang-controlled dealing of heroin and cocaine when drug kingpin Felix Mitchell created the nation's first large-scale operation of this kind. Both violent crime and property crime increased during this period, and Oakland's murder rate rose to over twice that of San Francisco and New York. As in many other American cities during the 1980s,
crack cocaine Crack cocaine, commonly known simply as crack, and also known as rock, is a free base Free base (freebase, free-base) is the conjugate base (deprotonated) form of an amine In organic chemistry, amines (, ) are organic compound, compounds ...
became a serious problem in Oakland. Drug dealing in general, and the dealing of crack cocaine in particular, resulted in elevated rates of violent crime, causing Oakland to consistently be listed as one of America's most crime-ridden cities. In 1980 Oakland's black population reached its 20th-century peak at approximately 47% of the overall city population. The 6.9
Loma Prieta earthquake The 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake occurred on California's Central Coast on October 17 at local time. The shock was centered in The Forest of Nisene Marks State Park in Santa Cruz County, California, Santa Cruz County, approximately northeast of ...
occurred on October 17, 1989. The rupture was related to the San Andreas fault system and affected the entire San Francisco Bay Area with a maximum Mercalli intensity of IX (''Violent''). Many structures in Oakland were badly damaged including the double-decker portion of Interstate 880 that collapsed. The eastern span of the
San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge The San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, known locally as the Bay Bridge, is a complex of bridges spanning San Francisco Bay in California. As part of Interstate 80 in California, Interstate 80 and the direct road between San Francisco and Oakland ...
also sustained damage and was closed to traffic for one month. On October 20, 1991, a massive
firestorm A firestorm is a conflagration A conflagration is a large and destructive fire BBQ. Fire is the rapid oxidation of a material in the exothermic chemical process of combustion, releasing heat, light, and various reaction Product (chemi ...
swept down from the Berkeley/Oakland hills above the Caldecott Tunnel. Twenty-five people were killed, 150 people were injured, and nearly 4,000 homes destroyed. With the loss of life and an estimated economic loss of 1.5 billion, this was the worst urban firestorm in American history, until 2017.''Catastrophe: The 100 Greatest Disasters of All Time'', Stephen J. Spignesi, Citadel, 2004, pp 292–94 During the mid-1990s, Oakland's economy began to recover as it transitioned to new types of jobs. In addition, the city participated in large development and urban renewal projects, concentrated especially in the downtown area, at the
Port of Oakland The Port of Oakland is a major container ship A container ship (sometimes spelled containership) is a cargo ship that carries all of its load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. Container ships are a co ...

Port of Oakland
, and at the
Oakland International Airport Oakland International Airport is an international airport located 10 miles (16 km) south of Downtown Oakland in Oakland, California, Oakland, California, United States located in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is owned by the Port of Oakla ...
.


2000s

After his 1999 inauguration, Oakland Mayor
Jerry Brown Edmund Gerald Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American lawyer, author, and politician who served as the 34th and 39th governor of California The governor of California is the head of government The head of government is either the h ...

Jerry Brown
continued his predecessor public policy of supporting downtown housing development in the area defined as the Central Business District in Oakland's 1998 General Plan. Brown's plan and other redevelopment projects were controversial due to potential rent increases and
gentrification Gentrification is the process of changing the character of a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard ...

gentrification
, which would displace lower-income residents from downtown Oakland into outlying neighborhoods and cities. Due to allegations of misconduct by the Oakland Police Department, the City of Oakland has paid claims for a total of 57 million during the 2001–2011 timeframe to plaintiffs claiming police abuse; this is the largest sum paid by any city in California. On October 10, 2011, protesters and civic activists began "
Occupy Oakland Occupy Oakland refers to a collaboration and series of demonstrations in Oakland, California California is a U.S. state, state in the Western United States. With over 39.3million residents across a total area of approximately , it is the L ...
" demonstrations at Frank Ogawa Plaza in
Downtown Oakland Downtown Oakland is the central business district A central business district (CBD) is the commercial and business center of a city. It contains commercial space and offices. In larger cities, it is often synonymous with the city's "financial ...
."Wall Street protesters: We're in for the long haul"
, ''Bloomberg Businessweek''. Accessed: October 3, 2011.
African-Americans dropped to 28% of Oakland's population in 2010, from nearly half in 1980, due to fast-rising rents and an extreme housing crisis in the region. The city inspected many warehouses and live/work spaces after a fire broke out in the Ghost Ship warehouse, killing 36 people in 2016. Oakland is the second U.S. city, after
Denver Denver () is a consolidated city and county, the capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more forma ...

Denver
, to decriminalize
psilocybin mushrooms Psilocybin mushrooms, commonly known as magic mushrooms, mushrooms or shrooms, are a polyphyletic, informal group of fungi A fungus (plural The plural (sometimes list of glossing abbreviations, abbreviated ), in many languages, is one of ...
. In June 2019, the City Council passed the resolution in a unanimous vote ending the investigation and imposition of criminal penalties for use and possession of natural entheogens. In November 2019, two homeless mothers and their children moved into a vacant three bedroom house in West Oakland. The group, calling themselves Moms 4 Housing, said their goal was to protest what they said was a large number of vacant houses in Oakland owned by redevelopment companies while the city experienced a housing crisis. Two months later they were evicted from the house by three dozen sheriff's deputies, as hundreds of supporters demonstrated in favor of the women. The incident received nationwide coverage. The company that owns the house later said they would sell it to a nonprofit affordable housing group. As of 2019, Oakland's per-capita homeless rate is higher than San Francisco and Berkeley.


Geography and cityscape

Oakland is in the eastern region of the
San Francisco Bay San Francisco Bay is a shallow estuary An estuary is a partially enclosed Coast, coastal body of brackish water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. Estuaries form a transition zone ...

San Francisco Bay
. In 1991, the City Hall tower was at (NAD83). (The building still exists, but like the rest of the Bay Area, it has shifted northwest perhaps 0.6 meters in the last twenty years.) The
United States Census Bureau The United States Census Bureau (USCB), officially the Bureau of the Census, is a principal agency of the U.S. Federal Statistical System, responsible for producing data about the American American(s) may refer to: * American, something of, ...
says the city's total area is , including of land and (28.48 percent) of water. Oakland's highest point is near Grizzly Peak Blvd, east of Berkeley, just over
above sea level Above may refer to: *Above (artist) Tavar Zawacki formerly known as 'ABOVE' (born 1981) is an American abstract art Abstract art uses visual language of shape, form, color and line to create a composition which may exist with a degree of ind ...
at about . Oakland has of shoreline, but Radio Beach is the only beach in Oakland. Oaklanders refer to their city's terrain as "the flatlands" and Oakland Hills, Oakland, California, "the hills". Until recent waves of gentrification, these terms also symbolized Oakland's deep economic divide, with "the hills" being more affluent communities. About two-thirds of Oakland lies in the flat plain of the East Bay, with one-third rising into the foothills and hills of the East Bay range. Ruptures along the nearby San Andreas Fault caused severe earth movement in the San Francisco Bay Area in 1906 and 1989. San Andreas quakes induces Aseismic creep, creep (movement occurring on earthquake faults) in the Hayward fault, which runs directly through Oakland, Berkeley, San Jose and other Bay Area cities.


Neighborhoods

Oakland has more than 50 distinct neighborhoods. The city's greater divisions include downtown Oakland and its greater #Central business district, Central Business District,
Lake Merritt Lake Merritt is a large tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, California, just east of Downtown Oakland, Downtown. It is surrounded by parkland and city neighborhoods. It is historically significant as the United States' first official wildlife ...
, East Oakland, Oakland, California, East Oakland, North Oakland, Oakland, California, North Oakland, West Oakland, Oakland, California, West Oakland, and the Oakland Hills, Oakland, California, Oakland Hills. East Oakland, which includes the East Oakland Hills, encompasses more than half of Oakland's land area, stretching from Lakeshore Avenue on the east shore of Lake Merritt southeast to the San Leandro, California, San Leandro border. North Oakland encompasses the neighborhoods between downtown and Berkeley and Emeryville. West Oakland is the area between downtown and the Bay, partially surrounded by the Oakland Point, Oakland, California, Oakland Point, and encompassing the
Port of Oakland The Port of Oakland is a major container ship A container ship (sometimes spelled containership) is a cargo ship that carries all of its load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. Container ships are a co ...

Port of Oakland
. In 2011, Oakland was ranked the 10th most walkable city in the United States. Lake Merritt, an urban estuary near downtown, is a mix of fresh and salt water draining in and out from the Oakland Harbor at the San Francisco Bay and one of Oakland's most notable features. It was designated the United States' first official wildlife refuge in 1870. Originally a marsh-lined wildlife haven, Lake Merritt was dredged and bordered with parks from the 1890s to the 1910s. Despite this reduction in habitat, Oakland is home to a number of rare and endangered species, many of which are localized to serpentine soils and bedrock. Lake Merritt is surrounded by residential and business districts, including downtown Oakland, downtown and Grand Lake, Oakland, California, Grand Lake. The city of Piedmont, California, Piedmont, incorporated in Oakland's central foothills after the 1906 earthquake, is a small independent city surrounded by the city of Oakland.


Climate and vegetation

Oakland has a warm-summer Mediterranean climate with an average of 260 sunny days per year. In general, the city features warm, dry summers, and mild, wet winters.
Lake Merritt Lake Merritt is a large tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, California, just east of Downtown Oakland, Downtown. It is surrounded by parkland and city neighborhoods. It is historically significant as the United States' first official wildlife ...
, a large estuary centrally located east of Downtown, was announced as the United States' first official wildlife refuge. Based on data gathered by the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Oakland is ranked No. 1 in climate among U.S. cities. Oakland's climate is typified by the temperate and seasonal Mediterranean climate. Summers are usually dry and warm and winters are mild and damp. It has features found in both nearby coastal cities such as San Francisco and inland cities such as San Jose, California, San Jose, making it warmer than San Francisco and cooler than San Jose. Its position on San Francisco Bay across from the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge, Bay Bridge means the northern part of the city can have cooling San Francisco fog, maritime fog. It is far enough inland that the fog often burns off by midday, allowing it to have typically sunny California days. The hills tend to have more fog than the flatlands, as the fog drifts down from Berkeley. The U.S. Weather Bureau kept weather records in downtown Oakland from October 4, 1894, to July 31, 1958. During that time, the record high temperature was on June 24, 1957, and the record low temperature was on January 23, 1949. Dry, warm offshore "Diablo" winds (similar to the Santa Ana winds of Southern California) sometimes occur, especially in fall, and raise the fire danger. In 1991, such an episode allowed the catastrophic Oakland Hills fire to spread and consume many homes. The wettest year was 1940 with and the driest year was 1910 with . The most rainfall in one month was in January 1911. The most rainfall in 24 hours was on February 12, 1904. Rainfall near the bayfront is only , but is higher in the Oakland Hills to the east (up to ). The higher rainfall in the hills supports woods of oak, madrona, pine, fir and a few redwood groves in the wetter areas. Before being logged in the 19th century, some of the tallest redwood trees in California (used for navigation by ships entering the Golden Gate) may have stood in the Oakland Hills. One old stump in diameter can be seen near Redwood Regional Park. Sunny, drier slopes are grassy or covered in scattered oaks and chaparral brush. Eucalyptus globulus, Australian eucalyptus trees have been extensively planted in many areas, as they come from a similar climate. The National Weather Service today has two official weather stations in Oakland:
Oakland International Airport Oakland International Airport is an international airport located 10 miles (16 km) south of Downtown Oakland in Oakland, California, Oakland, California, United States located in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is owned by the Port of Oakla ...
and the Oakland Museum (established 1970).


Demographics

The 2020 United States Census reported Oakland had a population of 440,646. The population density was .


Race and ethnicity

The 2020 United States Census reported that the racial makeup of Oakland was 120,187 (27.3%) White (U.S. Census), White, 128,561 (28.8%) African American (U.S. Census), Black or African American, 69,906 (15.9%) Asian (U.S. Census), Asian, 2,668 (0.6%) Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), Pacific Islander, 1,371 (0.3%) Native American (U.S. Census), Native American, 2,964 (0.7%) from Race (United States Census), other races, and 25,156 (5.7%) multiracial (two or more races). There were 91,561 (20.8%) of Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino ancestry, of any race. From the 2010 United States Census the racial makeup of Oakland was 134,925 (34.5%) White (U.S. Census), White (non-Hispanic White 25.9%), 129,471 (28.0%) African American (U.S. Census), African American, 3,040 (0.8%) Native American (U.S. Census), Native American, 65,811 (16.8%) Asian (U.S. Census), Asian (8.7% Chinese American, Chinese, 2.2% Vietnamese American, Vietnamese, 1.6% Filipino American, Filipino, 0.7% Cambodian American, Cambodian, 0.7% Laotian American, Laotian, 0.6% Korean American, Korean, 0.5% Japanese American, Japanese, 0.5% Indian American, Indian, 0.1% Mongolian American, Mongolian), 2,222 (0.6%) Pacific Islander (U.S. Census), Pacific Islander (0.3% Tongan American, Tongan), 53,378 (13.7%) from Race (United States Census), other races, and 21,877 (5.6%) from two or more races. Hispanic (U.S. Census), Hispanic or Latino (U.S. Census), Latino of any race were 99,068 persons (25.4%). 18.1% of the population were of Mexican American, Mexican descent, 1.9% Salvadoran American, Salvadoran, 1.3% Guatemalan American, Guatemalan, and 0.7% Puerto Ricans, Puerto Rican.


2019 United States Census Bureau American Community Survey estimates

According to 2019 US Census Bureau estimates, Oakland's population rose to 433,044, and was 34.5% White American, White (29.3% Non-Hispanic White and 5.2% Hispanic White), 24.9% Black or African American, 1.3% Native Americans in the United States, Native American and Alaskan Native, 14.3% Asian American, Asian, 0.4% Pacific Islander, 18.3% Other Race, and 6.3% from Multiracial American, two or more races. White Americans are the largest racial/ethnic group at either 34.5% (including White Hispanics) or 29.3% (excluding White Hispanics). Hispanics have been the second largest ethnic group since 2012 when they displaced the Black population. However, Black Americans still form the 2nd largest racial group. By ethnicity, 26.8% of the total population is Hispanic and Latino Americans, Hispanic-Latino (of any race) and 73.2% is Non-Hispanic (of any race). The majority of Hispanics self-identify as Some Other Race (66.9%) with the remainder choosing White (19.4%), Multiracial (7.4%), Black (2.0%), American Indian and Alaskan Native (3.5%), Asian (0.7%), and Hawaiian and Pacific Islander (0.1%). The Black population is the third largest ethnic group and 2nd largest racial group at either 24.9% (including Black Hispanics) or 24.4% excluding Black Hispanics. The Asian population continues to remain the fourth largest group at 14.3% of the population.


Educational attainment and income

The greater Oakland area has the fifth largest cluster of "elite zip codes" ranked by the number of households with the highest combination of income and education. 37.9% of residents over 25 years of age have bachelor's degree or higher. Oakland ranked among the top cities with residents with bachelor's degrees and graduate degrees per square mile. Oakland ranks in the top 20 of American cities in median household income, with a 2012 value of 51,863. In 2012, the median income for a household in the city was 51,863 and the median income for a family was 59,459. The mean income for a household was 77,888 and the mean income for a family was 90,948. Males had a median income of 50,140 versus 50,304 for females. The unemployment rate as of December 2013 was 9.7%. In 2007 approximately 15.3 percent of families and 17.0 percent of the general population were below the poverty line, including 27.9 percent of those under age 18 and 13.1 percent of those age 65 or over. 0.7% of the population is homeless.Designing a Socially Just Downtown
, NHI, by Alex Salazar, Spring 2006, retrieved August 12, 2007
Home ownership is 41% and 14% of rental units are subsidized. As of the census of 2000, 19.4% of the population and 16.2% of families were below the poverty line. Out of the total population, 27.9% of those under the age of 18 and 13.1% of those 65 and older were living below the poverty line.


Households

The census reported 382,586 people (97.9% of the population) lived in households, 5,675 (1.5%) lived in non-institutionalized group quarters, and 2,463 (0.6%) were institutionalized. There were 153,791 households, out of which 44,762 (29.1%) had children under the age of 18 living in them, 50,797 (33.0%) were marriage, opposite-sex married couples living together, 24,122 (15.7%) had a female householder with no husband present, 8,799 (5.7%) had a male householder with no wife present. There were 11,289 (7.3%) POSSLQ, unmarried opposite-sex partnerships, and 3,442 (2.2%) same-sex partnerships, same-sex married couples or partnerships. 52,103 households (33.9%) were made up of individuals, and 13,778 (9.0%) had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.49. There were 83,718 family (U.S. Census), families (54.4% of all households); the average family size was 3.27. The population was spread out, with 83,120 people (21.3%) under the age of 18, 36,272 people (9.3%) aged 18 to 24, 129,139 people (33.1%) aged 25 to 44, 98,634 people (25.2%) aged 45 to 64, and 43,559 people (11.1%) who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36.2 years. For every 100 females, there were 94.2 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 91.8 males. There were 169,710 housing units at an average density of , of which 153,791 were occupied, of which 63,142 (41.1%) were owner-occupied, and 90,649 (58.9%) were occupied by renters. The homeowner vacancy rate was 3.0%; the rental vacancy rate was 8.5%. 166,662 people (42.7% of the population) lived in owner-occupied housing units and 215,924 people (55.3%) lived in rental housing units.


Shifting of cultures

Oakland has consistently ranked as one of the most ethnically diverse major cities in the country. A 2019 analysis by WalletHub showed that Oakland was the most ethnoracially diverse city in the United States. The city's formerly most populous ethnic group, whites, declined from 95.3% in 1940 to 32.5% by 1990, due to a combination of factors, including suburbanization. Oakland became a destination for African Americans in the Great Migration during and after World War II as they gained high-paying jobs in the defense industry. Blacks have formed a plurality in Oakland for many years, peaking in 1980 at about 47% of the population. Oakland's black population decreased by nearly 25 percent between 2000 and 2010. The city's demographics have changed due to a combination of rising housing prices associated with
gentrification Gentrification is the process of changing the character of a neighborhood A neighbourhood (British English British English (BrE) is the standard dialect A standard language (also standard variety, standard dialect, and standard ...

gentrification
and with blacks relocating to better (and in many cases more affordable) housing in Bay Area suburbs or moving to the Southern United States in a reverse migration, where conditions (including race relations) are considered to have improved in comparison to previous generations. These trends and cultural shifts have led to a decline among some of Oakland's long standing black institutions, such as churches, businesses and nightclubs, which had developed during the growing years of the 1950s through 1970. In the 2010 census African Americans maintained their status as Oakland's single largest ethnic group, with 27% of the population, followed by non-Hispanic white people, whites at 25.9%, and Hispanics of any race at 25.4%. Ethnic Asians constitute 17%, followed by smaller minority groups. Many immigrants have settled in the city. Immigrants and others have marched by the thousands down Oakland's International Boulevard, Oakland, California, International Boulevard in support of legal reforms benefiting Illegal immigration, undocumented immigrants. An analysis by the Urban Institute of 2000 United States Census, U.S. Census 2000 numbers showed Oakland had the third-highest concentration of gays and lesbians among the 50 largest U.S. cities, behind San Francisco and Seattle. Census data showed that among incorporated places that have at least 500 female couples, Oakland had the nation's largest proportion. In the 2000 census, 2,650 lesbian couples identified as such in Oakland; one in every 41 Oakland couples identified as a same-sex female partnership.


Gentrification

As of 2020, the San Francisco-Oakland Metro shows indications of having the greatest intensity of gentrification nationally, with over 31% of eligible neighborhoods gentrifying. Gentrifying neighborhoods showed significant increases in median home value, median household income, percentage of college educated residents, but also in economic inequality. Historically low-income neighborhoods have been rapidly changed by new, higher-income residents as high-wage tech workers and expensive housing have continued to push lower-wage residents out of Oakland. In West Oakland, for example, median household income rose from $80,700 to $86,300 between 2010 and 2017, while the percent of population with four-year degrees rose from one-third to nearly one-half, according to the National Community Reinvestment Coalition. Big tech companies have continued to transform the communities and culture of Oakland as modern apartments have appeared, housing prices have spiked, and many prior working-class residents have moved to suburbs further inland. According to 2015 data compiled by the Bay Area Equity Atlas, 91% of low-income households of color were either in neighborhoods that were gentrifying or were at risk of gentrification at the time. The number was higher for individual low-income communities, with 96% of Native American households in neighborhoods that either experienced gentrification or were at risk of being gentrified, followed by Latino households at 94%, Black households at 92%, and Asian or Pacific Islander households at 88%.


Economy

Oakland is a major
West CoastWest Coast or west coast may refer to: Geography Australia * Western Australia *Regions of South Australia#Weather forecasting, West Coast of South Australia * West Coast, Tasmania **West Coast Range, mountain range in the region Canada * British ...
port, and the fifth busiest in the United States by cargo volume. The
Port of Oakland The Port of Oakland is a major container ship A container ship (sometimes spelled containership) is a cargo ship that carries all of its load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. Container ships are a co ...

Port of Oakland
handles 99% of all containerized goods moving through Northern California, representing $41 billion worth of international trade. There are nearly 200,000 jobs related to marine cargo transport in the Oakland area. These jobs range from minimum wage hourly positions to Transportation Storage and Distribution Managers who earn an annual average salary of 91,520. The Port of Oakland was an early innovator/pioneer in the technologies of Intermodal freight transport, Intermodal Containerized Shipping. The city is also home to several major corporations including Kaiser Permanente, Clorox, and Dreyer's ice cream. Tech companies such as Ask.com and Pandora Radio are in Oakland, and in recent years many start-up high tech and green energy companies have found a home in the downtown neighborhoods of Uptown, City Center, Jack London Square and Lake Merritt Financial District. In 2014, Oakland was the fifth ranked city for tech entrepreneurs by total venture capital investment. In 2015 Uber announced plans to build and house 3,000 employees in a new office at the site of the old Sears building, which is being redeveloped with plans to open in late 2017. , the San Francisco-Oakland-Hayward metropolitan area has a gross domestic product (GDP) of 360.4 billion, ranking eighth among metropolitan areas in the United States. In 2014, Oakland was amongst the best cities to start a career, the highest ranked city in California after San Francisco. Additionally, Oakland ranked fourth in cities with professional opportunities. Numerous companies in San Francisco continue to expand in or migrate over to Oakland. Oakland experienced an increase of both its population and of land values in the early-to-mid first decade of the 21st century. The 10k Plan, which began during former mayor Elihu Harris' administration, and intensified during former mayor
Jerry Brown Edmund Gerald Brown Jr. (born April 7, 1938) is an American lawyer, author, and politician who served as the 34th and 39th governor of California The governor of California is the head of government The head of government is either the h ...

Jerry Brown
's administration resulted in several thousand units of new multi-family housing and development.


Top employers

, the top employers in the city were:


Tourism

In 2013, over 2.5 million people visited Oakland, injecting 1.3 billion into the economy. Oakland has been experiencing an increase in hotel demand. Occupancy is 74%, while RevPAR (Revenue Per Available Room) increased by 14%, the highest increase of any big city in the western region of the United States. Both Oakland and San Francisco were forecasted to experience the highest increases in ADR (Average daily rate). In recent years, Oakland has gained national recognition as a travel destination. In 2012, Oakland was named the top North American city to visit, highlighting its growing number of sophisticated restaurants and bars, top music venues, and increasing nightlife appeal. Oakland also took the No. 16 spot in "America's Coolest Cities", ranked by metrics like entertainment options and recreational opportunities per capita, etc. In 2013, Oakland topped the No. 1 spot in "America's Most Exciting Cities", notably having the most movie theaters, theater companies, and museums per square mile. In "America's Most Hipster Cities", Oakland took the number-5 spot, cited for luring San Francisco "hippies" into the city. Oakland has also increased its travel destination allure internationally.


Arts and culture

Oakland has a significant art scene and claims the highest concentration of artists per capita in the United States. In 2013, Oakland was designated as one of America's top twelve art communities, recognizing Downtown (including Uptown), Chinatown, Old Oakland, and Jack London Square as communities "that have most successfully combined art, artists and venues for creativity and expression with independent businesses, retail shops and restaurants, and a walkable lifestyle to make vibrant neighborhoods." Galleries exist in various parts of Oakland, with the newest additions centered mostly in the Uptown Oakland, Uptown area. Oakland ranked 11th in cities for designers and artists. The city is a renowned culinary hotbed, offering both a wide variety and innovative approaches to diverse cuisines in restaurants and markets, often featuring locally grown produce and international styles such as French cuisine, French, Italian cuisine, Italian, Portuguese cuisine, Portuguese/Spanish cuisine, Spanish, Ethiopian cuisine, Ethiopian, Asian cuisine, Asian, Latin American cuisine, Latin American, as well as Caribbean cuisine, Caribbean, Cuisine of the Southern United States, Southern United States/Louisiana Creole cuisine, Louisiana Creole, etc., all of which reflects the culinary traditions of the city's ethnically diverse population. Historically a focal point of the West Coast blues and jazz scenes, Oakland is also home to musicians representing such genres as rhythm and blues, Gospel music, gospel, funk, Punk rock, punk, heavy metal music, heavy metal, Rapping, Rap/Gangsta rap, and hip hop. Artists who come out of Oakland are: Mistah F.A.B, E-40, Too Short Raphael Saadiq, MC Hammer, Keyshia Cole, Kehlani, Del the Funky Homospaien, Edwin Hawkins, Tony! Toni! Toné! and many more.


Attractions

Free walking tours ar
offered by the City.


Nightlife

Downtown Oakland has an assortment of bars and nightclubs. They include dive bars, dance clubs, modern lounges and jazz bars. The Paramount Theater features headlining musical tours and productions, while Fox Oakland Theatre draws various musical genres including jam bands, rock, punk, blues, jazz, and reggae. The Paramount and Fox theaters often book simultaneous events, creating busy nights uptown. In 2012, Oakland was dubbed a "New Sin City", following its 2010 decision to relax its cabaret laws, which gave a boost to its nightclub and bar scene. Recent years have seen the growth of the Art Murmur, Oakland Art Murmur event, occurring in the Uptown neighborhood the first Friday evening of every month. The event attracts around 20,000 people along twenty city blocks, featuring live performances, food trucks, and over 30 galleries and venues.


"There is no there there"

Gertrude Stein wrote about Oakland in her 1937 book ''Everybody's Autobiography'' "There is no there there", upon learning that the neighborhood where she lived as a child had been torn down to make way for an industrial park. The quote is usually misconstrued to refer to Oakland as a whole. Modern-day Oakland has made steps to rebuke Stein's claim with a statue downtown titled ''There''. In 2005 a sculpture called ''HERETHERE'' was installed by the City of Berkeley on the Berkeley-Oakland border at Martin Luther King Jr. Way. The sculpture consists of eight-foot-tall letters spelling "HERE" and "THERE" in front of the BART tracks as they descend from their elevated section in Oakland to the subway through Berkeley.


Sports

Oakland currently has professional teams in three sports: baseball, soccer, indoor football. The Oakland Athletics MLB club won three consecutive World Series championships in 1972 World Series, 1972, 1973 World Series, 1973, and 1974 World Series, 1974, and appeared in another three consecutive World Series from 1988 World Series, 1988 to 1990 World Series, 1990, winning their fourth championship in 1989 World Series, 1989. On November 28, 2018, the Athletics announced plans to build Oakland Ballpark, a new ballpark at Howard Terminal, set to open in 2023. The Oakland Roots SC are a soccer team that was formed in 2018. The Roots began play in 2019 in a new third division professional league called National Independent Soccer Association, however, the team announced that it would move to the second division and play in the USL Championship from the 2021 season onwards. Oakland's former football team, the History of the Oakland Raiders, Oakland Raiders of the National Football League (NFL), won Super Bowl XI in 1976, Super Bowl XV in 1980, and Super Bowl XVIII in 1983, while they were in Los Angeles. They also appeared in Super Bowl II in 1967 and Super Bowl XXXVII in 2002. The Raiders left Oakland for Los Angeles in 1982, where they won a third Super Bowl championship and returned to Oakland in 1995. The Raiders have since Oakland Raiders relocation to Las Vegas, relocated to Las Vegas and are now known as the Las Vegas Raiders. Oakland's former basketball team, the Golden State Warriors won the 1975 NBA Finals, 1974–75, 2015 NBA Finals, 2014–15, 2017 NBA Finals, 2016–17, and the 2018 NBA Finals, 2017–18 NBA championships, while losing in 2016 NBA Finals, 2016 and 2019 NBA Finals, 2019. The Warriors announced in April 2014 that they would leave Oakland once their new arena was built across the Bay in San Francisco. In 2019, the Warriors moved to Chase Center across the Bay. Since the team remained in the Bay Area, they decided not to revert to the San Francisco Warriors name it had in its first stint with the city. Oakland's former sports teams include: * History of the Oakland Raiders, Oakland Raiders, National Football League, 1960–1981, 1995–2019. (played at the Oakland Coliseum before relocating to Las Vegas Raiders, Las Vegas in .) * Golden State Warriors, National Basketball Association, 1971–2019. (played in Oakland Arena before moving back to San Francisco for the season.) * Oakland Oaks (PCL), Oakland Oaks, Pacific Coast League of Baseball, 1903–1955. (The Oaks played at Oaks Park (stadium), Oaks Park in Emeryville after 1912.) * Oakland Larks, West Coast Negro Baseball League, 1946. * Oakland Hornets, member of American Football League (1944) * Oakland Oaks (ABL), Oakland Oaks, American Basketball League (1961–1963), American Basketball League, 1962. * Oakland Oaks (ABA), Oakland Oaks, American Basketball Association (1967–76), American Basketball Association, 1967–1969. * Oakland Seals, National Hockey League, 1967–1976. * Oakland Clippers, National Professional Soccer League (1967), National Professional Soccer League, 1967; North American Soccer League (1968–84), North American Soccer League, 1968. * Oakland Stompers, North American Soccer League (1968–84), North American Soccer League, 1978. * Oakland Invaders, United States Football League, 1983–1985. * Oakland Skates, Roller Hockey International, 1993–1996. * Oakland Slammers, International Basketball League, 2005–2006.


Parks and recreation


Parks

Oakland has many parks and recreation centers which total . In its 2013 ParkScore ranking, Trust for Public Land, The Trust for Public Land, a national land conservation organization, reported that Oakland had the 18th best park system among the 50 most populous U.S. cities. In 2013, Oakland ranked 4th among American cities as an urban destination for nature lovers. Some of the city's most notable parks include: * Joaquin Miller Park * Joseph Knowland State Arboretum and Park, home of the Oakland Zoo *
Lake Merritt Lake Merritt is a large tidal lagoon in the center of Oakland, California, just east of Downtown Oakland, Downtown. It is surrounded by parkland and city neighborhoods. It is historically significant as the United States' first official wildlife ...
* Morcom Rose Garden best from July through October * Mosswood Park * Allendale Park * Peralta Hacienda Historical Park, headquarters of the Peralta rancho, Rancho San Antonio * William Joseph McInnes Botanic Garden and Campus Arboretum on the Mills College campus Additionally, the following seven East Bay Regional Park District, East Bay Regional Parks are entirely or partially in the city of Oakland: * Anthony Chabot Regional Park * Huckleberry Botanic Regional Preserve * Leona Canyon Regional Open Space Preserve * Redwood Regional Park * Robert Sibley Volcanic Regional Preserve * Roberts Regional Recreation Area * Lake Temescal, Temescal Regional Park


Places of worship

Major places of worship in Oakland include –


Law and government

Oakland has a mayor-council government. The mayor is elected at-large for a four-year term. The Oakland City Council has eight council members representing seven districts in Oakland with one member elected at-large and others from single-member districts; council members serve staggered four-year terms. The mayor appoints a city administrator, subject to the confirmation by the City Council, who is the city's chief administrative officer. Other city officers include: city attorney (elected), city auditor (elected), and city clerk (appointed by city administrator). Oakland's mayor is limited to two terms. There are no term limits for the city council. Council member Larry Reid, also serving as vice-mayor, was elected to a fifth term in November 2012. Oakland City Hall was evacuated after the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake until 80M seismic retrofit and hazard abatement work was complete in 1995. City offices had to be housed in leased space and other locations. Jean Quan was elected mayor in November 2010, beating Don Perata and Rebecca Kaplan in the city's first Instant-runoff voting, ranked choice balloting. This new system is intended to increase voters' ability to choose preferred candidates, as they can combine ranked votes when several candidates are competing. Oakland is also part of Alameda County, California, Alameda County, for which the Government of Alameda County, California, Government of Alameda County is defined and authorized under the California Constitution, California law, and the Charter of the County of Alameda. The County government provides countywide services such as elections and voter registration, law enforcement, jails, vital records, property records, tax collection, public health, and social services. The County government is primarily composed of the elected five-member Alameda County Board of Supervisors, Board of Supervisors, other elected offices including the Alameda County Sheriff's Department, Sheriff/Coroner, the Alameda County District Attorney, District Attorney, Alameda County Assessor, Assessor, Alameda County Auditor-Controller/County Clerk/Recorder, Auditor-Controller/County Clerk/Recorder, and Alameda County Treasurer/Tax Collector, Treasurer/Tax Collector, and numerous county departments and entities under the supervision of the County Administrator. In the California State Legislature, Oakland is in , and is split between the California's 15th State Assembly district, 15th and California's 18th State Assembly district, 18th Assembly districts, represented by and , respectively. In the United States House of Representatives, Oakland is in .


Politics

Oakland was a Republican Party (United States), Republican Party bastion from the 1860s to the 1950s, with positions expressed by the Republican-oriented ''Oakland Tribune'' newspaper. At the time, the GOP was more moderate than it has become in the 21st century, and some members belonged to a progressive tradition across the Northern Tier of states. In the 1960s, the majority of voters began to favor liberal policies and the Democratic Party (United States), Democratic Party. Oakland has the second highest percentage of registered Democrats of any of the incorporated cities in Alameda County, with Berkeley coming in first. The last Republican presidential candidate to receive at least one-third of vote in Oakland was Richard Nixon in 1972. Since then, the Republican percentage of the vote has declined in each successive election until 2020. According to the Secretary of State of California, California Secretary of State, as of February 10, 2019, Oakland has 245,111 registered voters. Of those, 159,771 (65.2%) are registered California Democratic Party, Democrats, 9,544 (3.9%) are registered California Republican Party, Republicans, and 65,416 (26.7%) have Decline to State, declined to state a political party. Oakland is widely regarded as being one of the most liberal major cities in the nation. The Cook Partisan Voting Index of California's 13th congressional district, Congressional District 13, which includes Oakland and Berkeley, is D+40, making it the most Democratic congressional district in California and the fourth most Democratic district in the US.


Crime

A 2014 study by the Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law & Social Policy at the University of California, Berkeley School of Law examined crime in the city from 1987 to 2012 and concluded that "The story of crime in Oakland over the last 25 years is a nuanced one, as there are both positive and negative aspects of the crime trends."Bobby McCarthy & Sarah Lawrence
Crime Trends in the City of Oakland: A 25-Year Look (1987–2012).
Chief Justice Earl Warren Institute on Law & Social Policy, University of California, Berkeley School of Law.
Crime Crime drop, dramatically decreased since the early 1990s but the city has continued to suffer from serious violent crime problems. Crime trends generally tracked comparison cities of Fresno, California, Fresno, Richmond, California, Richmond, Sacramento, California, Sacramento, and Stockton, California, Stockton "in terms of direction if not magnitude"; this suggested that crime trends are regional rather than city-specific. A 2007 journal article identified crime in Oakland as being fueled by the dramatic increase of street narcotics sales and use since the 1970s, with Oakland becoming a major west-coast hub for heroin and cocaine distribution. Subsequent battle for control over the lucrative narcotics trade incited gang conflicts and violence, with shootings becoming a regular occurrence. A concurrent rise in rape, robbery, burglary, auto-theft and other crimes occurred as well. Prior to 1960, there had been successful government-funded social programs whereby rebellious teens were enrolled in youth centers that would teach them proper values and improve their behavior. However, similar programs since then have been inconsistent. By the 1970s, the police and Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) used military tactics such as SWAT teams, infiltration and counter intelligence in an attempt to counter groups such as the Black Panthers (responsible for several police ambushes), the S.L.A. and organized drug gangs such as the "69 Mob", with increases in arrests, prosecutions, and imprisonment. During the first decade of the 21st century, Oakland has consistently been listed as one of the most dangerous large cities in the United States. The number of Oakland Police Department officers has varied from a low of 626 (in 1996 and in 2012) to a high of 814 (in 2002). There were 723 officers at the end of 2015. The city's strategic plan recommended 925 officers, and an independent study commissioned by the city in the mid-1990s recommended 1,200 officers. Among Oakland's 35 police patrol beats, violent crime remains a serious problem in specific East and West Oakland neighborhoods. In 2008, homicides were concentrated: 72% occurred in three City Council districts, District 3 in West Oakland and Districts 6 and 7 in East Oakland, although these districts have 44% of Oakland's residents. In 2012, Oakland implemented Operation Ceasefire, a gang violence reduction plan used in other cities, based in part on the research and strategies of author David M. Kennedy (criminologist), David M. Kennedy.


Education


Primary and secondary education

The Oakland Unified School District (OUSD), which covers the city except for Sheffield Village, operates most of Oakland's public schools. Due to financial troubles and administrative failures, it was in receivership by the state of California from 2002 to 2008. , the Oakland Unified School District includes 86 division-run schools and 32 charter schools; the district also manages several adult education programs. there are 48,181 K–12 students; among division-run schools, there are 4,600 plus employees. OUSD test scores historically lag behind the rest of California, in particular due to a high proportion of English-language learners. Some individual schools have much better performance than the citywide average. , for example, over half the students at Hillcrest Elementary School in the Montclair, Oakland, California, Montclair upper hills neighborhood performed at the "advanced" level in the English portion of the test, and students at Lincoln Elementary School (Oakland, California), Lincoln Elementary School in the Chinatown, Oakland, California, Chinatown neighborhood performed at the "advanced" level in the math portion. Oakland's three largest public high schools are Oakland High School (California), Oakland High School, Oakland Technical High School, and Skyline High School (Oakland, California), Skyline High School. Other Oakland public high schools include Castlemont High School, Fremont High School (Oakland, California), Fremont High School, and McClymonds High School, briefly known as Castlemont Community of Small Schools, Fremont Federation of High Schools, and McClymonds Educational Complex, respectively. Among charter schools in the district, North Oakland Community Charter School (NOCCS), an elementary and middle school, is one of the few public progressive schools in the country. Other charter schools include the Oakland Military Institute, Oakland School for the Arts, Bay Area Technology School, East Bay Innovation Academy, and Oakland Charter Academy. There are several religious and secular private high schools, including The College Preparatory School, Head-Royce School, Bishop O'Dowd High School, Holy Names High School (Oakland), Holy Names High School, St. Elizabeth High School (Oakland, California), St. Elizabeth High School and Oakland Hebrew Day School. Catholic schools in Oakland are operated by the Roman Catholic Diocese of Oakland also include eight K–8 schools (plus one in Piedmont on the Oakland city border). Northern Light School is a private nonprofit elementary and middle school. Bentley School is an Independent Co-educational K–12, college preparatory school on two campuses in Oakland and Lafayette, California.


Funding

In 2017, the Oakland Unified School District has received funding from Pandora in partnership with Little Kids Rock, towards expanding music education programs within the schools. The result from these donations has given teachers from 20 additional Oakland- area schools the ability to participate in an eight-hour professional development workshop, and receive music education instruction from Little Kids Rock. The donation includes providing new instruments, that will benefit over 2000 Oakland students.


Colleges and universities

Accredited colleges and universities include: * Oakland is also the home of the headquarters of the University of California system, the University of California Office of the President. In 2001, the SFSU Oakland Multimedia Center was opened, allowing San Francisco State University to conduct classes near downtown Oakland. The Oakland Higher Education Consortium and the City of Oakland's Community and Economic Development Agency (CEDA) opened the Oakland Higher Education Center downtown in 2002 to provide "access to multiple higher education service providers within a shared urban facility." Member schools include primary user California State University, East Bay as well as Lincoln University, New College of California, Saint Mary's College of California, SFSU Multimedia Studies Program, UC Berkeley Extension, University of Phoenix and Peralta Community College District.


Media

Oakland is served by major television stations broadcasting primarily out of San Francisco and San Jose. The region's Fox Broadcasting Company, Fox Owned-and-operated station, O&O, KTVU 2, is based in (and licensed to) Oakland at Jack London Square along with co-owned independent station KICU-TV 36 (licensed to San Jose). In addition, the city is served by various Template:San Francisco Radio, AM and FM radio stations as well; AM stations KKSF (AM), KKSF 910, KMKY (AM), KMKY 1310 and KNEW (AM), KNEW 960 are licensed to Oakland. Oakland was served by the ''Oakland Tribune'', which published its first newspaper on February 21, 1874. The Tribune Tower (Oakland), Tribune Tower, which features a large clock, is an Oakland landmark. At key times throughout the day (8:00 am, noon and 5:00 pm), the clock tower carillon plays a variety of classic melodies, which change daily. In 2007, the Oakland Tribune moved its offices from the tower to an East Oakland location, before folding in 2011. The ''East Bay Express'', a locally owned free weekly paper, is based in Jack London Square and distributed throughout the East Bay. Oaklandwiki is a thriving (mostly) English-language LocalWiki.


Infrastructure


Transportation


Air and rail

Oakland residents have access to the three major airports of the San Francisco Bay Area:
Oakland International Airport Oakland International Airport is an international airport located 10 miles (16 km) south of Downtown Oakland in Oakland, California, Oakland, California, United States located in the San Francisco Bay Area. It is owned by the Port of Oakla ...
, San Francisco International Airport, and San Jose International Airport. Oakland International Airport, within Oakland's city limits, is south of downtown Oakland and serves domestic and international destinations.
AC Transit AC Transit (Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is an Oakland Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), ...
provides 24-hour service to the airport, and Bay Area Rapid Transit, BART's Coliseum–Oakland International Airport line, Coliseum–Oakland International Airport automated guideway transit line provides frequent service between the airport and Oakland Coliseum station. The city has regional and long-distance passenger train service provided by Amtrak, with stations near Jack London Square and the RingCentral Coliseum. Amtrak's ''California Zephyr'' has its western terminus at the nearby Emeryville (Amtrak station), Emeryville station. Historically, the city was served by several train companies, which terminated in different terminals. Santa Fe Railroad, Santa Fe trains terminated at its Oakland depot, actually located within the city limits of Emeryville at 40th and San Pablo. Southern Pacific trains ended at the 16th Street Station. Western Pacific Railroad, Western Pacific trains ended at the 3rd and Washington station. However, a common feature was that the different railroads continued one more stop to a station at Oakland Pier. From this latter point passengers would ride ferries to San Francisco.


Mass transit and bicycling

The most recent US Census Bureau, census data compiled in 2007 before gasoline price spikes in 2008, show 24.3 percent of Oaklanders used public transportation, walked or used "other means" to commute to work, not including telecommuting, with 17 percent of Oakland households being "car free" and/or statistically categorized as having "no vehicles available." Bus transit service in Oakland and the inner
East Bay 330px, A satellite image of the majority of the East Bay The East Bay is the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisc ...
is provided by the Alameda and Contra Costa Transit District,
AC Transit AC Transit (Alameda-Contra Costa Transit District) is an Oakland Oakland is the largest city and the county seat A county seat is an administrative center, seat of government, or capital city of a county or Parish (administrative division), ...
. The district originated in 1958 after the conspiratorial General Motors Streetcar Conspiracy, dissolution of the
Key System The Key System (or Key Route) was a privately owned company that provided mass transit File:201703118号线列车正在开出沈杜公路折返线.jpg, Shanghai Metro is the second largest rapid transit system in the world by route length, ...
of streetcars. Many AC Transit lines follow old routes of the Key System. Intercity bus companies that serve Oakland include Greyhound Lines, Greyhound, BoltBus, Megabus (North America), Megabus, Chinatown bus lines, USAsia, and Chinatown bus lines, Hoang Transportation. The metropolitan area is served by Bay Area Rapid Transit (BART) from eight stations in Oakland. The system has headquarters in Oakland, with major transfer hubs at MacArthur (BART station), MacArthur and 19th Street / Oakland (BART station), 19th Street stations. BART's headquarters was in a building above the Lake Merritt (BART station), Lake Merritt BART station until 2006, when it relocated to the Kaiser Center due to seismic safety concerns. The Alameda / Oakland Ferry operates ferry service from Jack London Square to
Alameda An alameda is a Avenue (landscape), street or path lined with trees () and may refer to: Places Canada *Alameda, Saskatchewan, town in Saskatchewan **Grant Devine Dam, formerly ''Alameda Dam'', a dam and reservoir in southern Saskatchewan Spain * ...
, Oracle Park, Pier 41, the San Francisco Ferry Building, and the South San Francisco Ferry Terminal. Oakland licenses taxi cabs, and has zoned cab stands in its downtown, including a bicycle pedi-cab service. The Oakland City Council adopted a Bicycle Master Plan in 1999 as a part of the Land Use and Transportation (LUTE) element of Oakland's 1998 General Plan. The creation of the plan was to promote alternatives to the private automobile. The Oakland City Council reaffirmed the bike plan in 2005, revised it in 2007, and reaffirmed it in 2012. From 1999 to 2007, the city installed 900 bike racks throughout Oakland, accommodating over 2,000 bicycles. By the end of 2017, over 160 bikeway miles and 9,900 bike parking spaces were constructed. Facilities for parking thousands of bicycles have been installed downtown and in other commercial districts throughout Oakland. According to the U.S. Census Bureau's 2011 American Community Survey, Oakland came in 7th place out of the 100 largest cities in the nation by percentage of people that chose to commute by bike in 2011.


Motorized scooters

In July 2019, the City of Oakland Department of Transportation announced that it had issued official permits for the deployment of shared e-scooters to four companies: Bird (company), Bird, CleVR, Clevr, Lime, and Lyft. Oakland requires these operators to educate users on the correct and safe use of scooters, to distribute the scooters equitably throughout the city, to ensure accessibility, and to provide insurance and indemnification.


Bridges, freeways, and tunnels

Oakland is served by several major highways: Eastbound Bay Bridge traffic entering Oakland then splits into three freeways at the MacArthur Maze freeway interchange: Interstate 580 (California), Interstate 580 (MacArthur Freeway) heads southeast toward Hayward, California, Hayward and eventually to the California Central Valley; Interstate 880 (California), Interstate 880 (Nimitz Freeway) runs south to San Jose, California, San Jose; and the Eastshore Freeway (Interstate 80 (California), Interstate 80/I-580) runs north, providing connections to Sacramento and San Rafael, California, San Rafael, respectively. Interstate 980 (California), Interstate 980 (Williams Freeway) begins its eastbound journey at I-880 in Downtown Oakland before turning into California State Route 24, State Route 24 (Grove Shafter Freeway) at I-580. California State Route 13, State Route 13 begins as the Warren Freeway at I-580, and runs through a scenic valley in the Montclair, Oakland, California, Montclair District before entering Berkeley. A stub of a planned freeway was constructed at the High Street exit from the Nimitz Freeway, but that freeway extension plan was abandoned. At the time of the 1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, the Cypress Street Viaduct double-deck segment of the Nimitz Freeway collapsed, killing 42 people. The old freeway segment had passed through the middle of West Oakland, forming a barrier between West Oakland neighborhoods. Following the earthquake, this section was rerouted around the perimeter of West Oakland and rebuilt in 1997–2001. The east span of the San Francisco–Oakland Bay Bridge also suffered damage from the quake when a 50-foot (15-m) section of the upper deck collapsed onto the lower deck; the damaged section was repaired within a month of the earthquake. As a result of Loma Prieta, a significant seismic retrofit was performed on the western span of the Bay Bridge. The eastern span has now been replaced with a dramatic single-tower self-anchoring suspension span. Two underwater tunnels, the Webster Street Tube, Webster and Posey Tube, Posey Tubes, connect the main island of Alameda to downtown Oakland, coming above ground in Chinatown. In addition, the Park Street Bridge, Park Street, Fruitvale Bridge, Fruitvale, and High Street bridges connect Alameda to East Oakland over the Oakland Estuary. In the hills, the Leimert Bridge crosses Dimond Canyon, connecting the Oakmore neighborhood to Park Boulevard. The Caldecott Tunnel carries Highway 24 through the Berkeley Hills, connecting central Contra Costa County to Oakland. The Caldecott has four bores.


Oakland Slow Streets Program

On April 11, 2020, the City of Oakland launched its Slow Streets Program. This was facilitated in part by the sudden decrease of vehicle traffic that resulted from the state-wide stay-at-home order and school closures in response to the spread of the COVID-19 pandemic in California, COVID-19 in California. The goal of the program was to “support safe physical activity and alleviate overcrowding in parks and on trails by discouraging through traffic.” This was accomplished by closing 74 miles of streets to through traffic. Over the course of three months the city installed “soft closure” barriers consisting of signage, traffic cones, and barricades in over 21 miles of city streets. While the primary goal at the time was to encourage socially distanced outdoor physical activities like biking, walking, and jogging, the long term implementation of the Slow Streets Program contributed to the city's traffic calming measures and promoted alternatives to car use as well. Although the Slow Streets Program was initially praised for its rapid implementation and prioritization of pedestrian safety, the Oakland Department of Transportation quickly came under fire for its failure to collect feedback that represented the opinions of the diverse range of residents whom the program affected. The high engagement with online surveys by wealthy white residents initially suggested an almost universally positive reaction to the program. The disproportionately low number of responses from residents of East Oakland—a largely Black and Latino and low-income area—revealed both the oversight of city officials as well as the shortcomings of urban planning systems’ ability to equally benefit different social groups, which consequently perpetuates inequalities like the transport divide. After the flaws of the feedback forms were brought to light, city planners made concentrated efforts to meet with representatives from different community groups who in turn stressed that simply closing streets to through traffic wasn't enough to protect pedestrians from dangerous driving. In response the city expressed its commitment to its local residents calling for road traffic safety by rolling out Slow Streets: Essential Places, a phase of the program which installed cones and signage at dangerous traffic areas in order to make grocery stores, COVID-19 test sites, and food distribution sites easily and safely accessible.


Freight rail

Freight service, which consists primarily of moving shipping containers to and from the Port of Oakland, is provided today by Union Pacific Railroad (UP), and to a lesser extent by BNSF Railway (which now shares the tracks of the UP between Richmond and Oakland). Historically, Oakland was served by several railroads. Besides the transcontinental line of the Southern Pacific, there was also the Santa Fe (whose Oakland terminal was actually in Emeryville), the Western Pacific Railroad (who built a pier adjacent to the SP's), and the Sacramento Northern Railroad (eventually absorbed by the Western Pacific, which in turn was absorbed by UP in 1983).


Shipping

As one of the three major ports on the West Coast of the United States, the
Port of Oakland The Port of Oakland is a major container ship A container ship (sometimes spelled containership) is a cargo ship that carries all of its load in truck-size intermodal containers, in a technique called containerization. Container ships are a co ...

Port of Oakland
is the largest seaport on San Francisco Bay and the fifth busiest container port in the United States. It was one of the earliest seaports to switch to containerization and to Intermodal freight transport, intermodal container transfer, thereby displacing the Port of San Francisco, which never modernized its waterfront. One of the earlier limitations to growth was the inability to transfer containers to rail lines, all cranes historically operating between ocean vessels and trucks. In the 1980s, the Port of Oakland began the evaluation of development of an intermodal container transfer capability, i.e., facilities that now allow trans-loading of containers from vessels to either trucks or rail modes.


Utilities

Public water supply, Water and sewage treatment are provided by East Bay Municipal Utility District (EBMUD). Pacific Gas and Electric Company (PG & E) provides natural gas and electricity service. Municipal garbage collection is franchised to Waste Management, Inc. Telecommunications and subscriber television services are provided by multiple private corporations and other service providers in accordance with the competitive objectives of the Telecommunications Act of 1996#Stated objective, Telecommunications Act of 1996. Oakland tops the list of the 50 largest US cities using electricity from renewable sources.


Healthcare

Originating in Oakland, Kaiser Permanente is an Health maintenance organization, HMO started in 1942, during World War II, by industrialist
Henry J. Kaiser Henry John Kaiser (May 9, 1882 – August 24, 1967) was an American industrialist who became known as the father of modern American shipbuilding. Prior to World War II, Kaiser was involved in the construction industry; his company was one of t ...
to provide medical care for Kaiser Shipyards workers. It is the largest managed care organization in the United States and the largest non-governmental health care provider in the world. It is headquartered at One Kaiser Plaza in Downtown Oakland and maintains a large medical center in the Piedmont Avenue, Oakland, California, Piedmont Avenue neighborhood. Alta Bates Summit Medical Center, an East Bay hospital system, maintains its Summit Campus in the neighborhood known as "Pill Hill" north of downtown. Until 2000, it was the Summit Medical Center before merging with Berkeley-based Alta Bates. All campuses now operate under the Sutter Health network. Alameda County Medical Center is operated by the Alameda County, California, county and provides medical services to county residents, including the Medically indigent adult, medically indigent who do not have health insurance. The main campus, Highland Hospital (Oakland, California), Highland Hospital in East Oakland, is the trauma center for the northern area of the
East Bay 330px, A satellite image of the majority of the East Bay The East Bay is the eastern region of the San Francisco Bay Area The San Francisco Bay Area, popularly referred to as the Bay Area, is a populous region surrounding the San Francisc ...
. Children's Hospital Oakland is the primary medical center specializing in pediatrics in the East Bay. It is a designated Level I pediatric trauma center and the only independent children's hospital in Northern California. There are also several community health centers in Oakland. Some examples include Lifelong Medical Care, Asian Health Services, and Roots Community Health Center.


Notable people


International relations


Sister cities

Oakland has 13 Twin towns and sister cities, sister cities:


Friendship cities

Oakland has 18 friendship cities: * Agadir, Morocco * Bahir Dar, Ethiopia * Changping District, Beijing, China * Chengdu, Sichuan, China * Guangzhou, Guangdong, China * Haikou, Hainan, China * Jing'an District, Shanghai, China * Jinzhou, Liaoning, China * Jurong, Jiangsu, China * Maoming, Guangdong, China * Mianyang, Sichuan, China * Nanning, Guangxi, China * Pudong, Shanghai, China * Qingdao, Shandong, China * Tanggu District, Tianjin, China * Ulaanbaatar, Mongolia * Weifang, Shandong, China


See also

*Northern California Megaregion *List of cities and towns in the San Francisco Bay Area *List of tallest buildings in Oakland, California *Oakland Ebonics controversy


Notes


References


External links


Official website – oaklandca.gov

Visit Oakland: Oakland Convention and Visitors Bureau
* localwiki:oakland, Oakland on LocalWiki * * {{DEFAULTSORT:Oakland, California Oakland, California, Incorporated cities and towns in California Cities in Alameda County, California 1852 establishments in California California Enterprise Zones Cities in the San Francisco Bay Area County seats in California Port cities in California Populated coastal places in California Populated places established in 1852