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The Nymphaeales are an
order Order, ORDER or Orders may refer to: * Orderliness Orderliness is a quality that is characterized by a person’s interest in keeping their surroundings and themselves well organized, and is associated with other qualities such as cleanliness a ...
of
flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greec ...

flowering plant
s, consisting of three
families In human society, family (from la, familia) is a Social group, group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or Affinity (law), affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain the w ...
of aquatic plants, the
Hydatellaceae Hydatellaceae are a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain th ...
, the
Cabombaceae The Cabombaceae are a family of aquatic, herbaceous flowering plants. The family is recognised as distinct in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV system (2016). The family consists of two genera of aquatic plants, '' Brasenia'' and '' Cabomba' ...
, and the
Nymphaeaceae Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly called water lilies. They live as rhizome, rhizomatous aquatic herbs in temperate and Tropics, tropical climates around the world. The family contains five genera with about 70 known ...

Nymphaeaceae
(water lilies). It is one of the three orders of
basal angiosperms The basal angiosperms are the flowering plant Flowering plants include multiple members of the clade Angiospermae (), commonly called angiosperms. The term "angiosperm" is derived from the Greek#REDIRECT Greek Greek may refer to: Greece An ...
, an early-diverging
grade Grade or grading may refer to: Arts and entertainment * Grade (band) Grade is a melodic hardcore band from Canada, often credited as pioneers in blending metallic hardcore with the hon and melody of emo, and - most notably - the alternating scr ...
of flowering plants. At least 10
morphological
morphological
characters Character(s) may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * Character (novel), ''Character'' (novel), a 1936 Dutch novel by Ferdinand Bordewijk * Characters (Theophrastus), ''Characters'' (Theophrastus), a classical Greek set of char ...
unite the Nymphaeales.Peter F. Stevens. 2001 onwards.
Angiosperm Phylogeny WebsiteThe Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (or APweb) is a well-known website dedicated to research on angiosperm The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of land plants, with 64 orders, 416 fam ...
At:
Missouri Botanical Garden The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is genera ...

Missouri Botanical Garden
Website. (see ''External links'' below).
Molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. A molecule is an electrically neutral group of two or more atom An atom is the smallest unit of ordinary matter In ...
synapomorphies 279px, trait states. In phylogenetics, apomorphy and synapomorphy refer to derived characters of a clade A clade (; from grc, , ''klados'', "branch"), also known as a monophyletic group or natural group, is a group of organisms that are mon ...
are also known.
The Plant List The Plant List is a list of botanical name A botanical name is a formal scientific name In taxonomy Taxonomy (general) is the practice and science of classification of things or concepts, including the principles that underlie such clas ...
, created by the
Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, is a non-departmental public body In the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, commonly known as the United Kingdom (UK) or Britain,Usage is mixed. The Guardian' and Telegr ...
and
Missouri Botanical Garden The Missouri Botanical Garden is a botanical garden A botanical garden or botanic gardenThe terms ''botanic'' and ''botanical'' and ''garden'' or ''gardens'' are used more-or-less interchangeably, although the word ''botanic'' is genera ...

Missouri Botanical Garden
recognizes about 70 species in 11 genera within the order,The Plant List (website). 2010. (See ''External links'' below.) but a
phylogenetic In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, physiological mechanism ...

phylogenetic
study of the genus ''
Nymphaea ''Nymphaea'' is a genus of hardiness (plants), hardy and tender aquatic plants in the family Nymphaeaceae. The genus has a cosmopolitan distribution. Many species are cultivated as ornamental plants, and many cultivars have been bred. Some taxa ...

Nymphaea
'' implies that the number of species could be more than 90. The difference in species numbers is due almost entirely to the difficulty of delineating species in the genus ''Nymphaea''. All of the
species In biology, a species is the basic unit of biological classification, classification and a taxonomic rank of an organism, as well as a unit of biodiversity. A species is often defined as the largest group of organisms in which any two individu ...

species
are
rhizomatous Lotus rhizome peeled and sliced In botany Botany, also called , plant biology or phytology, is the science Science (from the Latin word ''scientia'', meaning "knowledge") is a systematic enterprise that Scientific method, builds ...

rhizomatous
aquatic Aquatic means relating to water Water (chemical formula H2O) is an inorganic, transparent, tasteless, odorless, and nearly colorless chemical substance, which is the main constituent of Earth's hydrosphere and the fluids of all known li ...
herbs In general use, herbs are a widely distributed and widespread group of plants, excluding vegetables Vegetables are parts of plants that are consumed by humans or other animals as food. The original meaning is still commonly used and is appl ...
with a broad
leaf base
leaf base
and large, showy flowers.


Fossils

The
fossil A fossil (from Classical Latin Classical Latin is the form of Latin language Latin (, or , ) is a classical language A classical language is a language A language is a structured system of communication used by humans, inc ...

fossil
record consists especially of seeds, but also pollen, stems, leaves, and flowers. It extends back to the
Cretaceous The Cretaceous ( ) is a geological period A geological period is one of the several subdivisions of geologic time enabling cross-referencing of rocks and geologic events from place to place. These periods form elements of a hierarchy of division ...

Cretaceous
. The
crown group In phylogenetics In biology Biology is the natural science that studies life and living organisms, including their anatomy, physical structure, Biochemistry, chemical processes, Molecular biology, molecular interactions, Physiology, p ...
of the Nymphaeales has been estimated to be about 112 million years old. Some have suggested that this age might be too old. The aquatic plant fossil ''
Archaefructus
Archaefructus
'' possibly belongs to this group.


Classification

The Nymphaeales currently include three families and about 70 to 90 species. This order was not part of the APG II system's 2003 plant classification (unchanged from the
APG system The APG system (Angiosperm Phylogeny Group system) of plant classification is the first version of a modern, mostly molecular A scanning tunneling microscopy image of pentacene molecules, which consist of linear chains of five carbon rings. ...
of 1998), which instead had a broadly circumscribed family
Nymphaeaceae Nymphaeaceae is a family of flowering plants, commonly called water lilies. They live as rhizome, rhizomatous aquatic herbs in temperate and Tropics, tropical climates around the world. The family contains five genera with about 70 known ...

Nymphaeaceae
(including
Cabombaceae The Cabombaceae are a family of aquatic, herbaceous flowering plants. The family is recognised as distinct in the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group IV system (2016). The family consists of two genera of aquatic plants, '' Brasenia'' and '' Cabomba' ...
) unplaced in any order. The
APG III system The APG III system of flowering plant classification is the third version of a modern, mostly molecular-based, system of plant taxonomy being developed by the Angiosperm Phylogeny Group (APG). Published in 2009, it was superseded in 2016 by a fu ...
did separate the Cabombaceae from the Nymphaeaceae and placed them in the order Nymphaeales together with the Hydatellaceae. The family
Hydatellaceae Hydatellaceae are a family In human society, family (from la, familia) is a group of people related either by consanguinity (by recognized birth) or affinity (by marriage or other relationship). The purpose of families is to maintain th ...
was placed among the monocots in previous systems, but a 2007 study found that the family belongs to the Nymphaeales. In the
APG IV system APG is an abbreviation with several different meanings: * Aberdeen Proving Ground Aberdeen Proving Ground (APG) (sometimes erroneously called Aberdeen Proving ''Grounds'') is a U.S. Army The United States Army (USA) is the land Land is ...
, Hydatellaceae, Cabombaceae and Nymphaeaceae are the three families included in the Nymphaeales. Some earlier systems, such as Cronquist's system of 1981, often included the Ceratophyllaceae and
Nelumbonaceae Nelumbonaceae is a family (biology), family of aquatic flowering plants. ''Nelumbo'' is the sole extant genus, containing Nelumbo lutea, native to North America, and Nelumbo nucifera, widespread in Asia. At least four other genera, ''Nelumbites' ...
in the Nymphaeales. Although, the
Takhtajan system Armen Leonovich Takhtajan or Takhtajian ( hy, Արմեն Լևոնի Թախտաջյան; russian: Армен Леонович Тахтаджян; surname also transliterated Takhtadjan, Takhtadzhi︠a︡n or Takhtadzhian, pronounced TAHK-tuh-jahn) ...
of 1980 separated the Nelumbonales, the new order was retained alongside the Nymphaeales in the superorder Nymphaeanae. The
Cronquist systemCronquist can refer to: * Arthur J. Cronquist, a North American botanist (1919–1992). * The Cronquist system, a system attributed to Arthur J. Cronquist. Many authors use their own variation of this system, which they also refer to as the ...
placed the Nymphaeales in subclass Magnoliidae, in class
Magnoliopsida Magnoliopsida is a valid botanical name for a class of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family ...
dicotyledons.html" ;"title="dicotyledons.html" ;"title="dicotyledons">dicotyledons">dicotyledons.html" ;"title="dicotyledons">dicotyledons In addition, Cronquist included the Ceratophyllaceae and split the family Barclayaceae from the Nymphaeaceae. Under the APG II system, the family Cabombaceae was included within the Nymphaeaceae, but could optionally be recognized separately. As of APG III system, APG III, the two families are recognized separately. The Dahlgren system placed the Nymphaeales with the
Piperales Piperales is an order of flowering plant The flowering plants, also known as Angiospermae (), or Magnoliophyta (), are the most diverse group of Embryophyte, land plants, with 64 Order(biology), orders, 416 Family (biology), families, approxima ...
in superorder Nymphaeanae, within subclass Magnoliideae (dicotyledons). Thorne's 1992 system (and 2000 revision) placed the Nymphaeales as the sole order in the superorder Nymphaeanae within subclass Magnoliideae (=dicotyledons).


References


Further reading

* Michael G. Simpson. ''Plant Systematics''. Elsevier Academic Press. 2006. * Thomas N. Taylor, Edith L. Taylor, and Michael Krings. 2008. Paleobotany: The Biology and Evolution of Fossil Plants, Second Edition. Academic Press (an imprint of Elsevier): Burlington MA, USA.


External links


Nymphaeales
At:
At:botanical databases
At:Plant Science
At:Missouri Botanical Garden
* {{Taxonbar, from=Q27421 Angiosperm orders Early Cretaceous plants Extant Early Cretaceous first appearances