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Nuremberg ( ; german: link=no, Nürnberg ; in the local
East Franconian East Franconian (german: Ostfränkisch) or Mainfränkisch, usually referred to as Franconian (') in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia Franconia (german: Franken, ; Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' ; bar, Frankn) is a region of ...
dialect: ''Nämberch'' ) is the second-largest city of the
German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language The German la ...

German
state State may refer to: Arts, entertainment, and media Literature * ''State Magazine'', a monthly magazine published by the U.S. Department of State * The State (newspaper), ''The State'' (newspaper), a daily newspaper in Columbia, South Carolina, Un ...

state
of
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
after its capital
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
, and its 518,370 (2019) inhabitants make it the 14th-largest city in Germany. On the
Pegnitz River The Pegnitz () is a river in Franconia Franconia (german: Franken, ; Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' ; bar, Frankn) is a region of Germany, characterised by its culture and Franconian languages, Franconian dialect (German: ''Fränkisch''). The ...
(from its
confluence In geography Geography (from Greek Greek may refer to: Greece Anything of, from, or related to Greece Greece ( el, Ελλάδα, , ), officially the Hellenic Republic, is a country located in Southeast Europe. Its population is ...

confluence
with the
Rednitz The Rednitz is a long river in Franconia Franconia (german: Franken; in the Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' rɑŋgŋ̩ is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in whi ...

Rednitz
in
Fürth Fürth (; East Franconian German, East Franconian: ; yi, פיורדא, Fiurda) is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in northern Bavaria, Germany, in the administrative division (''Regierungsbezirk'') of Middle Franconia. It is now conti ...

Fürth
onwards:
Regnitz The Regnitz is a river in Franconia Franconia (german: Franken; in the Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' rɑŋgŋ̩ is a region in Germany, characterised by its culture and language, and may be roughly associated with the areas in which the ...

Regnitz
, a
tributary A tributary, or affluent, is a stream A stream is a body of water (Lysefjord) in Norway Norway, officially the Kingdom of Norway,Names in the official and recognised languages: Bokmål Bokmål (, ; literally "book tongue") ...
of the
River Main The Main () is the longest tributary A tributary or affluent is a stream or river that flows into a larger stream or main stem (or parent) river or a lake. A tributary does not flow directly into a sea or ocean. Tributaries and the main stem r ...
) and the
Rhine–Main–Danube Canal The Rhine–Main–Danube Canal (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...
, it lies in the Bavarian
administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a business, a not-for-profit organization, or government body. Management includes th ...
of
Middle Franconia Middle Franconia (german: Mittelfranken, ) is one of the three administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a ...
, and is the largest city and the unofficial capital of
Franconia Franconia (german: Franken, ; Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' ; bar, Frankn) is a region In geography Geography (from Ancient Greek, Greek: , ''geographia'', literally "earth description") is a field of science devoted to the study ...

Franconia
. Nuremberg forms a continuous conurbation with the neighbouring cities of
Fürth Fürth (; East Franconian German, East Franconian: ; yi, פיורדא, Fiurda) is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in northern Bavaria, Germany, in the administrative division (''Regierungsbezirk'') of Middle Franconia. It is now conti ...

Fürth
,
Erlangen Erlangen (; East Franconian East Franconian (german: Ostfränkisch), usually referred to as Franconian (') in German, is a dialect which is spoken in Franconia Franconia (german: Franken; in the Franconian dialect: ''Franggn'' rɑŋgŋ ...

Erlangen
and
Schwabach Schwabach () is a German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German lan ...
with a total population of 800,376 (2019), while the larger
Nuremberg Metropolitan Region The Nuremberg Metropolitan Region comprises 3.5 million people on 21,800 square kilometers. With a gross domestic product Gross domestic product (GDP) is a monetary measure of the market value of all the final goods and services produced i ...
has approximately 3.6 million inhabitants. The city lies about north of
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
. It is the largest city in the East Franconian dialect area (colloquially: "Franconian"; german: link=no, Fränkisch). There are many institutions of higher education in the city, including the
University of Erlangen-Nuremberg A university ( la, universitas, 'a whole') is an educational institution, institution of higher education, higher (or Tertiary education, tertiary) education and research which awards academic degrees in various Discipline (academia), academic d ...
(). With 39,780 students in 2017, it is Bavaria's third-largest and Germany's 11th-largest university, with campuses in Erlangen and Nuremberg and a
university hospital A teaching hospital is a hospital or medical centre that provides medical education and training to future and current health professionals. Teaching hospitals are almost always affiliated with one or more universities and are often co-located w ...
in Erlangen (Universitätsklinikum Erlangen). and are also located within the city. The Nuremberg exhibition centre () is one of the biggest
convention center A convention center (American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U.S. English, is the set of varieties of the English language native to the United States. Currently, A ...

convention center
company in Germany and operates worldwide.
Nuremberg Airport Nuremberg Airport , german: link=no, Albrecht Dürer Albrecht Dürer (; ; 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528),Müller, Peter O. (1993) ''Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers'', Walter de Gruyter. . sometimes spelled in English as ...
() is the second-busiest airport in Bavaria after
Munich Airport Munich Airport (german: link=no, Flughafen München) is an international airport An international airport is an airport An airport is an with extended facilities, mostly for commercial air transport. Airports often have facilitie ...

Munich Airport
, and the tenth-busiest airport of the country.
Nuremberg Castle Nuremberg Castle (german: Nürnberger Burg) is a group of medieval fortified buildings on a sandstone ridge dominating the historical center of Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The castle, together with the City walls of Nuremberg, city walls, ...

Nuremberg Castle
, with its many towers thrones above the city, is one of Europe's largest castles. is one of the five Bavarian state theatres, showing
operas Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actors or actresses, to present the experience of a real or imagined event before a live audience in a specific ...
,
operettas Operetta is a form of theatre and a genre of light opera Comic opera, sometimes known as light opera, is a sung dramatic work of a light or comic nature, usually with a happy ending and often including spoken dialogue. Forms of comic opera firs ...
,
musicals Musical theatre is a form of theatrical performance that combines songs, spoken dialogue Dialogue (sometimes spelled dialog in American English American English (AmE, AE, AmEng, USEng, en-US), sometimes called United States English or U ...
, and
ballets Ballet () is a type of performance dance 300px, Ballet dancers executing ''grand jetes'' during a concert dance performance. Concert dance (also known as performance dance or theatre dance in the United Kingdom The United Kingdom of Gre ...
(main venue: Nuremberg
Opera House An opera house is a theatre building used for performances of opera Opera is a form of theatre Theatre or theater is a collaborative form of performing art that uses live performers, usually actor, actors or actresses, to present ...

Opera House
),
plays Play most commonly refers to: * Play (activity), an activity done for enjoyment * Play (theatre), a work of drama Play may refer also to: Computers and technology * Google Play, a digital content service * Play Framework, a Java framework * Play ...
(main venue: ), as well as
concerts A concert is a live music Music is the of arranging s in time through the of melody, harmony, rhythm, and timbre. It is one of the aspects of all human societies. General include common elements such as (which governs and ), ( ...
(main venue: ). Its orchestra, the Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg, is Bavaria's second-largest opera orchestra after the
Bavarian State Opera The Bavarian State Opera () is an opera company based in Munich, Germany. Its orchestra is the Bavarian State Orchestra. The company's home base is the National Theatre Munich. History The parent ensemble of the company was founded in 1653, unde ...
's
Bavarian State Orchestra The Bavarian State Orchestra (german: Bayerisches Staatsorchester, italic=no) is the orchestra of the Bavarian State Opera in Munich, Germany. It has given its own series of concerts, the , since 1811. Profile On 9 December 2011, this ensemble ce ...
in Munich. Nuremberg is the birthplace of
Albrecht Dürer Albrecht Dürer (; ; 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528),Müller, Peter O. (1993) ''Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers'', Walter de Gruyter. . sometimes spelled in English as Durer or Duerer (without an umlaut), was a German pain ...

Albrecht Dürer
and
Johann Pachelbel Johann Pachelbel (baptised 1 September 1653 – buried 9 March 1706; also Bachelbel) was a German composer, organist Image:Organist at Lausanne Cathedral.jpg, A cathedral organist in Lausanne Cathedral An organist is a musician who plays any ...
. 1. FC Nürnberg is the most famous football club of the city and one of the most successful football clubs in Germany. Nuremberg was one of the host cities of the
2006 FIFA World Cup The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a ...

2006 FIFA World Cup
.


History


Middle Ages

The first documentary mention of the city, in 1050, mentions Nuremberg as the location of an
Imperial castle An imperial castle or ''Reichsburg'' was a castle built by order of the Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and officially the Emperor of the Romans ( la, Imperator Romanorum, german: Kaiser der Römer) during the middle age ...
between the
East Franks East Francia (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area around Rome, known as Latium. Through the power of the Roman ...
and the Bavarian
March of the Nordgau March is the third month of the year in both the Julian calendar, Julian and Gregorian calendars. It is the second of seven months to have a length of 31 days. In the Northern Hemisphere, the Meteorology, meteorological beginning of Spring (se ...
. From 1050 to 1571 the city expanded and rose dramatically in importance due to its location on key trade-routes. King Conrad III (reigning as
King of Germany King of the Romans ( la, Rex Romanorum; german: König der Römer) was the title used by the German king following his election An election is a formal group decision-making process by which a population chooses an individual or multiple in ...
from 1138 to 1152) established the
Burgraviate of Nuremberg The Burgraviate of Nuremberg (german: Burggrafschaft Nürnberg) was a state of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in West ...
, with the first burgraves coming from the Austrian House of
Raab Raab is a market town A market town is a European settlement that obtained by custom or royal charter, in the Middle Ages In the history of Europe, the Middle Ages or medieval period lasted approximately from the 5th to the late ...

Raab
. With the extinction of their male line around 1190, the last Raabs count's son-in-law,
Frederick IFrederick I may refer to: * Frederick of Utrecht or Frederick I (815/16–834/38), Bishop of Utrecht. * Frederick I, Duke of Upper Lorraine (942–978) * Frederick I, Duke of Swabia (1050–1105) * Frederick I, Count of Zollern ...
from the
House of Hohenzollern The House of Hohenzollern (, also , , german: Haus Hohenzollern, ro, Casa de Hohenzollern) is a German royal whose members were variously s, , s and of , , , the , and . The family came from the area around the town of in during the late 11 ...
, inherited the burgraviate in 1192. From the late 12th century to the
Interregnum An interregnum (plural interregna or interregnums) is a period of discontinuity or "gap" in a government, organization, or social order. Archetypally, it was the period of time between the reign of one monarch and the next (coming from Latin ''i ...

Interregnum
(1254–1573), however, the power of the burgraves diminished as the
Hohenstaufen The Hohenstaufen (, , ), also called Staufer, was a noble dynasty of unclear origin that rose to rule the Duchy of Swabia The Duchy of Swabia ( German: ''Herzogtum Schwaben'') was one of the five stem duchies of the medieval German Kingdom. I ...

Hohenstaufen
emperors transferred most non-military powers to a castellan, with the city administration and the municipal courts handed over to an Imperial mayor (german: link=no, Reichsschultheiß) from 1173/74. The strained relations between the burgraves and the castellans, with gradual transferral of powers to the latter in the late 14th and early 15th centuries, finally broke out into open enmity, which greatly influenced the history of the city. The city and particularly
Nuremberg Castle Nuremberg Castle (german: Nürnberger Burg) is a group of medieval fortified buildings on a sandstone ridge dominating the historical center of Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The castle, together with the City walls of Nuremberg, city walls, ...

Nuremberg Castle
would become one of the most frequent sights of the
Imperial DietImperial Diet means the highest representative assembly in an empire, notably: * Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), general assembly of the Imperial Estates of the Holy Roman Empire (962–1806) * Diet of Japan, Has been going on since 1889 (1889 ...
(after
Regensburg Regensburg or is a city in eastern Bavaria, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River, Regen rivers. It is capital of the Upper Palatinate subregion of the state in the south of Germany. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regens ...

Regensburg
and
Frankfurt Frankfurt, officially Frankfurt am Main (; Hessian dialects, Hessian: , "Franks, Frank ford (crossing), ford on the Main (river), Main"; french: Francfort-sur-le-Main), is the most populous city in the States of Germany, German state of Hess ...

Frankfurt
), the Diets of Nuremberg from 1211 to 1543, after the first Nuremberg diet elected
Frederick IIFrederick II, Frederik II or Friedrich II may refer to: * Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor (1194–1250), King of Sicily from 1198; Holy Roman Emperor from 1220 * Frederick II of Denmark (1534–1588), king of Denmark and Norway 1559–1588 * Freder ...

Frederick II
as emperor. Because of the many Diets of Nuremberg the city became an important routine place of the administration of the Empire during this time and a somewhat 'unofficial
capital Capital most commonly refers to: * Capital letter Letter case (or just case) is the distinction between the letters that are in larger uppercase or capitals (or more formally ''majuscule'') and smaller lowercase (or more formally ''minusc ...
' of the Empire. In 1219 Emperor Frederick II granted the ('Great Letter of Freedom'), including
town rights Town privileges or borough rights were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. The city law customary in Central Europe Central Europe is an area of Europe between Western Europe and Eastern Europe, based o ...
,
Imperial immediacy Imperial immediacy (german: Reichsfreiheit or ') was a privileged constitutional and political status rooted in German feudal law under which the Imperial state, Imperial estates of the Holy Roman Empire such as Free imperial city, Imperial cities, ...
(), the privilege to mint coins, and an independent customs policy - almost wholly removing the city from the purview of the burgraves.Nürnberg, Reichsstadt: Politische und soziale Entwicklung
(Political and Social Development of the Imperial City of Nuremberg), ''
Historisches Lexikon Bayerns The Historische Lexikon Bayerns (abbr: ''HLB'') or Historical Lexicon of Bavaria is a specialist, historical lexicon about the History of Bavaria, which has been published as a genuine online publication. It is the first specialised lexicon on ...
''
Nuremberg soon became, with
Augsburg Augsburg ( , , ; bar, Augschburg, links=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swabian_German, label=Swabian German) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, ...

Augsburg
, one of the two great trade-centers on the route from
Italy Italy ( it, Italia ), officially the Italian Republic ( it, Repubblica Italiana, links=no ), is a country consisting of a peninsula delimited by the Alps The Alps ; german: Alpen ; it, Alpi ; rm, Alps; sl, Alpe ) are the highest ...

Italy
to Northern Europe. In 1298 the
Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2 ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO ) is an international standard An international standard is a technical standard A technical standard is an established norm (social), ...
of the town were falsely accused of having , and 698 of them were killed in one of the many
Rintfleisch massacres The Rintfleisch or Rindfleisch movement was a series of massacres against Jews Jews ( he, יְהוּדִים ISO 259-2ISO The International Organization for Standardization (ISO; ) is an international standard are technical standards ...
. Behind the massacre of 1298 was also the desire to combine the northern and southern parts of the city, which were divided by the Pegnitz. The Jews of the German lands suffered many massacres during the pandemic of the mid-14th century. In 1349 Nuremberg's Jews suffered a
pogrom A pogrom is a violent riot Rioters wearing scarves to conceal their identity and filter tear gas A riot () is a form of civil disorder Civil disorder, also known as civil disturbance, civil unrest, or social unrest is an activity arising ...
. They were burned at the stake or expelled, and a marketplace was built over the former Jewish quarter. The plague returned to the city in 1405, 1435, 1437, 1482, 1494, 1520 and 1534. The largest growth of Nuremberg occurred in the 14th century.
Charles IVCharles IV may refer to: * Charles IV of France (1294–1328), "the Fair" * Charles IV, Holy Roman Emperor (1316–1378) * Charles IV of Navarre (1421–1461) * Charles IV, Duke of Anjou (1446–1481) * Charles IV, Duke of Alençon (1489–1525) * C ...

Charles IV
's
Golden Bull of 1356 The Golden Bull of 1356 (, , , ) was a decree issued by the Imperial Diet (Holy Roman Empire), Imperial Diet at Diet of Nuremberg, Nuremberg and Metz (Diet of Metz (1356/57), Diet of Metz, 1356/57) headed by the Emperor Charles IV, Holy Roman Emp ...

Golden Bull of 1356
, naming Nuremberg as the city where newly elected
kings of Germany This is a list of monarchs who ruled over East Francia East Francia (Latin Latin (, or , ) is a classical language belonging to the Italic languages, Italic branch of the Indo-European languages. Latin was originally spoken in the area arou ...
must hold their first Imperial Diet, made Nuremberg one of the three most important cities of the Empire. Charles was the patron of the , built between 1352 and 1362 (the architect was likely
Peter Parler Peter Parler (german: Peter von Gemünd, cs, Petr Parléř, la, Petrus de Gemunden in Suevia; 1333 – 13 July 1399) was a German- Bohemian architect and sculptor from the Parler family of master builders. Along with his father, Heinrich Parler, ...
), where the Imperial court worshipped during its stays in Nuremberg. The royal and Imperial connection grew stronger in 1423 when the Holy Roman Emperor
Sigismund of Luxembourg Sigismund of Luxembourg (15 February 1368 – 9 December 1437) was prince-elector of Margraviate of Brandenburg, Brandenburg from 1378 until 1388 and from 1411 until 1415, king of Hungary and Croatia in union with Hungary, Croatia from 1387, king ...
granted the Imperial regalia to be kept permanently in Nuremberg, where they remained until 1796, when the advance of French troops required their removal to
Regensburg Regensburg or is a city in eastern Bavaria, at the confluence of the Danube, Naab and Regen River, Regen rivers. It is capital of the Upper Palatinate subregion of the state in the south of Germany. With more than 150,000 inhabitants, Regens ...

Regensburg
and thence to
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
. In 1349 the members of the
guild A guild is an association of artisan Wood carver in Bali An artisan (from french: artisan, it, artigiano) is a skilled craft worker who makes or creates material objects partly or entirely by hand. These objects may be functiona ...
s unsuccessfully rebelled against the patricians in a ('Craftsmen's Uprising'), supported by merchants and some by councillors, leading to a ban on any self-organisation of the artisans in the city, abolishing the guilds that were customary elsewhere in Europe; the unions were then dissolved, and the oligarchs remained in power while Nuremberg was a free city (until the early-19th century). Charles IV conferred upon the city the right to conclude alliances independently, thereby placing it upon a politically equal footing with the princes of the Empire. Frequent fights took place with the burgraves – without, however, inflicting lasting damage upon the city. After fire destroyed the castle in 1420 during a feud between (from 1417
Margrave of Brandenburg Margrave was originally the Middle ages, medieval title for the military commander assigned to maintain the defence of one of the border provinces of the Holy Roman Empire or of a monarchy, kingdom. That position became hereditary in certain Feuda ...
) and the duke of
Bavaria-Ingolstadt Bavaria-Ingolstadt ( or ') was a duchy which was part of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Western Europe, Western and Cen ...
, the city purchased the ruins and the forest belonging to the castle (1427), resulting in the city's total sovereignty within its borders. Through these and other acquisitions the city accumulated considerable territory. The
Hussite Wars The Hussite Wars, also called the Bohemian Wars or the Hussite Revolution, were a series of wars fought between the and the combined Catholic forces of , the , European monarchs loyal to the , as well as various Hussite factions. After initial ...
(1419–1434), a recurrence of the Black Death in 1437, and the First Margrave War (1449–1450) led to a severe fall in population in the mid-15th century. Siding with Albert IV, Duke of
Bavaria-Munich Bavaria-Munich (german: Bayern-München) was a duchy that was a constituent state of the Holy Roman Empire The Holy Roman Empire ( la, Sacrum Imperium Romanum; german: Heiliges Römisches Reich) was a multi-ethnic complex of territories in Wes ...
, in the
Landshut War of Succession The War of the Succession of Landshut resulted from a dispute between the duchies of Bavaria-Munich (''Bayern-München'' in German) and Bavaria-Landshut (''Bayern-Landshut''). An earlier agreement between the different House of Wittelsbach, Wittel ...
of 1503–1505 led the city to gain substantial territory, resulting in lands of , making it one of the largest Imperial cities. During the Middle Ages, Nuremberg fostered a rich, varied, and influential literary culture.


Early modern age

The cultural flowering of Nuremberg in the 15th and 16th centuries made it the centre of the
German Renaissance The German Renaissance, part of the Northern Renaissance The Northern Renaissance was the Renaissance The Renaissance ( , ) , from , with the same meanings. was a period in European history marking the transition from the Middle Ages ...
. In 1525 Nuremberg accepted the
Protestant Reformation The Reformation (alternatively named the Protestant Reformation or the European Reformation) was a major movement within Western Christianity Western Christianity is one of two sub-divisions of Christianity Christianity is an Abra ...
, and in 1532 the
Nuremberg Religious Peace The Schmalkaldic League (; ; or ) was a military alliance A military alliance is an international agreement concerning national security in which the contracting parties agree to mutual protection and support in case of a crisis that has ...
was signed there, preventing war between Lutherans and Catholics for 15 years. During the Princes' 1552 revolution against
Charles VCharles V may refer to: * Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, german: Karl V, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 September 1558) was Holy Roman Emperor The Holy Roman Emperor, originally and offici ...

Charles V
, Nuremberg tried to purchase its neutrality, but Margrave
Albert Alcibiades Albert II (german: Albrecht; 28 March 15228 January 1557) was the Margrave of Principality of Bayreuth, Brandenburg-Kulmbach (Brandenburg-Bayreuth) from 1527 to 1553. He was a member of the Franconian branch of the House of Hohenzollern. Because ...
, one of the leaders of the revolt, attacked the city without a declaration of war and dictated a disadvantageous peace. At the 1555
Peace of Augsburg The Peace of Augsburg, also called the Augsburg Settlement, was a treaty between Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor Charles V, french: Charles Quint, it, Carlo V, nl, Karel V, ca, Carles V, la, Carolus V (24 February 1500 – 21 Septemb ...
, the possessions of the Protestants were confirmed by the Emperor, their religious privileges extended and their independence from the
Bishop of BambergThis is a list of bishops and archbishops of the Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg The Prince-Bishopric of Bamberg (german: Hochstift Bamberg) was an ecclesiastical State of the Holy Roman Empire. It goes back to the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Bamber ...
affirmed, while the 1520s' secularisation of the monasteries was also approved. Families like the Tucher, Imhoff or Haller von Hallerstein, Haller run trading businesses across Europe, similar to the Fugger family, Fugger and Welser families from
Augsburg Augsburg ( , , ; bar, Augschburg, links=https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Swabian_German, label=Swabian German) is a city A city is a large .Goodall, B. (1987) ''The Penguin Dictionary of Human Geography''. London: Penguin.Kuper, A. and Kuper, ...

Augsburg
, although on a slightly smaller scale. The state of affairs in the early 16th century, increased trade routes elsewhere and the ossification of the social hierarchy and legal structures contributed to the decline in trade. During the Thirty Years' War, frequent quartering of Imperial, Swedish and Catholic League (German), League soldiers, the financial costs of the war and the cessation of trade caused irreparable damage to the city and a near-halving of the population. In 1632, the city, occupied by the forces of Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden, was siege of Nuremberg, besieged by the army of Imperial general Albrecht von Wallenstein. The city declined after the war and recovered its importance only in the 19th century, when it grew as an industrial centre. Even after the Thirty Years' War, however, there was a late flowering of architecture and culture – secular Baroque architecture is exemplified in the layout of the civic gardens built outside the city walls, and in the Protestant city's rebuilding of St. Egidien, Nuremberg, St. Egidien church, destroyed by fire at the beginning of the 18th century, considered a significant contribution to the baroque church architecture of Middle Franconia. After the Thirty Years' War, Nuremberg attempted to remain detached from external affairs, but contributions were demanded for the War of the Austrian Succession and the Seven Years' War and restrictions of imports and exports deprived the city of many markets for its manufactures. The Bavarian elector, Charles Theodore, Elector of Bavaria, Charles Theodore, appropriated part of the land obtained by the city during the
Landshut War of Succession The War of the Succession of Landshut resulted from a dispute between the duchies of Bavaria-Munich (''Bayern-München'' in German) and Bavaria-Landshut (''Bayern-Landshut''). An earlier agreement between the different House of Wittelsbach, Wittel ...
, to which Bavaria had maintained its claim; Prussia also claimed part of the territory. Realising its weakness, the city asked to be incorporated into Prussia but Frederick William II of Prussia, Frederick William II refused, fearing to offend Austria, Russian Empire, Russia and France. At the Imperial diet in 1803, the independence of Nuremberg was affirmed, but on the signing of the Confederation of the Rhine on 12 July 1806, it was agreed to hand the city over to Bavaria from 8 September, with Bavaria guaranteeing the amortisation of the city's 12.5 million guilder public debt.


After the Napoleonic Wars

After the fall of Napoleon, the city's trade and commerce revived; the skill of its inhabitants together with its favourable situation soon made the city prosperous, particularly after its public debt had been acknowledged as a part of the Bavarian national debt. Having been incorporated into a Catholic country, the city was compelled to refrain from further discrimination against Catholics, who had been excluded from the rights of citizenship. Catholic services had been celebrated in the city by the priests of the Teutonic Order, often under great difficulties. After their possessions had been confiscated by the Bavarian government in 1806, they were given the Frauenkirche on the Market in 1809; in 1810 the first Catholic parish was established, which in 1818 numbered 1,010 souls. In 1817, the city was incorporated into the district of Rezatkreis (named for the river Fränkische Rezat, Franconian Rezat), which was renamed to
Middle Franconia Middle Franconia (german: Mittelfranken, ) is one of the three administrative region Administration may refer to: Management of organizations * Management Management (or managing) is the administration of an organization, whether it is a ...
(german: :de:Mittelfranken, Mittelfranken) on 1 January 1838. The first German railway, the Bavarian Ludwigsbahn, from Nuremberg to nearby
Fürth Fürth (; East Franconian German, East Franconian: ; yi, פיורדא, Fiurda) is a List of cities and towns in Germany, city in northern Bavaria, Germany, in the administrative division (''Regierungsbezirk'') of Middle Franconia. It is now conti ...

Fürth
, was opened in 1835. The establishment of railways and the incorporation of Bavaria into Zollverein (the 19th-century German Customs Union), commerce and industry opened the way to greater prosperity. In 1852, there were 53,638 inhabitants: 46,441 Protestants and 6,616 Catholics. It subsequently grew to become the more important industrial city of Southern Germany, one of the most prosperous towns of southern Germany, but after the Austro-Prussian War it was given to Prussia as part of their telegraph stations they had to give up. In 1905, its population, including several incorporated suburbs, was 291,351: 86,943 Catholics, 196,913 Protestants, 3,738 Jews and 3,766 members of other creeds.


Nazi era

Nuremberg held great significance during the Nazi Germany era. Because of the city's relevance to the Holy Roman Empire and its position in the centre of Germany, the Nazi Party chose the city to be the site of huge Nazi Party conventions – the Nuremberg Rally, Nuremberg rallies. The rallies were held in 1927, 1929 and annually from 1933 through 1938. After Adolf Hitler's rise to power in 1933 the Nuremberg rallies became huge Nazi propaganda events, a centre of Nazi ideals. The 1934 rally was filmed by Leni Riefenstahl, and made into a propaganda film called ''Triumph des Willens'' (''Triumph of the Will''). At the 1935 rally, Hitler specifically ordered the Reichstag (Weimar Republic), Reichstag to convene at Nuremberg to pass the Nuremberg Laws which revoked German citizenship for all Jews and other non-Aryans. A number of premises were constructed solely for these assemblies, some of which were not finished. Today many examples of Nazi architecture can still be seen in the city. The city was also the home of the Nazi propaganda, propagandist Julius Streicher, the publisher of ''Der Stürmer''. During the Second World War, Nuremberg was the headquarters of ''Wehrkreis'' (military district) XIII, and an important site for military production, including aircraft, submarines and tank engines. A subcamp of Flossenbürg concentration camp was located here, and extensively used slavery, slave labour. The city was severely damaged in Strategic bombing during World War II, Allied strategic bombing from 1943 to 1945. On 29 March 1944, the Royal Air Force, RAF endured its heaviest losses in the bombing campaign of Germany. Out of more than 700 planes participating, 106 were shot down or crash-landed on the way home to their bases, and more than 700 men were missing, as many as 545 of them dead. More than 160 became prisoners of war. On Bombing of Nuremberg in World War II, 2 January 1945, the medieval city centre was systematically bombed by the Royal Air Force and the United States Army Air Forces, U.S. Army Air Forces and about ninety percent of it was destroyed in only one hour, with 1,800 residents killed and roughly 100,000 displaced. In February 1945, additional attacks followed. In total, about 6,000 Nuremberg residents are estimated to have been killed in air raids. Nuremberg was a heavily fortified city that was captured in Battle of Nuremberg (1945), a fierce battle lasting from 17 to 21 April 1945 by the U.S. 3rd Infantry Division (United States), 3rd Infantry Division, 42nd Infantry Division (United States), 42nd Infantry Division and 45th Infantry Division (United States), 45th Infantry Division, which fought house-to-house and street-by-street against determined German resistance, causing further urban devastation to the already bombed and shelled buildings. Despite this intense degree of destruction, the city was rebuilt after the war and was to some extent restored to its pre-war appearance, including the reconstruction of some of its medieval buildings. Much of this reconstructive work and conservation was done by the organisation 'Old Town Friends Nuremberg'. However, over half of the historic look of the center, and especially the northeastern half of the old Imperial Free City was not restored.


Nuremberg trials

Between 1945 and 1946, German officials involved in war crimes and crimes against humanity were brought before an international tribunal in the Nuremberg trials. The Soviet Union had wanted these trials to take place in Berlin. However, Nuremberg was chosen as the site for the trials for specific reasons: * The city had been the location of the Nazi Party's Nuremberg rallies and the laws stripping Jews of their citizenship were passed there. There was symbolic value in making it the place of Nazi demise. * The Palace of Justice, Nuremberg, Palace of Justice was spacious and largely undamaged (one of the few that had remained largely intact despite extensive Allied bombing of Germany). The already large courtroom was reasonably easily expanded by the removal of the wall at the end opposite the bench, thereby incorporating the adjoining room. A large prison was also part of the complex. * As a compromise, it was agreed that Berlin would become the permanent seat of the International Military Tribunal and that the first trial (several were planned) would take place in Nuremberg. Due to the Cold War, subsequent trials never took place. Following the trials, in October 1946, many prominent German Nazi politicians and military leaders were Nuremberg executions, executed in Nuremberg. The same courtroom in Nuremberg was the venue of the Subsequent Nuremberg Trials, Nuremberg Military Tribunals, organized by the United States as Allied-occupied Germany, occupying power in the area.


Geography

Several old villages now belong to the city, for example Grossgründlach, Kraftshof, Thon (Nuremberg), Thon, and Neunhof in the north-west; Ziegelstein in the northeast, Altenfurt and Fischbach bei Nürnberg, Fischbach in the south-east; and Katzwang, Kornburg in the south. Langwasser is a modern suburb.


Climate

Nuremberg has an oceanic climate (Köppen climate classification, Köppen ''Cfb'') with a certain Humid continental climate, humid continental influence (''Dfb''), categorized in the latter by the 0 °C isotherm. The city's climate is influenced by its inland position and higher altitude. Winters are changeable, with either mild or cold weather: the average temperature is around to , while summers are generally warm, mostly around at night to in the afternoon. Precipitation is evenly spread throughout the year, although February and April tend to be a bit drier whereas July tends to have more rainfall.


Demographics

Nuremberg has been a destination for immigrants. 39.5% of the residents had an immigrant background in 2010 (counted with MigraPro).


Economy

Nuremberg for many people is still associated with its traditional gingerbread (''Lebkuchen'') products, sausages, and handmade toys. Pocket watches — ''Nuremberg eggs'' — were made here in the 16th century by Peter Henlein. Only one of the districts in the 1797-1801 sample was early industrial; the economic structure of the region around Nuremberg was dominated by metal and glass manufacturing, reflected by a share of nearly 50% handicrafts and workers. In the 19th century Nuremberg became the "industrial heart" of
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
with companies such as Siemens and MAN SE, MAN establishing a strong base in the city. Nuremberg is still an important industrial centre with a strong standing in the markets of Central and Eastern Europe. Items manufactured in the area include electrical equipment, mechanical and optical products, motor vehicles, writing and drawing paraphernalia, stationery products and printed materials. The city is also strong in the fields of automation, energy and medical technology. Siemens is still the largest industrial employer in the Nuremberg region but a good third of German market research agencies are also located in the city. The Nuremberg International Toy Fair, held at the Messezentrum Nuremberg, city's exhibition centre is the largest of its kind in the world.


Tourism

Nuremberg is
Bavaria Bavaria (; German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citizens of Germany, see also German nationality law * German language ...

Bavaria
's second largest city after
Munich Munich ( ; german: München ; bar, Minga ) is the capital and most populous city of Bavaria. With a population of 1,558,395 inhabitants as of 31 July 2020, it is the List of cities in Germany by population, third-largest city in Germany, ...

Munich
, and a popular tourist destination for foreigners and Germans alike. It was a leading city 500 years ago, but 90% of the town was destroyed in 1945 during the war. After World War II, many medieval-style areas of the town were rebuilt.


Attractions

Beyond its main attractions of the Nuremberg Castle, Imperial Castle, St. Lorenz, Nuremberg, St. Lorenz Church, and Nuremberg trials, Nazi Trial grounds, there are 54 different museums for arts and culture, history, science and technology, family and children, and more niche categories, where visitors can see the world's oldest globe (built in 1492), a 500-year-old Madonna, and Renaissance-era German art. There are several types of tours offered in the city, including historic tours, those that are Nazi Party, Nazi-focused, underground and night tours, walking tours, sightseeing buses, self guided tours, and an old town tour on a mini train. Nuremberg also offers several parks and green areas, as well as indoor activities such as bowling, Bouldering, rock wall climbing, escape rooms, Kart racing, cart racing, and Miniature golf, mini golf, theaters and cinemas, pools and thermal spas. There are also six nearby amusement parks. The city's tourism board sells the Nurnberg Card which allows for free use of public transportation and free entry to all museums and attractions in Nuremberg for a two-day period.


Culinary tourism

Nuremberg is also a destination for food lovers. Culinary tourists can taste the city's famous lebkuchen, gingerbread, local beer, and Nürnberger Rostbratwürstchen, or Nuremberg sausages. There are hundreds of restaurants for all tastes, including traditional franconian restaurants and beer gardens. Also offers 17 Veganism, vegan and Vegetarianism, vegetarian restaurants, seven fully Organic food, organic restaurants. Nuremberg also boasts a two Michelin Guide, Michelin Star rated restaurant, Essigbrätlein.


Pedestrian zones

Like many European cities, Nuremberg offers a Pedestrian zone, pedestrian-only zone covering a large portion of the old town, which is a main destination for shopping and specialty retail, including year-round Christmas stores where tourists and locals alike can purchase Christmas ornaments, gifts, decorations, and additions to their toy Christmas villages. The Craftsmen's Courtyard, or Handwerkerhof, is another tourist shopping destination in the style of a Middle Ages, medieval village. It houses several local family-run businesses which sell handcrafted items from glass, wood, leather, pottery, and precious metals. The Handwerkerhof is also home to traditional German restaurants and beer gardens. The Pedestrian zones of Nuremberg host festivals and markets throughout the year, most well known being Christkindlesmarkt, Nuremberg, Christkindlesmarkt, Germany's largest Christmas market and the gingerbread capital of the world. Visitors to the Christmas market can peruse the hundreds of stalls and purchase local wood crafts, nutcrackers, smokers, and prune people, while sampling Christmas sweets and traditional ''Mulled wine, Glühwein''.


Hospitality

In 2017, Nuremberg saw a total of 3.3 million overnight stays, a record for the town, and is expected to have surpassed that in 2018, with more growth in tourism anticipated in the coming years. There are over 175 registered places of accommodation in Nuremberg, ranging from hostels to luxury hotels, bed and breakfasts, to multi-hundred room properties. As of 19 April 2019, Nuremberg had 306 Airbnb listings.


Culture

Nuremberg was an early centre of humanism, science, printing, and mechanical invention. The city contributed much to the science of astronomy. In 1471 Johannes Mueller of Königsberg, Bavaria, Königsberg (Bavaria), later called Regiomontanus, built an astronomical observatory in Nuremberg and published many important astronomical charts. In 1515,
Albrecht Dürer Albrecht Dürer (; ; 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528),Müller, Peter O. (1993) ''Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers'', Walter de Gruyter. . sometimes spelled in English as Durer or Duerer (without an umlaut), was a German pain ...

Albrecht Dürer
, a native of Nuremberg, created woodcuts of the first maps of the stars of the northern and southern hemispheres, producing the first printed star charts, which had been ordered by Johannes Stabius. Around 1515 Dürer also published the "Stabiussche Weltkarte", the first perspective drawing of the terrestrial globe. Printers and publishers have a long history in Nuremberg. Many of these publishers worked with well-known artists of the day to produce books that could also be considered works of art. In 1470 Anton Koberger opened Europe's first print shop in Nuremberg. In 1493, he published the ''Nuremberg Chronicles'', also known as the ''World Chronicles'' (''Schedelsche Weltchronik''), an illustrated history of the world from the creation to the present day. It was written in the local Franconian dialect by Hartmann Schedel and had illustrations by Michael Wolgemut, Michael Wohlgemuth, Hans Pleydenwurff, Wilhelm Pleydenwurff, and Albrecht Dürer. Others furthered geographical knowledge and travel by map making. Notable among these was navigator and geographer Martin Behaim, who made the first world globe. Sculptors such as Veit Stoss, Adam Kraft and Peter Vischer the Elder, Peter Vischer are also associated with Nuremberg. Composed of prosperous artisans, the guilds of the Meistersingers flourished here. Richard Wagner made their most famous member, Hans Sachs, the hero of his opera ''Die Meistersinger von Nürnberg''. Baroque composer
Johann Pachelbel Johann Pachelbel (baptised 1 September 1653 – buried 9 March 1706; also Bachelbel) was a German composer, organist Image:Organist at Lausanne Cathedral.jpg, A cathedral organist in Lausanne Cathedral An organist is a musician who plays any ...
was born here and was organist of St. Sebaldus Church. The Academy of Fine Arts, Nuremberg, academy of fine arts situated in Nuremberg is the oldest art academy in central Europe and looks back to a tradition of 350 years of artistic education. Nuremberg is also famous for its Christkindlesmarkt, Nuremberg, Christkindlesmarkt (Christmas market), which draws well over a million shoppers each year. The market is famous for its handmade ornaments and delicacies.


Museums

*Germanisches Nationalmuseum *Albrecht Dürer's House, House of Albrecht Dürer *Kunsthalle Nürnberg *Kunstverein Nürnberg *Neues Museum Nürnberg (Modern Art Museum) *Nuremberg Toy Museum *Nuremberg Transport Museum


Performing arts

The Staatstheater Nürnberg, Nuremberg State Theatre, founded in 1906, is dedicated to all types of opera, ballet and stage theatre. During the season 2009/2010, the theatre presented 651 performances for an audience of 240,000 persons. The State Philharmonic Nuremberg ( Staatsphilharmonie Nürnberg) is the orchestra of the Staatstheater Nürnberg, State Theatre. Its name was changed in 2011 from its previous name: The Nuremberg Philharmonic (''Nürnberger Philharmoniker''). It is the second-largest opera orchestra in Bavaria. Besides opera performances, it also presents its own subscription concert series in the Meistersingerhalle. Christof Perick was the principal conductor of the orchestra between 2006 and 2011. Marcus Bosch heads the orchestra since September 2011 . The Nuremberg Symphony Orchestra (''Nürnberger Symphoniker'') performs around 100 concerts a year to a combined annual audience of more than 180,000. The regular subscription concert series are mostly performed in the ''Meistersingerhalle'' but other venues are used as well, including the new concert hall of the ''Kongresshalle'' and the ''Serenadenhof''. Alexander Shelley has been the principal conductor of the orchestra since 2009. The Nuremberg International Chamber Music Festival (''Internationales Kammermusikfestival Nürnberg'') takes place in early September each year, and in 2011 celebrated its tenth anniversary. Concerts take place around the city; opening and closing events are held in the medieval ''Burg''. The Bardentreffen, an annual folk festival in Nuremberg, has been deemed the largest world music festival in Germany and takes place since 1976. 2014 the Bardentreffen starred 368 artists from 31 nations.


Cuisine

Nuremberg is known for Nürnberger Bratwurst, which is shorter and thinner than other bratwurst sausages. Another Nuremberg speciality is Nürnberger Lebkuchen, a kind of gingerbread eaten mainly around Christmas time.


Education

Nuremberg offers 51 public and 6 private elementary schools in nearly all of its districts. Secondary education is offered at 23 Mittelschulen, 12 Realschulen, and 17 Gymnasium (Germany), Gymnasien (state, city, church, and privately owned). There are also several other providers of secondary education such as Berufsschule, Berufsfachschule, Wirtschaftsschule etc.


Higher education

Nuremberg hosts the joint university University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, two Fachhochschulen (Technische Hochschule Nürnberg and ''Evangelische Hochschule Nürnberg''), a pure art academy (''Akademie der Bildenden Künste Nürnberg'', the first art academy in the German-speaking world) in addition to the design faculty at the TH and a music conservatoire (Hochschule für Musik Nürnberg). There are also private schools such as the ''Akademie Deutsche POP Nürnberg'' offering higher education.


Main sights

*
Nuremberg Castle Nuremberg Castle (german: Nürnberger Burg) is a group of medieval fortified buildings on a sandstone ridge dominating the historical center of Nuremberg in Bavaria, Germany. The castle, together with the City walls of Nuremberg, city walls, ...

Nuremberg Castle
: the three castles that tower over the city including central burgraves' castle, with Free Reich's buildings to the east, the Imperial castle to the west. *'':de:Heilig-Geist-Spital (Nürnberg), Heilig-Geist-Spital''. In the centre of the city, on the bank of the river Pegnitz, stands the Hospital of the Holy Spirit. Founded in 1332, this is one of the largest hospitals of the Middle Ages. Lepers were kept here at some distance from the other patients. It now houses elderly persons and a restaurant. *The ''Hauptmarkt'', dominated by the front of the unique Gothic architecture, Gothic Nuremberg Frauenkirche, ''Frauenkirche'' (Our Lady's Church), provides a picturesque setting for the famous Christkindlesmarkt, Nuremberg, Christmas market. A main attraction on the square is the Gothic ''Schöner Brunnen'' (Beautiful Fountain) which was erected around 1385 but subsequently replaced with a replica (the original fountain is kept in the Germanisches Nationalmuseum). The unchanged Renaissance bridge ''Fleischbrücke'' crosses the Pegnitz nearby. *The Gothic architecture, Gothic St. Lorenz, Nuremberg, ''Lorenzkirche'' (St. Laurence church) dominates the southern part of the walled city and is one of the most important buildings in Nuremberg. The main body was built around 1270–1350. *The even earlier and equally impressive St. Sebaldus Church, ''Sebalduskirche'' is St. Lorenz's counterpart in the northern part of the old city. *The church of the former ''Katharinenkirche, Nuremberg, Katharinenkloster'' is preserved as a ruin, the Nuremberg Charterhouse, charterhouse (''Kartause'') is integrated into the building of the Germanisches Nationalmuseum and the choir of the former ''Franziskanerkirche'' is part of a modern building. *Other churches located inside the city walls are: St. Lorenz (Nürnberg), St. Laurence's, Saint Clare of Assisi, Saint Clare's, St. Martha, Nuremberg, Saint Martha's, St. Jakob, Nuremberg, Saint James the Greater's, St. Egidien, Nuremberg, Saint Giles's, and St. Elizabeth, Nuremberg, Saint Elisabeth's. *The Germanisches Nationalmuseum is Germany's largest museum of cultural history, among its exhibits are works of famous painters such as Albrecht Dürer, Rembrandt, and Ernst Ludwig Kirchner. *The Neues Museum Nürnberg is a museum for modern and contemporary art. *The Walburga Chapel and the Romanesque ''Doppelkapelle'' (Chapel with two floors) are part of Nuremberg Castle. *The ''Johannisfriedhof'' is a medieval cemetery, containing many old graves (Albrecht Dürer, Willibald Pirckheimer, and others). The ''Rochusfriedhof'' or the Wöhrder Kirchhof are near the Old Town. *The Chain Bridge (Nuremberg), Chain Bridge (''Kettensteg''), the first chain bridge on the European continent. *The Tiergarten Nürnberg is a zoo stretching over more than in the Nürnberger Reichswald forest. *There is also a medieval market just inside the city walls, selling handcrafted goods. *Th
German National Railways Museum
(an Anchor Point of ERIH, The European Route of Industrial Heritage) is located in Nuremberg. *The :File:Nuremberg Ring.jpg, Nuremberg Ring (now welded within an iron fence of Schöner Brunnen) is said to bring good luck to those that spin it. *The Nazi party rally grounds with the Documentation Center Nazi Party Rally Grounds, documentation-center.


Politics

Nuremberg is represented in the Bundestag by two List of Bundestag constituencies, constituencies; Nuremberg North and Nuremberg South. Since 2002, both constituencies have been held by the CSU.


Transport

The city's location next to numerous highways, railways, and a waterway has contributed to its rising importance for trade with Eastern Europe.


Railways

Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof is a stop for InterCity, IC and Intercity-Express, ICE trains on the German long-distance railway network. The Nuremberg–Munich high-speed railway, Nuremberg–Ingolstadt–Munich high-speed line with operation opened 28 May 2006, and was fully integrated into the rail schedule on 10 December 2006. Travel times to Munich have been reduced to as little as one hour. The Nuremberg–Erfurt high-speed railway opened in December 2017.


City and regional transport

The Trams in Nuremberg, Nuremberg tramway network was opened in 1881. , it extends a total length of , has six lines, and carried 39.152 million passengers annually. The first segment of the Nuremberg U-Bahn metro system was opened in 1972. Nuremberg's trams, buses and U-Bahn are operated by the ''Verkehrs-Aktiengesellschaft Nürnberg'' (VAG; Nuremberg Transport Corporation), a member of the ''Verkehrsverbund Großraum Nürnberg'' (VGN; Greater Nuremberg Transport Network). There is also a Nuremberg S-Bahn suburban metro railway and a regional train network, both centred on Nürnberg Hauptbahnhof. Since 2008, Nuremberg has had the first U-Bahn in Germany (U2/U21 and U3) that works without a driver. It also was the first subway system worldwide in which both driver-operated trains and computer-controlled trains shared tracks.


Motorways

Nuremberg is located at the junction of several important Autobahn routes. The Bundesautobahn 3, A3 (''Netherlands''–Frankfurt am Main, Frankfurt–Würzburg–''
Vienna Vienna ( ; german: Wien ; bar, Wean, label=Bavarian language, Austro-Bavarian ) is the Capital city, national capital, largest city, and one of States of Austria, nine states of Austria. Vienna is Austria's List of cities and towns in Austria, mos ...

Vienna
'') passes in a south-easterly direction along the north-east of the city. The Bundesautobahn 9, A9 (Berlin–Munich) passes in a north–south direction on the east of the city. The Bundesautobahn 6, A6 (''France''–Saarbrücken–''Prague'') passes in an east–west direction to the south of the city. Finally, the Bundesautobahn 73, A73 begins in the south-east of Nuremberg and travels north-west through the city before continuing towards Fürth and Bamberg.


Airport

Nuremberg Airport Nuremberg Airport , german: link=no, Albrecht Dürer Albrecht Dürer (; ; 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528),Müller, Peter O. (1993) ''Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers'', Walter de Gruyter. . sometimes spelled in English as ...
has flights to major German cities and many European destinations. The largest operators are currently Eurowings and TUI fly Deutschland, while the low-cost Ryanair and Wizz Air companies connect the city to various European centres. A significant amount of the airport's traffic flies to and from mainly touristic destinations during the peak winter season. The airport (Flughafen) is the terminus of Nuremberg U-Bahn, Nuremberg U-Bahn Line 2; it is the only airport in Germany served by a U-Bahn subway system.


Canals

Nuremberg is an important port on the
Rhine–Main–Danube Canal The Rhine–Main–Danube Canal (German German(s) may refer to: Common uses * of or related to Germany * Germans, Germanic ethnic group, citizens of Germany or people of German ancestry * For citi ...
.


Sport


Football

1. FC Nürnberg, known locally as ''Der Club'' (English: "The Club"), was founded in 1900 and currently plays in the 2.Bundesliga. The official colours of the association are red and white, but the traditional colours are red and black. They won their first regional title in the Southern German football championship, Southern German championship in 1916 closely followed by their first national title in 1920. Besides the eleven regional championships they won the List of German soccer champions, German championship for a total of nine times. With this they held the record for the most German championship titles until 1986 when the current record holder FC Bayern München surpassed them. The current chairmen are Nils Rossow and Dieter Hecking. They play in Max-Morlock-Stadion which was refurbished for the
2006 FIFA World Cup The 2006 FIFA World Cup was the 18th FIFA World Cup The FIFA World Cup, often simply called the World Cup, is an international association football Association football, more commonly known as simply football or soccer, is a ...

2006 FIFA World Cup
and accommodates 50,000 spectators. *German Champion: 1920, 1921, 1924, 1925, 1927, 1936, 1948, 1961, 1968 *German Cup: 1935, 1939, 1962, 2007 TuS Bar Kochba Nürnberg, TuS Bar Kochba is a league that was founded in 1913 as a social-sport club for the Jewish community in Nürnberg. Established as the "Jewish Gymnastics and Sports Club Nuremberg", the league was dissolved by the Nazi party in 1939. It was reformed in 1966. The club plays in the senior A-league of the Bavarian Football Association.


Basketball

The ''SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg'' played in the Basketball Bundesliga from 2005 to 2007. Since then, teams from Nuremberg have attempted to return to Germany's elite league. The recently founded Nürnberg Falcons BC have already established themselves as one of the main teams in Germany's second division ProA and aim to take on the heritage of the SELLBYTEL Baskets Nürnberg. The Falcons play their home games at the ''Halle im Berufsbildungszentrum (BBZ)''.


International relations


Twin towns – sister cities

Nuremberg is Twin towns and sister cities, twinned with: *Nice, France, since 1954 *Kraków, Poland, since 1979 *Skopje, North Macedonia, since 1982 *San Carlos, Río San Juan, San Carlos, Nicaragua, since 1985 *Glasgow, Scotland, since 1985 *Prague, Czech Republic, since 1990 *Kharkov, Ukraine, since 1990 *Hadera, Israel, since 1995 *Shenzhen, China, since 1997 *Antalya, Turkey, since 1997 *Atlanta, United States, since 1998 *Kavala, Greece, since 1999 *Córdoba, Spain, Córdoba, Spain, since 2010


Cooperation

Nuremberg also cooperates with: *Venice, Italy; since 1954 a twin town, relations renewed in 1999 as a cooperation agreement


Associated cities

Nuremberg maintains friendly relations with: *Klausen, South Tyrol, Klausen, Italy, since 1970 *Gera, Germany, since 1988, renewed 1997 *Kalkudah, Sri Lanka, since 2005 *Bar Municipality, Bar, Montenegro, since 2006 *Brașov, Romania, since 2006 *Changping District, Changping, China, since 2006 *Montan, Italy, since 2012 *Nablus, Israel, since 2015


Notable people

;The arts *Michael Wolgemut (1434–1519), painter and printmaker *Hans Folz (c.1437–1513), author and poet *Veit Stoss (c.1450–1533), Renaissance sculptor, mostly in wood *Peter Vischer the Elder (c.1455–1529), sculptor *Adam Kraft (c.1460–1509), stone sculptor, master builder and architect *
Albrecht Dürer Albrecht Dürer (; ; 21 May 1471 – 6 April 1528),Müller, Peter O. (1993) ''Substantiv-Derivation in Den Schriften Albrecht Dürers'', Walter de Gruyter. . sometimes spelled in English as Durer or Duerer (without an umlaut), was a German pain ...

Albrecht Dürer
(1471–1528), painter, engraver, printmaker and theorist of the German Renaissance *Hans Leonhard Schäufelein (c.1480–1540), artist, painter and designer of woodcuts *Augustin Hirschvogel (1503–1553), artist, mathematician and cartographer *Michael Sigismund Frank (1770–1847), Catholic artist, rediscovered glass-painting *Lorenz Ritter (1832–1921), painter and etcher *Philipp Rupprecht (1900–1975), cartoonist of anti-Semitic caricatures *Hermann Kesten (1900–1996), novelist and dramatist *Eliyahu Koren (1907–2001), master typographer, graphic artist and designer *Hermann Zapf (1918–2015), typographer and calligrapher *Peter Angermann (b. 1945), painter *Christoph Dreher (b. 1952), filmmaker, musician and scriptwriter *Katy Garretson (b. 1963), American TV director and producer *Martina Schradi (b. 1972), author, cartoonist and psychologist ;Music *Conrad Paumann (c.1410–1473), organist, lutenist and composer *Hans Sachs (1494–1576), Meistersinger, poet, playwright, and shoemaker *Sebald Heyden (1499–1561), musicologist, cantor, theologian and hymn-writer *
Johann Pachelbel Johann Pachelbel (baptised 1 September 1653 – buried 9 March 1706; also Bachelbel) was a German composer, organist Image:Organist at Lausanne Cathedral.jpg, A cathedral organist in Lausanne Cathedral An organist is a musician who plays any ...
(1653–1706), composer, organist, and teacher *Hugo Distler (1908–1942), organist, choral conductor, teacher and composer *Martha Mödl (1912–2001), ''Wagner'' soprano/mezzo-soprano *Chaya Arbel (1921–2007), Israeli classical composer *Siegfried Jerusalem (b. 1940), operatic tenor *Kevin Coyne (1944–2004), English musician, singer, composer, film-maker, and writer *Rudi Mahall (b. 1966), contemporary jazz bass clarinet player ;Acting *Margarete Haagen (1889–1966), actress *Wolfgang Preiss (1910–2002), actor *Heinz Bernard (1923–1994), British actor and director and theatre manager *Annette Carell (1926–1967), American actress *Sandra Bullock (b. 1964), American actress, producer, and philanthropist *Tom Beck (actor), Tom Beck (b. 1978), actor, singer, and entrepreneur ;Science and business *Anton Koberger (c.1440–1513), goldsmith, printer and publisher *Katerina Lemmel (1466–1533), patrician businesswoman and Birgittine nun *Peter Henlein (1485–1542), locksmith and clockmaker, invented the world's first watch *Kunz Lochner (1510–1567), plate armourer, blacksmith and silversmith *Joachim Camerarius the Younger (1534–1598), physician, botanist and zoologist *Kaspar Uttenhofer (1588–1621), astronomer, author *Johann Christoph Volkamer (1644–1720), merchant, manufacturer and botanist *Maria Sybilla Merian (1647–1717), naturalist and scientific illustrator *Johann Philipp von Wurzelbauer (1651–1725), astronomer *John Miller (botanical illustrator), John Miller (1715–c.1792), engraver and botanist active in London *Johann Kaspar Hechtel (1771–1799), brass factory owner, non-fiction writer and designer of parlour games *Ernst von Bibra (1806–1878), scientist, naturalist and author *Friedrich Sigmund Merkel (1845–1919), anatomist and histopathologist *Johann Sigmund Schuckert (1846–1895), electrical engineer, pioneer of the electrical industry *Siegfried Bettmann (1868–1951), bicycle, motorcycle and car manufacturer *Ernst Stromer, Ernst Freiherr Stromer von Reichenbach (1871–1952). paleontologist *Ulrich Rück (1882–1962), collector of musical instruments, chemist and dealer in pianos *Karl Bechert (1901–1981), theoretical physicist in atomic physics and politician *Peter Owen (publisher), Peter Owen (1927–2016), British publisher, founded Peter Owen Publishers *Manfred M. Fischer (b. 1947), Austrian-German regional scientist and academic ;Public thinking and public service *St. Sebaldus of Nuremberg (11th c.), the patron saint of Nuremberg *Sigismund, Holy Roman Emperor (1368–1437), King of Hungary, Croatia, Germany, Bohemia and Italy; Holy Roman emperor from 1433 until 1437 *Frederick I, Elector of Brandenburg (1371–1440), the last Burgrave of Nuremberg in 1397–1427 *Wenceslaus IV of Bohemia (1361–1419), King of Bohemia and German King *Hartmann Schedel (1440–1514), physician, humanist, historian and cartographer *Caritas Pirckheimer (1467–1532), Abbess at the time of the Reformation *Johannes Pfefferkorn (1469–1523), Catholic theologian and convert from Judaism *Willibald Pirckheimer (1470–1530), Renaissance humanist, lawyer and author *Franz Schmidt (executioner), Franz Schmidt (1555–1634), executioner and diarist *Ludwig Andreas Feuerbach (1804–1872), philosopher and anthropologist *Gottlieb Christoph Adolf von Harless (1806–1879), Lutheran theologian *Helene von Forster (1859–1923), women's rights activist and author *Friedrich Freiherr Kress von Kressenstein (1870–1948), general *August Engelhardt (1875–1919), founded a sect of sun worshipers in German New Guinea *Johanna Hellman (1889–1982), German-Swedish surgeon *Lucie Adelsberger (1895–1971), Jewish physician, imprisoned at Auschwitz and Ravensbrück concentration camp, Ravensbrück *Karl Holz (Nazi), Karl Holz (1895–1945), Nazi Party politician *Käte Strobel (1907–1996), politician, Federal Minister of Healthcare (1966-1969), Federal Minister of Youth, Family and Health (1969-1972) *Ronald Grierson (1921–2014), British banker, businessman, government advisor and British Army officer *Werner Heubeck CBE (1923–2009), Luftwaffe PoW and a British transport executive *Arnold Hans Weiss (1924–2010), U.S. Army intelligence officer, helped find Hitler's will *Günther Beckstein (b. 1943), politician, Minister President of Bavaria (2007-2008) *Thomas Händel (b. 1953), politician and Member of the European Parliament *Ulrich Maly (b. 1960), politician, Mayor of Nuremberg since 2002 *Markus Söder (b. 1967), politician, Minister President of Bavaria since 2018 *Ines Eichmüller (b. 1980), politician, former national spokesperson for the Green Youth (Germany), Green Youth


Sport

*Heinrich Stuhlfauth (1896–1966), soccer-player *Hans Nüsslein (1910–1991), tennis player and coach *Olga Jensch-Jordan (1913–2000), springboard diver *Max Morlock (1925–1994), soccer-player *Günther Meier (1941–2020), amateur boxer, bronze medalist at the 1968 Summer Olympics *Norbert Schramm (b. 1960), figure skater *Alex Wright (b. 1975), British-German professional wrestler *Deniz Aytekin (b. 1978), soccer-referee *Hannah Stockbauer (b. 1982), swimmer, bronze medalist at the 2004 Summer Olympics *Florian Just (b. 1982), pair skater *Maximilian Müller (b. 1987), field hockey player, gold medalist at the 2008 Summer Olympics, 2008 and 2012 Summer Olympics *Dominik Eberle (b. 1996), american football player


See also

*List of mayors of Nuremberg *Norisring Racetrack, where Pedro Rodríguez (racing driver), Pedro Rodriguez died in 1971 *Tinsel (invented in Nuremberg)


Notes and references


Notes


References


Bibliography


External links

* *
English website of the cityKUNSTNÜRNBERG – Online – Magazine for Contemporary Art and History of Art in Nuremberg and Franconia49 digitised objects on Nuremberg
in European Library, The European Library {{Authority control Nuremberg, World War II sites in Germany