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The Nugaal Valley ( so, Dooxada Nugaal, ar, وادي نوجال), also called the Nogal Valley, is a long and broad
valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the other. Most valleys are formed by erosion of the land surface by rivers or streams over ...

valley
located in northern
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
and eastern
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
. The Nugaal Valley is bounded to the north by the ''
Sorl The Nugaal Valley ( so, Dooxada Nugaal, ar, وادي نوجال), also called the Nogal Valley, is a long and broad valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or ...
'', or '' Nugal Plateau'', and to the south by
'IidCiid or 'Iid ( so, Arlo Ciideed) is an archaic native geographic name for the land between the region of Mudug and the Nugaal Valley, roughly congruous with the northern Bookh district in Ethiopia. As such, Ciid constitutes the tripoint of the former ...
.


Overview

The Nugaal Valley is a key pastoral area which spans across four regions,
Nugaal The Nugaal an intermittent river that runs along the Nugaal Valley. It begins several miles to the west of Sool, and ends at Eyl where the outlet flows into the Indian Ocean. It evaporates at the onset of the hagaa, the Somali dry season. Due ...
in
Somalia Somalia,, Osmanya script: 𐒈𐒝𐒑𐒛𐒐𐒘𐒕𐒖; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of SomaliaThe ''Federal Republic of Somalia'' is the country's name per Article 1 of thProvisional Constitutio ...

Somalia
, and Sool,
Sanaag Sanag ( so, Sanaag, ar, سَنَاج) is an administrative region ('' gobol'') in north eastern Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soo ...

Sanaag
and
Togdheer Togdheer ( so, Togdheer, ar, تُوْجْدَيْر, Tūjdayr) is an administrative region (''Administrative divisions of Somaliland, gobol'') in central Somaliland. Togdheer is bordered by Maroodi Jeex to the west, Sahil, Somaliland, Saaxil t ...

Togdheer
in
Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Soomaaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic of Somaliland ( so, Jamhuuriyadda Soomaaliland, ar, جمهورية صوماليلاند ''Jumhūrīyat Ṣūmālīlānd''), is a de facto sovereign ...

Somaliland
. Pastoral nomadism is the primary way of life for most of the people living in the valley. Goat and camel raising form the basis of the economy, and frankincense and myrrh are collected from wild trees. The beds of the watercourses have a few permanent wells, to which the predominantly nomadic population returns during the dry season. Low and erratic rainfall (about 5 inches 125 mm annually) and the high salinity of the soil limit crop cultivation. The segments of the Nugaal valley from Garowe eastwards is traditionally referred to as ''Bari Nugaaleed'' or ''Bari Nugaal'', whilst segments of the valley which converge into the Iyah plains are called ''Jednugaal''. Nonetheless, the latitudinal limits of ''Nugaal proper'' traditionally refers to the territory stretching from Garowe in the east until Saraar in the west.


Geography

Extending 250 km along the
Wadi Wadi ( ar, وَادِي, wādī), alternatively ''wād'' ( ar, وَاد), North African Arabic Oued, is the Arabic term traditionally referring to a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, ...

Wadi
Nugaal The Nugaal an intermittent river that runs along the Nugaal Valley. It begins several miles to the west of Sool, and ends at Eyl where the outlet flows into the Indian Ocean. It evaporates at the onset of the hagaa, the Somali dry season. Due ...
, the Nugaal Valley is bounded by gradually ascending high plateaus that generally reach elevations of 1,650 to 3,300 feet (500 to 1,000 m) above sea level on the north, west, and south. The western part of the same plateau is crossed by numerous valleys and dry watercourses. The same plateau sloping southwards merges with
Hawd The Haud (also Hawd) (, ), formerly known as the Hawd Reserve Area is a plateau situated in the Horn of Africa consisting of thorn-bush and grasslands. The region includes the southern part of Somaliland as well as the northern and eastern parts ...
, a plain known for its grasslands. To the east is a narrow strip of low-lying maritime plains. The valley's principal watercourses, the
Nugaal The Nugaal an intermittent river that runs along the Nugaal Valley. It begins several miles to the west of Sool, and ends at Eyl where the outlet flows into the Indian Ocean. It evaporates at the onset of the hagaa, the Somali dry season. Due ...
and the more westerly
Togdheer river The Togdheer River ( so, Webiga Togdheer) is a seasonal river in the Togdheer region of eastern Somaliland. The region is named after the river. The river's name comes from "Tog" (which means "riverbed" in the Somali language) and "dheer" (Somali ...
, fill briefly during and after rainstorms (April to June) and drain into the Somali Sea. The upper part of the Nugaal is filled by the seasonal river known as ''Tog Dheer''.


Kobo

Towards the east, Nugaal Valley is bounded with Nugaaleed-Bari via the region known as Kobo. Kobo was described in colonial sources ruminating about the Darawiish strength as follows:


Sorl

The Sorl, also called the Nugaal plateau, is situated immediately above the Nugaal Valley and has been described in composition as similar to the Haud: The Nugaal plateau, also called Sorl, has an elevation level of about 3000 feet:


Flora and fauna

The main vegetation in the Nugaal valley consists of open grasslands, shrubs (commiphora spp),
Acacia trees
Acacia trees
and dominant grasses (indigofera spp). The valley is home to succulent flora and is particularly rich in local endemics. Gypsum hills located around Las Anod supports flora such as '' Aloe inermis'', ''
Dorstenia
Dorstenia
'', ''
Adenia ''Adenia'' is a genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank used in the biological classification of extant taxon, living and fossil organisms as well as Virus classification#ICTV classification, viruses. I ...
'', '' Raphanocarpus'', ''
Euphorbia ''Euphorbia'' is a very large and diverse genus Genus /ˈdʒiː.nəs/ (plural genera /ˈdʒen.ər.ə/) is a taxonomic rank In biological classification In biology, taxonomy () is the scientific study of naming, defining (Circumscr ...

Euphorbia
'', '' Pterodiscus'', and '' Caralluma''. A Las Anod National Park has been proposed to protect the fine scenery, rich and varied flora, and the
Somali Wild Ass #REDIRECT Somali wild ass#REDIRECT Somali wild ass The Somali wild ass (''Equus africanus somaliensis'') is a subspecies In Taxonomy (biology), biological classification, the term subspecies refers to one of two or more populations of a speci ...

Somali Wild Ass
. The limestone plateau north of
Eyl Eyl ( it, Eil) is an ancient port town in the northeastern Nugal region of Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia, is a country in the Horn of Africa. It is bordered by Ethiopia to ...
has also been proposed as a national park due to its rich endemic flora.


Oil exploration

Due to its proximity to the oil-rich Gulf Arab states such as
Saudi Arabia (''Shahada'') , national_anthem = "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia, " "National Anthem of Saudi Arabia" , image_map = Saudi Arabia (orthographic projection).svg , capital = Riyadh , coordinates ...

Saudi Arabia
and
Yemen ) , image_map = Yemen on the globe (Yemen centered).svg , map_caption = , image_map2 = , capital = Sana'a Sanaa ( ar, صَنْعَاء, ' , Yemeni Arabic: ; Old South Arabian: 𐩮 ...

Yemen
, the nation has also long been believed to contain substantial unexploited reserves of
crude oil Petroleum, also known as crude oil and oil, is a naturally occurring, yellowish-black liquid A liquid is a nearly incompressible In fluid mechanics Fluid mechanics is the branch of physics concerned with the mechanics Mech ...

crude oil
. Nugaal Valley Block has been identified as having reservoir, source rock and trap potential. International oil and gas companies conducted exploration in the late 1980s in the region. During this exploration phase, a grid of 2D seismic was shot perpendicular to the axis of the rift system in the Nugaal Basin. Based on interpreted maps this data shows a number of large, closed, fault-controlled structures. Between them both, the Nugaal and Dharoor valley have only had 5 wells drilled, making the area one of the least explored areas in North Africa.


See also

*
Cal Madow Cal Madow (also Calmadow, Al Madow, Al Medu, or Al Mado; so, Buuraha Calmadow; ar, عَلَمْدُو, ʿAlamdū) is a mountain range in Somaliland Somaliland ( so, Somaliland; ar, صوماليلاند ', '), officially the Republic ...
*
Jubba Valley The Jubba Valley ( so, Dooxada Jubbada) is a valley in East Africa. It follows the line of the Jubba River north from the Indian Ocean to the Somalia Somalia,; ar, الصومال, aṣ-Ṣūmāl officially the Federal Republic of Somalia ...
*
Shebelle ValleyThe Shebelle Valley ( so, Dooxada Shabeelle), also spelled Shabeelle Valley, is a valley A valley is an elongated low area often running between hills or mountains, which will typically contain a river or stream running from one end to the ...


References

{{reflist Valleys of Somalia